Science.gov

Sample records for common focus point

  1. Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.

  2. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

    2010-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  3. Focus in Grade 2: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 2: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 2 Focal Point as presented in 'Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics". It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  4. Categorization in infancy: labeling induces a persisting focus on commonalities.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Nadja; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies with infants and adults demonstrate a facilitative role of labels in object categorization. A common interpretation is that labels highlight commonalities between objects. However, direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Using a novel object category with spatially separate features that are either of low or high variability across the stimulus set, we tracked 12-month-olds' attention to object features during learning and at test. Learning occurred in both conditions, but what was learned depended on whether or not labels were heard. A detailed analysis of eye movements revealed that infants in the two conditions employed different object processing strategies. In the silent condition, looking patterns were governed exclusively by the variability of object parts. In the label condition, infants' categorization performance was linked to their relative attention to commonalities. Moreover, the commonality focus persisted after learning even in the absence of labels. These findings constitute the first experimental evidence that labels induce a persistent focus on commonalities. PMID:26538010

  5. HELIOS modelling of point-focusing solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.W.; Mulholland, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    The modifications to the optical code HELIOS which are required in order to model point-focusing concentrators is presented. HELIOS simulates the optical behavior of reflecting heliostats and was written to model central receiver facilities, specifically that of the Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper discusses the necessary changes to the HELIOS code and to its input files such that it can successfully model point-focusing concentrators while retaining its computational power. A point-focusing concentrator located at the Solar Thermal Test Facility is presented as a sample case.

  6. DBMS and AL: is there any common point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Stonebraker, M.

    1983-05-01

    Recent workshops have explored commonality among the points of view of AL, DBMS and programming language researchers. On the surface, it would appear that DBMS researchers are building smarter data base systems and that AL researchers are building expert systems containing a knowledge base. However, it appears that there is minimal commonality to the points of view expressed by these communities. Therefore, the author is dubious of any significant cross fertilisation. He illustrates a few differences in points of view in the two communities by 3 examples.

  7. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  8. Use of ceramics in point-focus solar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoak, R. H.; Kudirka, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the research and development efforts in the Solar Thermal Energy Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been focused on application of ceramic components for advanced point-focus solar receivers. The impetus for this effort is a need for high efficiency, low cost solar receivers which operate in a temperature regime where use of metal components is impractical. The current status of the work on evaluation of ceramic components at JPL and elsewhere is outlined and areas where lack of knowledge is currently slowing application of ceramics are discussed. Future developments of ceramic processing technology and reliability assurance methodology should open up applications for the point-focus solar concentrator system in fuels and chemicals production, in thermochemical energy transport and storage, in detoxification of hazardous materials and in high temperature process heat as well as for electric power generation.

  9. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Application of Common Mid-Point Method to Estimate Asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shan; Al-Aadi, Imad

    2015-04-01

    3-D radar is a multi-array stepped-frequency ground penetration radar (GPR) that can measure at a very close sampling interval in both in-line and cross-line directions. Constructing asphalt layers in accordance with specified thicknesses is crucial for pavement structure capacity and pavement performance. Common mid-point method (CMP) is a multi-offset measurement method that can improve the accuracy of the asphalt layer thickness estimation. In this study, the viability of using 3-D radar to predict asphalt concrete pavement thickness with an extended CMP method was investigated. GPR signals were collected on asphalt pavements with various thicknesses. Time domain resolution of the 3-D radar was improved by applying zero-padding technique in the frequency domain. The performance of the 3-D radar was then compared to that of the air-coupled horn antenna. The study concluded that 3-D radar can be used to predict asphalt layer thickness using CMP method accurately when the layer thickness is larger than 0.13m. The lack of time domain resolution of 3-D radar can be solved by frequency zero-padding. Keywords: asphalt pavement thickness, 3-D Radar, stepped-frequency, common mid-point method, zero padding.

  11. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

  12. Optical analysis of point focus parabolic radiation concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bendt, P.; Rabl, A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple formalism is developed for analyzing the optical performance of point focus parabolic radiation concentrators. To account for off-axis aberrations of the parabola, an angular acceptance function is defined as that fraction of a beam of parallel radiation incident on the aperture which would reach the receiver if the optics were perfect. The radiation intercepted by the receiver of a real concentrator is obtained as a convolution of angular acceptance function, of optical error distribution, and of angular brightness distribution of the radiation source. Losses resulting from absorption in the reflector or reflection at the receiver are treated by a multiplicative factor rho ..cap alpha.. where rho = reflectance of the reflector and ..cap alpha.. = absorptance of the receiver. For numerical calculations, this method is more accurate and less time-consuming than the ray-tracing method. In many cases, there are acceptable approximations whereby the results can be obtained by reading a graph or evaluating a simple curve fit.

  13. Behavior as a common focus of toxicology and nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    Behavior as an index of toxicity parallels its role as an index of nutritional impairment, just as toxicology and nutrition share other common themes. Intersections among the three disciplines arise because foodstuffs serve as one of the major routes of toxic exposure and also because food elements modify toxicity. With this perspective, the safety of our food supply is examined in the contexts of essential nutrients, toxins, toxic metals, manufactured contaminants, self-administered toxicants, and food additives.

  14. [Trauma-focused psychotherapies: what are the commonalities?].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Ehlers, Anke; Elbert, Thomas; Foa, Edna B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Resick, Patricia A; Shapiro, Francine; Cloitre, Marylène

    2016-03-30

    A number of evidence-based psychotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are available. They differ in various ways, however, they also have a number of commonalities. Given this situation, clinicians may wonder which treatment program to use, or more specifically, which treatment components are critical for a successful therapy. The following treatment components can be found in almost all effective psychotherapies for PTSD: psycho­education; teaching emotion regulation and coping skills; imaginal exposure, cognitive processing, restructuring and/or meaning making; targeting emotions; and the reorganization of memory functions. The underlying mechanisms of action are not sufficiently investigated. In the future, treatments should be tailored more specifically depending on certain patient characteristics. Also, the additional benefit of interventions aimed at improving resilience remains to be established. PMID:27005732

  15. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  16. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  17. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  18. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  19. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  20. Transcriptomic responses to darkness stress point to common coral bleaching mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, M. K.; Estrada, A.; Sunagawa, S.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching occurs in response to numerous abiotic stressors, the ecologically most relevant of which is hyperthermic stress due to increasing seawater temperatures. Bleaching events can span large geographic areas and are currently a salient threat to coral reefs worldwide. Much effort has been focused on understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying bleaching, and these studies have mainly utilized heat and light stress regimes. In an effort to determine whether different stressors share common bleaching mechanisms, we used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays for the corals Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata (containing >10,000 features) to measure differential gene expression during darkness stress. Our results reveal a striking transcriptomic response to darkness in A. palmata involving chaperone and antioxidant up-regulation, growth arrest, and metabolic modifications. As these responses were previously measured during thermal stress, our results suggest that different stressors may share common bleaching mechanisms. Furthermore, our results point to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress as critical cellular events involved in molecular bleaching mechanisms. On the other hand, we identified a meager transcriptomic response to darkness in M. faveolata where gene expression differences between host colonies and sampling locations were greater than differences between control and stressed fragments. This and previous coral microarray studies reveal the immense range of transcriptomic responses that are possible when studying two coral species that differ greatly in their ecophysiology, thus pointing to the importance of comparative approaches in forecasting how corals will respond to future environmental change.

  1. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  2. A preliminary assessment of small steam Rankine and Brayton point-focusing solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Wen, L.; Steele, H.; Elgabalawi, N.; Wang, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of three conceptual point-focusing distributed solar modules is presented. The basic power conversion units consist of small Brayton or Rankine engines individually coupled to two-axis, tracking, point-focusing solar collectors. An array of such modules can be linked together, via electric transport, to form a small power station. Each module also can be utilized on a stand-alone basis, as an individual power source.

  3. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer focus-aid enhanced mask

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer system (PS/PDI) employing a PS/PDI mask that includes a PDI focus aid is provided. The PDI focus aid mask includes a large or secondary reference pinhole that is slightly displaced from the true or primary reference pinhole. The secondary pinhole provides a larger capture tolerance for interferometrically performing fine focus. With the focus-aid enhanced mask, conventional methods such as the knife-edge test can be used to perform an initial (or rough) focus and the secondary (large) pinhole is used to perform interferometric fine focus. Once the system is well focused, high accuracy interferometry can be performed using the primary (small) pinhole.

  4. Common Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for Two Hybrid Pairs of Mappings under φ-ψ Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Amrish

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of (EA) property and occasional w-compatibility for hybrid pair F : X × X → 2X and f : X → X. We also introduce common (EA) property for two hybrid pairs F, G : X → 2X and f, g : X → X. We establish some common coupled fixed point theorems for two hybrid pairs of mappings under φ-ψ contraction on noncomplete metric spaces. An example is also given to validate our results. We improve, extend and generalize several known results. The results of this paper generalize the common fixed point theorems for hybrid pairs of mappings and essentially contain fixed point theorems for hybrid pair of mappings. PMID:27340688

  5. A Theoretical Study of the Two-Dimensional Point Focusing by Two Multilayer Laue Lenses.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,H.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Macrader, A.; Stephenson, B.

    2008-08-10

    Hard x-ray point focusing by two crossed multilayer Laue lenses is studied using a full-wave modeling approach. This study shows that for a small numerical aperture, the two consecutive diffraction processes can be decoupled into two independent ones in respective directions. Using this theoretical tool, we investigated adverse effects of various misalignments on the 2D focus profile and discussed the tolerance to them. We also derived simple expressions that described the required alignment accuracy.

  6. A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

  7. Performance prediction evaluation of ceramic materials in point-focusing solar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, J.; Zwissler, J.

    1979-01-01

    A performance prediction was adapted to evaluate the use of ceramic materials in solar receivers for point focusing distributed applications. System requirements were determined including the receiver operating environment and system operating parameters for various engine types. Preliminary receiver designs were evolved from these system requirements. Specific receiver designs were then evaluated to determine material functional requirements.

  8. Time reversal ultrasound focusing to a point away from the beacon location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; Sutin, Alexander; Gandhi, Gaurav; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2012-10-01

    In percutaneous procedures there is often a need to focus therapeutic ultrasound to a predefined area without affecting surrounding tissues. Focusing based on Time Reversal Acoustics (TRA) principles constitutes a promising approach for generating high intensity ultrasound field tailored to the shape of the predefined area. Conventional TRA technique enables ultrasound focusing only at a site, where there is an ultrasound beacon, e.g. piezo-transducer mounted at the tip of a catheter. We developed a method of steering the focus away from the beacon location. The method is based on the measurements of impulse response (IR) in several reference points and calculating virtual IRs for the points outside the reference beacon location. The IR for the point away from the beacon is constructed based on mathematical extrapolation of the measured reference IRs frequency spectra, particularly phases. The effectiveness of extrapolated TRA focusing is explored experimentally and by computer simulation. Potential applications include ultrasounda-ssisted drug delivery, artery recanalization and tumor ablation.

  9. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  10. Thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology is the goal of this project. The energy thus produced must be technically, as well as economically, competitive with other energy sources. This project is to support the industrial development of the required technology to achieve the above stated goal. Solar energy is concentrated by either a reflecting surface or a lense to a receiver where it is transferred to a working liquid or gas. Receiver temperatures are in the 1000 - 2000 F range. Conceptual design studies are expected to identify power conversion units with a viable place in the solar energy future. Rankine and Brayton cycle engines are under investigation. This report details the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's accomplishments with point-focusing technology in Fy 1978.

  11. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  12. Focus point gauge mediation with incomplete adjoint messengers and gauge coupling unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-10-01

    As the mass limits on supersymmetric particles are gradually pushed to higher values due to their continuing non-observation at the CERN LHC, looking for focus point regions in the supersymmetric parameter space, which shows considerably reduced fine-tuning, is increasingly more important than ever. We explore this in the context of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with messengers transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, namely, octet of color SU(3) and triplet of weak SU(2). A distinctive feature of this scenario is that the focus point is achieved by fixing a single combination of parameters in the messenger sector, which is invariant under the renormalization group evolution. Because of this invariance, the focus point behavior is well under control once the relevant parameters are fixed by a more fundamental theory. The observed Higgs boson mass is explained with a relatively mild fine-tuning Δ = 60- 150. Interestingly, even in the presence of incomplete messenger multiplets of the SU(5) GUT group, the gauge couplings still unify perfectly, but at a scale which is one or two orders of magnitude above the conventional GUT scale. Because of this larger unification scale, the colored Higgs multiplets become too heavy to trigger proton decay at a rate larger than the experimentally allowed limit.

  13. Making a semi-convex Focus area in a Focus+Glue+Context map, considering map visibility and transport access points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirako, Y.; Yamamoto, D.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously implemented the Focus+Glue+Context map system EMMA that provides local detailed data in Focus, global context data in Context, and connection data between both in the same view. Introducing the Glue area between Focus and Context makes it possible to provide uniform scaling for the two latter areas. This paper enhances EMMA through the implementation of a Focus creation function that considers transportation access points, such as stations and bus stops. The enhanced EMMA searches a route from the current location to the transportation access point, and allows users to identify the spatial relationship between the various locations in a small-scale Context, and view the route from the current location to the transportation access points in a large-scale Focus. However, if Focus is too large because of unnecessary areas used to identify the route, some parts of Context might be hidden by Focus. The proposed system solves this problem by implementing the following functions: (1) it searches stations that are adjacent to the current location and makes a semiconvex Focus that includes the current location and those stations in order for Focus to include really necessary areas. (2) It reduces Focus distortion by setting a fixed point as the center of the Focus area. (3) It smoothens the Focus shape in order to improve visibility in the Glue area. We developed a prototype of the proposed system that implements these functions.

  14. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project during fiscal year 1979 are detailed. Present studies involve designs of modular units that collect and concentrate solar energy via highly reflective, parabolic-shaped dishes. The concentrated energy is then converted to heat in a working fluid, such as hot gas. In modules designed to produce heat for industrial applications, a flexible line conveys the heated fluid from the module to a heat transfer network. In modules designed to produce electricity the fluid carries the heat directly to an engine in a power conversion unit located at the focus of the concentrator. The engine is mechanically linked to an electric generator. A Brayton-cycle engine is currently being developed as the most promising electrical energy converter to meet near-future needs.

  15. Design and development of a laminated Fresnel lens for point-focus PV systems. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R.C.

    1982-12-01

    A laminated glass-plastic lens parquet using injection molded point focus Fresnel lenses is described. The second phase of a program aimed at investigating the cost effectiveness of a glass-plastic concentrator lens assembly is reported. The first phase dealt with the development of a first generation lens design, the selection of the preferred glass coverplate and glass-to-lens adhesive and initial injection molding lens molding trials. The second phase has dealt with the development of an improved lens design, a full size parquet lamination process, and a second group of injection molding lens molding trials.

  16. Co-validation of three methods for optical characterization of point-focus concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.J.; Grossman, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    Three different methods for characterizing point-focus solar concentrator optical performance have been developed for specific applications. These methods include a laser ray trace technique called the Scanning Hartmann Optical Test, a video imaging process called the 2f Technique and actual on-sun testing in conjunction with optical computer modeling. Three concentrator test articles, each of a different design, were characterized using at least two of the methods and, in one case, all three. The results of these tests are compared in order to validate the methods. Excellent agreement is observed in the results, suggesting that the techniques provide consistent and accurate characterizations of solar concentrator optics.

  17. Thermal power systems, point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. The Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs.

  18. Co-validation of three methods for optical characterization of point-focus concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendelin, T. J.; Grossman, J. W.

    Three different methods for characterizing point-focus solar concentrator optical performance have been developed for specific applications. These methods include a laser ray trace technique called the Scanning Hartmann Optical Test, a video imaging process called the 2f Technique and actual on-sun testing in conjunction with optical computer modeling. Three concentrator test articles, each of a different design, were characterized using at least two of the methods and, in one case, all three. The results of these tests are compared in order to validate the methods. Excellent agreement is observed in the results, suggesting that the techniques provide consistent and accurate characterizations of solar concentrator optics.

  19. Efficiency degradation due to tracking errors for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1978-01-01

    An important parameter in the design of point focusing solar collectors is the intercept factor which is a measure of efficiency and of energy available for use in the receiver. Using statistical methods, an expression of the expected value of the intercept factor is derived for various configurations and control law implementations. The analysis assumes that a radially symmetric flux distribution (not necessarily Gaussian) is generated at the focal plane due to the sun's finite image and various reflector errors. The time-varying tracking errors are assumed to be uniformly distributed within the threshold limits and allows the expected value calculation.

  20. Point Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project. Volume 2: Workshop proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Point focus distributed receiver solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat is discussed. Thermal power systems are described. Emphasis is on the development of cost effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants, using parabolic dish collectors. The characteristics of PFDR systems and the cost targets for major subsystems hardware are identified. Markets for this technology and their size are identified, and expected levelized bus bar energy costs as a function of yearly production level are presented. The present status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  1. The effect of concentrator field layout on the performance of point-focus distributed receiver systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Dugan, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of concentrator field layout on the technical-economic performance of a point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal power plant is presented. The plant design is based on the small community prototype system currently under development for JPL/DOE; parabolic dish concentrators are employed, and small heat engines are used to generate electricity at each dish. The effect of field size, array proportions, dish-to-dish spacing and packing fraction (concentrator-land area ratio) are presented for typical PFDR layouts. Economic analyses are carried out to determine optimum packing fraction as a function of site cost.

  2. Using a Student-Generated Survey to Inform Planning for a User-Focused Learning Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Weiner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    A master's comprehensive University is planning a learning commons to support undergraduate learning. The planning process included a literature review, site visits to commons, consultations with experts in the field, discussions with campus specialists, and surveys of patrons. The literature reports two primary forms of data gathering for…

  3. Design and development of a point focus concentrated PV module operating above 100 suns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olah, S.; Ho, F.; Khemthong, S.

    The present objective was to design, develop, fabricate and performance-test a highly efficient and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic module which can operate above 100-suns concentration, which can be mass produced, and is reliable, with minimum maintenance. A point-focus module design was chosen, operating at 120 suns using a molded acrylic Fresnel lens and passive cooling. Four modules were built and tested, and a manufacturing cost analysis was made. The module and components were designed for future high volume production with the use of automated equipment in mind. The module consisted of a lightweight module body fabricated from aluminum sheet stock, a lens parquet assembly, and a 15 high efficiency solar cell-heat sink assembly, connected in series to produce 55 W under normal operating conditions.

  4. A Transmittance-optimized, Point-focus Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator for high-temperature solar thermal energy system applications is discussed. The concentrator utilizes a transmittance-optimized, short-focal-length, dome-shaped refractive Fresnel lens as the optical element. This concentrator combines both good optical performance and a large tolerance for manufacturing, deflection, and tracking errors. The conceptual design of an 11-meter diameter concentrator which should provide an overall collector efficiency of about 70% at an 815 C (1500 F) receiver operating temperature and a 1500X geometric concentration ratio (lens aperture area/receiver aperture area) was completed. Results of optical and thermal analyses of the collector, a discussion of manufacturing methods for making the large lens, and an update on the current status and future plans of the development program are included.

  5. Point focusing using loudspeaker arrays from the perspective of optimal beamforming.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2015-06-01

    Sound focusing is to create a concentrated acoustic field in the region surrounded by a loudspeaker array. This problem was tackled in the previous research via the Helmholtz integral approach, brightness control, acoustic contrast control, etc. In this paper, the same problem was revisited from the perspective of beamforming. A source array model is reformulated in terms of the steering matrix between the source and the field points, which lends itself to the use of beamforming algorithms such as minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) originally intended for sensor arrays. The beamforming methods are compared with the conventional methods in terms of beam pattern, directional index, and control effort. Objective tests are conducted to assess the audio quality by using perceptual evaluation of audio quality (PEAQ). Experiments of produced sound field and listening tests are conducted in a listening room, with results processed using analysis of variance and regression analysis. In contrast to the conventional energy-based methods, the results have shown that the proposed methods are phase-sensitive in light of the distortionless constraint in formulating the array filters, which helps enhance audio quality and focusing performance. PMID:26093429

  6. Benefits of an external focus of attention: common coding or conscious processing?

    PubMed

    Poolton, J M; Maxwell, J P; Masters, R S W; Raab, M

    2006-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to assess the effect attentional focus has on learning a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under secondary task loading. Participants in Experiment 1 learnt a golf putting task (300 practice trials) with a single instruction to either focus on their hands (internal focus) or the movement of the putter (external focus). No group differences were evident during learning or retention. Differences between the groups were only apparent under secondary task load; the external group's performance remained robust, while the internal group suffered a drop in performance. Verbal protocols demonstrated that the internal group accumulated significantly more internal knowledge and more task-relevant knowledge in general than the external group. Experiment 2 was designed to establish whether greater internal focus knowledge or greater explicit rule build up in general was responsible for performance breakdown. Two groups were presented with a set of six internal or external rules. Again, no performance differences were found during learning or retention. During the secondary task, both groups experienced performance deterioration. It was concluded that accumulation of explicit rules to guide performance was responsible for the internal group's breakdown in performance under secondary task loading and may be responsible for some of the performance differences reported previously. PMID:16368617

  7. Simultaneous reconstruction of multiple depth images without off-focus points in integral imaging using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of multiple depth images with a ray back-propagation algorithm in three-dimensional (3D) computational integral imaging is computationally burdensome. Further, a reconstructed depth image consists of a focus and an off-focus area. Focus areas are 3D points on the surface of an object that are located at the reconstructed depth, while off-focus areas include 3D points in free-space that do not belong to any object surface in 3D space. Generally, without being removed, the presence of an off-focus area would adversely affect the high-level analysis of a 3D object, including its classification, recognition, and tracking. Here, we use a graphics processing unit (GPU) that supports parallel processing with multiple processors to simultaneously reconstruct multiple depth images using a lookup table containing the shifted values along the x and y directions for each elemental image in a given depth range. Moreover, each 3D point on a depth image can be measured by analyzing its statistical variance with its corresponding samples, which are captured by the two-dimensional (2D) elemental images. These statistical variances can be used to classify depth image pixels as either focus or off-focus points. At this stage, the measurement of focus and off-focus points in multiple depth images is also implemented in parallel on a GPU. Our proposed method is conducted based on the assumption that there is no occlusion of the 3D object during the capture stage of the integral imaging process. Experimental results have demonstrated that this method is capable of removing off-focus points in the reconstructed depth image. The results also showed that using a GPU to remove the off-focus points could greatly improve the overall computational speed compared with using a CPU. PMID:24921860

  8. Bistable isoelectric point photoswitching in green fluorescent proteins observed by dynamic immunoprobed isoelectric focusing

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Tentori, Augusto M.; Herr, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel isoelectric point photoswitching phenomenon in both wild-type Aequorea victoria (av) GFP and the E222G mutant Aequorea coerulescens (ac) GFP. A combination of time-resolved microfluidic isoelectric focusing (IEF) and in situ antibody blotting IEF were employed to monitor dark (non-fluorescent) and bright (fluorescent) GFP populations. Through IEF, each population was observed to exhibit distinct isoelectric points (pI) and, thus, distinct formal electrostatic charges. Experimentally observed interconversion between the dark, higher pI and bright, lower pI GFP populations is tightly controlled by differential UV and blue light exposure. The stoichiometry and kinetics of charge transfer tied to this reversible photobleaching process are deduced. In concert with a reaction-transport model of bistable reversible charge and fluorescence photoswitching, the on-chip measurements of population interconversion rates suggest the potential for both rheostatic and discrete switch-like modulation of the electrostatic charge of GFPs depending on the illumination profile. We estimate that 3–4 formal charges distinguish the bright and dark populations of avGFP, compared to one charge for those of acGFP. Given the proposed role of E222 as a bridge between internal and exit hydrogen bond clusters within the GFP β-barrel, the difference in charge switching magnitude between the two mutants provides intriguing evidence for the proton wire hypothesis of proton transport within the GFP structure, and of proton exchange with the bulk solvent. Our facile dynamic and probed IEF assays should find widespread use in analytical screening and quantitative kinetic analysis of photoswitching and other charge switching processes in response to stimuli including light, temperature, or binding/cleavage events. PMID:23017083

  9. Generalized focus point and mass spectra comparison of highly natural SUGRA GUT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Savoy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Supergravity grand unified models (SUGRA GUTs) are highly motivated and allow for a high degree of electroweak naturalness when the superpotential parameter μ ˜100 - 300 GeV (preferring values closer to 100 GeV). We first illustrate that models with radiatively driven naturalness enjoy a generalized focus-point behavior wherein all soft terms are correlated instead of just scalar masses. Next, we generate spectra from four SUGRA GUT archetypes: 1. S O (10 ) models where the Higgs doublets live in different ten-dimensional irreducible representations (irreps), 2. models based on S O (10 ) where the Higgs multiplets live in a single ten-dimensional irrep but with D -term scalar mass splitting, 3. models based on S U (5 ), and 4. a more general SUGRA model with 12 independent parameters. Electroweak naturalness implies for all models a spectrum of light Higgsinos with mW˜1,Z˜ 1 ,2≲300 GeV and gluinos with mg ˜≲ 2 - 4 TeV . However, masses and mixing in the third generation sfermion sector differ distinctly between the models. These latter differences would be most easily tested at a linear e+e- collider with √{s }˜ multi-TeV scale but measurements at a 50-100 TeV hadron collider are also possible.

  10. Shifted focus point of the Higgs mass parameter from the minimal mixed mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyae, Bumseok

    2015-07-01

    We employ both the minimal gravity- and the minimal gauge mediations of supersymmetry breaking at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale in a single supergravity framework, assuming the gaugino masses are generated dominantly by the minimal gauge mediation effects. In such a "minimal mixed mediation model," a "focus point" of the soft Higgs mass parameter, mhu 2 emerges at 3-4 TeV energy scale, which is exactly the stop mass scale needed for explaining the 126 GeV Higgs boson mass without the "A -term" at the three-loop level. As a result, mhu2 can be quite insensitive to various trial stop masses at low energy, reducing the fine-tuning measures to be much smaller than 100 even for a 3-4 TeV low energy stop mass and -0.5

  11. Aspirin resistance: a clinical review focused on the most common cause, noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Kenneth A

    2011-04-01

    Aspirin is an inexpensive, readily available medication that reduces the risk of subsequent vascular disease by about 25% in patients with known occlusive vascular disease. Aspirin's beneficial effect is mediated via inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) activation of platelets and is detected by demonstrating a decrease in platelet function and/or a decrease in prostaglandin metabolites. Patients who are assumed to be taking their aspirin, but who do not demonstrate an aspirin effect are labeled as, "aspirin resistant." This is an unfortunate designation as the vast majority of patients labeled as "aspirin resistant" are noncompliant. Noncompliance is demonstrated in multiple studies that use repeat testing for platelet inhibition in patients with an initial inadequate response to aspirin. When the test is repeated under condition where ingestion of the test aspirin is assured, the patients' platelets are inhibited. Instead of using the term "aspirin resistance," this review will use "inadequate response to aspirin." Patients with an inadequate aspirin response have an increased likelihood for subsequent vascular events. Detection and treatment of an inadequate aspirin response would be facilitated by the development of a bedside assay that uses whole blood, is technically simple, inexpensive, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and provides an answer in a few minutes. Future research in patients with an inadequate response to aspirin should focus on mechanisms to improve compliance, which should decrease their risk of future vascular events. PMID:23983843

  12. Numerical focusing methods for full field OCT: a comparison based on a common signal model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2014-06-30

    In this paper a theoretical model of the full field swept source (FF SS) OCT signal is presented based on the angular spectrum wave propagation approach which accounts for the defocus error with imaging depth. It is shown that using the same theoretical model of the signal, numerical defocus correction methods based on a simple forward model (FM) and inverse scattering (IS), the latter being similar to interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM), can be derived. Both FM and IS are compared quantitatively with sub-aperture based digital adaptive optics (DAO). FM has the least numerical complexity, and is the fastest in terms of computational speed among the three. SNR improvement of more than 10 dB is shown for all the three methods over a sample depth of 1.5 mm. For a sample with non-uniform refractive index with depth, FM and IS both improved the depth of focus (DOF) by a factor of 7x for an imaging NA of 0.1. DAO performs the best in case of non-uniform refractive index with respect to DOF improvement by 11x. PMID:24977860

  13. Turning point temperature and competition between relativistic and ponderomotive effects in self-focusing of laser beam in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.; Jafari Milani, M. R.

    2013-10-15

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities. The second-order differential equation of dimensionless beam width parameter is solved numerically, taking into account the effect of electron temperature. The results show that the ponderomotive force does not facilitate the relativistic self-focusing in all intensity ranges. In fact, there exists a certain intensity value that, if below this value, the ponderomotive nonlinearity can contribute to the relativistic self-focusing, or obstruct it, if above. It is also indicated that there is a temperature interval in which self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of this region. In addition, the results represent the existence of a “turning point temperature” in the mentioned interval that the self-focusing has the strongest power. The value of the turning point is dependent on laser intensity in which higher intensities result in higher turning point.

  14. The Speech Focus Position Effect on Jaw-Finger Coordination in a Pointing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet-Capellan, Amelie; Laboissiere, Rafael; Galvan, Arturo; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates jaw-finger coordination in a task involving pointing to a target while naming it with a 'CVCV (e.g., /'papa/) versus CV'CV (e.g., /pa'pa/) word. According to the authors' working hypothesis, the pointing apex (gesture extremum) would be synchronized with the apex of the jaw-opening gesture corresponding to the…

  15. Using PowerPoint as a Lens to Focus on Linearity in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Chadha, Deesha; Kokotailo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    As university lecturers select and sequence materials for their teaching, a linear structure emerges by default. Such a structure is made explicit within PowerPoint presentations and may even be amplified as PowerPoint invites the lecturer to reduce content to a bulleted format. Such linear sequences have been related to passive, surface…

  16. Conditions for perfect focusing multiple point sources with the SMS design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, P.; Miñano, Juan C.; Nikolic, Milena; Liu, Jiayao; Infante, Jose; Duerr, Fabian

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how it is possible to sharply image multiple object points. The Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) design method has usually been presented as a method to couple N wave-front pairs with N surfaces, but recent findings show that when using N surfaces, we can obtain M image points when Npoints through one surface, the transition from two to three objet points obtained by increasing the parallelism, and getting to the designs of six surfaces imaging up to eight object points. These designs are limited with the condition that the surfaces cannot be placed at the aperture stop. In the process of maximizing the object points to sharp image, we try to exhaust the degrees of freedom of aspherics and free-forms. We conjecture that maximal SMS designs are very close to a good solution, hence using them as a starting point for the optimization will lead us faster to a final optical system. We suggest here different optimization strategies which combined with the SMS method are proven to give the best solution. Through the example of imaging with the high aspect ratio, we compare the results obtained optimizing the rotational lens and using a combination of SMS method and optimization, showing that the second approach is giving significantly smaller value of overall RMS spot diameter.

  17. A plane wave generation method by wave number domain point focusing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-11-01

    A method for generation of a wave-field that is a plane wave is described. This method uses an array of loudspeakers phased so that the field in the wave-number domain is nearly concentrated at a point, this point being at the wave-number vector of the desired plane wave. The method described here for such a wave-number concentration makes use of an expansion in spherical harmonics, and requires a relatively small number of measurement points for a good approximate achievement of a plane wave. The measurement points are on a spherical surface surrounding the array of loudspeakers. The input signals for the individual loudspeakers can be derived without a matrix inversion or without explicit assumptions about the loudspeakers. The mathematical development involves spherical harmonics and three-dimensional Fourier transforms. Some numerical examples are given, with various assumptions concerning the nature of the loudspeakers, that support the premise that the method described in the present paper may be useful in applications. PMID:21110571

  18. Thermal Power Systems (TPS); Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PFTEA). Volume 2: Detailed report, fiscal year 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of systems which employ point focusing distributed receiver technology is reported. Emphasis is placed on the first engineering experiment, the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment. Procurement activities for the Military Module Power Experiment the first of a series of experiments planned as part of the Isolated Load Series are included.

  19. Optimization of a point-focusing, distributed receiver solar thermal electric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to optimization of a solar concept which employs solar-to-electric power conversion at the focus of parabolic dish concentrators. The optimization procedure is presented through a series of trade studies, which include the results of optical/thermal analyses and individual subsystem trades. Alternate closed-cycle and open-cycle Brayton engines and organic Rankine engines are considered to show the influence of the optimization process, and various storage techniques are evaluated, including batteries, flywheels, and hybrid-engine operation.

  20. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  1. Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

    2004-01-01

    The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

  2. Analytical methods to evaluate flux distributions from point-focus collectors for solar furnace and dish engine applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a new analytical 'stretch' function that accurately predicts the flux distribution from on-axis point-focus collectors. Different dish sizes and slope errors can be assessed using this analytical function with a ratio of the focal length to collector diameter fixed at 0.6 to yield the maximum concentration ratio. Results are compared to data, and the stretch function is shown to provide more accurate flux distributions than other analytical methods employing cone optics.

  3. High-flux testing of heat pipes for point-focus solar collector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, D. R.

    The Department of Energy is currently funding the development of a power conversion system that uses a parabolic-dish collector to direct solar energy onto a 25-kWe Stirling engine/generator system. As part of this program, heat-pipe solar receivers are being developed to transfer 65 kW of thermal energy from the focus of the concentrator to the heater-tubes of the engine. These receivers operate at temperatures up to 800 C and with peak flux loads approaching 100 W/cm(sup 2). Designing a wick structure that can withstand these operating conditions has been a major part of the heat-pipe receiver development activities. Recently, bench-scale tests were performed on two advanced artery structures that are candidates for full-scale receivers. The arteries were able to lift sodium over 40 cm to cool a 30-cm(sup 2) patch on the bench-scale receiver's surface. Peak flux levels of approximately 80 W/cm(sup 2) were applied to the receiver surface.

  4. Engineering students at typically invisible transition points: A focus on admissions and the sophomore year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Elizabeth M.

    As of 2012, women are approximately 19% of all engineering undergraduate students nationally (American Society for Engineering Education, 2012). Women's representation in engineering has not changed significantly over the last 20 years, despite increased attention, increased funding, and increased programmatic activities intended to encourage more women to become engineers. Research around the world continues to seek identification of the reasons for the underrepresentation of women in engineering. This prior work has focused primarily on two broad areas: recruiting, that is, preparation, socialization, exposure, and experiences prior to college; and retention, that is, experiences in higher education. Retention studies and programmatic responses to those studies mostly have been confined to the collegiate first year, a time of historically high attrition. Little attention has been paid to the university admissions process, one of the gateways to engineering studies. Little attention also has been paid to the experiences of college sophomores, whose attrition rates approach those of first-year college students. The first section of this dissertation presents a statistical analysis that indicated a bias in favor of men in the admission process. Success factor modeling suggested a different set of admission criteria could mitigate this bias. After recommendations to change admission criteria were implemented, the percent of female enrollment in engineering increased and statistical analysis confirmed that bias was substantially neutralized. The second section of this dissertation presents three frameworks for understanding how sophomores may be defined. The processes of conceptualizing and operationalizing what it means to be a sophomore impact the types of issues that can be investigated about student attrition, the findings that result from those investigations, and the ability to make cross institutional or programmatic comparisons using a clearly stated

  5. Genome Wide Analysis of Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes: Lack of Common Variants with Large Effect Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Elijah R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kääb, Stefan; Crawford, Dana C.; Nicoletti, Paola; Floratos, Aris; Sinner, Moritz F.; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Zumhagen, Sven; Guicheney, Pascale; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Marshall, Vanessa; Shakir, Saad; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Bevan, Steve; Jamshidi, Yalda; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Myerburg, Robert J.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Camm, A. John; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Norris, Kris; Altman, Russ B.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Jeffery, Steve; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Shen, Yufeng; George, Alfred L.; Roden, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP), treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10−7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5–2.6). The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10−9). Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs. PMID:24223155

  6. Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of the Literature Focusing on Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chari, Aswin; Hocking, Katie C; Broughton, Ellie; Turner, Carole; Santarius, Thomas; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kolias, Angelos G

    2016-07-01

    The plethora of studies in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has not resulted in the development of an evidence-based treatment strategy, largely due to heterogeneous outcome measures that preclude cross-study comparisons and guideline development. This study aimed to identify and quantify the heterogeneity of outcome measures reported in the CSDH literature and to build a case for the development of a consensus-based core outcome set. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42014007266). All full-text English language studies with >10 patients (prospective) or >100 patients (retrospective) published after 1990 examining clinical outcomes in CSDH were eligible for inclusion. One hundred two eligible studies were found. There were 14 (13.7%) randomized controlled trials, one single arm trial (1.0%), 25 (24.5%) cohort comparison studies, and 62 (60.8%) prospective or retrospective cohort studies. Outcome domains reported by the studies included mortality (63.8% of included studies), recurrence (94.1%), complications (48.0%), functional outcomes (40.2%), and radiological (38.2%) outcomes. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of the outcome measures, as evidenced by the seven different definitions of the term "recurrence," with no definition given in 19 studies. The time-points of assessment for all the outcome domains varied greatly from inpatient/hospital discharge to 18 months. This study establishes and quantifies the heterogeneity of outcome measure reporting in CSDH and builds the case for the development of a robust consensus-based core outcome set for future studies to adhere to as part of the Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in CSDH (CODE-CSDH) project. PMID:26295586

  7. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging secondary concentrators used in point-focus dish solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1987-09-01

    Using nonimaging secondary concentrators in point-focus applications may permit the development of more cost-effective concentrator systems by either improving performance or reducing costs. Secondaries may also increase design flexibility. The major objective of this study was to develop as complete an understanding as possible of the quantitative performance and cost effects associated with deploying nonimaging secondary concentrators at the focal zone of point-focus solar thermal concentrators. A performance model was developed that uses a Monte Carlo ray-trace procedure to determine the focal plane distribution of a paraboloidal primary as a function of optical parameters. It then calculates the corresponding optimized concentration and thermal efficiency as a function of temperature with and without the secondary. To examine the potential cost benefits associated with secondaries, a preliminary model for the rational optimization of performance versus cost trade-offs was developed. This model suggests a possible 10% to 20% reduction in the cost of delivered energy when secondaries are used. This is a lower limit, and the benefits may even be greater if using a secondary permits the development of inexpensive primary technologies for which the performance would not otherwise be viable. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Teacher Self-Learning Series. Module 2: Focus and Coherence--The First Two CCSSM Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This module examines Focus and Coherence, two of the three shifts required for implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Focus and Coherence are the two major design principles of the math standards. The module assumes prior knowledge of the information presented in Module 1. Course Objectives: By the end of the…

  9. The Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project - A progress report. [small solar power systems applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project which encompasses three primary activities: (1) applications analysis and development, in which potential markets for small power systems (less than 10 MWe) are identified and characterized in order to provide requirements for design and information for activities relating to market development; (2) systems engineering and development, for analyses that will define the most appropriate small power system designs based on specific user requirements; and (3) experiment implementation and test, which deals with the design and placement of engineering experiments in various applications environments in order to test the readiness of the selected technology in an operational setting. Progress to date and/or key results are discussed throughout the text.

  10. Development, solar test, and evaluation of a high-temperature air receiver for point-focusing parabolic dish applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature solar receiver was fabricated and tested in excess of 1370 C on an 11-meter-diameter test bed concentrator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, California. The 60-kilowatt thermal receiver design utilizes state-of-the-art silicon carbide honeycomb matrix panels to receive and transfer the solar energy and mullite elements for thermal buffer storage. Solar tests were conducted with indicated air exit temperatures ranging from 885 C (1625 F) to 1427 C (2600 F), mass flow rates of 75 to 105 g/sec (0.16 to 0.23 lbm/sec), and pressures up to 265 kPa absolute (38.4 psia). Estimates of efficiency are 59.7% at 1120 C (2048 F) to 80.6% at 885 C (1625 F) when aperture spillage losses are considered separately. Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative receiver concept for point-focusing parabolic dish applications over a wide temperature range.

  11. More than Being Green: A Response to Mike Mueller's Review of "Transforming Environmental Education: Making the Cultural and Environmental Commons the Focus of Educational Reform"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a response to Mike Mueller's review of "Transforming Environmental Education: Making the Cultural and Environmental Commons the Focus of Educational Reform." Mueller's review, although limited in the way all reviews are limited, makes a genuine contribution by not imposing interpretations that reflect the…

  12. Adaptive Localization of Focus Point Regions via Random Patch Probabilistic Density from Whole-Slide, Ki-67-Stained Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Yazan M.; MdZin, Reena Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved. PMID:25793010

  13. Adaptive localization of focus point regions via random patch probabilistic density from whole-slide, Ki-67-stained brain tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Yazan M; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; MdZin, Reena Rahayu; Omar, Khairuddin

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved. PMID:25793010

  14. Common features of particle beams and x-rays generated in a low energy dense plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Behbahani, R. A.; Xiao, C.

    2015-02-15

    Features of energetic charged particle beams and x-ray emission in a low energy (1–2 kJ) plasma focus (DPF) device are described and the possible mechanism are explained based on circuit analyses and energy balance in the DPF system. In particular, the resistance and the voltage across the plasma column are estimated to explain the mechanisms of the generation of particle beams and hard x-ray. The analysis shows that the total inductance of a DPF might have played a role for enhancement of the particle beams and x-ray emissions during the phase of anomalous resistance.

  15. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Carel; Wensing, Michel; Franssen, Jo LM; Oostendorp, Rob AB

    2007-01-01

    Background Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation) are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis), but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle). It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. Methods/Design This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 – September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects have unilateral shoulder

  16. Mitochondria-focused gene expression profile reveals common pathways and CPT1B dysregulation in both rodent stress model and human subjects with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Li, H; Hu, X; Benedek, D M; Fullerton, C S; Forsten, R D; Naifeh, J A; Li, X; Wu, H; Benevides, K N; Le, T; Smerin, S; Russell, D W; Ursano, R J

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a trauma-related mental disorder, is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. However, the biologic approach to identifying the mitochondria-focused genes underlying the pathogenesis of PTSD is still in its infancy. Previous research, using a human mitochondria-focused cDNA microarray (hMitChip3) found dysregulated mitochondria-focused genes present in postmortem brains of PTSD patients, indicating that those genes might be PTSD-related biomarkers. To further test this idea, this research examines profiles of mitochondria-focused gene expression in the stressed-rodent model (inescapable tail shock in rats), which shows characteristics of PTSD-like behaviors and also in the blood of subjects with PTSD. This study found that 34 mitochondria-focused genes being upregulated in stressed-rat amygdala. Ten common pathways, including fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) pathways were dysregulated in the amygdala of the stressed rats. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), an enzyme in the fatty acid metabolism and PPAR pathways, was significantly over-expressed in the amygdala (P<0.007) and in the blood (P<0.01) of stressed rats compared with non-stressed controls. In human subjects with (n=28) or without PTSD (n=31), significant over-expression of CPT1B in PTSD was also observed in the two common dysregulated pathways: fatty acid metabolism (P=0.0027, false discovery rate (FDR)=0.043) and PPAR (P=0.006, FDR=0.08). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated the microarray findings and the CPT1B result. These findings indicate that blood can be used as a specimen in the search for PTSD biomarkers in fatty acid metabolism and PPAR pathways, and, in addition, that CPT1B may contribute to the pathology of PTSD. PMID:26080315

  17. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Common Fixed Point of a Finite Family of Bregman Weak Relativity Nonexpansive Mappings in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators. PMID:24757423

  18. The Rules of Evidence: Focus on Key Points to Develop the Best Strategy to Evaluate Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Gathering evidence on the outcomes of any professional learning experience can be a challenging and complicated task. It involves consideration of a wide variety of perceptual and contextual issues, some obvious to education leaders and others not. Those who want to succeed in this process may find the following points helpful: (1) Always begin…

  19. Targeted Prevention of Common Mental Health Disorders in University Students: Randomised Controlled Trial of a Transdiagnostic Trait-Focused Web-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Musiat, Peter; Conrod, Patricia; Treasure, Janet; Tylee, Andre; Williams, Chris; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. Aims To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. Method Students were recruited online (n = 1047, age: M = 21.8, SD = 4.2) and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n = 519) or a control intervention (n = 528) using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225). Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. Results Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98]) and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p = .018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43]) in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression) and 0.42 (anxiety). In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered

  20. The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

  1. Reference point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under common experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance. PMID:27072518

  2. Fields of a tightly focused radially polarized laser beam: the truncated series versus the complex-source-point spherical wave representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the fields of a radially polarized fundamental Gaussian beam are derived with a complex-source-point spherical wave approach and then compared and contrasted with those derived recently from a Lax series to the order of ɛ15, where ɛ is the diffraction angle. It is shown that the domain of validity of the derived fields is restricted by a discontinuity built into the vector potential from which they are obtained. Furthermore, in disagreement with recent experimental observations, the axial field intensity decreases with tighter focusing (decreasing waist radius at focus).

  3. In vitro parameter optimization for spatial control of focused ultrasound ablation when using low boiling point phase-change nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNEs) provide cavitation sites when the perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanodroplets (ND) are vaporized to microbubbles by acoustic energy. Their presence lowers the power required to ablate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), potentially making it a safer option for a broader range of treatment sites. However, spatial control over the ablation region can be problematic when cavitation is used to enhance heating. This study explored relationships between vaporization, ablation, and the PSNE concentration in vitro to optimize the acoustic intensity and insonation time required for spatially controlled ablation enhancement using a PSNE that included a volatile PFC component. Methods HIFU (continuous wave at 1 MHz; insonation times of 5, 10, 15, and 20 s; cool-down times of 2, 4, and 6 s; peak negative pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa) was applied to albumin-acrylamide gels containing PFC agents (1:1 mix of volatile decafluorobutane and more stable dodecafluoropentane at 105 to 108 PFC ND per milliliter) or agent-free controls. Vaporization fields (microbubble clouds) were imaged by conventional ultrasound, and ablation lesions were measured directly by calipers. Controlled ablation was defined as the production of ‘cigar’-shaped lesions corresponding with the acoustic focal zone. This control was considered to be lost when ablation occurred in prefocal vaporization fields having a predominantly ‘tadpole’ or oblong shape. Results Changes in the vaporization field shape and location occurred on a continuum with increasing PSNE concentration and acoustic intensity. Working with the maximum concentration-intensity combinations resulting in controlled ablation demonstrated a dose-responsive relationship between insonation time and volumes of both the vaporization fields (approximately 20 to 240 mm3) and the ablation lesions (1 to 135 mm3) within them. Conclusions HIFU ablation was enhanced by this PSNE and could be achieved

  4. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  5. Common Sticking Points about Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Imbeau, Marcia B.

    2012-01-01

    A typical classroom today is a jigsaw puzzle of learners. It is not unusual for a teacher to have in one class students from multiple cultures, bringing with them varied degrees of proficiency with English and an impressive array of learning exceptionalities (both identified and not identified), as well as a broad array of economic backgrounds.…

  6. Ewing Sarcoma With ERG Gene Rearrangements: A Molecular Study Focusing on the Prevalence of FUS-ERG and Common Pitfalls in Detecting EWSR1-ERG Fusions by FISH

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sonja; Deniz, Kemal; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Dry, Sarah; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2016-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5–10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs. PMID:26690869

  7. Automatic estimation of point-spread-function for deconvoluting out-of-focus optical coherence tomographic images using information entropy-based approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2011-09-12

    This paper proposes an automatic point spread function (PSF) estimation method to de-blur out-of-focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The method utilizes Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to deconvolve noisy defocused images with a family of Gaussian PSFs with different beam spot sizes. Then, the best beam spot size is automatically estimated based on the discontinuity of information entropy of recovered images. Therefore, it is not required a prior knowledge of the parameters or PSF of OCT system for de-convoluting image. The model does not account for the diffraction and the coherent scattering of light by the sample. A series of experiments are performed on digital phantoms, a custom-built phantom doped with microspheres, fresh onion as well as the human fingertip in vivo to show the performance of the proposed method. The method may also be useful in combining with other deconvolution algorithms for PSF estimation and image recovery. PMID:21935179

  8. Automatic estimation of point-spread-function for deconvoluting out-of-focus optical coherence tomographic images using information entropy-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic point spread function (PSF) estimation method to de-blur out-of-focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The method utilizes Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to deconvolve noisy defocused images with a family of Gaussian PSFs with different beam spot sizes. Then, the best beam spot size is automatically estimated based on the discontinuity of information entropy of recovered images. Therefore, it is not required a prior knowledge of the parameters or PSF of OCT system for de-convoluting image. The model does not account for the diffraction and the coherent scattering of light by the sample. A series of experiments are performed on digital phantoms, a custom-built phantom doped with microspheres, fresh onion as well as the human fingertip in vivo to show the performance of the proposed method. The method may also be useful in combining with other deconvolution algorithms for PSF estimation and image recovery. PMID:21935179

  9. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  10. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (p<0.0003) and placebo (p=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Subject report of perceived clinical change was a greater reduction in headache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p's<0.002). Discussion Two findings from this study are apparent: 1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  11. Kinase inhibitor-responsive genotypes in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinomas: moving past common point mutations or indels into uncommon kinase domain duplications and rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel B

    2016-06-01

    The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found by traditional or comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas include indels of exon 19 (the exon 19 deletion delE746_A750 being the most common) and the exon 21 L858R point mutation. The current approval labels for first line palliative gefitinib 250 mg/day, erlotinib 150 mg/day and afatinib 40 mg/day for advanced lung cancers require the presence of the aforementioned classical/sensitizing EGFR mutations. Other gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib sensitizing mutations include exon 18 indels, G719X, exon 19 insertions, A763_Y764insFQEA, S768I and L861Q; for which off-label EGFR kinase inhibitor use is generally agreed upon by thoracic oncologists. The main biological mechanism of resistance to approved first line EGFR inhibitors is the selection/acquisition of EGFR-T790M that in itself can be inhibited by osimertinib 80 mg/day, a 3(rd) generation EGFR inhibitor that is bypassed by EGFR-C797X mutations. Another class of de novo inhibitor insensitive mutation includes EGFR exon 20 insertions. More recently, the dichotomy of only point mutations or indels explaining aberrant kinase activation of EGFR plus inhibitor response has been shattered by the discovery of uncommon (<0.5% of all EGFR mutations) genomic events involving exon 18-25 kinase domain duplications (KDD) and rearrangements (EGFR-RAD51 or EGFR-PURB). The latter lead to oncogene addiction, enhanced sensitivity to kinase inhibitors in vitro and clinical responses to approved EGFR inhibitors. The enhanced landscape of EGFR inhibitor-responsive genotypes highlights that comprehensive molecular profiling may be necessary to maximize the identification of all cases that can benefit from precision oncology. PMID:27413714

  12. Kinase inhibitor-responsive genotypes in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinomas: moving past common point mutations or indels into uncommon kinase domain duplications and rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found by traditional or comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas include indels of exon 19 (the exon 19 deletion delE746_A750 being the most common) and the exon 21 L858R point mutation. The current approval labels for first line palliative gefitinib 250 mg/day, erlotinib 150 mg/day and afatinib 40 mg/day for advanced lung cancers require the presence of the aforementioned classical/sensitizing EGFR mutations. Other gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib sensitizing mutations include exon 18 indels, G719X, exon 19 insertions, A763_Y764insFQEA, S768I and L861Q; for which off-label EGFR kinase inhibitor use is generally agreed upon by thoracic oncologists. The main biological mechanism of resistance to approved first line EGFR inhibitors is the selection/acquisition of EGFR-T790M that in itself can be inhibited by osimertinib 80 mg/day, a 3rd generation EGFR inhibitor that is bypassed by EGFR-C797X mutations. Another class of de novo inhibitor insensitive mutation includes EGFR exon 20 insertions. More recently, the dichotomy of only point mutations or indels explaining aberrant kinase activation of EGFR plus inhibitor response has been shattered by the discovery of uncommon (<0.5% of all EGFR mutations) genomic events involving exon 18–25 kinase domain duplications (KDD) and rearrangements (EGFR-RAD51 or EGFR-PURB). The latter lead to oncogene addiction, enhanced sensitivity to kinase inhibitors in vitro and clinical responses to approved EGFR inhibitors. The enhanced landscape of EGFR inhibitor-responsive genotypes highlights that comprehensive molecular profiling may be necessary to maximize the identification of all cases that can benefit from precision oncology. PMID:27413714

  13. Screening of common point-mutations and discovery of new T14727C change in mitochondrial genome of Vietnamese encephalomyopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Nguyen, Lieu Van; Pham, Van-Anh; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

    2016-01-01

    Vietnamese patients (106) tentatively diagnosed with encephalomyopathy were screened for the presence of 15 common point mutations in mitochondria using PCR-RFLP. The screened mutations include A3243G, T3271C and T3291C for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS); A8344G and T8356C for Myoclonus Epilepsy and Rag-Red Fibers (MERRF); G11778A, G3460A and T14484C for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON); T8993G/C and T9176G for Leigh syndrome; A1555G for deafness syndrome; G4298A, T10010C, T14728C and T14709C for neuromuscular syndrome. As a result, 6 cases of A3243G (5.7%) and 2 cases of T14727C (3.9%) were found. The 6 cases of A3243G mutation were heteroplasmic at different levels (4.23-80.85%). The T14727C change was discovered for the first time in the MTTE gene encoding for tRNA(Glu) and showed homoplasmy. The T14727C change was probably a mutation because it was further confirmed as vertically inherited from the mother and not the result of isolated polymorphism. PMID:24708131

  14. Diagnosis of abdominal mural aortic thrombus following discovery of common femoral artery and vein thrombosis by point-of-care ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Nadia Maria; Taha, Farook; Vortsman, Eugene; Desai, Poonam; Kindschuh, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a limb-threatening and life-threatening disease process. Mural aortic thrombosis (MAT) is a rare cause of ALI. While there is limited evidence on the use of bedside ultrasound for the detection of ALI or MAT, duplex ultrasound remains the standard in the diagnosis and ultimate medical decision-making in patients with acute and chronic limb ischemia. Point-of-care ultrasound may be used in the evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms of this disease entity. This is a case of a 79-year-old female with a complicated medical history, who presented with a pulseless right leg and abdominal tenderness. The patient quickly decompensated requiring intubation for airway protection. A post-intubation arterial blood gas (ABG) was unsuccessfully attempted in the right femoral artery, prompting an ultrasound-guided ABG. On B-mode ultrasound evaluation, echogenic material was visualized in the right common femoral artery without evidence of Doppler flow signal. Additionally, a partially obstructing echogenic material was also noted at the femoro-saphenous vein junction with only partial compressibility by compression sonography. A computed tomography angiography of the aorta was performed indicating extensive infrarenal aortic thrombosis. The patient expired despite the relatively prompt diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early identification of acute arterial occlusion. PMID:26550078

  15. Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of the Literature Focusing on Baseline and Peri-Operative Care Data Elements.

    PubMed

    Chari, Aswin; Hocking, Katie C; Edlmann, Ellie; Turner, Carole; Santarius, Thomas; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kolias, Angelos G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is an increasingly common subtype of head injury, especially in the elderly population. The optimization of treatment strategies has been hampered by the collection of heterogeneous outcome measures and data elements, precluding cross-study comparisons. This study aimed to quantify the heterogeneity of data elements in the pre-operative, operative, and post-operative phases of care, and build the basis for the development of a set of common data elements (CDEs) for CSDH. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and was registered with the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews (CRD42014007266). All full-text English studies with more than 10 patients (prospective) or more than 100 patients (retrospective) published after 1990 examining clinical outcomes in CSDH were eligible for inclusion. One hundred two eligible studies were found. Only 40 studies (39.2%) reported the main presenting symptom/feature and 24 (23.5%) reported additional symptoms/features. Admitting neurological/functional status was classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (25 studies; 24.5%), the Markwalder Score (26 studies; 25.5%) and the modified Rankin Scale (three studies; 2.9%). Fifty-four studies (52.9%) made some mention of patient comorbidities and 58 studies (56.9%) reported the proportion or excluded patients on anticoagulant medication. Eighteen studies (17.6%) reported baseline coagulation status. Sixty-four studies (62.7%) stratified or assessed severity based on radiological findings, although the methods used varied widely. There was variable reporting of surgical technique and post-operative care; 32 studies (31.4%) made no mention of whether the operations were performed under general or local anesthetic. This study, a part of the Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in CSDH (CODE-CSDH) project, confirms and quantifies the heterogeneity of data elements collected and

  16. SEERISK concept: Dealing with climate change related hazards in southeast Europe: A common methodology for risk assessment and mapping focusing on floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Europe is a region that suffers often from natural hazards and has experienced significant losses in the recent past due to extreme weather conditions and their side-effects (cold and heat waves, extreme precipitation leading to floods / flash floods, thunderstorms, extreme winds, drought and wildfires). SEERISK ("Joint Disaster Management Risk Assessment and Preparedness in the Danube macro-region") is a European funded SEE (Southeast Europe) project that aims at the harmonisation and consistency among risk assessment practices undertaken by the partner countries at various levels regarding climate change related disasters. A common methodology for risk assessment has been developed that offers alternatives in order to tackle the problem of limited data. The methodology proposes alternative steps for hazard and vulnerability assessment that, according to the data availability, range from detailed modelling to expert judgement. In the present study the common methodology has been adapted for five hazard types (floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire) that are expected to be affected by climate change in the future and are relevant for the specific study areas. The last step will be the application of the methodology in six different case studies in Hungary, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Serbia followed by field exercises.

  17. Association of Common Genetic Variants with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Related Traits in the Arizona Insulin Resistance Registry: A Focus on Mexican American Families in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    DeMenna, Jacob; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Schneider, Jennifer; Kim, Joon Young; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Coletta, Dawn K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes and its clinical correlates is a global public health issue, and there are continued efforts to find its genetic determinant across ethnically diverse populations. The aims of this study were to determine the heritability of diabetes and metabolic syndrome phenotypes in the Arizona Insulin Resistance (AIR) registry and to perform an association analysis of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by GWAS with these traits. All study participants were Mexican Americans from the AIR registry. Methods Metabolic, anthropometric, demographic and medical history information was obtained on the 667 individuals enrolled in the registry. Results The heritability estimates were moderate to high in magnitude and significant, indicating that the AIR registry is well suited for the identification of genetic factors contributing to diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. From the 30 GWAS genes selected (some genes were represented by multiple SNPs), 20 SNPs exhibited associations with one or more of the diabetes related traits with nominal significance (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, 25 SNPs were nominally significantly associated with one or more of the metabolic phenotypes tested (p ≤ 0.05). Most notably, 5 SNPs from 5 genes [body mass index (BMI), hip circumference: rs3751812/FTO; fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c: rs4607517/GCK; very-low-density lipoprotein: rs10830963/MTNR1B; BMI: rs13266634/SLC30A8, and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein: rs7578597/THADA] were significantly associated with obesity, glycemic, and lipid phenotypes when using the multiple testing significance threshold of 0.0015. Conclusion These findings extend previous work on Mexican Americans to suggest that metabolic disease is strongly influenced by genetic background in this high-risk population. PMID:25060389

  18. Future PMPs Estimation in Korea under AR5 RCP 8.5 Climate Change Scenario: Focus on Dew Point Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okjeong, Lee; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    According to future climate change scenarios, future temperature is expected to increase gradually. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect the effects of these climate changes to predict Probable Maximum Precipitations (PMPs). In this presentation, PMPs will be estimated with future dew point temperature change. After selecting 174 major storm events from 1981 to 2005, new PMPs will be proposed with respect to storm areas (25, 100, 225, 400, 900, 2,025, 4,900, 10,000 and 19,600 km2) and storm durations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours) using the Korea hydro-meteorological method. Also, orographic transposition factor will be applied in place of the conventional terrain impact factor which has been used in previous Korean PMPs estimation reports. After estimating dew point temperature using future temperature and representative humidity information under the Korea Meteorological Administration AR5 RCP 8.5, changes in the PMPs under dew point temperature change will be investigated by comparison with present and future PMPs. This research was supported by a grant(14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  19. A large, long-lived structure near the trojan L5 point in the post common-envelope binary SDSS J1021+1744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irawati, P.; Richichi, A.; Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Sanguansak, N.; Chanthorn, K.; Hermes, J. J.; Hardy, L. K.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    SDSS J1021+1744 is a detached, eclipsing white dwarf/M dwarf binary discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Outside the primary eclipse, the light curves of such systems are usually smooth and characterized by low-level variations caused by tidal distortion and heating of the M star component. Early data on SDSS J1021+1744 obtained in 2012 June were unusual in showing a dip in flux of uncertain origin shortly after the white dwarf's eclipse. Here we present high-time resolution, multiwavelength observations of 35 more eclipses over 1.3 yr, showing that the dip has a lifetime extending over many orbits. Moreover the `dip' is in fact a series of dips that vary in depth, number and position, although they are always placed in the phase interval 1.06-1.26 after the white dwarf's eclipse, near the L5 point in this system. Since SDSS J1021+1744 is a detached binary, it follows that the dips are caused by the transit of the white dwarf by material around the Lagrangian L5 point. A possible interpretation is that they are the signatures of prominences, a phenomenon already known from H α observations of rapidly rotating single stars as well as binaries. What makes SDSS J1021+1744 peculiar is that the material is dense enough to block continuum light. The dips appear to have finally faded out around 2015 May after the first detection by Parsons et al. in 2012, suggesting a lifetime of years.

  20. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  1. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards…

  2. Tsunami focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from Actimel and Yakult products reveals marked similarities and points to a common origin.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Kant, Ravi; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-09-01

    The members of the Lactobacillus genus are widely used in the food and feed industry and show a remarkable ecological adaptability. Several Lactobacillus strains have been marketed as probiotics as they possess health-promoting properties for the host. In the present study, we used two complementary next-generation sequencing technologies to deduce the genome sequences of two Lactobacillus casei strains LcA and LcY, which were isolated from the products Actimel and Yakult, commercialized as probiotics. The LcA and LcY draft genomes have, respectively, an estimated size of 3067 and 3082 Mb and a G+C content of 46.3%. Both strains are close to identical to each other and differ by no more than minor chromosomal re-arrangements, substitutions, insertions and deletions, as evident from the verified presence of one insertion-deletion (InDel) and only 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In terms of coding capacity, LcA and LcY are predicted to encode a comparable exoproteome, indicating that LcA and LcY are likely to establish similar interactions with human intestinal cells. Moreover, both L. casei LcA and LcY harboured a 59.6 kb plasmid that shared high similarities with plasmids found in other L. casei strains, such as W56 and BD-II. Further analysis revealed that the L. casei plasmids constitute a good evolution marker within the L. casei species. The plasmids of the LcA and LcY strains are almost identical, as testified by the presence of only three verified SNPs, and share a 3.5 kb region encoding a remnant of a lactose PTS system that is absent from the plasmids of W56 and BD-II but conserved in another smaller L. casei plasmid (pLC2W). Our observations imply that the results obtained in animal and human experiments performed with the Actimel and Yakult strains can be compared with each other as these strains share a very recent common ancestor. PMID:23815335

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from Actimel and Yakult products reveals marked similarities and points to a common origin

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P; Kant, Ravi; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Summary The members of the Lactobacillus genus are widely used in the food and feed industry and show a remarkable ecological adaptability. Several Lactobacillus strains have been marketed as probiotics as they possess health-promoting properties for the host. In the present study, we used two complementary next-generation sequencing technologies to deduce the genome sequences of two Lactobacillus casei strains LcA and LcY, which were isolated from the products Actimel and Yakult, commercialized as probiotics. The LcA and LcY draft genomes have, respectively, an estimated size of 3067 and 3082 Mb and a G+C content of 46.3%. Both strains are close to identical to each other and differ by no more than minor chromosomal re-arrangements, substitutions, insertions and deletions, as evident from the verified presence of one insertion-deletion (InDel) and only 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In terms of coding capacity, LcA and LcY are predicted to encode a comparable exoproteome, indicating that LcA and LcY are likely to establish similar interactions with human intestinal cells. Moreover, both L. casei LcA and LcY harboured a 59.6 kb plasmid that shared high similarities with plasmids found in other L. casei strains, such as W56 and BD-II. Further analysis revealed that the L. casei plasmids constitute a good evolution marker within the L. casei species. The plasmids of the LcA and LcY strains are almost identical, as testified by the presence of only three verified SNPs, and share a 3.5 kb region encoding a remnant of a lactose PTS system that is absent from the plasmids of W56 and BD-II but conserved in another smaller L. casei plasmid (pLC2W). Our observations imply that the results obtained in animal and human experiments performed with the Actimel and Yakult strains can be compared with each other as these strains share a very recent common ancestor. Funding Information The present work was supported by the Center of Excellence in

  5. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  6. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  7. Optical Analysis of Cassegrainian Point Focus Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterbury, S. S.; Schwinkendorf, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A Cassegrainian solar concentrator, using a 7-meter diameter primary reflector, was analyzed in three forms: (1) an unmodified Cassegrainian, (2) the Ritchey-Chretien configuration, and (3) the unmodified Cassegrainian with a non-imaging tertiary reflector. Optical performance was not significantly improved with the Ritchey-Chretien; however, the tertiary resulted in significant improvement in intercept factor and optical efficiency. The effects of misalignment of the secondary and tertiary reflectors on the optical performance of the collector were also analyzed.

  8. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  9. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

    PubMed

    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain. PMID:26497152

  10. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  11. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  13. Body mass index in relation to truncal asymmetry of healthy adolescents, a physiopathogenetic concept in common with idiopathic scoliosis: summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the cause of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE).introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The text for this debate was written by Dr TB Grivas. It is based on published research from Athens, Greece evaluating schoolchildren age 11–17 years for the relation of body mass index (BMI) to each of truncal asymmetry (TA) and menarcheal status. Girls with relatively lower BMI were found to have a significant excess of severe TAs and significantly later menarche confirming the well-known relation of BMI to menarche. Together with other evidence linking nutritional status to skeletal growth, the observations suggest energy balance via the hypothalamus is related to trunk asymmetry. As with a recent speculative hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AIS in girls, Grivas et al. suggest that the severe TAs involve a genetically-determined selectively increased sensitivity (up-regulation) of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin with asymmetry as an adverse response to stress (hormesis). The TA is expressed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to produce left-right asymmetry in ribs and/or vertebrae leading to severe TAs when beyond the capacity of postural mechanisms of the somatic nervous system to control the shape distortion in the trunk. This EFG discusses the findings and interpretations of the paper by Grivas and colleagues as research at the borderland between the genesis of TA (physiogenesis) and AIS (pathogenesis). It is suggested that TAs, here regarded in common with AIS, result from the combination of secondary sexual development affecting body composition, adolescent skeletal growth velocity, and an asymmetry process. The possible involvement of

  14. Restricted Genetic Variation in Populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands Points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the Earliest Known Common Source

    PubMed Central

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Sta. Maria, Inna Mikaella P.; Garcia, James Rainier M.; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( = Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes. PMID:25203830

  15. Common Visions, Common Voices [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    The borders that separate and connect different cultures often come into sharpest relief when the focus is on themes and motifs found in the literature or the visual arts of several lands. With the Internet, students can discover such points of intercultural contact for themselves, crossing borders that can lead them to a broader perspective on…

  16. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  17. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  18. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  19. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  20. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  1. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  2. Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nayon; Housman, Seth T.; Nicolau, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility testing with the use of surrogate agents is common among clinical microbiology laboratories. One such example is oxacillin and cefoxitin for β-lactams against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). This study aimed to assess the surrogate predictive value (SPV) of oxacillin and cefoxitin for the susceptibility of commonly utilized parenteral β-lactams against MSSA as well as to evaluate the concordance between predictive susceptibility testing and the in vivo exposures for ceftriaxone. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, and oxacillin against a national collection of 1238 MSSA from US hospitals. Pharmacodynamic profiling was utilized to establish a clinical breakpoint for commonly utilized doses of ceftriaxone. Oxacillin had good SPVs for all the β-lactams tested, whereas cefoxitin produced unacceptable major errors for all four agents and thus appears to be an unacceptable susceptibility surrogate. While oxacillin is an adequate surrogate based on the currently defined laboratory criteria, our data also suggest that caution should be exercised when incorporating this testing approach in the clinical setting in view of the fact that the MIC distribution of MSSA coupled with the commonly utilized low doses of ceftriaxone may result in inadequate in vivo exposures against this pathogen. PMID:26264030

  3. Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nayon; Housman, Seth T; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility testing with the use of surrogate agents is common among clinical microbiology laboratories. One such example is oxacillin and cefoxitin for β-lactams against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). This study aimed to assess the surrogate predictive value (SPV) of oxacillin and cefoxitin for the susceptibility of commonly utilized parenteral β-lactams against MSSA as well as to evaluate the concordance between predictive susceptibility testing and the in vivo exposures for ceftriaxone. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, and oxacillin against a national collection of 1238 MSSA from US hospitals. Pharmacodynamic profiling was utilized to establish a clinical breakpoint for commonly utilized doses of ceftriaxone. Oxacillin had good SPVs for all the β-lactams tested, whereas cefoxitin produced unacceptable major errors for all four agents and thus appears to be an unacceptable susceptibility surrogate. While oxacillin is an adequate surrogate based on the currently defined laboratory criteria, our data also suggest that caution should be exercised when incorporating this testing approach in the clinical setting in view of the fact that the MIC distribution of MSSA coupled with the commonly utilized low doses of ceftriaxone may result in inadequate in vivo exposures against this pathogen. PMID:26264030

  4. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  5. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state regulations;…

  6. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  7. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  8. Common cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Donald L

    2009-01-01

    In the cosmetic arena, many materials are used commercially and claim to provide skin effects (eg, antiaging effects) when used topically. Considering there are so many such materials and many skin appearance effects are encompassed, this short contribution must, by necessity, be selective in terms of the number of materials discussed and the depth with which any particular material is overviewed. This presentation, therefore, focuses on only 10 types of cosmeceutical agents: five vitamins (A, B(3), C, E, panthenol), peptides, hydroxyl acids, sugar amines, ceramides, and metals. In particular, this contribution concentrates on those materials for which there are available clinical data that support a reported skin appearance improvement effect. PMID:19695474

  9. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  10. Distribution of magma beneath the East Pacific Rise between the Clipperton Transform and the 9°17‧N Deval from forward modeling of common depth point data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Graham M.; Harding, Alistair J.; Orcutt, John A.

    1993-08-01

    We have reprocessed seven cross-axis common depth point (CDP) profiles between the Clipperton transform and the 9°17'N Deval (deviation in axial linearity) on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to understand the relationship between axial magma chamber (AMC) width and seafloor morphology. Forward modeling of cross-axis CDP profiles suggests a segmented AMC in which significant variations in width occur across minor rise axis discontinuities (e.g., Devals). The modeled rise segment widths bounded by the 9°53'N-9°35'N Devals, the 9°35'N-9°17'N Devals, and south of the 9°17'N Deval were < 0.7 km, 1.0-1.2 km, and 4.15 km, respectively. Transition in AMC width across these discontinuities is unclear due to the sparseness of cross-axis line spacing; however, a simple association of Devals with decreased magma supply is doubtful: the minimum (250 m) and maximum (4150 m) AMC widths are found near the 9°35'N and 9°17'N Devals, respectively. The reprocessing of CDP profiles included repicking stacking velocities to ensure a proper stack of the AMC reflector and its associated diffractions, imaging postcritical reflections from the base of layer 2A, finite difference time migration, ray theoretical depth migration, and travel time modeling of AMC diffraction patterns. Constraints on AMC width were derived from forward modeling techniques based on analytic raytracing. Velocity models were constructed from SeaBeam bathymetry and modified expanding spread profile (ESP) velocity-depth functions. ESP velocity models were altered to compensate for off-axis thickening of layer 2A as imaged in the CDP reflection data. Continuous two-dimensional velocity models constructed from modified ESP velocity-depth functions and SeaBeam bathymetry should account for ray bending at the seafloor/basalt interface and any lateral velocity gradients induced by a thickening layer 2A. Stacked data were time migrated using a finite difference algorithm and extrapolated to depth using ray theoretical

  11. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  12. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  13. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  14. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    PubMed

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory. PMID:18392947

  15. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  16. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  17. Common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

  18. What's the Point? The Benefits of Grading without Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brilleslyper, Mike; Ghrist, Michelle; Holcomb, Trae; Schaubroeck, Beth; Warner, Bradley; Williams, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Most instructors desire to create a learning environment conducive to deep learning. However, in courses where grades are based upon the accumulation of points, students may focus on collecting points rather than on learning and achieving the course objectives. We discuss an alternative points-free course design based on the development of clear…

  19. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  20. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  1. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  2. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  3. Focus on psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psychosis has been shaped by traditions in the concepts of mental disorders during the last 170 years. The term “psychosis” still lacks a unified definition, but denotes a clinical construct composed of several symptoms. Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders are the core clinical features. The search for a common denominator of psychotic symptoms points toward combinations of neuropsychological mechanisms resulting in reality distortion. To advance the elucidation of the causes and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis, a deconstruction of the term into its component symptoms is therefore warranted. Current research is dealing with the delineation from “normality”, the genetic underpinnings, and the causes and pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis. PMID:25987859

  4. Boiling Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences he helped to investigate the accident which destroyed the Space Shuttle Challenger. The focus was on how he used novel approaches to investigate heat transfer in the shuttle's hydrogen tank, after an expert he sought for advice proved unhelpful.

  5. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  6. Retroreflection Focusing Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A retroreflective type focusing schlieren system which permits the light source to be positioned on the optic side of the system is introduced. The system includes an extended light source, as opposed to a point source, located adjacent to a beam splitter which projects light through the flow field onto a reflecting grating in the form of a grid which generates sheets of light that are directed back through the flow field and the beam splitter onto a primary lens behind which is located a cut-off grid having a grid pattern which corresponds to the grid pattern of the reflecting grating. The cut-off grid is adjustably positioned behind the primary lens and an image plane for imaging the turbulence is adjustably located behind the cut-off grid.

  7. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  8. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  9. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  10. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  11. Characterization of point focusing test bed concentrators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The characterization data were measured using both a flux mapper and a cold water calorimeter. The flux mapper uses a Kendall Radiometer as the sensing device. It is mounted on an x, y, z motor-driven positioning mechanism that allows the sensor to take an x-y flux raster at several Z planes in the vicinity of the concentrators nominal focal plane. Various concepts were tried to protect the concentrator structure from being damaged by the Sun's energy during sun acquisition and deacquisition. A description of both the passive and active protective systems is presented.

  12. Solar receiver performance of point focusing collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Wen, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The solar receiver performance of cavity receivers and external receivers used in dispersed solar power systems was evaluated for the temperature range 300-1300 C. Several parameters of receiver and concentrator are examined. It was found that cavity receivers are generally more efficient than external receivers, especially at high temperatures which require a large heat transfer area. The effects of variation in the ratio of receiver area to aperture area are considered.

  13. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  14. A Common Core in Science? Two Points of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Mary; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents one viewpoint supporting the adoption of a core curriculum in science based upon social, egalitarian ideas and concerns for the basics, and another viewpoint opposing a core curriculum based upon the inability of classical sciences as taught to meet general societal and industrial needs. (DC)

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  16. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  17. A school nurse's guide to PowerPoint presentations.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Marian; Sayers, Pat; Ashton, Kathleen

    2014-07-01

    In today's educational environment, school nurses are often called upon to provide presentations utilizing electronic slides. A tool frequently utilized for presentations is PowerPoint. However, as with any instructional method, it is only as effective as the presenter who has designed the slides. A study conducted to evaluate professional PowerPoint slides is the focus of this article. After reviewing 1,732 slides and comparing them to best practices criteria, the researchers call attention to common errors in slide presentations. Additionally, the article provides guidance to school nurses in reinventing the art of providing powerful, interactive, and interesting presentations. PMID:25141452

  18. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  19. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  20. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  1. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  2. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  3. The "Best Worst" Field Optimization and Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughnn, David; Moore, Ken; Bock, Noah; Zhou, Wei; Ming, Liang; Wilson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A simple algorithm for optimizing and focusing lens designs is presented. The goal of the algorithm is to simultaneously create the best and most uniform image quality over the field of view. Rather than relatively weighting multiple field points, only the image quality from the worst field point is considered. When optimizing a lens design, iterations are made to make this worst field point better until such a time as a different field point becomes worse. The same technique is used to determine focus position. The algorithm works with all the various image quality metrics. It works with both symmetrical and asymmetrical systems. It works with theoretical models and real hardware.

  4. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  5. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  6. Taking the Common Ground: Beyond Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruffee, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, after 30 years of liberal education's focus on examining and celebrating diversity, the realities of contemporary social and civil life and global politics are prompting new interest in recognizing and affirming our genuine commonality. (EV)

  7. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  8. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  9. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish and…

  10. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  11. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  12. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  13. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

  14. Focus screen optimization.

    PubMed

    Plummer, W T

    1975-11-01

    Ground glass used for camera focus screens often has far from optimum diffusion properties. An analysis of the function of the focus screen shows that a screen with random (Gaussian) diffusion properties can be constructed with both brightness and focus efficiencies above 84%. These considerations have led to the design of an unusually bright and effective focus screen for the Polaroid SX-70 Land camera. PMID:20155099

  15. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  16. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  17. Two Circles and Their Common Tangents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given two circles C 1 and C 2 in a plane such that neither one of the two circles is contained in the other, there are either four common tangents when the circles do not intersect at all or the circles have three common tangents when they touch each other externally or only two common tangents when the circles intersect exactly at two points. The…

  18. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  19. Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cheryl Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

  20. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  1. Fast and precise continuous focusing with focus tunable lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casutt, Selina; Bueeler, Michael; Blum, Mark; Aschwanden, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Focusing in milliseconds without translational mechanics involved is possible with electrically tunable lenses. Fast shape-changing lenses enable fast imaging systems which can focus at distances from infinity to a few centimeters with a high optical quality. Furthermore, rapid laser processing in three dimensions is realized without mechanical translation of the focusing lens or the sample. With tunable lenses the entire optics can be made compact, robust and abrasion-free. Different configurations are discussed, how to integrate the tunable lens in the optical path. For machine vision applications, the achievable optical quality depends on the chosen combination of the tunable lens with a fixed focal length lens and a camera. It is recommended to use a fixed focus lens with a short distance between the stop position and the front of the lens. Furthermore, important points are presented how to achieve optimal performance in laser processing applications such as orientation and position of the tunable lens and the diameter of the beam incident on the lens. Additionally, different approaches will be discussed for monitoring the focal length of the tunable lens. The focal length of the tunable lens is sensitive to temperature changes, as the lens material is a fluid. However, in contrast to conventional lenses, the focal length of the tunable lens can be corrected electrically. For that purpose, the tunable lens exhibits an integrated temperature sensor for temperature compensation. Also optical feedback solutions will be presented for applications requiring highest precision and tracking of the absolute focal length value.

  2. Three-dimensional null point reconnection regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, E. R.; Pontin, D. I.

    2009-12-15

    Recent advances in theory and computational experiments have shown the need to refine the previous categorization of magnetic reconnection at three-dimensional null points--points at which the magnetic field vanishes. We propose here a division into three different types, depending on the nature of the flow near the spine and fan of the null. The spine is an isolated field line which approaches the null (or recedes from it), while the fan is a surface of field lines which recede from it (or approach it). So-called torsional spine reconnection occurs when field lines in the vicinity of the fan rotate, with current becoming concentrated along the spine so that nearby field lines undergo rotational slippage. In torsional fan reconnection field lines near the spine rotate and create a current that is concentrated in the fan with a rotational flux mismatch and rotational slippage. In both of these regimes, the spine and fan are perpendicular and there is no flux transfer across spine or fan. The third regime, called spine-fan reconnection, is the most common in practice and combines elements of the previous spine and fan models. In this case, in response to a generic shearing motion, the null point collapses to form a current sheet that is focused at the null itself, in a sheet that locally spans both the spine and fan. In this regime the spine and fan are no longer perpendicular and there is flux transfer across both of them.

  3. At the Tipping Point

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  4. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  5. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue. PMID:25844509

  6. Focusing the surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Socea, Sergiu D; Barak, Yoreh; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2015-01-01

    A well-focused operating microscope addresses several needs that are all secondary to the surgeon's need to see clearly at all times. These needs include: the assistant; the sharpness of the video and monitor; as well as field of view, asthenopia, and focusing issues related to zoom, accommodation, and presbyopia. We provide a practical approach to achieve optimal focus that we call the sloping paper calibration method. PMID:25891029

  7. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  8. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  9. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  10. Focus: Teaching by Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Frances N., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The focus of this bulletin is teaching the various literary genres in the secondary English class. Contents include "The Song Within: An Approach to Teaching Poetry,""Teaching Folk-Rock,""Approaches to Teaching Poetry,""Focus on an Elective Program: Twentieth Century Lyrical Poetry,""Hoffman and Poe: Masters of the Grotesque,""Plays: Shared and…

  11. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

    PubMed Central

    Barcia, Jorge M.; Muriach, Maria; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Lopez-Malo, Daniel; Urdaneta, Alba C.; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Romero, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes. PMID:26063976

  12. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  13. Flat focusing mirror.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y C; Kicas, S; Trull, J; Peckus, M; Cojocaru, C; Vilaseca, R; Drazdys, R; Staliunas, K

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  14. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  15. Common Conditions in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Common Conditions in ...

  16. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  17. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  19. Generation of Focused Shock Waves in Water for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Beneš, Jiří; Poučková, Pavla; Zadinová, Marie; Zeman, Jan

    The physical characteristics of focused two-successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water and their biological effects are presented. FTSW were ­generated by underwater multichannel electrical discharges in a highly conductive saline solution using two porous ceramic-coated cylindrical electrodes of different diameter and surface area. The primary cylindrical pressure wave generated at each composite electrode was focused by a metallic parabolic reflector to a common focal point to form two strong shock waves with a variable time delay between the waves. The pressure field and interaction between the first and the second shock waves at the focus were investigated using schlieren photography and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shock gauge sensors. The largest interaction was obtained for a time delay of 8-15 μs between the waves, producing an amplitude of the negative pressure phase of the second shock wave down to -80 MPa and a large number of cavitations at the focus. The biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on damage to B16 melanoma cells, in vivo on targeted lesions in the thigh muscles of rabbits and on the growth delay of sarcoma tumors in Lewis rats treated in vivo by FTSW, compared to untreated controls.

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  1. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  2. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  3. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  4. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  5. Current focusing and steering

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Ben H.; Litvak, Leonid M.

    2008-01-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed. PMID:18501539

  6. ViewPoint

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Jeffrey S.; Nagy, M. Christine

    2014-01-01

    ViewPoint features candid conversations with prominent health behavior scholars. The column focuses on the human or interpersonal side of research and addresses such topics as how renowned researchers were initiated into the world of research, why they continue to do it, personal challenges encountered over the years, ingredients necessary to be a success as an investigator, key characteristics and qualities of inspirational mentors, sources of consternation, challenges that lie ahead, hot topics worthy of pursuit, and books and materials that are must reading. The intention is to share the viewpoints and thinking processes of our leading health behavior scholars. We hope that the column will be an inspiration to young and seasoned scholars alike. PMID:19063654

  7. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  8. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  9. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  10. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  11. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  12. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  13. Relative Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  14. Practical considerations for pointing a binocular telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, Michele D.; Terrett, David L.; Thompson, David; Biddick, Christopher J.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4-meter primary mirrors on a common mount. When the telescope is complete, to complement the two primaries there will be two 0.9-meter adaptive secondaries and two tertiary mirror flats that all work to support a variety of Gregorian focal stations, as well as prime focus. A fundamental goal of the telescope is to perform interferometric observations, and therefore, there is a critical need for the ability to co-point the individual telescopes to high precision. Further, a unique aspect of the LBT is the comparatively large range over which the optics can be adjusted which provides flexibility for the acquisition of targets. In the most general case, an observer could be performing an observation using different targets, within constraints, with different instruments on each of the two telescope sides, with different observing duty cycles. As a consequence of the binocular nature of the telescope and the number of possible observing combinations, there are unique requirements imposed on the Telescope Control System (TCS), and in particular, on the Pointing Control Subsystem (PCS). It is the responsibility of the PCS to arbitrate the pointing requests made on the two sides of the telescope by the observers, incorporate guide updates, and generate tracking trajectories for the mount and the rotators, in conjunction with providing tip/tilt demands on the subsystem controlling the optical elements, and ensure each target remains on the specified location (i.e., pointing origin) in the focal plane during an active observation. This paper describes the current design and implementation of the LBT PCS.

  15. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  16. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  17. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  19. Results from the final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.; Final Focus Test Beam Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    first experimental results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) are given in this report. The FFTB has been constructed as a prototype for the final focus system of a future TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider. The vertical dimension of the 47 GeV electron beam form the SLAC linac has been reduced at the focal point of the FFTB by a demagnification of 320 to a beam height of approximately 70 nanometers.

  20. The final focus test beam project

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 {mu}m. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  2. Focus on Teacher Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale F.

    This report presents teacher salary data from the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). There is a gap between SREB states' average teacher salaries and the national average. Over the last 5 years, SREB teacher salaries increased by an average of 14.4 percent; the national increase was nearly 2 percentage points lower. Georgia and North…

  3. Reviving Common Courtesy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Douglas W.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-point program to help businesses reduce discourtesy should have the following ingredients: return phone calls; answer letters; avoid putting people on hold; revive the words "please, thank you, and pardon me"; don't get instantly familiar with people; keep your word; be on time; meet deadlines; be honest; and be civil. (RM)

  4. Numerical focusing in diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaikova, N. A.; Grebenyuk, A. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) provides the possibility of high-resolution quantitative phase imaging, based on equipment of an optical microscope with a special module working in a common-path off-axis configuration. As an optical microscopy technique, DPM has a limited focus depth, which is the smaller the higher is the objective's numerical aperture. In this paper we present the results of experimental investigation of numerical focusing with the angular spectrum method in DPM.

  5. Focus on 15%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Conn

    2011-01-01

    When reforming practices to help all students succeed, secondary school leaders face the unique challenge of aligning the efforts of educators from different disciplines. In addition, they know that few common measures capture student growth across these disciplines. If a school has a history of success, a deep examination of its practices may not…

  6. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  7. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  8. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  9. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  10. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  11. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  12. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  13. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  14. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  17. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  18. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  19. The Common Denominator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

  20. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  1. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central office…

  2. Focus on stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Seifert, Udo

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the thirty papers collected in this ‘focus on’ issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

  3. Focus on Rashomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Donald S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series is a collection of reviews, essays, and commentaries on the Japanese film Rashomon. The plot consists of an attack, a rape, and a robbery, all of which probably occurred during the Middle Ages. Each character relates his own version of what happened, or might have happened, revealing the outward and inner driving forces,…

  4. Focusing on Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Laura M.; Conner, AnnaMarie

    2015-01-01

    "Collective argumentation" occurs when a group works together to arrive at a conclusion (supporting it with evidence). Simplistically, this occurs when students give answers to questions and tell how they arrived at the answer, perhaps prompted by a teacher. But collective argumentation can be much richer, with a focus on the process of…

  5. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically lowered dropout…

  6. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  7. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World Wide Web in…

  8. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  9. Design-Focused Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an approach to the writing of evaluation questions is outlined and developed which focuses attention on the question of the effectiveness of an educational design for bringing about the learning it is intended to facilitate. The approach develops from the idea that all educational designs rely on instructional alignment, implicitly…

  10. Apartheid: Focus on Health

    PubMed Central

    Dines, George B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper focuses on health in the Republic of South Africa and calls not only for technical warfare against disease, poverty, and bigotry but also for attention to predisposing causes of disease and ill health among the African majority. PMID:522192