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1

HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders in many infected individuals, including a broad spectrum of motor impairments and cognitive deficits. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is still not clear. This review provides a comprehensive view of HAND, including HIV neuroinvasion, HAND diagnosis and different level of disturbances, influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), possible pathogenesis of HAD, etc. Together, this review will give a thorough and clear understanding of HAND, especially HAD, which will be vital for future research, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24470972

Zhou, Li; Saksena, Nitin K.

2013-01-01

2

Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of cancer, and predict response to chemotherapy. They offer the hope of early detection as well as tracking disease progression and recurrence. Current progress in the characterization of molecular genetics of HIV-associated cancers may form the basis for improved patient stratification and future targeted or individualized therapies. Biomarker use for cancer staging and personalization of therapy at the time of diagnosis could improve patient care. This review focuses on the relevance of biomarkers in the most common HIV-associated malignancies, namely, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. PMID:25057241

Flepisi, Brian Thabile; Bouic, Patrick; Sissolak, Gerhard; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2014-01-01

3

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... The phrase “opportunistic infection” is often shortened to “OI.” The rates of OIs have fallen dramatically since ... still show up in hospitals with a serious OI, often pneumocystis pneumonia. This is how they learn ...

4

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Act and HIV/AIDS Community Engagement Incarceration Immigration HIV/AIDS Care Continuum Funding Opportunities How To ... of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents AIDSinfo â?? Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of ...

5

Common opportunistic infections and their CD4 cell correlates among HIV-infected patients attending at antiretroviral therapy clinic of Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic is among the greatest health crises ever faced by humanity. Morbidity and mortality in HIV disease is due to immunosuppression leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections (OIs) during the natural course of the disease. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and CD4 correlates of OIs among adult HIV-infected patients attending at Gondar University Hospital. Methods Cross sectional study was conducted on 360 adult HIV-infected patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic from February 2012-April 2012. Patients’ OI status was determined through clinical diagnosis and laboratory investigations. CD4 count was determined using flow cytometry technique. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from interview and patients’ medical records. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 16 statistical soft ware and odds ratio was used as the measure of association. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results In this study, 360 HIV-infected patients were included; of whom (n?=?216/360, 60%) were females. The majority of patients (n?=?153/360, 42.5%) were 25-34 years old with mean age of 35.5+ 8.8 standard deviation. The overall prevalence of OIs was (n?=?71/360, 19.7%). Tuberculosis (n?=?35/360, 9.72%) followed by oral candidiasis (n?=?18/360, 5%) and diarrhea (n?=?12/360, 3.3%) were the most frequently observed OIs. CD4 count less than 200/mm3 (OR?=?4.933, P?HIV associated OIs are crucial. Initiation of ART before the CD4 count drops below 350 should be encouraged. PMID:24330921

2013-01-01

6

Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER). CHARTER is a USA-based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ?1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups, and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.27 (0.11-0.65); p?=?0.004] and T489C [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.41 (0.21-0.80); p?=?0.009]. These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups were associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.29 (0.12-0.71); p?=?0.007 and odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.42 (0.18-1.0); p?=?0.05, respectively]. In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. PMID:23073667

Holzinger, Emily R; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J; Samuels, David C; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haas, David W; Kallianpur, Asha R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina M; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Franklin, Donald R; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

2012-12-01

7

Long-term renal survival in HIV-associated nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term renal survival in HIV-associated nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.BackgroundHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has previously shown a short-term benefit in HIVAN. This study examines the long-term effects of ACE inhibition on renal survival in HIVAN.MethodsIn this single-center prospective cohort study, 44

Alice Wei; Godfrey C. Burns; Brent A. Williams; Nazim B. Mohammed; Paul Visintainer; Steven L. Sivak

2003-01-01

8

HIV-associated renal and genitourinary comorbidities in Africa.  

PubMed

With the recent massive scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries, HIV has become a chronic disease with new challenges. There is mounting evidence of an increased burden of renal and genitourinary diseases among HIV-infected persons caused by direct HIV viral effects and/or indirectly through the development of opportunistic infections, ART medication-related toxicities, and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We review the epidemiology of HIV-associated renal and urogenital diseases, including interactions with kidney-related NCDs such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. We also examine the current evidence regarding the impact of HIV infection on the development of urogenital diseases. Highly advisable in sub-Saharan Africa are the establishment of renal disease registries, reviews of existing clinical practice including cost-effectiveness studies, and the adoption and use of HIV-related NCD management, with training for different cadres of health providers. Epidemiological research priorities include prospective studies to evaluate the true prevalence and spectrum of HIV-related renal disease and their progression. Simple diagnostics tools should be evaluated, including urinary dipsticks and point-of-care urea and creatinine tests to screen for kidney injury in primary care settings. Study of urological manifestations of HIV can help determine the extent of disease and outcomes. As patients live longer on ART, the burden of renal and genitourological complications of HIV and of ART can be expected to increase with a commensurate urgency in both discovery and evidence-based improvements in clinical management. PMID:25117962

Kalyesubula, Robert; Wearne, Nicola; Semitala, Fred C; Bowa, Kasonde

2014-09-01

9

Antiretroviral treatment reverses HIV-associated anemia in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated anemia is common and associated with poor prognosis. However, its response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly understood. Methods HIV-infected adults (?15 years) who enrolled in HIV care at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in northern Tanzania were included in the study. The effect of ART (zidovudine/stavudine + lamivudine + efavirenz/nevirapine) on HIV-associated anemia was studied in a subset of patients who were anemic at the time they started ART and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement 12 months later. Pregnant women were excluded from the study, as were women who had given birth within the past 6 weeks. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. We applied paired sample T-tests to compare hemoglobin levels before and one year after ART initiation, and logistic regression models to identify predictors of persistent anemia. Results At enrollment, mean hemoglobin was 10.3 g/dL, and 649 of 838 patients (77.4%) were anemic. Of the anemic patients, 254 (39.1%) had microcytosis and hypochromia. Among 102 patients who were anemic at ART initiation and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement after 12 months, the mean hemoglobin increased by 2.5 g/dL (P < 0.001); however, 39 patients (38.2%) were still anemic after 12 months of ART. Independent predictors of persistent anemia were mean cell volume in the lower quartile (<76.0 fL; Odds Ratio [OR] 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-15.5) and a zidovudine-containing initial regimen (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.03-8.19). Conclusions Most patients had anemia at enrollment, of whom nearly 40% had microcytosis and hypochromia suggestive of iron deficiency. The mean hemoglobin increased significantly in patients who received ART, but one third were still anemic 12 months after ART initiation indicating that additional interventions to treat HIV-associated anemia in rural Africa might be warranted, particularly in patients with microcytosis and those treated with zidovudine. PMID:21745396

2011-01-01

10

Heart and HAART: Two sides of the coin for HIV-associated cardiology issues.  

PubMed

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has generated a contrast in the cardiac manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In developed countries, we have observed an approximately 30% reduction in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cardiomyopathy, possibly related to a reduction of opportunistic infections and myocarditis. In developing countries, however, where the availablity of HAART is limited and the pathogenic impact of nutritional factors is significant, we have observed an approximately 32% increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and a related high mortality rate from congestive heart failure. Also, some HAART regimens in developed countries, especially those including protease inhibitors, have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, an iatrogenic metabolic syndrome (HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome) that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events related to a process of accelerated atherosclerosis, even in young HIV-infected people. Careful cardiac screening is warranted for patients who are being evaluated for, or who are receiving, HAART regimens, particularly for those with known underlying cardiovascular risk factors. A close collaboration between cardiologists and infectious disease specialists is needed for decisions regarding the use of antiretrovirals, for a careful stratification of cardiovascular risk factors, and for cardiovascular monitoring of HIV-infected patients receiving HAART, according the most recent clinical guidelines. PMID:21160756

Barbaro, Giuseppe

2010-03-26

11

Update on HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurocognitive disorders are a feared complication of HIV infection, especially in the post anti-retroviral era as patients are living longer. These disorders are challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The clinical syndrome has evolved driven in part by comorbidities such as aging, drug abuse, psychiatric illnesses, and a metabolic syndrome associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. Additionally some individuals may develop a fulminant immune reconstitution syndrome. Hence management of these patients needs to be individualized. The focus of research in the HIV field has recently switched towards elimination of the HIV reservoir as a means of combating long-term HIV complications. However these approaches maybe suitable for limited populations and might not be applicable once the HIV reservoir has been established in the brain. Further, all clinical trials using neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have been unsuccessful. Hence neurological complications of HIV infection represent the biggest challenge facing HIV researchers and there is a critical need for developing new diagnostics and approaches to treatment for these disorders. PMID:23954972

Alfahad, Tariq B.; Nath, Avindra

2013-01-01

12

Genetic Variation and HIV-Associated Neurologic Disease  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurologic disease continues to be a significant complication in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A substantial subset of the HIV-infected population shows impaired neuropsychological performance as a result of HIV-mediated neuroinflammation and eventual central nervous system (CNS) injury. CNS compartmentalization of HIV, coupled with the evolution of genetically isolated populations in the CNS, is responsible for poor prognosis in patients with AIDS, warranting further investigation and possible additions to the current therapeutic strategy. This chapter reviews key advances in the field of neuropathogenesis and studies that have highlighted how molecular diversity within the HIV genome may impact HIV-associated neurologic disease. We also discuss the possible functional implications of genetic variation within the viral promoter and possibly other regions of the viral genome, especially in the cells of monocyte–macrophage lineage, which are arguably key cellular players in HIV-associated CNS disease. PMID:23809924

Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Wigdahl, Brian

2014-01-01

13

HIV associated renal disease: A pilot study from north India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: HIV/AIDS patients may have renal involvement also, however, Indian data are sparse. The present study was done to find the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, HIV positive patients aged >18 yr were screened for renal involvement [serum creatinine >1.5 mg% and/or significant proteinuria (>500 mg /day)]. Patients who were positive on screening were followed up prospectively and underwent kidney biopsy if indicated. Results: A total of 526 patients were screened, of these, 91 (17.3%) were found to have renal involvement. Group A (Treatment naïve) comprised 392 patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and group B (patients on ART) comprised 134 patients. More patients (74/392, 18.9%) in group A had renal involvement as compared to patients in group B (17/134, 12.7%). Of the 91 patients with renal involvement, 26 were followed up and underwent kidney biopsy. Thirteen patients had only proteinuria and another 13 had renal dysfunction with or without proteinuria. Most common histological diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (mes PGN) (10/26). Two patients had collapsing FSGS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and three patients had immune complex glomerulonephritis. Seven patients had acute kidney injury, whom six totally recovered from their renal function. All patients with mesPGN tolerated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors well. There was mixed response of collapsing FSGS to steroids. Both patients with MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) did well on low dose of steroid and ART. Interpretation & conclusions: Renal involvement was found to be common in HIV positive patients (17.3%). A low occurrence of renal involvement found in patients already on ART suggests some renoprotective effect of ART. Our preliminary results showed that collapsing FSGS was not rare in Indian HIV positive population, but classical HIV associated nephropathy was not seen. Longitudinal studies with robust study design and large sample size need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:23760382

Gupta, Vijay; Gupta, Sanjay; Sinha, Sanjeev; Sharma, S.K.; Dinda, A.K.; Agarwal, S.K.; Tiwari, S.C.; Ekka, Meera

2013-01-01

14

La vie saprophytique des champignons dits «opportunistes»  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probably all pathogenic fungi can cause opportunistic infections in compromised hosts. This paper briefly reviews our knowledge on the saprophytic life – geographic distribution and habitat – of the most common pathogenic fungi. Some mycoses are of endogenous origin – e.g. Candida albicans is an endosaprophyte – others of epigenous origin – e.g. Pityrosporum ovale is an episaprophyte – but

C. de Vroey

1979-01-01

15

Role of Neuroimaging in HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)  

PubMed Central

HIV enters the brain soon after seroconversion and can cause HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the more severe and progressive forms of HAND are less prevalent due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), ~ 40% of HIV-infected (HIV+) patients continue to have cognitive impairment. Some HIV+ individuals who have effective plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression with cART still develop HAND. It is often difficult to diagnose HAND in the outpatient setting as detailed neuropsychological performance testing is required. Additional biomarkers that are relatively easy to obtain and clinically relevant are needed for assessing HIV associated neuropathologic changes. Recently developed non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have great potential to serve as biomarkers. We review the application of some of these neuroimaging techniques [magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), volumetric MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI)] in HIV+ individuals. Each of the neuroimaging methods offers unique insight into mechanisms underlying neuroHIV, could monitor disease progression, and may assist in evaluating the efficacy of particular cART regimens. It is hoped that considerable progress will continue to occur such that some of these neuroimaging methods will be incorporated across multiple sites and included in future HAND guidelines. PMID:24715492

Masters, Mary C.; Ances, Beau M.

2014-01-01

16

Script generation of activities of daily living in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

Script generation describes one's ability to produce complex, sequential action plans derived from mental representations of everyday activities. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on script generation performance. Sixty HIV+ individuals (48% of whom had HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders [HAND]) and 26 demographically comparable HIV- participants were administered a novel, standardized test of script generation, which required participants to verbally generate and organize the necessary steps for completing six daily activities. HAND participants evidenced significantly more total errors, intrusions, and script boundary errors compared to the HIV- sample, indicating difficulties inhibiting irrelevant actions and staying within the prescribed boundaries of scripts, but had adequate knowledge of the relevant actions required for each script. These findings are generally consistent with the executive dysfunction and slowing common in HAND and suggest that script generation may play a role in everyday functioning problems in HIV. PMID:22882813

Scott, J Cobb; Woods, Steven Paul; Vigil, Ofilio; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Marcotte, Thomas D

2011-07-01

17

HIV-Associated Histoplasmosis Early Mortality and Incidence Trends: From Neglect to Priority  

PubMed Central

Background Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in French Guiana. It is the most common AIDS-defining illness and the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths. Diagnosis is difficult, but in the past 2 decades, it has improved in this French overseas territory which offers an interesting model of Amazonian pathogen ecology. The objectives of the present study were to describe the temporal trends of incidence and mortality indicators for HIV-associated histoplasmosis in French Guiana. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to describe early mortality rates observed in persons diagnosed with incident cases of HIV-associated Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum histoplasmosis admitted in one of the three main hospitals in French Guiana between 1992 and 2011. Early mortality was defined by death occurring within 30 days after antifungal treatment initiation. Data were collected on standardized case report forms and analysed using standard statistical methods. Results There were 124 deaths (45.3%) and 46 early deaths (16.8%) among 274 patients. Three time periods of particular interest were identified: 1992–1997, 1998–2004 and 2005–2011. The two main temporal trends were: the proportion of early deaths among annual incident histoplasmosis cases significantly declined four fold (?2, p<0.0001) and the number of annual incident histoplasmosis cases increased three fold between 1992–1997 and 1998–2004, and subsequently stabilized. Conclusion From an occasional exotic diagnosis, AIDS-related histoplasmosis became the top AIDS-defining event in French Guiana. This was accompanied by a spectacular decrease of early mortality related to histoplasmosis, consistent with North American reference center mortality rates. The present example testifies that rapid progress could be at reach if awareness increases and leads to clinical and laboratory capacity building in order to diagnose and treat this curable disease. PMID:25144374

Adenis, Antoine; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Vantilcke, Vincent; Boukhari, Rachida; Blachet, Denis; Demar, Magalie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppie, Pierre

2014-01-01

18

Adjuvant therapies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequent and heterogeneous complication of HIV, affecting nearly 50% of infected individuals in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. This is a particularly devastating statistic because the diagnosis of HAND confers an increased risk of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in affected patients. While cART is helpful in the treatment of the more severe forms of HAND, there is a therapeutic gap in the milder forms of HAND, where cART is less effective. Multiple adjuvant therapies with various mechanisms of action have been studied (N-methyl D-aspartate [NMDA]-receptor antagonists, MAO-B inhibitors, tetracycline-class antibiotics, and others), but none have shown a clear positive effect in HAND. While this lack of efficacy may be because the appropriate therapeutic targets have not yet been determined, we aimed to discuss that study results may also influenced by clinical trial design. Methods This report is a systematic review of clinical trials of adjuvant therapies for HAND performed from January 1996 through June 2014. Results Possible drawbacks in study design, including lack of standardized case definitions, poorly defined target populations, inappropriate dose selection and measurable outcomes, and brief study durations may have masked true underlying mechanistic effects of previously investigated adjuvant therapies for HAND in specific patient populations. Conclusions A proposal for streamlining and maximizing the likelihood of success in future clinical studies using a ‘learning and confirming’ investigational paradigm, incorporating stronger adaptive Phase I/II study designs, computerized modeling, and population/goal of treatment-specific Phase III clinical trials is presented. PMID:25540809

McGuire, Jennifer L; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Vezina, Heather E; Spitsin, Sergei; Douglas, Steven D

2014-01-01

19

Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

2014-06-01

20

HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review from a Brazilian perspective.  

PubMed

The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has dramatically improved worldwide since the introduction of highly antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, along with the decrease in mortality, several body modifications not initially related to HIV infection have been reported. Disorders in lipid and glucose metabolism, accompanied by body shape abnormalities and alterations in fat distribution, began to be described. A syndrome, named "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome", was coined to classify these clinical spectrum aspects. This syndrome involves not only metabolic alterations but also fat redistribution, with lipoatrophy due to subcutaneous fat loss (predominantly in the face and lower limbs) and lipohypertrophy related to central fat gain. These changes in body shape are very important to be recognized, as they are associated with worse morbidity and mortality. Self-esteem difficulties related to body alterations might lead to treatment failures due to medication adherence problems. Moreover, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify this syndrome early in order to provide an even better quality of life for this population, as the clinical approach is not easy. Treatment change, medications to treat dyslipidemia, and surgical intervention are instruments to be used to try to correct these abnormalities. The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of body shape and metabolic complications of HIV infection from a Brazilian perspective, a medium income country with a large number of patients on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25083134

Alves, Marcelle D; Brites, Carlos; Sprinz, Eduardo

2014-01-01

21

HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review from a Brazilian perspective  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has dramatically improved worldwide since the introduction of highly antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, along with the decrease in mortality, several body modifications not initially related to HIV infection have been reported. Disorders in lipid and glucose metabolism, accompanied by body shape abnormalities and alterations in fat distribution, began to be described. A syndrome, named “HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome”, was coined to classify these clinical spectrum aspects. This syndrome involves not only metabolic alterations but also fat redistribution, with lipoatrophy due to subcutaneous fat loss (predominantly in the face and lower limbs) and lipohypertrophy related to central fat gain. These changes in body shape are very important to be recognized, as they are associated with worse morbidity and mortality. Self-esteem difficulties related to body alterations might lead to treatment failures due to medication adherence problems. Moreover, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify this syndrome early in order to provide an even better quality of life for this population, as the clinical approach is not easy. Treatment change, medications to treat dyslipidemia, and surgical intervention are instruments to be used to try to correct these abnormalities. The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of body shape and metabolic complications of HIV infection from a Brazilian perspective, a medium income country with a large number of patients on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25083134

Alves, Marcelle D; Brites, Carlos; Sprinz, Eduardo

2014-01-01

22

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of smoked cannabis on the neuropathic pain of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and an experimental pain model. Methods: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the inpatient General Clinical Research Center between May 2003 and May 2005 involving adults with painful HIV- associated sensory neuropathy. Patients were randomly assigned to smoke either cannabis (3.56% tetrahydrocannabinol) or identical

D. I. Abrams; C. A. Jay; S. B. Shade; H. Vizoso; H. Reda; M. E. Kelly; M. C. Rowbotham; K. L. Petersen

2007-01-01

23

Current knowledge on HIV-associated Plasmablastic Lymphoma.  

PubMed

HIV-associated PBL is an AIDS-defining cancer, classified by WHO as a distinct entity of aggressive DLBCL. To date less than 250 cases have been published, of them 17 are pediatric. The pathogenesis of this rare disease is related to immunodeficiency, chronic immune stimulation and EBV. Clinically is a rapid growing destructive disease mainly involving the oral cavity even if extraoral and extranodal sites are not infrequent. The diagnosis requires tissue mass or lymph node biopsy and core needle or fine needle biopsy is acceptable only for difficult access sites. Classically immunophenotype is CD45, CD20, CD79a negative and CD38, CD138, MUM1 positive, EBER and KI67 is >80%. Regarding the therapy, standard treatment is, usually, CHOP or CHOP-like regimens while more intensive regimens as CODOX-M/IVAC or DA-EPOCH are possible options. Use of cART is recommended during chemotherapy, keeping in mind the possible overlapping toxicities. Rituximab is not useful for this CD20 negative disease and CNS prophylaxis is mandatory. Intensification with ABMT in CR1 may be considered for fit patients. For refractory/relapsed patients, therapy is, usually, considered palliative, however, in chemo-sensitive disease, intensification + ABMT or new drugs as Bortezomib may be considered. Factors affecting outcome are achieving complete remission, PS, clinical stage, MYC, IPI score. Reported median PFS ranges between 6-7 months and median OS ranges between 11-13 months. Long term survivors are reported but mostly in pediatric patients. Finally, due to the scarcity of data on this subtype of NHL we suggest that the diagnosis and the management of HIV-positive PBL patients should be performed in specialized centers. PMID:25408850

Bibas, Michele; Castillo, Jorge J

2014-01-01

24

The spectrum of opportunistic diseases complicating sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease marked by a paradoxical immune status. The anergic state, which results from various immune defects, contrasts with the inflammatory formation of granulomas. Sarcoidosis patients may be at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs) and a substantial number of cases have been reported, even in untreated sarcoidosis. It is not clear how OIs in patients with sarcoidosis are different from other groups at risk. In this review, we discuss the most common OIs: mycobacterial infection (including tuberculosis), cryptococcosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and aspergillosis. Unlike peripheral lymphocytopenia, corticosteroids are a major risk factor for OIs but the occurrence of Ols in untreated patients suggests more complex predisposing mechanisms. Opportunistic infections presenting with extrapulmonary features are often misdiagnosed as new localizations of sarcoidosis. Aspergillomas mostly develop on fibrocystic lungs. Overall, physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of OIs during sarcoidosis, even in untreated patients. PMID:25305373

Jamilloux, Ivan; Valeyre, Dominique; Lortholary, Olivier; Bernard, Claire; Kerever, Sébastien; Lelievre, Lucie; Neel, Antoine; Broussolle, Christiane; Seve, Pascal

2015-01-01

25

Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation. PMID:23982074

Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

2013-01-01

26

HIV/AIDS-associated opportunistic protozoal diarrhea.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has altered both the epidemiology and outcome of enteric opportunistic parasitic infections. This study was done to determine the prevalence and species/genotypes of intestinal coccidian and microsporidial infections among HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea and/or a history of diarrhea alternately with an asymptomatic interval, and their association with CD4 T cell count. This cross-sectional study was done from May 2010 to May 2011 in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, South of Iran. A blood sample was obtained from HIV-positive patients for a CD4 T cell count upon enrollment. Sociodemographic data and a history of diarrhea were collected by interviewing 356 consecutive participants (273 males and 83 females). Whenever possible more than a fecal sample was collected from all the participants and examined for parasites using direct, physiological saline solution ethyl acetate, an acid-fast trichrome stain, nested polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing techniques for the detection, confirmation, and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora belli, and intestinal microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi). The most common opportunistic and nonopportunistic pathogens were Cryptosporidium spp. (C. parvum and C. andersoni), E. bieneusi, Giardia lamblia, Sarcocystis spp., and Blastocystis homonis affecting 34, 8, 23, 1, and 14 patients, respectively. C. cayetanensis, I. belli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Hymenolepis nana were observed in few patients. A CD4 count <200 cells/?l was significantly associated with the presence of opportunistic parasites and diarrhea (p<0.05). Opportunistic intestinal parasites should be suspected in any HIV/AIDS patient with chronic diarrhea. Tropical epidemic nonopportunistic enteric parasitic infections among such patients should not be neglected in Iran. PMID:22873400

Agholi, Mahmoud; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

2013-01-01

27

Drug Abuse and Hepatitis C Infection as Comorbid Features of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Features  

PubMed Central

Substance abuse and co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) are two highly relevant determinants of neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with HIV. Substance abuse and HCV are common in the HIV population and there is increasing evidence that the CNS is directly compromised by these comorbid conditions via additive or synergistic processes. In this article we review the current literature regarding mechanisms of neuronal injury as well as the neuropsychological and neuroimaging signatures associated with substance abuse and HCV status among HIV patients. We discuss specific methodological challenges and threats to validity associated with studies of HIV and comorbid substance use disorders or HCV and review potential strategies for minimizing their confounding effects. Efforts to understand the interactions between HIV, substance abuse and HCV co-infection will lead to more complete models of neuropathogenesis of HIV and a greater understanding of the variability in neuropsychological expression of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. PMID:19468837

Paul, Robert H.

2013-01-01

28

Role of TNF block genetic variants in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in black Southern Africans.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. The TNF block is a region within the central MHC that contains many immunoregulatory genes. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the TNF block have been associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians and whites. Here we investigated genetic associations with HIV-SN in 342 black Southern Africans (190 cases and 152 neuropathy-free controls) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the TNF block and a set of haplotypes defined by 31 SNPs in Asian and white populations (denoted FVa). We included population-appropriate tagSNPs derived from an African population (Yoruban, YRI, HapMap) and derived extended haplotypes comprising 61 SNPs (denoted FVa_ext b). We found no association between HIV-SN and carriage of two SNPs (TNF-1031/rs1799964*C and BAT1 (intron10)/rs9281523*C) associated with HIV-SN in whites and Asians. Additionally, a haplotype containing TNF-1031/rs1799964*C associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians, but was not present in this African population. However, alleles of seven SNPs associated with reduced risk of HIV-SN (corrected for age, height and multiple comparisons). These were rs11796*A, rs3130059*G, rs2071594*C, NFKBIL1-62/rs2071592*A, rs2071591*A, LTA+252/rs909253*G, rs1041981*C. One haplotype (FV18_ext1), not containing these alleles, was associated with increased risk of HIV-SN after correction for age, height and multiple comparisons. Our results confirm the involvement of genes in the TNF block in altering risk for HIV-SN, but genotypes critical in this African population differed from those affecting HIV-SN in whites and Asians. These differences support the need for genetic association studies in diverse populations. PMID:24896147

Wadley, Antonia L; Hendry, Liesl M; Kamerman, Peter R; Chew, Constance Sn; Price, Patricia; Cherry, Catherine L; Lombard, Zané

2015-03-01

29

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Phylogeny and Ecophysiology of Opportunistic "Snow Molds"  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Phylogeny and Ecophysiology of Opportunistic "Snow Molds" from a Subalpine Forest, LLC 2008 Abstract Mats of coenocytic "snow molds" are commonly observed covering the soil and litter of alpine and subalpine areas immediately following snow melt. Here, we describe the phylogenetic placement

Schmidt, Steven K.

30

AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

31

Comparison of Risk Factors and Outcomes in HIV Immune Complex Kidney Disease and HIV-Associated Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is well described, but the clinical features of a group of renal pathologies characterized by Ig or immune complex depositions referred to as HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICK) have not been well established. The objective of this study is to assess risk factors for HIVICK compared with contemporaneous control participants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A nested case-control study of 751 HIV-infected patients followed from January 1996 to June 2010 was conducted. Groups were compared using the chi-squared test or rank-sum analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for HIVICK. Incidences of overall ESRD and with/without combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure were calculated. Results HIVICK patients were predominantly African American (92%). Compared with matched controls, patients with HIVICK were more likely to have HIV RNA >400 copies/ml (OR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2 to 5.2), diabetes (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.8), and hypertension (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5). Compared with HIVAN, patients with HIVICK had more antiretroviral therapy exposure, lower HIV viral loads, and higher CD4 and estimated GFR. ESRD was less common in the HIVICK versus the HIVAN group (30% versus 82%; P<0.001), and the use of cART was not associated with ESRD in HIVICK patients (25% versus 26; P=0.39). Conclusions HIVICK was predominantly observed in African-American patients and associated with advanced HIV disease. ESRD incidence is lower in HIVICK patients compared with those with HIVAN. Unlike HIVAN, cART use was not associated with the incidence of ESRD in HIVICK. PMID:23685946

Foy, Matthew C.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Tahir, Faryal; Fine, Derek M.; Moore, Richard D.

2013-01-01

32

HIV-associated histoplasmosis in French Guiana: recent infection or reactivation?  

PubMed

In order to determine whether HIV-associated disseminated histoplasmosis was a recent infection or a reactivation, time series of first episodes of disseminated histoplasmosis were analyzed. Climatic variables were associated with histoplasmosis incidence. This suggested an important proportion of cases were due to recent exposure, and therefore primary prophylaxis may be warranted in French Guiana. PMID:20453632

Hanf, Matthieu; Adenis, Antoine; Couppie, Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

2010-07-17

33

Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.; Cms Collaboration

2014-06-01

34

Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist.  

PubMed

Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on three factors: colonization, tissue damage, and immunosuppression. A novel Fusarium species is reported for the first time from keratitis in an agriculture worker who acquired the infection from plant material of maize. Maize plants are the natural host of this fungus where it causes stalk rot and seeding malformation under temperate and humid climatic conditions. The clinical manifestation, microbiological morphology, physiological features and molecular data are described.MethodsDiagnosis was established by using polymerase chain reaction of fungal DNA followed by sequencing portions of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1 ¿) and beta-tubulin (BT2) genes. Susceptibility profiles of this fungus were evaluated using CLSI broth microdilution method.ResultsThe analyses of these two genes sequences support a novel opportunist with the designation Fusarium temperatum. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the reported clinical isolate was nested within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that the fungus had low MICs of micafungin (0.031 ¿g/ml), posaconazole (0.25 ¿g/ml) and amphotericin B (0.5 ¿g/ml).ConclusionThe present case extends the significance of the genus Fusarium as agents of keratitis and underscores the utility of molecular verification of these emerging fungi in the human host. PMID:25388601

Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

2014-11-12

35

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

2012-01-01

36

Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?  

PubMed

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment. PMID:24462448

Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

2014-03-01

37

HIV-associated nephropathy and end-stage renal disease in children in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data

Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo

2004-01-01

38

Proteomic and metabolomic strategies to investigate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases, monitoring their progression and assessing responses to treatments will all be aided\\u000a by the identification of molecular markers of different stages of pathology. Protein biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive\\u000a disorders that have been discovered using proteomics include complement C3, soluble superoxide dismutase and a prostaglandin\\u000a synthase. Metabolomics has not yet been widely used for biomarker discovery, but early

Gurudutt Pendyala; Howard S Fox

2010-01-01

39

Sympathetic nervous system function in HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome.  

PubMed

It was recently suggested that HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) results from an autonomic dysbalance. We investigated the local and global sympathetic nervous system function of patients with HIV-1 infection and HARS. Interstitial noradrenaline concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were increased in the absence of changes in global sympathetic nerve activity, consistent with locally increased sympathetic activity. This could promote localized lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue and contribute to the development of HARS. PMID:16514309

van Gurp, Petra J; Tack, Cees J; van der Valk, Marc; Reiss, Peter; Lenders, Jacques W M; Sweep, Fred C G J; Sauerwein, Hans P

2006-03-21

40

Antiretroviral therapy and the control of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Will ART do it?  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) epidemic remains an enormous challenge to TB control in countries with a high prevalence of HIV. In their 1999 article entitled ‘Will DOTS do it?’, De Cock and Chaisson questioned whether the World Health Organization’s DOTS Strategy could control this epidemic. Data over the past 10 years have clearly shown that DOTS is insufficient as a single TB control intervention in such settings because it does not address the fundamental epidemiological interactions between TB and HIV. Immunodeficiency is a principal river of this epidemic, and the solution must therefore include immune recovery using antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thus, in the era of global ART scale-up, we now ask the question, ‘Will ART do it?’ ART reduces the risk of TB by 67% (95%CI 61–73), halves TB recurrence rates, reduces mortality risk by 64–95% in cohorts and prolongs survival in patients with HIV-associated drug-resistant TB. However, the cumulative lifetime risk of TB in HIV infected individuals is a function of time spent at various CD4-defined levels of risk, both before and during ART. Current initiation of ART at low CD4 cell counts (by which time much HIV-associated TB has already occurred) and low effective coverage greatly undermine the potential impact of ART at a population level. Thus, while ART has proven a critical intervention for case management of HIV-associated TB, much of its preventive potential for TB control is currently being squandered. Much earlier ART initiation with high coverage is required if ART is to substantially influence the incidence of TB. PMID:21756508

Lawn, S. D.; Harries, A. D.; Williams, B. G.; Chaisson, R. E.; Losina, E.; De Cock, K. M.; Wood, R.

2014-01-01

41

HIV-associated tuberculosis in developing countries: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the clinical aspects and diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis in developing countries, and summarizes WHO's recommendations for treatment. According to WHO estimates (early 1992) over 4 million persons worldwide have been infected with HIV and tuberculosis; 95% of them are in the developing countries. Clinical features of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis in adults are frequently atypical, particularly in the late stage of HIV infection, with non-cavitary disease, lower lobe infiltrates, hilar lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion. More typical post-primary tuberculosis with upper lobe infiltrates and cavitations is seen in the earlier stages of HIV infection. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is reported more frequently, despite the difficulties in diagnosing it. WHO's recent guidelines recommend 6-month short-course chemotherapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. The older 12-month regimen without rifampicin is much less effective. Streptomycin should not be used, because of the risk of transmitting blood-borne pathogens through contaminated needles. Thioacetazone should be abandoned, because of severe adverse reactions observed among HIV-infected patients. The roles of preventive chemotherapy and BCG vaccination for prevention of tuberculosis are also briefly discussed. PMID:1394786

Raviglione, M. C.; Narain, J. P.; Kochi, A.

1992-01-01

42

Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology.  

PubMed

Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

Lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

2012-01-01

43

Risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Yaoundé-Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), especially HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is influenced by several risk factors. The prevalence as well as risk factors for HAD are not well known in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We have shown that the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) is a useful screening tool for HAND in Yaoundé [Njamnshi AK, Djientcheu VdP, Fonsah JY, Yepnjio

A. K. Njamnshi; A. C. Zoung-Kanyi Bissek; P. Ongolo-Zogo; E. N. Tabah; A. Z. Lekoubou; F. N. Yepnjio; J. Y. Fonsah; C. T. Kuate; S. A. Angwafor; F. Dema; D. M. Njamnshi; C. Kouanfack; V. de P. Djientcheu; W. F. T. Muna; G. D. Kanmogne

2009-01-01

44

Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

2013-10-15

45

HIV-Associated TB in An Giang Province, Vietnam, 2001–2004: Epidemiology and TB Treatment Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Mortality is high in HIV-infected TB patients, but few studies from Southeast Asia have documented the benefits of interventions, such as co-trimoxazole (CTX), in reducing mortality during TB treatment. To help guide policy in Vietnam, we studied the epidemiology of HIV-associated TB in one province and examined factors associated with outcomes, including the impact of CTX use. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected persons diagnosed with TB from 2001–2004 in An Giang, a province in southern Vietnam in which TB patients receive HIV counseling and testing. We used standard WHO definitions to classify TB treatment outcomes. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for the composite outcome of death, default, or treatment failure during TB treatment. From 2001–2004, 637 HIV-infected TB patients were diagnosed in An Giang. Of these, 501 (79%) were male, 321 (50%) were aged 25–34 years, and the most common self-reported HIV risk factor was sex with a commercial sex worker in 221 (35%). TB was classified as smear-positive in 531 (83%). During TB treatment, 167 (26%) patients died, 9 (1%) defaulted, and 6 (1%) failed treatment. Of 454 patients who took CTX, 116 (26%) had an unsuccessful outcome compared with 33 (70%) of 47 patients who did not take CTX (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.5). Adjusting for male sex, rural residence, TB smear status and disease location, and the occurrence of adverse events during TB treatment in multivariate analysis, the benefit of CTX persisted (adjusted odds ratio for unsuccessful outcome 0.1; CI, 0.1–0.3). Conclusions/Significance In An Giang, Vietnam, HIV-associated TB was associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Outcomes were significantly better in those taking CTX. This finding suggests that Vietnam should consider applying WHO recommendations to prescribe CTX to all HIV-infected TB patients. PMID:17551587

Thuy, Trinh Thanh; Shah, N. Sarita; Anh, Mai Hoang; Nghia, Do Trong; Thom, Duong; Linh, Truong; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Duong, Bui Duc; Chau, Luu Thi Minh; Mai, Phung Thi Phuong; Wells, Charles D.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Varma, Jay K.

2007-01-01

46

HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS): etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) is a fat accumulation disorder characterized by increases in visceral adipose tissue. Patients with HARS may also present with excess truncal fat and accumulation of dorsocervical fat ("buffalo hump"). The pathophysiology of HARS appears multifactorial and is not fully understood at present. Key pathophysiological influences include adipocyte dysfunction and an excessive free fatty acid release by adipocyte lipolysis. The contributory roles of free fatty acids, cytokines, hormones including cortisol, insulin and the growth hormone-adipocyte axis are significant. Other potential humoral, paracrine, endocrine, and neural influences are also discussed. PMID:17597538

Lichtenstein, Kenneth; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Sekhar, Rajagopal; Freedland, Eric

2007-01-01

47

Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of the probiotic bacteria. PMID:22540089

Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

2011-01-01

48

Role of Viral Replication, Antiretroviral Therapy, and Immunodeficiency in HIV- Associated Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV-seropositive patients are at higher risk for atherosclerosis than HIV-seronegative persons. This has been variably attributed to antiretroviral drug toxicity, immunodeficiency, and/or HIV-associated inflammation. To evaluate the contributions of these factors to HIV-associated atherosclerosis, we assessed carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in a diverse cohort of HIV-seronegative and seropositive adults, including a unique group of HIV-infected patients who were untreated, had undetectable viral loads and had preserved CD4+ T cell counts (HIV controllers). Methods and Results Carotid IMT was measured in 494 subjects, including 33 HIV controllers and 93 HIV-seronegative controls. HIV controllers had higher IMT than seronegative controls even after adjustment for traditional risk factors (p=0.003). IMT in controllers was similar to antiretroviral-untreated patients with detectable viremia. Across all subjects, IMT was strongly associated with the presence of HIV disease rather than viral load or CD4+ T cell count. C-reactive protein was higher in HIV controllers than HIV-seronegative persons. Antiretroviral drug exposure was also associated with higher IMT. Conclusions Increased atherosclerosis with HIV infection can occur in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, detectable viremia, or overt immunodeficiency. Chronic inflammation—which is higher in controllers than in HIV-uninfected persons—may account for early atherosclerosis in these patients. PMID:19390417

Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Hunt, Peter W.; Schnell, Amanda; Kalapus, S. Craig; Hoh, Rebecca; Ganz, Peter; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.

2009-01-01

49

Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype Does Not Increase Risk of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

This is a cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-seropositive (HIV+) apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers are at increased risk for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) compared to APOE4 noncarriers with HIV in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group sample. APOE genotype was determined in 466 CHARTER participants with varying disease stages and histories of antiretroviral treatment who did not have severe psychiatric or medical comorbid conditions that preclude diagnosis of HAND. HAND diagnoses were based on results of comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation and use of current neuroAIDS diagnostic criteria. HAND status consisting of two levels: neuropsychologically normal status (i.e., no HAND) and any HAND diagnosis (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, minor neurocognitive disorder, HIV-associated dementia). Logistic regression analyses revealed no association between APOE4 carrier status and HAND, and there were no interactions between APOE4 carrier status and ethnicity, age, substance use disorders, duration of infection, or nadir CD4. Results did not differ when analysis was restricted to symptomatic HAND, and no APOE4 gene dose-dependent relationship to HAND emerged. APOE4 status was not associated with concurrent HAND in this large, well-characterized sample. This does not preclude emergence of an association between APOE4 status and HAND as this population ages. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to examine APOE4 as a risk factor for neurocognitive decline, incident HAND at older ages, and potential associations with CSF amyloid. PMID:23408335

Morgan, E.E.; Woods, S.P.; Letendre, S.L.; Franklin, D.R.; Bloss, C.; Goate, A.; Heaton, R.K.; Collier, A.C.; Marra, C.M.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Abramson, I.; Gamst, A.; Fennema-Notestine, C.; Smith, D.M.; Grant, I.; Vaida, F.; Clifford, D.B.

2013-01-01

50

Cognitive Neurorehabilitation of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Qualitative Review and Call to Action  

PubMed Central

Despite significant advances in the virologic management of HIV infection over the last two decades, effective treatments for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain elusive. While pharmacological interventions have yielded some success in improving neurocognitive outcomes in HIV, there is a dearth of rigorous studies examining the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation for remediating HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. This qualitative review summarizes and critiques the emerging literature on cognitive and behavioral treatments for HAND, which provides many reasons for optimism, but also has major limitations that underscore the scope of the work that lies ahead. Considering the notable real-world consequences of HAND, the development, validation, and clinical deployment of cognitive neurorehabilitation interventions tailored to the needs of persons living with HIV infection is a priority for clinical neuroAIDS investigators. In describing potential future directions for this endeavor, particular attention was paid to the application of cognitive neuropsychological principles in developing theory-driven approaches to managing HAND, improving everyday functioning, and enhancing HIV health outcomes. PMID:23417497

Weber, Erica; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Woods, Steven Paul

2013-01-01

51

Opportunistic Behavior in Motivated Learning Agents.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment. PMID:25291798

Graham, James; Starzyk, Janusz A; Jachyra, Daniel

2014-09-30

52

Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology  

E-print Network

CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

Toledano, Eyal

2013-01-01

53

Planning for rover opportunistic science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently set a record for the furthest distance traveled in a single sol on Mars. Future planetary exploration missions are expected to use even longer drives to position rovers in areas of high scientific interest. This increase provides the potential for a large rise in the number of new science collection opportunities as the rover traverses the Martian surface. In this paper, we describe the OASIS system, which provides autonomous capabilities for dynamically identifying and pursuing these science opportunities during longrange traverses. OASIS uses machine learning and planning and scheduling techniques to address this goal. Machine learning techniques are applied to analyze data as it is collected and quickly determine new science gods and priorities on these goals. Planning and scheduling techniques are used to alter the behavior of the rover so that new science measurements can be performed while still obeying resource and other mission constraints. We will introduce OASIS and describe how planning and scheduling algorithms support opportunistic science.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Forest, Fisher; Chouinard, Caroline; Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert C.

2004-01-01

54

Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications.  

PubMed

Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

2006-01-01

55

Clinical and Microbiological Features of HIV-Associated Tuberculous Meningitis in Vietnamese Adults  

PubMed Central

Methods The aim of this prospective, observational cohort study was to determine the clinical and microbiological features, outcome, and baseline variables predictive of death, in Vietnamese adults with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM). 58 patients were admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City and underwent routine clinical and laboratory assessments. Treatment was with standard antituberculous therapy and adjunctive dexamethasone; antiretroviral therapy was not routinely available. Patients were followed up until the end of TB treatment or death. Results The median symptom duration was 11 days (range 2–90 days), 21.8% had a past history of TB, and 41.4% had severe (grade 3) TBM. The median CD4 count was 32 cells/mm3. CSF findings were as follows: median leucocyte count 438×109cells/l (63% neutrophils), 69% smear positive and 87.9% culture positive. TB drug resistance rates were high (13% mono-resistance 32.6% poly-resistance 8.7% multidrug resistance). 17% patients developed further AIDS-defining illnesses. 67.2% died (median time to death 20 days). Three baseline variables were predictive of death by multivariate analysis: increased TBM grade [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.08–2.76, p?=?0.02], lower serum sodium (AHR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98, p?=?0.002) and decreased CSF lymphocyte percentage (AHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99, p?=?0.003). Conclusions HIV-associated TBM is devastating disease with a dismal prognosis. CSF findings included CSF neutrophil predominance, high rates of smear and culture positivity, and high rates of antituberculous drug resistance. Three baseline variables were independently associated with death: increased TBM grade; low serum sodium and decreased CSF lymphocyte percentage. PMID:18350135

Torok, M. Estee; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Pham Phuong; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Dung, Nguyen Thi; Chuong, Ly Van; Lee, Sue J.; Caws, M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

2008-01-01

56

Predictors of mortality in HIV-associated hospitalizations in Portugal: a hierarchical survival model  

PubMed Central

Background The beneficial effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing survival and the prevention of AIDS defining illness development are well established. However, the annual Portuguese hospital mortality is still higher than expected. It is crucial to understand the hospitalization behaviour to better allocate resources. This study investigates the predictors of mortality in HIV associated hospitalizations in Portugal through a hierarchical survival model. Methods The study population consists of 12,078 adult discharges from patients with HIV infection diagnosis attended at Portuguese hospitals from 2005–2007 that were registered on the diagnosis-related groups' database. We used discharge and hospital level variables to develop a hierarchical model. The discharge level variables were: age, gender, type of admission, type of diagnoses-related group, related HIV complication, the region of the patient's residence, the number of diagnoses and procedures, the Euclidean distance from hospital to the centroid of the patient's ward, and if patient lived in the hospital's catchment area. The hospital characteristics include size and hospital classification according to the National Health System. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to examine differences in survival curves. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty were applied to identify independent predictors of hospital mortality and to calculate hazard ratios (HR). Results The Cox proportional model with frailty showed that male gender, older patient, great number of diagnoses and pneumonia increased the hazard of HIV related hospital mortality. On the other hand tuberculosis was associated with a reduced risk of death. Central hospital discharge also presents less risk of mortality. The frailty variance was small but statistically significant, indicating hazard ratio heterogeneity among hospitals that varied between 0.67 and 1.34, and resulted in two hospitals with HR different from the average risk. Conclusion The frailty model suggests that there are unmeasured factors affecting mortality in HIV associated hospitalizations. Consequently, for healthcare policy purposes, hospitals should not all be treated in an equal manner. PMID:19627574

Dias, Sara S; Andreozzi, Valeska; Martins, Maria O; Torgal, Jorge

2009-01-01

57

Opportunistic spectrum use for sensor networks: the need for local cooperation  

E-print Network

]. These bands are ideal real estate for an opportunistic sensor network to reclaim for its own commu- nications requirement among different nearby sensor networks and show that local cooperation is required to control networks of cheap, low-powered nodes. With an emphasis on low-cost devices common to many discussions

Sahai, Anant

58

Factors related to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment differ with age.  

PubMed

Over 50 % of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are expected to be over age 50 by 2015. The pathogenic effects of HIV, particularly in cases of long-term infection, may intersect with those of age-related illnesses and prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). One potential outcome is an increased prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in older HIV+ individuals, as well as an altered presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). In this study, we employed stepwise regression to examine 24 features sometimes associated with HAND in 40 older (55-73 years of age) and 30 younger (32-50 years of age) HIV+, cART-treated participants without significant central nervous system confounds. The features most effective in generating a true assessment of the likelihood of HAND diagnosis differed between older and younger cohorts, with the younger cohort containing features associated with drug abuse that were correlated to HAND and the older cohort containing features that were associated with lipid disorders mildly associated with HAND. As the HIV-infected population grows and the demographics of the epidemic change, it is increasingly important to re-evaluate features associated with neurocognitive impairment. Here, we have identified features, routinely collected in primary care settings, that provide more accurate diagnostic value than a neurocognitive screening measure among younger and older HIV individuals. PMID:25404233

Fogel, Gary B; Lamers, Susanna L; Levine, Andrew J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; McGrath, Michael S; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J

2015-02-01

59

Impact of Previous ART and of ART Initiation on Outcome of HIV-Associated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has progressively decreased mortality of HIV-associated tuberculosis .To date, however, limited data on tuberculosis treatment outcomes among coinfected patients who are not ART-naive at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis are available. Methods. A multicenter, observational study enrolled 246 HIV-infected patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, in 96 Italian infectious diseases hospital units, who started tuberculosis treatment. A polytomous logistic regression model was used to identify baseline factors associated with the outcome. A Poisson regression model was used to explain the effect of ART during tuberculosis treatment on mortality, as a time-varying covariate, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results. Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment were as follows: 130 (52.8%) were successfully treated, 36 (14.6%) patients died in a median time of 2 months (range: 0–16), and 80 (32.6%) had an unsuccessful outcome. Being foreign born or injecting drug users was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In multivariable Poisson regression, cART during tuberculosis treatment decreased the risk of death, while this risk increased for those who were not ART-naive at tuberculosis diagnosis. Conclusions. ART during tuberculosis treatment is associated with a substantial reduction of death rate among HIV-infected patients. However, patients who are not ART-naive when they develop tuberculosis remain at elevated risk of death. PMID:22489253

Girardi, Enrico; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Angeletti, Claudio; Vanacore, Paola; Matteelli, Alberto; Gori, Andrea; Carbonara, Sergio; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

60

Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV+) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV+ controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+; n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV?) (n = 18) and HIV+ (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV? (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV+ TST+ controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV+ control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV+ smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV+ individuals. PMID:24671553

Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Feintuch, Catherine M.; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R.

2014-01-01

61

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points on Communica- tion and Networks under Grant DAAD19-01-2-0011. ¢ Fig. 1: Sensor networks with mobile access

Islam, M. Saif

62

Opportunistic Motivated Learning Agents James Graham1  

E-print Network

In this paper we expand on our previous Motivated Learning (ML) work and show how it can yield an opportunistic] and to indicate how they yield a more complex and efficient system. Motivated Learning is defined. These motivations are internal to the agent and are derived from various "pain" signals. "Pain" signals represent

Starzyk, Janusz A.

63

Complement and HIV-I infection/HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

2014-04-01

64

Dual-mixed HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Deficits  

PubMed Central

Background HIV coreceptor usage of CXCR4 (X4) is associated with decreased CD4+ T-cell counts and accelerated disease progression, but the role of X4 tropism in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not previously been described. Methods This longitudinal study evaluated data on 197 visits from 72 recently HIV-infected persons who had undergone up to 4 sequential neurocognitive assessments over a median of 160 days (IQR 138–192). Phenotypic tropism testing (Trofile ES, Monogram, Biosciences) was performed on stored blood samples. Multivariable mixed model repeated measures regression was used to determine the association between HAND and dual-mixed (DM) viral tropism, estimated duration of infection (EDI), HIV RNA, CD4 count and problematic methamphetamine use. Results Six subjects (8.3%) had dual mixed tropism (DM) at their first neurocognitive assessment and four converted to DM in subsequent sampling (for total of 10 DM) at a median EDI of 10.1 months (IQR 7.2–12.2). There were 44 (61.1%) subjects who demonstrated HAND on at least one study visit. HAND was associated with DM tropism (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 0.9–20.5) and shorter EDI (odds ratio 1.1 per month earlier, 95% CI 1.0–1.2). Conclusion This study found that recency of HIV-1 infection and the development of DM tropism may be associated with HAND in the relatively early stage of infection. Together these data suggest that viral interaction with cellular receptors may play an important role in the early manifestation of HAND. PMID:24078557

Morris, Sheldon R.; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Little, Susan J.; Wagner, Gabriel; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.

2014-01-01

65

Adjunctive Interferon-? Immunotherapy for the Treatment of HIV-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed Central

Background Interferon-? is of key importance in the immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Mortality related to cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains high, and novel treatment strategies are needed. We performed an RCT to determine whether addition of IFN? to standard therapy increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection in HIV-associated CM. Methods Patients were randomized to: (1) Amphotericin-B 1mg/kg/day plus 5-FC 100mg/kg/day for 2-weeks (Standard therapy), (2) Standard therapy plus IFN?1b 100?g days 1 and 3 (IFN? 2-doses), or (3) Standard therapy plus IFN?1b 100?g days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 (IFN? 6-doses). Primary outcome was rate of clearance of cryptococcus from the CSF (early fungicidal activity, EFA) calculated from serial quantitative cultures, previously shown to be independently associated with survival. Results Rate of fungal clearance was significantly faster in IFN? containing groups than with standard treatment. Mean EFA (logCFU/ml/day) was ?0.49 with standard treatment, ?0.64 with IFN? 2-doses, and ?0.64 with IFN? 6-doses. Difference in EFA was ?0.15 (95%CI ?0.02- ?0.27, p=0.02) between standard treatment and IFN? 2-doses, and ?0.15 (95%CI-0.05- ?0.26, p=0.006) between standard treatment and IFN? 6-doses. Mortality was 16% (14/88) at 2 weeks and 31% (27/87) at 10 weeks, with no significant difference between groups. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Addition of short-course IFN? to standard treatment significantly increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection from the CSF, and was not associated with any increase in adverse events. Two doses of IFN? are as effective as 6 doses. PMID:22421244

Jarvis, Joseph N; Meintjes, Graeme; Rebe, Kevin; Williams, Gertrude Ntombomzi; Bicanic, Tihana; Williams, Anthony; Schutz, Charlotte; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Harrison, Thomas S

2013-01-01

66

Association of early HIV viremia with mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between early HIV viremia and mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma. Design Multicenter observational cohort study. Setting Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort. Subjects HIV-infected patients with lymphoma diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, who were alive 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis and with ?2 HIV RNA values during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis. Exposure Cumulative HIV viremia during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, expressed as viremia copy-6-months. Main outcome measure All-cause mortality between 6 months and 5 years after lymphoma diagnosis. Results Of 224 included patients, 183 (82%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 41 (18%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). At lymphoma diagnosis, 105 (47%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median CD4 count was 148 cells/µlL (IQR 54– 322), and 33% had suppressed HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL). In adjusted analyses, mortality was associated with older age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.37 per decade increase, 95% CI 1.03–1.83], lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02– 2.63), lower CD4 count (AHR 0.75 per 100 cell/µL increase, 95% CI 0.64–0.89), and higher early cumulative viremia (AHR 1.35 per log10copies × 6-months/mL, 95% CI 1.11–1.65). The detrimental effect of early cumulative viremia was consistent across patient groups defined by ART status, CD4 count, and histology. Conclusions Exposure to each additional 1-unit log10 in HIV RNA throughout the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, was associated with a 35% increase in subsequent mortality. These results suggest that early and effective ART during chemotherapy may improve survival. PMID:23736149

Gopal, Satish; Patel, Monita R.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Cole, Stephen R.; Achenbach, Chad J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Burkholder, Greer A.; Reid, Erin G.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Deeks, Steven G.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Richards, Kristy L.; Eron, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

67

Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

2013-10-01

68

The Influence of HLA on HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in Anhui, China  

PubMed Central

Background HLA-DR*04 was identified as a predictor of HIV-Associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), low CD4 T-cell responses to HIV, and low plasma HIV RNA levels in a U.S. cohort. We hypothesized that low CD4 T-cell activation leads to poor immune control of HIV in the CNS, predisposing to HAND, but also provided fewer target (activated CD4 T-cells) for HIV replication. To assess the consistency of these HLA Class II associations in a new cohort and extend analysis to HLA Class I, HLA types, neurocognitive, and virologic status were examined in a cohort of former plasma donors in China. Methods 178 HIV infected individuals in Anhui China, were HLA typed and underwent neurocognitive evaluations (using locally standardized norms), neuromedical, treatment and virologic assessments at baseline and at 12 months. Results HLA DR*04 was associated with a higher rate of baseline neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.04), neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.04), and lower levels of HIV RNA in plasma (p?=?0.05). HLA Class I alleles (B*27,57,58,A*03,33) that specify a CD8 T-cell response to conserved HIV sequences were neuroprotective, associated with less impairment at baseline (p?=?0.037), at month 012 (p?=?0.013) and less neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.023) in the interval. Consistent with the theory that effective CD8 T-cell responses require CD4 T-cell support, the HLA DR*04 allele reduced the neuroprotective effect of the Class I alleles. The presence of HLA-DR*04 and the Alzheimer associated allele ApoE4 in the same individual had a synergistic negative effect on cognition (p?=?0.003). Conclusions Despite major background differences between U.S. and Anhui China cohorts, HLA DR*04 predicted neurocognitive impairment and lower plasma HIV RNA levels in both populations. HLA Class I alleles associated with CD8 T-cell control of HIV were associated with protection from HAND, but protection was reduced in the presence of HLA-DR*04. PMID:22693541

Schrier, Rachel D.; Gupta, Saurabh; Riggs, Patricia; Cysique, Lucette A.; Letendre, Scott; Jin, Hua; Spector, Stephen A.; Singh, Kumud K.; Wolfson, Tanya; Wu, Zunyou; Hong, Kun Xue; Yu, Xin; Shi, Chuan; Heaton, Robert K.

2012-01-01

69

Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. Methods. Sixty-five C. neoformans isolates from clinical trial patients with matched clinical data were assayed in vitro to determine murine macrophage uptake, intracellular proliferation rate (IPR), capsule induction, and laccase activity. Analysis of the correlation between prognostic clinical and host immune parameters and fungal phenotypes was performed using Spearman’s r, while the fungal-dependent impact on long-term survival was determined by Cox regression analysis. Results. High levels of fungal uptake by macrophages in vitro, but not the IPR, were associated with CSF fungal burden (r = 0.38, P = 0.002) and long-term patient survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5, P = 0.012). High-uptake strains were hypocapsular (r = –0.28, P = 0.05) and exhibited enhanced laccase activity (r = 0.36, P = 0.003). Fungal isolates with greater laccase activity exhibited heightened survival ex vivo in purified CSF (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and resistance to clearance following patient antifungal treatment (r = 0.39, P = 0.003). Conclusion. These findings underscore the contribution of cryptococcal-phagocyte interactions and laccase-dependent melanin pathways to human clinical presentation and outcome. Furthermore, characterization of fungal-specific pathways that drive clinical manifestation provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics and the management of CM. Funding. This work was made possible by funding from the Wellcome Trust (WT088148MF), the Medical Research Council (MR/J008176/1), the NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre and the Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine (to R.C. May), and a Wellcome Trust Intermediate fellowship (089966, to T. Bicanic). The C. neoformans isolates were collected within clinical trials funded by the British Infection Society (fellowship to T. Bicanic), the Wellcome Trust (research training fellowships WT069991, to A.E. Brouwer and WT081794, to J.N. Jarvis), and the Medical Research Council, United Kingdom (76201). The funding sources had no role in the design or conduct of this study, nor in preparation of the manuscript. PMID:24743149

Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma; Beale, Mathew A.; Johnston, Simon A.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Loyse, Angela; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Gilbert, Andrew S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Bicanic, Tihana

2014-01-01

70

Mendelian Randomization: potential use of genetics to enable causal inferences regarding HIV-associated biomarkers and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review It is unknown whether biomarkers simply correlate with or are causal for HIV-associated outcomes. Mendelian randomization (MR), is a genetic epidemiologic approach used to disentangle causation from association. Here, we discuss the potential use of MR for differentiating whether biomarkers are correlating with or causal for HIV-associated outcomes. Recent findings MR refers to the random allocation of alleles at the time of gamete formation. In observational epidemiology, this refers to the use of genetic variants to estimate a causal effect between a modifiable risk factor and an outcome of interest. A formal MR study using a genetic marker as a proxy for the biomarker has not been conducted in the HIV field. However, in the post-genomic era this approach is being used increasingly. Examples are evidence for the causal role of body mass index on blood pressure and non-causal role of CRP in coronary heart disease. We discuss the conceptual framework, uses and limitations of MR in the context of HIV infection as well as specific biomarkers (IL-6, CRP) and genetic determinants (e.g., in CCR5, chemokine, and DARC genes) that associate with HIV-related outcomes. Summary Making the distinction between correlation and causality has particular relevance when a biomarker (e.g. IL-6) is potentially modifiable, in which case a biomarker-guided targeted treatment strategy may be feasible. Although the tenets of MR rest on strong assumptions, and conducting an MR study in HIV infection presents many challenges, it may offer the potential to identify causal biomarkers for HIV-associated outcomes. PMID:20978399

He, Weijing; Castiblanco, John; Walter, Elizabeth A.; Okulicz, Jason F.; Ahuja, Sunil K.

2013-01-01

71

Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/?l, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

De, Anuradha

2013-01-01

72

Efavirenz Promotes ?-Secretase Expression and Increased A?1-40,42 via Oxidative Stress and Reduced Microglial Phagocytosis: Implications for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)  

PubMed Central

Efavirenz (EFV) is among the most commonly used antiretroviral drugs globally, causes neurological symptoms that interfere with adherence and reduce tolerability, and may have central nervous system (CNS) effects that contribute in part to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus we evaluated a commonly used EFV containing regimen: EFV/zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) in murine N2a cells transfected with the human “Swedish” mutant form of amyloid precursor protein (SweAPP N2a cells) to assess for promotion of amyloid-beta (A?) production. Treatment with EFV or the EFV containing regimen generated significantly increased soluble amyloid beta (A?), and promoted increased ?-secretase-1 (BACE-1) expression while 3TC, AZT, or, vehicle control did not significantly alter these endpoints. Further, EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more mitochondrial stress in SweAPP N2a cells as compared to 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control. We next tested the EFV containing regimen in A? - producing Tg2576 mice combined or singly using clinically relevant doses. EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more BACE-1 expression and soluble A? generation while 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control did not. Finally, microglial A? phagocytosis was significantly reduced by EFV or the EFV containing regimen but not by AZT, 3TC, or vehicle control alone. These data suggest the majority of A? promoting effects of this cART regimen are dependent upon EFV as it promotes both increased production, and decreased clearance of A? peptide. PMID:24759994

Brown, Lecia A. M.; Jin, Jingji; Ferrell, Darren; Sadic, Edin; Obregon, Demian; Smith, Adam J.; Tan, Jun; Giunta, Brian

2014-01-01

73

Opportunistic infections in women with HIV AIDS.  

PubMed

Women account for half of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infections. Heterosexual contact is the leading risk factor in women. Over 50% of patients are significantly immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Women with advanced HIV infection are at a risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). OIs lead to significant morbidity and cost. Some of OIs may impact women more significantly than men, that is, human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. OIs during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV and some OIs, such as Hepatitis C. This chapter will review of OIs that are most important in women's health. PMID:23090461

Lazenby, Gweneth B

2012-12-01

74

Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

Maso, Marco; Ba?tu?, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

2014-12-01

75

Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current oppor- tunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, impos- ing a strict schedule on routers' access to the medium. Although the scheduler delivers opportunistic gains, it misses some of the inherent features of the 802.11 MAC. For example, it

Szymon Chachulski; Michael Jennings; Sachin Katti; Dina Katabi

2007-01-01

76

Performance of TDMA and SDMA based Opportunistic Beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we analyze opportunistic beamforming with finite number of users under the target that the feedback from the mobiles to the base is constant. First, we characterize the impact of the user distribution and the spatial correlation on the sum rate of TDMA and SDMA based opportunistic beamforming. Further on, we describe the high-SNR behavior in terms of

Eduard A. Jorswieck; Patrick Svedman; Björn E. Ottersten

2008-01-01

77

Location-based Service Discovery and Delivery in Opportunistic Networks  

E-print Network

1 Location-based Service Discovery and Delivery in Opportunistic Networks Nicolas Le Sommer service discovery and delivery in such kinds of networks is a challenging problem on account of frequent propose a new location-based opportunistic routing protocol enabling a bandwidth-efficient service

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background.?Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Identifying factors associated with mortality informs strategies to improve outcomes. Methods.?Five hundred one patients with HIV-associated CM were followed prospectively for 10 weeks during trials in Thailand, Uganda, Malawi, and South Africa. South African patients (n = 266) were followed for 1 year. Similar inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied at all sites. Logistic regression identified baseline variables independently associated with mortality. Results.?Mortality was 17% at 2 weeks and 34% at 10 weeks. Altered mental status (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–5.9), high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden (OR, 1.4 per log10 colony-forming units/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.0–1.8), older age (>50 years; OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4–11.1), high peripheral white blood cell count (>10 × 109 cells/L; OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.5–30.2), fluconazole-based induction treatment, and slow clearance of CSF infection were independently associated with 2-week mortality. Low body weight, anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL), and low CSF opening pressure were independently associated with mortality at 10 weeks in addition to altered mental status, high fungal burden, high peripheral white cell count, and older age. In those followed for 1 year, overall mortality was 41%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with 2-week CSF fungal burden (P = .007), but not with time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions.?CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes. PMID:24319084

Jarvis, Joseph N.; Bicanic, Tihana; Loyse, Angela; Namarika, Daniel; Jackson, Arthur; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Longley, Nicky; Muzoora, Conrad; Phulusa, Jacob; Taseera, Kabanda; Kanyembe, Creto; Wilson, Douglas; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; White, Nicholas; van der Horst, Charles; Wood, Robin; Meintjes, Graeme; Bradley, John; Jaffar, Shabbar; Harrison, Thomas

2014-01-01

79

Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies  

PubMed Central

We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.

2014-01-01

80

Host genetics and opportunistic fungal infections.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the human pathophysiology of fungal infections highlights the crucial role of genetic pitfalls in specific immunity pathways that determine, together with other risk factors, the predisposition to and clinical outcome of fungal disease. In several studies, associations between gene polymorphisms and genetic errors have been implicated in an immunodeficiency phenotype and an increased incidence of opportunistic fungal diseases. The major challenge is to fully understand the complex interactions between genetic variations and multiple factors, and their relative contributions to the final clinical fungal disease phenotype. The aim of this review is to present updated knowledge on immunity genetics and susceptibility to medically relevant fungal diseases, such as those caused by Candida, Aspergillus, and certain other more rare fungi. PMID:25274142

Pana, Z-D; Farmaki, E; Roilides, E

2014-12-01

81

Opportunistic infections due to inflammatory bowel disease therapy.  

PubMed

The use of biological agents and immunomodulators for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has remarkably improved disease management in the current era but at the same time has increased the risk of infectious complications. Patients with IBD on corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biological agents are considered immunocompromised and are at risk for opportunistic infections. These are infections caused by organisms that take advantage of a weakened immune system, and cause disease, when they ordinarily would cause mild illness or no disease in an immunocompetent host. Risk factors for opportunistic infections include malnutrition, older age, congenital immunodeficiency, HIV infection, chronic diseases, and use of corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. Apart from immunosuppressive medications and older age, there is only indirect evidence for above risk factors contributing directly to opportunistic infection risk in patients with IBD. Opportunistic infections in patients with IBD include viral infections (herpes viruses, human papillomavirus, influenza virus, and JC virus), bacterial infections (tuberculosis, nocardiosis, Clostridium difficile infection, pneumococcal infection, legionellosis, and listeriosis), fungal infections (histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, aspergillosis, and candidiasis), and parasite infections (Strongyloides stercoralis). Although these infections lead to high morbidity and mortality, only a minority of patients with IBD develop opportunistic infections. Currently, we lack a test to accurately predict patients at risk of opportunistic infection, and future research needs to focus on biomarkers or predictive models for risk stratification. Until such a test is developed, we need to screen, prevent, diagnose, and treat opportunistic infections in all patients with IBD in a timely manner. PMID:24051931

Dave, Maneesh; Purohit, Treta; Razonable, Raymund; Loftus, Edward V

2014-01-01

82

The spectrum of HIV-associated infective and inflammatory dermatoses in pigmented skin.  

PubMed

HIV and AIDS patients often suffer from various skin infections of viral, bacterial, and fungal origin. In addition, parasitic infestations are prevalent. Common inflammatory dermatoses include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, photodermatitis, and pruritic papular eruptions. This article discusses some of these conditions with an emphasis on clinical presentation. In patients with pigmented skin, diagnosis maybe challenging and complicated by dyspigmentation. PMID:24680007

Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Visser, Willie

2014-04-01

83

Opportunistic hepatic infections in AIDS patients with fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

The clinical features and histopathologic manifestations of hepatic opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Taiwan remain unexplored. We report 28 AIDS patients (25 men, 3 women; mean age, 34 years) with fever of unknown origin who underwent 31 liver biopsies from December 1995 to May 1997. In most cases, the biochemical tests showed moderate to markedly elevated alkaline phosphatase concentrations, but normal or mildly elevated aminotransferase concentrations. The most common histopathologic finding was macrosteatosis, which was noted in 15 of the 28 patients. Another important histopathologic finding indicating the etiology of hepatic opportunistic infection was granuloma, which was found in 11 patients. Histochemical stain and culture of liver specimens yielded Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in eight patients, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients, Histoplasma capsulatum in one patient, and cytomegalovirus in one patient with concomitant MAC infection. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis in AIDS patients with fever of unknown origin was made in 11 of the 28 cases with the assistance of liver biopsy. During follow-up, late extrahepatic involvement by the same infectious agents was found in six patients. Thus, hepatic manifestations could be a harbinger of disseminated opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. PMID:10063267

Chang, Y G; Chen, P J; Hung, C C; Chen, M Y; Lai, M Y; Chen, D S

1999-01-01

84

On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

2014-06-01

85

2003 NOTES 479 Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) are opportunistic  

E-print Network

2003 NOTES 479 Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) are opportunistic predators that use visual. In response, nine of the 23 males that were displaying flew from the lek, Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus

Aldridge, Cameron

86

Optimal Channel Probing and Transmission Scheduling for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

In this study, we consider optimal opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) policies for a transmitter in a multichannel wireless system, where a channel can be in one of multiple states. In such systems, the transmitter typically ...

Chang, Nicholas B.

87

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

2014-01-01

88

Opportunistic Multi-Access: Multiuser Diversity, Relay-Aided Opportunistic Scheduling, and Traffic-Aided Smooth Admission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study multi-access control in opportunistic communication systems, and propose two new schemes to address channel asymmetry and throughput-guaranteed admission control, respectively. We first devise a relay-aided opportunistic scheduling (RAOS) scheme, in which a user can choose to communicate with the base station either directly or using multiple hops (relay transmissions). We develop relay\\/direct link construction algorithms using either a

Ming Hu; Junshan Zhang

2004-01-01

89

Planning deficits in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: component processes, cognitive correlates, and implications for everyday functioning.  

PubMed

Executive dysfunction remains among the most prevalent cognitive domains impaired in persons with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, little is known specifically about the cognitive architecture or everyday functioning implications of planning, which is an aspect of executive functions involving the identification, organization, and completion of sequential behaviours toward the accomplishment of a goal. The current study examined these issues using the Tower of London(DX) in 53 individuals with HAND, 109 HIV-infected persons without HAND, and 82 seronegative participants. The HAND+ group performed significantly more poorly than HIV-infected individuals without HAND on number of correct moves, total moves, execution time, time violations, and rule violations. Within the HIV+ group as a whole, greater total move scores and rule violations were most strongly associated with executive dysfunction. Of clinical relevance, elevated total moves and rule violations were significant, independent predictors of self-reported declines in instrumental activities of daily living and unemployment status in HIV. These results suggest that planning accuracy, efficiency, and rule-bound control are impaired in HAND and may meaningfully affect more cognitively complex aspects of everyday living. PMID:22731608

Cattie, Jordan E; Doyle, Katie; Weber, Erica; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

2012-01-01

90

Self-predictions of prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: evidence of a metamemory deficit.  

PubMed

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM; "remembering to remember"), conferring risk of daily functioning declines. However, self-perceptions of PM functioning are not reliably associated with PM performance in HIV, suggesting a possible deficit in awareness of PM abilities (meta-PM). Our study examined meta-PM in HAND and its correlates using self-predictions of laboratory-based PM performance. Performance-based PM abilities, self-reported prediction of PM performance, and PM complaints in everyday life were assessed in 49 individuals with HAND, 93 HIV+ without HAND (HIV+ noHAND), and 121 seronegative adults (HIV-). After controlling for group-level differences, HAND was associated with a greater number of PM symptoms in everyday life and worse PM performance when compared with both HIV+ noHAND and HIV- samples. Although HAND individuals reported somewhat lower predictions regarding their laboratory PM performance relative to the other study groups, they nevertheless exhibited significantly greater inaccurate overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Within the HAND group, overconfidence in time-based meta-PM was associated with executive dysfunction and antiretroviral (ARV) nonadherence. HAND individuals evidenced a moderate deficit in awareness of PM functioning characterized by overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Overconfidence in PM may result in absence of compensatory strategy use, and lead to increased errors in daily functioning (e.g., ARV nonadherence). PMID:25404005

Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Doyle, Katie L; Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul

2014-12-01

91

Potential role of IL-18 in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS, HIV-associated lipodystrophy and related clinical conditions.  

PubMed

IL-18 is a pleiotropic and multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that is often produced in response to a viral infection. The biological activities of the cytokine are tightly controlled by its natural antagonist, IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP), as well as by activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the precursor form of IL-18 into its biologically mature form. The cytokine plays an important role in both innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Depending upon the context, it can promote TH1, TH2 and TH17 responses. Increased serum concentrations of IL-18 and concomitantly decreased concentrations of its natural antagonist have been described in HIV-infected persons as compared to HIV-seronegative healthy subjects. We discuss in this review article how increased biological activities of IL-18 contribute towards immunopathogenesis of AIDS, HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and related metabolic disturbances. While the advent of potent anti-HIV drugs has significantly enhanced life span of HIV-infected patients, it has also increased the number of these patients suffering from metabolic disorders. The cytokine may prove to be a useful target for therapeutic intervention in these patients. PMID:19954415

Iannello, Alexandre; Samarani, Suzanne; Debbeche, Olfa; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Tremblay, Cécile; Toma, Emil; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ahmad, Ali

2010-03-01

92

Down-regulation of NF-?B transcriptional activity in HIV-associated kidney disease by BRD4 inhibition.  

PubMed

NF-?B-mediated inflammation is the major pathology in chronic kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) that ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. HIV infection in the kidney induces NF-?B activation, leading to the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. In this study, we explored selective inhibition of NF-?B transcriptional activity by small molecule blocking NF-?B binding to the transcriptional cofactor BRD4, which is required for the assembly of the productive transcriptional complex comprising positive transcription elongation factor b and RNA polymerase II. We showed that our BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain)-specific bromodomain inhibitor MS417, designed to block BRD4 binding to the acetylated NF-?B, effectively attenuates NF-?B transcriptional activation of proinflammatory genes in kidney cells treated with TNF? or infected by HIV. MS417 ameliorates inflammation and kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, an animal model for HIVAN. Our study suggests that BET bromodomain inhibition, targeting at the proinflammatory activity of NF-?B, represents a new therapeutic approach for treating NF-?B-mediated inflammation and kidney injury in HIVAN. PMID:22645123

Zhang, Guangtao; Liu, Ruijie; Zhong, Yifei; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Zhang, Weijia; Zeng, Lei; Rusinova, Elena; Gerona-Nevarro, Guillermo; Moshkina, Natasha; Joshua, Jennifer; Chuang, Peter Y; Ohlmeyer, Michael; He, John Cijiang; Zhou, Ming-Ming

2012-08-17

93

Down-regulation of NF-?B Transcriptional Activity in HIV-associated Kidney Disease by BRD4 Inhibition*  

PubMed Central

NF-?B-mediated inflammation is the major pathology in chronic kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) that ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. HIV infection in the kidney induces NF-?B activation, leading to the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. In this study, we explored selective inhibition of NF-?B transcriptional activity by small molecule blocking NF-?B binding to the transcriptional cofactor BRD4, which is required for the assembly of the productive transcriptional complex comprising positive transcription elongation factor b and RNA polymerase II. We showed that our BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain)-specific bromodomain inhibitor MS417, designed to block BRD4 binding to the acetylated NF-?B, effectively attenuates NF-?B transcriptional activation of proinflammatory genes in kidney cells treated with TNF? or infected by HIV. MS417 ameliorates inflammation and kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, an animal model for HIVAN. Our study suggests that BET bromodomain inhibition, targeting at the proinflammatory activity of NF-?B, represents a new therapeutic approach for treating NF-?B-mediated inflammation and kidney injury in HIVAN. PMID:22645123

Zhang, Guangtao; Liu, Ruijie; Zhong, Yifei; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Zhang, Weijia; Zeng, Lei; Rusinova, Elena; Gerona-Nevarro, Guillermo; Moshkina, Natasha; Joshua, Jennifer; Chuang, Peter Y.; Ohlmeyer, Michael; He, John Cijiang; Zhou, Ming-Ming

2012-01-01

94

The Functional Impact of HIV-Associated Neuropsychological Impairment in Spanish-Speaking Adults: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Among English-speaking adults, HIV-associated neuropsychological (NP) impairments have been associated with problems in everyday functioning, including ability to function at work and drive an automobile. Latinos account for a disproportionate number of HIV/AIDS cases nationwide, and a significant segment of this population is primarily Spanish speaking. We have previously developed an assessment that evaluates English-speakers on a variety of instrumental activities of daily living. In this pilot study, we used Spanish-language translations of our functional battery to investigate the cultural relevance of such measures, and to explore relationships between NP status and ability to perform important everyday tasks in HIV-infected Spanish-speakers. Sixteen HIV-infected monolingual Spanish-speaking adults received comprehensive, Spanish language NP testing and functional assessments included the following domains: Medication Management, Cooking, Finances, Shopping, and Restaurant Scenario. Results revealed that most of the functional tasks appeared culturally relevant and appropriate with minor modifications. NP-impaired participants were significantly more functionally impaired compared to NP-normals (88% vs. 13%, p<.01). Performances on the functional assessment and the NP battery were also related to indicators of real world functioning, including employment status and quality of life. These results, though preliminary, suggest that Spanish language functional assessments are potentially valid tools for detecting everyday functioning deficits associated with NP impairments in HIV-infected Spanish-speakers. PMID:12607177

Mindt, Monica Rivera; Cherner, Mariana; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Moore, David J.; Bentley, Heather; Esquivel, Maria M.; Lopez, Yanira; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

2013-01-01

95

HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: Role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder  

PubMed Central

HIV infection affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is characterized by depression, behavioral and motor dysfunctions. The HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp120 is known to induce the release of neurotoxic factors which lead to apoptotic cell death. Although the exact mechanisms involved in HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, oxidative stress is suggested to play a vital role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Astrocytes represent major population of the non-neuronal cell type in the brain and play a critical role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Increased oxidative stress is known to induce nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor which is known to regulate the antioxidant defensive mechanism. However, the role of Nrf2 in HAND has not been elucidated. We report that gp120 significantly upregulates Nrf2 in human astrocytes and is associated with stimulation of key antioxidant defensive enzymes Hemoxygenase (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone1 (Nqo1). Pretreatment of the astrocytes with antioxidants or a specific calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, significantly blocked the upregulation of Nrf2, HO-1 and Nqo1. These results suggest a possible role of the intracellular calcium and oxidative stress in Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense mechanism, which may have protective role in promoting cell survival. PMID:21756955

Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Gandhi, Nimisha; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Agudelo, Marisela; Yndart, Adriana; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Nair, Madhavan PN

2011-01-01

96

Genetically Modified Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage II AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage III AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage IV AIDS-related Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-12-15

97

Homelessness and HIV-Associated Risk Behavior Among African American Men Who Inject Drugs and Reside in the Urban South of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether homeless injection drug users (IDUs) were more likely than stably housed IDUs to engage in HIV-associated\\u000a risk behaviors. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit 343 African American male IDUs. About 69% of men had been homeless\\u000a in the past year and 13% were HIV positive. Controlling for age and income, homeless men as compared to

Laura F. Salazar; Richard A. Crosby; David R. Holtgrave; Sara Head; Benjamin Hadsock; Jeffrey Todd; R. Luke Shouse

2007-01-01

98

Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (BR), complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98%) had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9%) were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31%) for anti-HCV, and 472 (63%) non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26%) patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15%) patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02). At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64%) were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3) and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0). Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2) and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5). The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus infection, were common and strongly associated with known behavioral risk factors. Viral hepatitis infection markers were not strongly associated with death or the development of clinical hepatitis during TB treatment. PMID:18638392

Sirinak, Chawin; Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Pinjeesekikul, Duangporn; Charusuntonsri, Pricha; Luanloed, Phinai; Srisuwanvilai, La-ong; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Akksilp, Somsak; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Burapat, Channawong; Varma, Jay K

2008-01-01

99

Excess Soluble CD40L Contributes to Blood Brain Barrier Permeability In Vivo: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L) are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1) positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking. PMID:23251626

Davidson, Donna C.; Hirschman, Michael P.; Sun, Anita; Singh, Meera V.; Kasischke, Karl; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

2012-01-01

100

Persistence of HIV? Associated Cognitive Impairment, Inflammation and Neuronal Injury in era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design This study is an observational cohort study. Methods MRS was performed in 268 patients: HIV-negative controls (N=28), HIV-positive neuroasymptomatic (NA) subjects (N=124), and subjects with AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC; N=50) on stable ART with a mean duration of infection of 12 years and CD4 of 309 cells/mm3. Four metabolites were measured over creatine (Cr): N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), marker of neuronal integrity; Choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), markers of inflammation, and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) in the basal ganglia (BG), frontal white matter (FWM) and mid-frontal Cortex (MFC). Analyses included ANOVA, ANCOVA, linear and nonparametric regression models. Results Cognitive impairment was found in 48% of HIV infected subjects. Both HIV positive groups showed significant increases in MI/Cr or Cho/Cr in all brain regions when compared to controls; a significant decrease in Glx/Cr in the FWM was observed in the NA group; only ADC subjects showed a significant reduction in NAA/ Cr although a significant trend for decreasing NAA/Cr in the BG was found across the groups. Effects related to aging and duration of infection but not central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) were observed. Conclusions Brain inflammatory changes remain ubiquitous among HIV-infected subjects whereas neuronal injury occurs predominantly in those with cognitive impairment. Together these findings indicate that despite the widespread use of HAART, HIV-associated cognitive impairment and brain injury persist in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:21297425

Harezlak, J; Buchthal, S; Taylor, M; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, ES; Alger, J; Singer, E; Campbell, T; Yiannoutsos, C; Cohen, R; Navia, BA

2015-01-01

101

Translational Spatial Task and its Relationship to HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and Apolipoprotein E in HIV-Seropositive Women  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a neurological complication of HIV infection in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Hippocampal neurodegeneration and dysfunction occurs as a result of HIV infection, but few studies to date have assesses spatial learning and memory function in patients with HAND. We used the Memory Island (MI) Test to study the effects of HIV infection, Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele status, and CSF ApoE protein levels on spatial learning and memory in our cohort of Hispanic women. The MI Test is a virtual reality-based computer program that tests spatial learning and memory, and was designed to resemble the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test of hippocampal function widely used in rodent studies. In the current study, HIV-seropositive women (n=20) and controls (n=16) were evaluated with neuropsychological (NP) tests, the MI Test, ApoE, and CSF ApoE assays. On the MI, the HIV-seropositive group showed significant reduced learning and delayed memory performance compared with HIV-seronegative controls. When stratified by cognitive performance on NP tests, the HIV-seropositive, cognitively impaired group performed worse than HIV-seronegative controls in ability to learn and in the delayed memory trial. Interestingly, differences were observed in the results obtained by the NP tests and the MI Test for ?4 carriers and non-carriers: NP tests showed effects of the ?4 allele in HIV-seronegative women but not HIV-seropositive ones, whereas as the converse was true for the MI Test. Our findings suggest that the MI test is sensitive in detecting spatial deficits in HIV-seropositive women, and that these deficits may arise relatively early in the course of HAND. PMID:22972599

Morales, Diana; Acevedo, Summer F.; Skolasky, Richard L.; Hechavarria, Rosa; Santiago, Sharon; De La Torre, Tania; Maldonado, Elizabeth; Wojna, Valerie

2012-01-01

102

CCR2 on CD14+CD16+ monocytes is a biomarker of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) on monocyte subsets as a prognostic peripheral blood biomarker of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: We characterized monocyte populations in HIV-infected individuals with and without HAND from 2 cohorts and assessed their transmigration across an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). We examined CCR2 expression among the monocyte populations as a prognostic/predictive biomarker of HAND and its functional consequences in facilitating monocyte diapedesis. Results: We determined that CCR2 was significantly increased on CD14+CD16+ monocytes in individuals with HAND compared to infected people with normal cognition. CCR2 remained elevated irrespective of the severity of cognitive impairment, combined antiretroviral therapy status, viral load, and current or nadir CD4 T-cell count. There was no association between CCR2 on other monocyte populations and HAND. There was a functional consequence to the increase in CCR2, as CD14+CD16+ monocytes from individuals with HAND transmigrated across our model of the human BBB in significantly higher numbers in response to its ligand chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2) compared to the cell migration that occurred in people with no cognitive deficits. It should be noted that our study had the limitation of a smaller sample size of unimpaired individuals. In contrast, there was no difference in the transmigration of other monocyte subsets across the BBB in response to CCL2 in seropositive individuals with or without HAND. Conclusions: Our findings indicate CCR2 on CD14+CD16+ monocytes is a novel peripheral blood biomarker of HAND. PMID:25340088

Williams, Dionna W.; Byrd, Desiree; Rubin, Leah H.; Anastos, Kathryn; Morgello, Susan

2014-01-01

103

HIV-1 Tat Alters Neuronal Autophagy by Modulating Autophagosome Fusion to the Lysosome: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.  

PubMed

Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in monocyte-derived cells. Despite these findings, the mechanisms leading to dysregulated autophagy in the CNS remain unclear. Here we sought to determine how HIV Tat dysregulates autophagy in neurons. Tat caused a dose-dependent decrease in autophagosome markers, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain ? II (LC3II), and sequestosome 1(SQSTM1), in a membrane-enriched fraction, suggesting Tat increases autophagic degradation. Bafilomycin A1 increased autophagosome number, LC3II, and SQSTM1 accumulation; Tat cotreatment diminished this effect. Tat had no effect when 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 blocked early stages of autophagy. Tat increased numbers of LC3 puncta and resulted in the formation of abnormal autophagosomes in vitro. Likewise, in vivo studies in GFAP-Tat tg mice showed increased autophagosome accumulation in neurons, altered LC3II levels, and neurodegeneration. These effects were reversed by rapamycin treatment. Tat colocalized with autophagosome and lysosomal markers and enhanced the colocalization of autophagosome with lysosome markers. Furthermore, co-IP studies showed that Tat interacts with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) in vitro and in vivo, and LAMP2A overexpression reduces Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Hence, Tat protein may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion through interaction with LAMP2A leading to abnormal neuronal autophagy function and dysregulated degradation of critical intracellular components. Therapies targeting Tat-mediated autophagy alterations may decrease neurodegeneration in aging patients with HAND. PMID:25653352

Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Elueteri, Simona; Campos, Sofia; Serger, Elisabeth; Trejo, Margarita; Kosberg, Kori; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; He, Johnny J; Masliah, Eliezer

2015-02-01

104

Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

2014-09-01

105

Incidence of HIV-Associated Tuberculosis among Individuals Taking Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of tuberculosis incidence and associated factors is required for the development and evaluation of strategies to reduce the burden of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Methods Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of tuberculosis incidence rates among HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy. Results From PubMed, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus databases, 42 papers describing 43 cohorts (32 from high/intermediate and 11 from low tuberculosis burden settings) were included in the qualitative review and 33 in the quantitative review. Cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings were smaller in size, had lower median CD4 cell counts at study entry and fewer person-years of follow up. Tuberculosis incidence rates were higher in studies from Sub-Saharan Africa and from World Bank low/middle income countries. Tuberculosis incidence rates decreased with increasing CD4 count at study entry and duration on combination antiretroviral therapy. Summary estimates of tuberculosis incidence among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy were higher for cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings compared to those from the low tuberculosis burden settings (4.17 per 100 person-years [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.39–5.14 per 100 person-years] vs. 0.4 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0.23–0.69 per 100 person-years]) with significant heterogeneity observed between the studies. Conclusions Tuberculosis incidence rates were high among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high/intermediate burden settings. Interventions to prevent tuberculosis in this population should address geographical, socioeconomic and individual factors such as low CD4 counts and prior history of tuberculosis. PMID:25393281

Kufa, Tendesayi; Mabuto, Tonderai; Muchiri, Evans; Charalambous, Salome; Rosillon, Dominique; Churchyard, Gavin; Harris, Rebecca C.

2014-01-01

106

Declining Gastrointestinal Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Persons: A Triumph of Science and a Challenge for Our HAARTs and Minds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections, primarily oral and esophageal candidiasis, are common in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Research early in the AIDS epidemic established a strong association between the presence of oral and esophageal candidiasis in patients complaining of odynophagia, demonstrated the diagnostic efficacy of a therapeutic trial with anti-fungal medicines,

Jean-Pierre Raufman

2005-01-01

107

HIV associated thrombotic microangiopathy  

PubMed Central

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a known complication of HIV infection. Endothelial cell injury appears to be the primary event causing platelet activation and deposition in the microvasculature. Direct cytopathic roles of HIV as well as other factors such as malignancy, drugs, and infectious agents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-TMA. Although the the majority of patients present in a more advanced stage of HIV disease, TMA can be the initial presenting symptom of HIV infection. Clinical features are those of idiopathic TMA, and the diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with new onset thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. Therapy with plasma exchange or infusion appears to be efficacious. A rapid diagnosis and institution of plasmapheresis is crucial for a favourable outcome. The long term prognosis of HIV-TMA is unfavourable and may depend on the stage of HIV infection. The recent data after the use of highly active retroviral treatment, however, are unavailable and current prognosis is therefore uncertain. PMID:12357011

Ahmed, S; Siddiqui, R; Siddiqui, A; Zaidi, S; Cervia, J

2002-01-01

108

Opportunistic Scheduling Using Channel Memory in Markov-modeled Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

estimate channel state information, while performing opportunistic multiuser scheduling. The data: opportunistic scheduling for immediate gains and channel exploration for future gains. Thus the joint scheduling opportunistic scheduling, even with minimal feedback, and a considerable portion of these gains can be realized

Schniter, Philip

109

Social-Tie-Based Information Dissemination in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks  

E-print Network

Social-Tie-Based Information Dissemination in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks Yunsheng Wang Opportunistic Social Networks Motivation Social-Tie-based Information Dissemination Tie Strength Calculation the properties of social networks and opportunistic networks #12;Motivation "The Strength of Weak Ties": Mark

Wu, Jie

110

Opportunistic media access for multirate ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 wireless media access standard supports multiple data rates at the physical layer. Moreover, various auto rate adaptation mechanisms at the medium access layer have been proposed to utilize this multi-rate capability by automatically adapting the transmission rate to best match the channel conditions. In this paper, we introduce the Opportunistic Auto Rate (OAR) protocol to better exploit

Bahareh Sadeghi; Vikram Kanodia; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Edward W. Knightly

2002-01-01

111

Opportunistic Media Access for Multirate Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 wireless media access standard supports multiple data rates at the physical layer. Moreover, vari- ous auto rate adaptation mechanisms at the medium access layer have been proposed to utilize this multi-rate capabil- ity by automatically adapting the transmission rate to best match the channel conditions. In this paper, we introduce the Opportunistic Auto Rate (OAR) protocol to

B. Sadeghi; V. Kanodia; A. Sabharwal; E. Knightly

112

Emulating Opportunistic Networks with KauNet Triggers Tanguy Prennou  

E-print Network

Emulating Opportunistic Networks with KauNet Triggers Tanguy Pérennou LAAS-CNRS & ISAE Université a demanding environ- ment for network emulation as the traditional emulation setup, where application-level emulation evaluations of applications and protocols that react to lower layer events, we have proposed

Boyer, Edmond

113

Opportunist politicians and the evolution of electoral competition  

E-print Network

Opportunist politicians and the evolution of electoral competition Jean-François Laslier CNRS Abstract We study a unidimensional model of spatial competition between two parties with two types membership decisions. 1 Introduction In this paper we use a classical model of electoral competition to study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Sinabro: Opportunistic and Unobtrusive Mobile Electrocardiogram Monitoring System  

E-print Network

) monitoring system that monitors the user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use. Daily ECG, and even sleep quality. Despite its huge potential, daily ECG monitoring still has not become reality due to its obtrusiveness. In this paper, we first study the potential opportunity to capture ECGs from daily

115

What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces  

E-print Network

community awareness in such situations. In particular, a large body of research in Computer SupportedWhat's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness

Stasko, John T.

116

What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces  

E-print Network

What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness-supported cooperative work General Terms Algorithms, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords Community awareness

Stasko, John T.

117

Modeling Opportunistic Data Delivery in Dynamic Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

opportunistically. Legacy mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocols send packets along a predetermined path between protocols. I. INTRODUCTION Dynamic wireless ad hoc networks are characterized by intermittent connectivity--In this work we examine data delivery in dynamic wireless ad hoc networks that exchange packets

Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

118

Spectrum agile radio: radio resource measurements for opportunistic spectrum usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio spectrum allocation is undergoing radical rethinking. Regulators, government agencies, industry, and the research community have recently established many initiatives for new spectrum policies and seek approaches to more efficiently manage the radio spectrum. In this paper, we examine new approaches, namely, spectrum agile radios, for opportunistic spectrum usage. Spectrum agile radios use parts of the radio spectrum that were

Stefan Mangold; Zhun Zhong; Kiran Challapali; Chun-Ting Chou

2004-01-01

119

Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development  

E-print Network

1 Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development Björn Hartmann, Scott and digital hot glue and duct tape. It is about the hacks and prototypes of lowbrow experimentation, hacking ACM Classification Keywords D.2.11. [Software Engineering]: Software Architectures -- Patterns. K

Stanford University

120

Channel Probing for Opportunistic Access with Multi-channel Sensing  

E-print Network

Channel Probing for Opportunistic Access with Multi-channel Sensing Keqin Liu, Qing Zhao University communication system consisting of multiple independent channels with time-varying states. We formulate the problem of optimal sequential channel selection as a restless multi-armed bandit process, for which

Islam, M. Saif

121

Mobile Opportunistic Planning: Methods and Models Eric Horvitz1  

E-print Network

of probabilistic user models to infer the cost of time required to execute opportunistic plans. 1 Introduction We a product, service, or experi- ence, including a consideration of the cost of time required to include to identify and alert the traveler about options for achieving one or more standing goals at minimal cost. We

Horvitz, Eric

122

Implant infections: a haven for opportunistic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insertion of implants and medical devices has emerged as a common and often life-saving procedure. A current estimate of the rate of total hip replacement in the world is approximately one million a year, and knee replacements more than 250000. More than 30% of hospitalized patients have one or more vascular catheters in place. More than 10% of hospitalized

J. M. Schierholz; J. Beuth

2001-01-01

123

Cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytes determines microglial activation and neuronal cell death in HIV-associated neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Despite highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still highly prevalent. Direct neurotoxicity of microglia activated by HIV-infected monocytes independent from viral replication may account for this observation. To investigate underlying molecular and viral determinants, human monocytoid cells (U937) transduced with HIV-particles were co-cultured with primary human microglia or astrocytes. Using genetically-engineered HIV-particles key steps of infection were examined. Levels of pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic cytokines were investigated in co-culture supernatants by flow cytometry. Neurotoxicity mediated by the supernatants was analysed using primary cortical rat neurons. To corroborate our findings, cytokine profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuropsychologically asymptomatic HIV positive (HIV(+)) patients (n=45) were correlated with neurofilament H (NfH) as surrogate of neuronal/axonal degeneration. In contrast to direct exposure of HIV to microglia, only the presence of HIV-transduced monocytoid cells strongly activated human microglia as evidenced by enhanced secretion of CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2, and IL-6 (1.3-7.1-fold; p<0.01) leading to two-fold increased neurotoxicity (p<0.001). In direct comparison, astrocyte activation by HIV-transduced monocytoid cells was limited. Using different mutant HIV-particles we show that the presence of cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytoid cells is the viral determinant for this unique microglial activation pattern and subsequent neuronal cell death; reverse transcription and expression of viral genes were not essential. In CSF of presymptomatic HIV(+) patients, CXCL10, CCL5 and IL-6 were correlated with NfH as surrogate marker of neurodegeneration as well as CSF-pleocytosis. In conclusion, cytosolic viral RNA in monocytes is mandatory for subsequent microglial activation and neurotoxicity; activated astrocytes may augment neuroinflammation. In addition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration occur even in preclinical HIV(+) patients and are associated with cytokines regulated in vitro. Our data may aid in the development of biomarkers and glia-directed therapeutic approaches of HAND. PMID:25150097

Faissner, Simon; Ambrosius, Björn; Schanzmann, Kirsten; Grewe, Bastian; Potthoff, Anja; Münch, Jan; Sure, Ulrich; Gramberg, Thomas; Wittmann, Sabine; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Uberla, Klaus; Gold, Ralf; Grunwald, Thomas; Chan, Andrew

2014-11-01

124

Effects of rosiglitazone on abnormal lipid kinetics in HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy: a stable isotope study.  

PubMed

HIV-associated dyslipemic lipodystrophy (HADL) is a heterogeneous syndrome of fat redistribution, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance, associated with markedly accelerated rates of lipolysis, intraadipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification, and very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride synthesis and release. The objective of the study was to determine if rosiglitazone can ameliorate these lipid kinetic defects in patients with HADL. Infusions of [(13)C(1)]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol were used to measure total and net lipolysis, adipocyte and hepatic reesterification, and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in 9 men with HADL, before and after 3 months of treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/d). Rosiglitazone treatment significantly increased both total lipolysis (R(a) FFA(total) from 3.37 ± 0.40 to 4.57 ± 0.68 mmol FFA per kilogram fat per hour, P < .05) and adipocyte reesterification (1.25 ± 0.35 to 2.43 ± 0.65 mmol FFA per kilogram fat per hour, P < .05). However, there was no change in net lipolysis (R(a) FFA(net) 2.47 ± 0.43 to 2.42 ± 0.37 mmol FFA per kilogram fat per hour), plasma FFA oxidation (0.30 ± 0.046 to 0.32 ± 0.04 mmol FFA per kilogram lean body mass per hour), or FFA flux available for hepatic reesterification (0.59 ± 0.07 to 0.56 ± 0.10 mmol FFA per kilogram fat per hour). There were significant decreases in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, but not in fasting plasma lipid or glucose concentrations. There was a significant decrease in waist to hip ratio (0.98 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02, P < .05) consistent with a significant increase in hip circumference (0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02 m, P < .05), without change in waist circumference. Rosiglitazone significantly increased adipocyte reesterification and improved insulin sensitivity, but the potential benefit of these changes was compromised by increase in total lipolysis. Combining rosiglitazone with agents designed to blunt lipolysis could expand depleted peripheral adipose depots in patients with HIV lipodystrophy. PMID:20832829

Sekhar, Rajagopal V; Patel, Sanjeet G; D'Amico, Susana; Shi, Jianjian; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Rehman, Khaleel; Jahoor, Farook; Visnegarwala, Fehmida

2011-06-01

125

Immunohistochemical analysis of cell composition and in situ cytokine expression in HIV- and non-HIV-associated tuberculous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory cells in lymph nodes of eighteen patients suffering from culture-proven tuberculous lymphadenitis were examined by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Ten patients suffered from symptomatic HIV-infection and eight patients were immunocompetent individuals without HIV-1 serology. Characteristic granulomas with or without caseation were observed in eight immunocompetent and four HIV-1-infected patients with less marked lymphopenia of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. No epitheloid cell formation was present in lymph nodes of HIV1-infected patients with more severe depression of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocyte count. Foamy macrophages were found instead of these cells. While many cells--predominantly lymphocytes--express CD25 (IL-2 receptor) in cases with typical epitheloid granulomas there is no such CD25 expression in cases without any epitheloid cell formation. This result suggest that T cell function is necessary for epitheloid granuloma formation in human tuberculosis. The phenotype of macrophages underwent progressive changes parallel to decreasing numbers of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. Foamy macrophages in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection represented an end-stage phenotype. They were positive for S100 protein and they did not express lysozyme, alpha-1-anti-chymotrypsin, L1 antigen (Mac387) and CD4, whereas positivity for HLA-DR, CD68 and Ki-M8 was preserved. In situ immunohistochemical demonstration of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 revealed that foamy cells in M. tuberculosis infection were highly active effector cells. They contained higher concentrations of the examined cytokines than epitheloid cells in the lesions of HIV+ and HIV-patients. Corresponding to these findings the histological proof of acid-fast bacilli was generally not successful in typical HIV-associated tuberculosis. The foamy appearance may result from the lipid-rich cell membranes of destroyed acid-fast bacilli. In contrast acid-fast bacilli-packed foamy macrophages in AIDS patients with M. avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection did not produce any of the examined cytokines. PMID:7713549

Müller, H; Krüger, S

1994-10-01

126

Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS Methods Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. Results At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Conclusions Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. PMID:23068916

Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T.

2014-01-01

127

Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success  

SciTech Connect

Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2011-01-01

128

Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals  

PubMed Central

Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

2013-01-01

129

Experience and challenges presented by a multicenter crossover study of combination analgesic therapy for the treatment of painful HIV-associated polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Objective There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared to placebo. Design This study was a phase II, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover multi-center study of analgesic therapy for patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain due to HIV-associated polyneuropathy. Duloxetine, methadone, combination duloxetine-methadone, and placebo were administered in four different possible sequences. The primary outcome measure was mean pain intensity (MPI) measured daily in a study-supplied pain diary. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled from 8 study sites and 8 patients completed the entire trial. Study treatments failed to show statistically significant change in MPI compared to placebo. Adverse events were frequent and associated with high rates of drug discontinuation and study drop-out. Conclusions Challenges with participant recruitment and poor retention precluded trial completion to its planned targets, limiting our evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of the study treatments. Challenges to successful completion of this study and lessons learned are discussed. PMID:23565581

Harrison, Taylor; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lee, Anthony; Evans, Scott; Bastow, Barbara; Simpson, David; Gilron, Ian; Dworkin, Robert; Daar, Eric S.; Wieclaw, Linda; Clifford, David B.

2014-01-01

130

Improvement of fat redistribution, insulin resistance and hepatic fatty infiltration in HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome by pioglitazone: a case report.  

PubMed

HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome is a syndrome occurring in HIV-infected patients who were treated with highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially regimen containing protease inhibitors. The syndrome consists of fat redistribution, with loss of subcutaneous fat and increase in visceral fat, and metabolic disturbances, including glucose intolerance or overt diabetes and dyslipidemia. No standard treatment has been established for this syndrome. Pioglitazone is an oral antidiabetic agent that acts primarily on adipose tissue to reduce insulin resistance. The authors report a 50-year old HIV-infected woman who developed HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome after 3 months of HAART. She had significant weight loss with obvious loss of subcutaneous fat, together with development of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. After treatment with 30 milligrams of pioglitazone daily, her body weight increased within the first month of treatment. Subcutaneous fat loss was restored. Improvement in glycemic and lipid control was also noted. CT scan of the abdomen revealed that fatty infiltration in the liver was markedly decreased. Visceral fat as assessed by CT scan had also decreased. Pioglitazone appeared to have beneficial effects in this patient. PMID:15061300

Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Bunnag, Pongamorn

2004-02-01

131

Towards a Resource Reservation Approach for an Opportunistic Computing Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced reservation has been used in grid environments to provide quality of service (QoS) and to guarantee resources available at the execution time. However, in grid subtypes, such as opportunistic grid computing, it is a challenge provides QoS and guarantee of availability resources. In this article, we propose a new advanced reservation approach which offers to a user the possibility to select resources in advance for a future utilization. Therefore, the main goal of this proposal is to offer a best effort feature to a user from an opportunistic configuration. In these types of environments, it is not possible to provide QoS, because, usually, there are no guarantees of resources availability and, consequently, the execution of users applications. In addition, this research work provides a way to organize executions, what it can improve the scheduling and system operations. Experimental results, carried out through a case study, shown the efficiency and relevance of our proposal.

Gomes, Eliza; Dantas, M. A. R.

2014-10-01

132

Social-based autonomic routing in opportunistic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In opportunistic networks end-to-end communication between users does not require a continuous end-to-end path between source and destination. Network protocols are designed to be extremely resilient to events such as long partitions, node disconnections, etc, which are very features of this type of self-organizing ad hoc networks. This is achieved by temporarily storing messages at intermediate nodes, waiting for future opportunities to forward them towards the destination. The mobility of users plays a key role in opportunistic networks. Thus, providing accurate models of mobility patterns is one of the key research areas. In this chapter we firstly focus on this issue, with special emphasis on a class of social-aware models. These models are based on the observation that people move because they are attracted towards other people they have social relationships with, or towards physical places that have special meaning with respect to their social behavior. Another key research area in opportunistic networks is clearly designing routing and forwarding schemes. In this chapter we provide a survey of the main approaches to routing in purely infrastructure-less opportunistic networks, by classifying protocols based on the amount of context information they exploit.We then provide an extensive quantitative comparison between representatives of protocols that do not use any context information, and protocols that manage and exploit a rich set of context information. We mainly focus on the suitability of protocols to adapt to the dynamically changing network features, as resulting from the user movement patterns that are driven by their social behavior. Our results show that context-aware routing is extremely adaptive to dynamic networking scenarios, and, with respect to protocols that do not use any context information, is able to provide similar performance in terms of delay and loss rate, by using just a small fraction of the network resources.

Boldrini, Chiara; Conti, Marco; Passarella, Andrea

133

Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Impact of HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. Methods and Findings 498 adults initiating ART in Durban, South Africa were followed prospectively for 24 weeks. IRIS diagnosis was based on consensus expert opinion, and classified by mode of presentation (paradoxical worsening of known opportunistic infection [OI] or unmasking of subclinical disease). 114 patients (22.9%) developed IRIS (36% paradoxical, 64% unmasking). Mucocutaneous conditions accounted for 68% of IRIS events, mainly folliculitis, warts, genital ulcers and herpes zoster. Tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 25% of IRIS events. 18/135 (13.3%) patients with major pre-ART OIs (e.g. TB, cryptococcosis) developed paradoxical IRIS related to the same OI. Risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline viral load >5.5 vs. <4.5 log10 (adjusted hazard ratio 7.23; 95% confidence interval 1.35–38.76) and ?30 vs. >30 days of OI treatment prior to ART (2.66; 1.16–6.09). Unmasking IRIS related to major OIs occurred in 25/498 patients (5.0%), and risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline C-reactive protein ?25 vs. <25 mg/L (2.77; 1.31–5.85), haemoglobin <10 vs. >12 g/dL (3.36; 1.32–8.52), ?10% vs. <10% weight loss prior to ART (2.31; 1.05–5.11) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on pre-ART chest x-ray (9.15; 4.10–20.42). IRIS accounted for 6/25 (24%) deaths, 13/65 (20%) hospitalizations and 10/35 (29%) ART interruptions or discontinuations. Conclusion IRIS occurred in almost one quarter of patients initiating ART, and accounted for one quarter of deaths in the first 6 months. Priority strategies to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity and mortality in ART programmes include earlier ART initiation before onset of advanced immunodeficiency, improved pre-ART screening for TB and cryptococcal infection, optimization of OI therapy prior to ART initiation, more intensive clinical monitoring in initial weeks of ART, and education of health care workers and patients about IRIS. PMID:23152745

Haddow, Lewis John; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus Suleman; Mosam, Anisa; Moodley, Pravi; Parboosing, Raveen; Easterbrook, Philippa Jane

2012-01-01

134

The use of an electronic checklist in the electronic patient record to achieve annually recommended outcomes based on British HIV Association guidelines.  

PubMed

An electronic search was performed of the electronic patient record (EPR) system to identify whether each of 13 key interventions recommended by the British HIV Association (BHIVA) had been performed for all eligible patients attending in 2009 and 2010 at one of our HIV clinics: 345 and 358 eligible HIV-positive patients were identified in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The success rates for having completed each intervention in 2009 and 2010, respectively, were all better for 2010 and none was <94%. These improved results in 2010 over those of 2009 could be attributed to the clinicians' improved experience in using the checklist and the facility of EPR to provide flagged reminders. PMID:22844008

Malhotra, Y; Singh, S; Brook, M G

2012-07-01

135

Adaptive Phase Rolling for Opportunistic Beamforming in OFDMA Systems with a Small Number of Users  

PubMed Central

The performance of opportunistic beamforming might be degraded if the number of users is small. This paper proposes an adaptive opportunistic beamforming technique for orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems, which can produce good results even with a small number of users. This paper also proposes a modified proportional fairness scheduling algorithm, which can further improve the performance of the proposed opportunistic beamforming technique. PMID:24892062

Rim, Minjoong

2014-01-01

136

The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12)  

PubMed Central

The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms. PMID:23560871

Weiss, Louis M.; Cushion, Melanie T.; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P.; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.

2013-01-01

137

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

138

Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

Brodeur, Jacques

2012-01-01

139

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and  

E-print Network

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected to the care of HIV-infected infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant women whose work and advocacy saved for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children: Panel

Bandettini, Peter A.

140

ForPeerReview Markov-modeled Downlink Environment: Opportunistic Multiuser  

E-print Network

by a two-state Markov chain. The scheduler indirectly estimates the channel via accumulated Automatic.g., [2]­[6]) to study the performance gains obtained by opportunistic scheduling under various scenariosForPeerReview Markov-modeled Downlink Environment: Opportunistic Multiuser Scheduling

Schniter, Philip

141

Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel  

E-print Network

Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC Yang Liu1, Mingyan Liu1 and Jing Deng2 1 Department of Electrical Engineering of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single

Liu, Mingyan

142

OLFServ: an Opportunistic and Location-Aware Forwarding Protocol for Service Delivery in  

E-print Network

OLFServ: an Opportunistic and Location-Aware Forwarding Protocol for Service Delivery operators. This paper presents OLFServ, a new opportunistic and location-aware forwarding protocol for service discovery and delivery in DMANETs composed of numerous mobile devices. This protocol implements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

MOON: MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

MOON: MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments Heshan Lin Virginia Tech hlin2@cs.vt.edu Xiaosong Ma this, we propose MOON, short for MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments. MOON extends Hadoop, an open, demonstrate that MOON can deliver a three-fold performance improvement to Hadoop in volatile, volunteer

Ma, Xiaosong

144

HIV-associated tuberculosis: relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing mortality from HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) requires diagnostic tools that are rapid and have high sensitivity among patients with poor prognosis. We determined the relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays. Methods Consecutive ambulatory patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa were screened for TB regardless of symptoms using diagnostic assays prospectively applied to sputum (fluorescence smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF and liquid culture (reference standard)) and retrospectively applied to stored urine samples (Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF). Assay sensitivities were calculated stratified according to pre-defined indices of disease severity: CD4 count, symptom intensity, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin concentration and vital status at 90 days. Results Sputum culture-positive TB was diagnosed in 15% (89/602) of patients screened and data from 86 patients were analyzed (median CD4 count, 131 cells/?L) including 6 (7%) who died. The sensitivity of sputum microscopy was 26.7% overall and varied relatively little with disease severity. In marked contrast, the sensitivities of urine-based and sputum-based diagnosis using Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays were substantially greater in sub-groups with poorer prognosis. Rapid diagnosis from sputum and/or urine samples was possible in >80% of patients in sub-groups with poor prognosis as defined by either CD4 counts <100 cells/?L, advanced symptoms, CRP concentrations >200 mg/L or hemoglobin <8.0 g/dl. Retrospective testing of urine samples with Determine TB-LAM correctly identified all those with TB who died. Conclusions The sensitivities of Xpert MTB/RIF and Determine TB-LAM for HIV-associated TB were highest among HIV-infected patients with the most advanced disease and poorest prognostic characteristics. These data provide strong justification for large-scale intervention studies that assess the impact on survival of screening using these new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic approaches. PMID:24168211

2013-01-01

145

HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Malawian Adults and Effect on Adherence to Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence and burden of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HAND in adult Malawians on cART and investigated the relationship between HAND and adherence to cART. Methods HIV positive adults in Blantyre, Malawi underwent a full medical history, neurocognitive test battery, depression score, Karnofsky Performance Score and adherence assessment. The Frascati criteria were used to diagnose HAND and the Global Deficit Score (GDS) was also assessed. Blood was drawn for CD4 count and plasma nevirapine and efavirenz concentrations. HIV negative adults were recruited from the HIV testing clinic to provide normative scores for the neurocognitive battery. Results One hundred and six HIV positive patients, with median (range) age 39 (18–71) years, 73% female and median (range) CD4 count 323.5 (68–1039) cells/µl were studied. Symptomatic neurocognitive impairment was present in 15% (12% mild neurocognitive disorder [MND], 3% HIV associated dementia [HAD]). A further 55% fulfilled Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI); however factors other than neurocognitive impairment could have confounded this estimate. Neither the symptomatic (MND and HAD) nor asymptomatic (ANI) forms of HAND were associated with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz concentrations, adjusted odds ratio 1.44 (CI. 0.234, 8.798; p?=?0.696) and aOR 0.577 (CI. 0.09, 3.605; p?=?0.556) respectively. All patients with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz levels had a GDS of less than 0.6, consistent with normal neurocognition. Discussion/Conclusion Fifteen percent of adult Malawians on cART had a diagnosis of MND or HAD. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations were found exclusively in patients with normal neurocognitive function suggesting HAND did not affect cART adherence. Further study of HAND requires more robust locally derived normative neurocognitive values and determination of the clinical relevance of ANI. PMID:24915530

Kelly, Christine M.; van Oosterhout, Joep J.; Ngwalo, Chisomo; Stewart, Robert C.; Benjamin, Laura; Robertson, Kevin R.; Khoo, Saye; Allain, Theresa J.; Solomon, Tom

2014-01-01

146

Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

2014-01-01

147

Evolution of virulence in opportunistic pathogens: generalism, plasticity, and control  

PubMed Central

Standard virulence evolution theory assumes that virulence factors are maintained because they aid parasitic exploitation, increasing growth within and/or transmission between hosts. An increasing number of studies now demonstrate that many opportunistic pathogens (OPs) do not conform to these assumptions, with virulence factors maintained instead because of advantages in non-parasitic contexts. Here we review virulence evolution theory in the context of OPs and highlight the importance of incorporating environments outside a focal virulence site. We illustrate that virulence selection is constrained by correlations between these external and focal settings and pinpoint drivers of key environmental correlations, with a focus on generalist strategies and phenotypic plasticity. We end with a summary of key theoretical and empirical challenges to be met for a fuller understanding of OPs. PMID:22564248

Brown, Sam P.; Cornforth, Daniel M.; Mideo, Nicole

2012-01-01

148

Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

1991-01-01

149

Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling With Two-Level Probing  

E-print Network

Distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) is studied for wireless ad-hoc networks in which many links contend for the channel using random access before data transmissions. Simply put, DOS involves a process of joint channel probing and distributed scheduling for ad-hoc (peer-to-peer) communications. Since, in practice, link conditions are estimated with noisy observations, the transmission rate has to be backed off from the estimated rate to avoid transmission outages. Then, a natural question to ask is whether it is worthwhile for the link with successful contention to perform further channel probing to mitigate estimation errors, at the cost of additional probing. Thus motivated, this work investigates DOS with two-level channel probing by optimizing the tradeoff between the throughput gain from more accurate rate estimation and the resulting additional delay. Capitalizing on optimal stopping theory with incomplete information, we show that the optimal scheduling policy is threshold-based and is character...

S., Chandrashekhar Thejaswi P; Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent; Zheng, Dong

2009-01-01

150

An opportunistic theory of cellular and systems consolidation  

PubMed Central

Memories are often classified as hippocampus-dependent or –independent, and sleep has been found to facilitate both, but in different ways. In this Opinion article, we explore the optimal neural state for cellular and systems consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories that benefit from sleep. We suggest that these two kinds of consolidation, which are ordinarily treated separately, may overlap in time and jointly benefit from a period of reduced interference (during which no new memories are formed). Conditions that result in reduced interference include slow wave sleep (SWS), NMDA receptor antagonists, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and acetylcholine antagonists. We hypothesize that the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories may not depend on SWS per se. Instead, the brain opportunistically consolidates previously encoded memories whenever the hippocampus is not otherwise occupied by the task of encoding new memories. PMID:21742389

Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Shuman, Tristan; Anagnostaras, Stephan; Wixted, John

2011-01-01

151

Antimicrobial activity of Hedeoma drummondii against opportunistic pathogens.  

PubMed

Hedeoma drummondii is a medicinal plant with diverse properties; however, validations of its medicinal uses are scarce. To evaluate its antimicrobial properties H. drummondii, was tested against opportunistic pathogens of medical importance. Antimicrobial tests were performed by the microdilution method in order to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for each extract. Extracts of this plant showed relevant antimicrobial activity, results revealed that the hexanic extract has stronger activity and broader spectrum compared to acetone and methanol extracts. The activity of hexanic extract may be attributed mainly to the presence of the monoterpenes pulegone and menthol. In conclusion, the hexanic extract possess relevant antibacterial properties which suggests that H. drummondii have bioactive principles; these new data provide scientific support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine, particularly for gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:21870634

Viveros-Valdez, E; Rivas-Morales, C; Oranday-Cardenas, A; Verde-Star, M J; Carranza-Rosales, P

2011-02-15

152

Objective evidence for the use of polylactic acid implants in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy using three-dimensional surface laser scanning and psychological assessment.  

PubMed

The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although patients often have excellent disease control with these combinations of antiretrovirals, they are at risk for the multiple toxicities associated with these drugs. Facial lipoatrophy is a particularly distressing complication of some HAART regimes. This disfigurement can lead to significant psychosocial stress, resulting in decreased treatment compliance. Polylactic acid (PLA) facial implants provide a potential method of restoring a normal appearance. One hundred consecutive patients had a course of PLA facial implants. All patients were assessed clinically and had photographs, facial surface laser scans and completed psychological questionnaires throughout the course of treatment. After a mean of 4.85 treatments per patient, there were improvements in all measures. The mean clinical scores improved from a moderate-severe grade to none-mild grade after treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) laser surface scans showed a volume increase of 2.81 cc over the treated area of the cheek. There were significant improvements in all of the psychological measures. This study shows clear objective evidence of the psychological and physical benefit of PLA implants in HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy. PMID:19036657

Ong, J; Clarke, A; White, P; Johnson, M A; Withey, S; Butler, P E M

2009-12-01

153

Intra-individual Neurocognitive Variability Confers Risk of Dependence in Activities of Daily Living among HIV-Seropositive Individuals without HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the strong predictors of everyday functioning difficulties, approximately half of all functionally impaired individuals are labeled “neurocognitively normal” according to the standard neuropsychological measures, suggesting that novel predictors of functional problems in this prevalent subgroup are needed. The present study hypothesized that increased neurocognitive intra-individual variability as indexed by dispersion would be associated with poor daily functioning among 82 persons with HIV infection who did not meet research criteria for HAND. An intra-individual standard deviation was calculated across the demographically adjusted T-scores of 13 standard neuropsychological tests to represent dispersion, and functional outcomes included self-reported declines in basic and instrumental activities of daily functioning (basic activity of daily living [BADL] and instrumental activity of daily living [IADL], respectively) and medication management. Dispersion was a significant predictor of medication adherence and dependence in both BADL and IADL, even when other known predictors of functional status (i.e., age, affective distress, and indices of disease severity) were included in the models. As a significant and unique predictor of a performance on the range of daily functioning activities, neurocognitive dispersion may be indicative of deficient cognitive control expressed as inefficient regulation of neurocognitive resources in the context of competing functional demands. As such, dispersion may have clinical utility in detecting risk for functional problems among HIV-infected individuals without HAND. PMID:22337933

Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor

2012-01-01

154

Short-term efficacy of the IL6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease: report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection HIV associated MCD (HIV-MCD) presents with various clinical symptoms. Many HIV-negative MCD patients are often treated with anti-human interleukin-6 (IL6) receptor monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), and successful results have been reported. IL-6 plays an important role in the development of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MCD; however, the efficacy of tocilizumab in HIV-MCD patients is unknown. We herein report the clinical and biologic courses of two HIV-MCD patients treated with tocilizumab. In both cases, a significant and rapid clinical improvement was observed after the first infusion. However, the treatment efficacy was not maintained for a long period, and relapse occurred at 15 and 22 weeks, respectively. Both patients received rituximab and subsequently achieved complete clinical remission. Our report, in addition to data presented in the literature, suggests that tocilizumab could be an initial treatment option in patients with HIV-MCD. PMID:24438824

2014-01-01

155

Dishwashers are a major source of human opportunistic yeast-like fungi in indoor environments in Mersin, Turkey.  

PubMed

The natural habitat of opportunistic fungal pathogens is outside of the host; therefore, it is crucial to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of black and filamentous fungi in moist indoor environments in the city of Mersin in subtropical Turkey. In total, 177 private dwellings were screened and 893 samples obtained using cotton swabs and moistened with physiological saline from dishwashers, washing machines, refrigerators, bath-tubs, bathroom walls, and shower heads. These were then inoculated onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, followed by incubation at 37°C. Thirty samples (3.4%) were positive for fungi, which were then identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. Exophiala dermatitidis was the most common species (23), followed by E. phaeomuriformis (three), Magnusiomyces capitatus (two), and Candida parapsilosis (two). Genotype A of E. dermatitidis (14) was more prevalent than genotypes B (eight) and C (one) and E. phaeomuriformis was also represented by two genotypes. Our findings suggest that dishwashers are a major indoor niche for thermophilic black yeasts. The occurrence of the opportunistic filamentous fungus M. capitatus in dishwashers is consistent with a recent report. PMID:23167707

Dö?en, Aylin; Kaplan, Engin; Oksüz, Zehra; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

2013-07-01

156

Trends in AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Illnesses Incidence over 25 Years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the temporal trends in incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in an urban cohort of a middle-income country. Methods HIV infected patients aged ?18 years at cohort entry were included in this analysis. We calculated incidence rates per 1000 persons-years of observation for the first opportunistic illness presented after cohort enrollment, from 1987 to 2012. Trends for overall and specific opportunistic illnesses were tested and incidence rate ratios for the most recent calendar period were calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate observed in the most recent period of the study (2009–2012) and the incidence rate observed in first period of the study (1987–1990). Results Overall, 3378 patients were included in this analysis; of which 1119 (33%) patients presented an opportunistic illness during follow up. Incidence rates of all opportunistic illnesses decreased over time, and the overall opportunistic illness incidence rates fell from 295.4/1000 persons-years in 1987–1990 to 34.6/1000 persons-years in 2009–2012. Tuberculosis, esophageal candidiasis, cerebral toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most incident opportunistic illnesses in the cohort. Tuberculosis had the highest incidence rate in the study period. The peak in tuberculosis incidence occurred in 1991–1993 (80.8/1000 persons-years). Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the third most incident opportunistic illness in the study, with a peak of incidence of 43.6/1000 persons-year in 1987–1990. Conclusions All opportunistic illnesses incidence rates decreased over the years but they still occur in an unacceptable frequency. Tuberculosis co-infection among HIV-infected persists as an important challenge for health care professionals and policy makers in our setting. Impressively high rates of cerebral toxoplasmosis were found suggesting that its incidence among HIV-infected is linked to the high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the general population. PMID:24901419

Coelho, Lara; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Amancio, Rodrigo Teixeira; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismério; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula Mendes

2014-01-01

157

Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

2012-01-01

158

Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV/AIDS opportunistic conditions considered during the study were Tuberculosis (TB), Herpes zoster (Shingles), Herpes simplex (Genital herpes), Oral candidiasis and Cryptococcal meningitis. Other symptomatic but undefined conditions considered were skin rashes and chronic diarrhea. Methods An open-ended semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting field information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data collected. Factor of informant consensus (Fic) was used to analyze the ethnobotanical importance of the plants. Results In the present study, 75 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 41 families were found to be used to treat one or more HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. The study revealed that TB and oral candidiasis were the most common manifestations of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections affecting most of the population in the area. It unveils the first detailed account of ethnomedical documentation of plants focusing the management of HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. Conclusion It is concluded that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed to drugs for the management of the HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. PMID:17623081

Kisangau, Daniel P; Lyaruu, Herbert VM; Hosea, Ken M; Joseph, Cosam C

2007-01-01

159

Poster Abstract: User-Centric Radio Power Control for Opportunistic Mountain Hiking Networks  

E-print Network

Poster Abstract: User-Centric Radio Power Control for Opportunistic Mountain Hiking Networks Jyh, and deploy it in a national park. Upon our observation, when two or more hikers meet on the hiking trail

Ouhyoung, Ming

160

Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007  

E-print Network

opportunistic events, the first guidelines for management ofevents were diagnosed by pediatricians with experience in managementand management of HIV infection, despite the significant reduction in the incidence of this event.

Ramos, Alberto N; Matida, Luiza H; Hearst, Norman; Heukelbach, Jorg

2011-01-01

161

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

162

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

163

Human Synaptic Plasticity Gene Expression Profile and Dendritic Spine Density Changes in HIV-Infected Human CNS Cells: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occur in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. Our current understanding of HAND emanates mainly from HIV-1 subtype B (clade B), which is prevalent in USA and Western countries. However very little information is available on neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 subtype C (clade C) that exists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Therefore, studies to identify specific neuropathogenic mechanisms associated with HAND are worth pursuing to dissect the mechanisms underlying this modulation and to prevent HAND particularly in clade B infection. In this study, we have investigated 84 key human synaptic plasticity genes differential expression profile in clade B and clade C infected primary human astrocytes by using RT2 Profile PCR Array human Synaptic Plasticity kit. Among these, 31 and 21 synaptic genes were significantly (?3 fold) down-regulated and 5 genes were significantly (?3 fold) up-regulated in clade B and clade C infected cells, respectively compared to the uninfected control astrocytes. In flow-cytometry analysis, down-regulation of postsynaptic density and dendrite spine morphology regulatory proteins (ARC, NMDAR1 and GRM1) was confirmed in both clade B and C infected primary human astrocytes and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Further, spine density and dendrite morphology changes by confocal microscopic analysis indicates significantly decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells compared to uninfected and clade C infected cells. We have also observed that, in clade B infected astrocytes, induction of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the clade C infected astrocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that down-regulation of synaptic plasticity genes, decreased dendritic spine density and induction of apoptosis in astrocytes may contribute to the severe neuropathogenesis in clade B infection. PMID:23620748

Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Kanthikeel, Sudheesh P.; Reddy, Pichili V. B.; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

2013-01-01

164

Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

2014-01-01

165

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: a case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuroHIV research.  

PubMed

The Australian HIV-infected (HIV+) population is largely comprised of high-functioning men who have sex with men (MSM). Like other English-speaking countries, Australia mostly relies on US neuropsychological normative standards to detect and determine the prevalence of neurological disorders. Whether the US neuropsychological (NP) normative standards are appropriate in Australian HIV+ MSM has not been established. Ninety virally suppressed HIV+ and 49 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men (respectively 86 and 85 % self-reported MSM; mean age 54 and 56 years, mean premorbid verbal IQ estimate 110 and 111) undertook standard NP testing. The raw neuropsychological data were transformed using the following: (1) US standards as uncorrected scaled scores and demographically corrected T scores (US norms); and (2) z scores (without demographic corrections) derived from Australian comparison group scaled scores (local norms). To determine HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder prevalence, we used a standard definition of impairment based upon a battery-wide summary score: the global deficit score (GDS). Impairment classification (GDS???0.5) based on the local norms was best at discriminating between the two groups (HIV-?=?14.3 % vs. HIV+?=?53.3 %; p?

Cysique, Lucette A; Heaton, Robert K; Kamminga, Jody; Lane, Tammy; Gates, Thomas M; Moore, Danielle M; Hubner, Emma; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J

2014-06-01

166

Bacteria and tumours: causative agents or opportunistic inhabitants?  

PubMed Central

Associations between different bacteria and various tumours have been reported in patients for decades. Studies involving characterisation of bacteria within tumour tissues have traditionally been in the context of tumourigenesis as a result of bacterial presence within healthy tissues, and in general, dogma holds that such bacteria are causative agents of malignancy (directly or indirectly). While evidence suggests that this may be the case for certain tumour types and bacterial species, it is plausible that in many cases, clinical observations of bacteria within tumours arise from spontaneous infection of established tumours. Indeed, growth of bacteria specifically within tumours following deliberate systemic administration has been demonstrated for numerous bacterial species at preclinical and clinical levels. We present the available data on links between bacteria and tumours, and propose that besides the few instances in which pathogens are playing a pathogenic role in cancer, in many instances, the prevalent relationship between solid tumours and bacteria is opportunistic rather than causative, and discuss opportunities for exploiting tumour-specific bacterial growth for cancer treatment. PMID:23537317

2013-01-01

167

Community-based immunization in opportunistic social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunizing important nodes has been shown to be an effective solution to suppress the epidemic spreading. Most studies focus on the globally important nodes in a network, but neglect the locally important nodes in different communities. We claim that given the temporal community feature of opportunistic social networks (OSN), this strategy has a biased understanding of the epidemic dynamics, leading us to conjecture that it is not 'the more central, the better' for the implementation of control strategy. In this paper, we track the evolution of community structure and study the effect of community-based immunization strategy on epidemic spreading. We first break the OSN traces down into different communities, and find that the community structure helps to delay the outbreak of epidemic. We then evaluate the local importance of nodes in communities, and show that immunizing nodes with high local importance can remarkably suppress the epidemic. More interestingly, we find that high local importance but non-central nodes play a big role in epidemic spreading process, removing them improves the immunization efficiency by 25% to 150% at different scenarios.

Yuan, Peiyan; Tang, Shaojie

2015-02-01

168

Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

2010-01-01

169

A parallel genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling of the frontal cortex of HIV patients with and without HIV-associated dementia shows the role of axon guidance and downstream pathways in HIV-mediated neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy. Results A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly occurs through the interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways. These data provide an excellent avenue for the development of new generation of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic intervention strategies for HIV-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:23190615

2012-01-01

170

Genome-Wide Patterns of Recombination in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of acute nosocomial infections as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent reports of the intercontinental spread of a CF-specific epidemic strain, combined with high intrinsic levels of antibiotic resistance, have made this opportunistic pathogen an important public health concern. Strain-specific differences correlate with variation in clinical outcomes of infected CF patients, increasing the urgency to understand the evolutionary origin of genetic factors conferring important phenotypes that enable infection, virulence, or resistance. Here, we describe the genome-wide patterns of homologous and nonhomologous recombination in P. aeruginosa, and the extent to which the genomes are affected by these diversity-generating processes. Based on whole-genome sequence data from 32 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, we examined the rate and distribution of recombination along the genome, and its effect on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that recombination was common and usually involves short stretches of DNA (200-300 bp). Although mutation was the main source of nucleotide diversity, the import of polymorphisms by homologous recombination contributed nearly as much. We also identified the genomic regions with frequent recombination, and the specific sequences of recombinant origin within epidemic strains. The functional characteristics of the genes contained therein were examined for potential associations with a pathogenic lifestyle or adaptation to the CF lung environment. A common link between many of the high-recombination genes was their functional affiliation with the cell wall, suggesting that the products of recombination may be maintained by selection for variation in cell-surface molecules that allows for evasion of the host immune system. PMID:25480685

Dettman, Jeremy R; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Kassen, Rees

2014-01-01

171

Genome-Wide Patterns of Recombination in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of acute nosocomial infections as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent reports of the intercontinental spread of a CF-specific epidemic strain, combined with high intrinsic levels of antibiotic resistance, have made this opportunistic pathogen an important public health concern. Strain-specific differences correlate with variation in clinical outcomes of infected CF patients, increasing the urgency to understand the evolutionary origin of genetic factors conferring important phenotypes that enable infection, virulence, or resistance. Here, we describe the genome-wide patterns of homologous and nonhomologous recombination in P. aeruginosa, and the extent to which the genomes are affected by these diversity-generating processes. Based on whole-genome sequence data from 32 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, we examined the rate and distribution of recombination along the genome, and its effect on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that recombination was common and usually involves short stretches of DNA (200–300 bp). Although mutation was the main source of nucleotide diversity, the import of polymorphisms by homologous recombination contributed nearly as much. We also identified the genomic regions with frequent recombination, and the specific sequences of recombinant origin within epidemic strains. The functional characteristics of the genes contained therein were examined for potential associations with a pathogenic lifestyle or adaptation to the CF lung environment. A common link between many of the high-recombination genes was their functional affiliation with the cell wall, suggesting that the products of recombination may be maintained by selection for variation in cell-surface molecules that allows for evasion of the host immune system. PMID:25480685

Dettman, Jeremy R.; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Kassen, Rees

2015-01-01

172

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

173

Within-year differences in reproductive investment in laboratory zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ), an opportunistically breeding bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction in opportunistically breeding bird species has traditionally been considered non-seasonal with individuals taking\\u000a advantage of favourable environmental conditions as they arise. However, some studies imply that this opportunistic breeding\\u000a may be superimposed on an underlying seasonality, which has effects on the readiness to breed when conditions are favourable.\\u000a The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is the classic opportunistic breeder and

Kathryn Williamson; Lucy Gilbert; Alison N. Rutstein; Emma C. Pariser; Jeff A. Graves

2008-01-01

174

A randomized controlled trial of HAART versus HAART and chemotherapy in therapy-naïve patients with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal approach to HIV-associated KS (HIV-KS) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. With large-scale rollout of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa, we hypothesized survival in HIV-KS would improve and administration of chemotherapy in addition to HAART would be feasible and improve KS-specific outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment-naïve patients from King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, a public-sector tertiary referral center, with HIV-KS, but no symptomatic visceral disease or fungating lesions requiring urgent chemotherapy, were randomized to HAART alone or HAART and chemotherapy (CXT). HAART arm received stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Triomune®); CXT arm received Triomune® plus bleomycin, doxorubicin, and vincristine (ABV) every 3 weeks. When ABV was not available, oral etoposide (50-100 mg days 1-21 of a 28 day cycle) was substituted. Primary outcome was overall KS response using AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria 12 months after HAART initiation. Secondary comparisons included: time to response, progression-free survival, overall survival, adverse events, HIV control, CD4 reconstitution, adherence and quality-of-life. Results 59 subjects were randomized to HAART, 53 to CXT. 12-month overall KS response was 39% in the HAART arm and 66% in the CXT arm (difference 27%; 95% CI 9%-43%, p=0.005). At 12 months, 77% were alive (no survival difference between arms, p=0.49), 82% had HIV viral load <50 copies/mL without difference between arms, (p=0.47); CD4 counts and QOL measures improved in all patients. Conclusions HAART with chemotherapy produced higher overall KS response over 12 months, while HAART alone provided similar improvement in survival and select measures of morbidity. In Africa, with high prevalence of HIV and HHV-8 and limited resources, HAART alone provides important benefit in patients with HIV-KS. PMID:22395672

Mosam, Anisa; Shaik, Fahmida; Uldrick, Thomas S.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Friedland, Gerald H.; Scadden, David T.; Aboobaker, Jamila; Coovadia, Hoosen M.

2012-01-01

175

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

176

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

177

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

178

Feeding Habits And Natural Diet of the Intertidal Crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic Browser or Selective Feeder?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to identify the feeding habits of the European intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus . Since this species is widely distributed in southern Europe, four south-western European sites far apart from each other were selected: southern Portugal, central Portugal, central Tyrrhenian coast, Italy, and northern Adriatic coast, Istria. In summer, crabs were collected and the contents of their stomachs were assessed in the laboratory. In parallel, at each collection site the relative abundance of algae species and of sessile and slow-moving animals was assessed for comparison with the relative frequency of the same items in the P. marmoratus diet. The detailed analysis of its feeding habits showed that this species is omnivorous but that it cannot simply be considered an opportunistic feeder. In all populations, algal and animal diet components were almost equally abundant; thus these crabs actively regulate their feeding to cope with the dietary needs of their fast-moving, semi-terrestrial life-style. Descriptive and quantitative analyses showed that P. marmoratus has definite preferences for animal prey and algae. Limpets and mussels proved to be the commonest prey, followed by conspecific crabs. The highly preferred plant item was filamentous algae, although corticated macroalgae and articulated calcareous algae were also common in the diet. Cyanobacteria were preferred only at the Atlantic sites and crustose algae were represented only by Ralfsia sp., a species with high protein and lipid contents. Both univariate and multivariate statistical methods confirmed that the different populations of P. marmoratus were minimally influenced by the relative abundance of the food items within their environment and their diet composition was constant throughout the sampled area. In conclusion, the relative abundance of different ingested foods can best be explained by considering the diet of P. marmoratus to be related mainly to its population structure and, for some food items, to the feeding physiology of the crab itself.

Cannicci, S.; Gomei, M.; Boddi, B.; Vannini, M.

2002-06-01

179

Characterization of the Population Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin in Neonates Using an Opportunistic Study Design  

PubMed Central

Although ampicillin is the most commonly used drug in neonates, developmental pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing are lacking. Ampicillin is primarily renally eliminated, and developmental changes are expected to influence PK. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, opportunistic, prospective PK study of ampicillin in neonates stratified by gestational age (GA) (?34 or >34 weeks) and postnatal age (PNA) (?7 or >7 days). Drug concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. PK data were analyzed using population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM 7.2. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the probability of target attainment for the time in which the total steady-state ampicillin concentrations remained above the MIC (T>MIC) for 50%, 75%, and 100% of the dosing interval. A total of 142 PK samples from 73 neonates were analyzed (median [range] GA, 36 [24 to 41] weeks; PNA, 5 [0 to 25] days). The median ampicillin dose was 200 (100 to 350) mg/kg/day. Postmenstrual age and serum creatinine were covariates for ampicillin clearance (CL). A simplified dosing regimen of 50 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?7 days, 75 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?8 and ?28 days, and 50 mg/kg every 8 h for GA of >34 weeks and PNA of ?28 days achieved the prespecified surrogate efficacy target in 90% of simulated subjects. Ampicillin CL was associated with neonatal development. A simplified dosing regimen stratified by GA and PNA achieves the desired surrogate therapeutic target in the vast majority of neonates. PMID:24614374

Tremoulet, Adriana; Le, Jennifer; Poindexter, Brenda; Sullivan, Janice E.; Laughon, Matthew; Delmore, Paula; Salgado, Andrea; Ian-U Chong, Sandy; Melloni, Chiara; Gao, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Capparelli, Edmund V.

2014-01-01

180

Characterization of the population pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in neonates using an opportunistic study design.  

PubMed

Although ampicillin is the most commonly used drug in neonates, developmental pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing are lacking. Ampicillin is primarily renally eliminated, and developmental changes are expected to influence PK. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, opportunistic, prospective PK study of ampicillin in neonates stratified by gestational age (GA) (? 34 or >34 weeks) and postnatal age (PNA) (? 7 or >7 days). Drug concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. PK data were analyzed using population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM 7.2. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the probability of target attainment for the time in which the total steady-state ampicillin concentrations remained above the MIC (T>MIC) for 50%, 75%, and 100% of the dosing interval. A total of 142 PK samples from 73 neonates were analyzed (median [range] GA, 36 [24 to 41] weeks; PNA, 5 [0 to 25] days). The median ampicillin dose was 200 (100 to 350) mg/kg/day. Postmenstrual age and serum creatinine were covariates for ampicillin clearance (CL). A simplified dosing regimen of 50 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ? 34 weeks and PNA of ? 7 days, 75 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ? 34 weeks and PNA of ? 8 and ? 28 days, and 50 mg/kg every 8 h for GA of >34 weeks and PNA of ? 28 days achieved the prespecified surrogate efficacy target in 90% of simulated subjects. Ampicillin CL was associated with neonatal development. A simplified dosing regimen stratified by GA and PNA achieves the desired surrogate therapeutic target in the vast majority of neonates. PMID:24614374

Tremoulet, Adriana; Le, Jennifer; Poindexter, Brenda; Sullivan, Janice E; Laughon, Matthew; Delmore, Paula; Salgado, Andrea; Ian-U Chong, Sandy; Melloni, Chiara; Gao, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K; Capparelli, Edmund V; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

2014-06-01

181

Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI). However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia. PMID:22096404

Seddon, Jo; Bhagani, Sanjay

2011-01-01

182

Spectrums of Opportunistic Infections and Malignancies in HIV-Infected Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital, China  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) and malignancies continued to cause morbidity and mortality in Chinese HIV-infected individuals. The objective for this study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in the Beijing Ditan Hospital. Methods The evaluation of the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies was conducted by using the clinical data of 834 HIV-infected patients admitted in the Beijing Ditan hospital from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2012. Results The prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies varied contingent on geographic region, transmission routes, and CD4 levels. We found that tuberculosis was most common OI and prevalence was 32.5%, followed by candidiasis(29.3%), Pneumocystis pneumonia(PCP)(22.4%), cytomegalovirus(CMV) infection(21.7%), other fungal infections(16.2%), mycobacterium avium complex(MAC)(11.3%), cryptococcosis(8.0%), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy(PML)(4.4%), Cerebral Toxoplasmosis(3.5%) and Penicillium marneffei infection(1.4%); while Lymphoma(2.9%), Kaposi’s sarcoma(0.8%) and cervix carcinoma(0.3%) were emerged as common AIDS-defining malignancies. Pulmonary OI infections were the most prevalent morbidity and mortality in patients in the AIDS stage including pulmonary tuberculosis (26.6%) and PCP (22.4%). CMV infection(21.7%) was most common viral infection; Fungal OIs were one of most prevalent morbidity in patients in the AIDS stage, including oral candidiasis (29.3%), other fungal infection (16.2%), Cryptococcosis (8.0%) and Penicillium marneffei infection (1.4%). We found the low prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses in central neural system in this study, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (4.4%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (3.5%), tuberculosis meningitis (3.2%), cryptococcal meningitis (2.4%) and CMV encephalitis (1.1%). In-hospital mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-years due to severe OIs, malignancies, and medical cost constraints. Conclusions The prevalence and spectrums of OIs, malignancies and co-infections were discussed in this study. It would help increase the awareness for physicians to make a diagnosis and empirical treatment sooner and plan good management strategies, especially in resource limited regions. PMID:24204583

Li, Yanmei; Zhang, Wen; Tian, Yunfei; Huang, Yinxiu; Su, Wenjing; Han, Ning; Yang, Di; Zhao, Hongxin

2013-01-01

183

Preventing Opportunistic Infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... in soil and areas contaminated with bat or bird droppings; it is more common in certain areas, ... high risk activities, such as disturbing soil under bird roosting sites, demolishing old buildings, or exploring caves. ...

184

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

185

Plumbing of hospital premises is a reservoir for opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms: a review.  

PubMed

Several bacterial species that are natural inhabitants of potable water distribution system biofilms are opportunistic pathogens important to sensitive patients in healthcare facilities. Waterborne healthcare-associated infections (HAI) may occur during the many uses of potable water in the healthcare environment. Prevention of infection is made more challenging by lack of data on infection rate and gaps in understanding of the ecology, virulence, and infectious dose of these opportunistic pathogens. Some healthcare facilities have been successful in reducing infections by following current water safety guidelines. This review describes several infections, and remediation steps that have been implemented to reduce waterborne HAIs. PMID:23327332

Williams, Margaret M; Armbruster, Catherine R; Arduino, Matthew J

2013-01-01

186

Stealing bivalves from common eiders: kleptoparasitism by glaucous gulls in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here I report on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), an opportunistic, generalist predator, stealing bivalves from a diving duck, the common eider (Somateria mollissima). The study took place in spring, the pre-breeding period of the common eider, in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden) at western\\u000a Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Eiders were abundant, their presence predictable, and they fed on large prey requiring surface handling—all

Øystein Varpe

2010-01-01

187

Joint PHY-MAC Design for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in the Presence of Sensing Errors  

E-print Network

Joint PHY-MAC Design for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in the Presence of Sensing Errors Yunxia the probability of colliding with primary users. Integrated in the joint design are three basic components to errors. We formulate the joint PHY-MAC design of OSA as a constrained partially observable Markov

Islam, M. Saif

188

Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus HKUOPL8, a Potential Opportunistic Pathogen of Mammals  

PubMed Central

We report here the first complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus strain HKUOPL8, isolated from giant panda feces. The whole genome sequence of this strain will provide an important framework for investigating the genes responsible for potential opportunistic infections with this species, as well as its survival in various environments. PMID:25059860

Ma, Angel Po Yee; Jiang, Jingwei; Tun, Hein Min; Mauroo, Nathalie France; Yuen, Chan San

2014-01-01

189

Vibrio vulnificusBiotype 2, Pathogenic for Eels, Is Also an Opportunistic Pathogen for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is also an opportunistic pathogen for humans. Results from a detailed comparative study using reference strains of both biotypes revealed that the clinical strain ATCC 33817, originally isolated from a human leg wound and classified as V. vulnificus (no reference on its biotype is noted), belongs to biotype 2 of

CARMEN AMARO; ANDELENA G. BIOSCA

190

Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains

Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

2009-01-01

191

Optimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry  

E-print Network

].) An aircraft engine consists of thousands of parts. Some of the parts are safety-critical, which meansOptimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry Torgny Svensson # Abstract In the aircraft industry maximizing availability is essential. Maintenance schedules

Patriksson, Michael

192

Demodicidosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An opportunistic infection occurring with immunosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report demodicidosis in 11 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a mildly pruritic, erythematous papular dermatitis that developed in areas rich in sebaceous glands. Demodex eruptions were safely and effectively treated with 5% permethrin. Proliferation of commensal parasites of the skin, Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis may be an opportunistic infection of the skin in the immunocompromised host; the

S. Percy Ivy; Crystal L. Mackall; Lia Gore; Ronald E. Gress; A. Howland Hartley

1995-01-01

193

High Performance Vehicular Connectivity with Opportunistic Erasure Coding Ratul Mahajan Jitendra Padhye Sharad Agarwal Brian Zill  

E-print Network

from moving vehicles, we develop a new loss recovery method called opportunistic erasure coding (OEC- load. We also show that OEC outperforms existing loss recovery methods in a range of lossy environments that boosts ridership, even in the age of the 3G smart phones [28, 35]. Corporations also provide such access

Chaudhuri, Surajit

194

Social-Tie-Based Information Dissemination in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks  

E-print Network

Social-Tie-Based Information Dissemination in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks Yunsheng Wang a distributed social tie strength calculation mechanism to identify the relationship between each set, The Strength of Weak Ties, the majority of the novel information dissemination is generated by weak ties. We

Wu, Jie

195

Abstract Within the tropical and subtropical oceans, tuna forage opportunistically on a wide variety of prey.  

E-print Network

Abstract Within the tropical and subtropical oceans, tuna forage opportunistically on a wide of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (23.5­154.0 cm FL), collected from nearshore Fish Aggregating Devices on small juveniles. Yellowfin tuna changed their diets significantly between 45 and 50 cm forklength (ca. 1

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

196

Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1?/? mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1?/? mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

2014-01-01

197

ReWarn: An opportunistic relay scheme for cooperative collision warning in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present ReWarn, an opportunistic relay scheme for cooperative collision warning in VANET, which helps to mitigate the impact of package loss caused by shadow fading. When safety messages in VANET, e.g., collision warning messages, are broadcast in air, a vehicle may detect collision risks both of its own and of its neighbors'. If a vehicle has

Chung-Ming Huang; Lai Tu; Chih-Hsun Chou

2009-01-01

198

Loss of Competition in the Outside Host Environment Generates Outbreaks of Environmental Opportunist Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka–Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

2013-01-01

199

Spectrum Leasing via Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Davide Chiarotto, Osvaldo Simeone and Michele Zorzi  

E-print Network

Spectrum Leasing via Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Davide Chiarotto, Osvaldo Simeone--A spectrum leasing mechanism is proposed for the coexistence between a primary and a secondary network network, but only in exchange for leasing of spectral resources so as to satisfy secondary quality- of

Simeone, Osvaldo

200

Spectrum Leasing via Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Distributed Ad Hoc Networks: Optimal and Heuristic Policies  

E-print Network

Spectrum Leasing via Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Distributed Ad Hoc Networks: Optimal}@dei.unipd.it,osvaldo.simeone@njit.edu Abstract--A spectrum leasing strategy is considered for the coexistence of a licensed multihop network is guaranteed via the "spectrum leasing via cooperation" mechanism, whereby a cooperating node is granted

Simeone, Osvaldo

201

Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions

Aravind Kailas

2010-01-01

202

Exploiting Multi-Antennas for Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio (CR) networks, there are scenarios where the secondary (lower priority) users intend to communicate with each other by opportunistically utilizing the transmit spectrum originally allocated to the existing primary (higher priority) users. For such a scenario, a secondary user usually has to tradeoff between two conflicting goals at the same time: one is to maximize its own

Rui Zhang; Ying-Chang Liang

2008-01-01

203

Aquatic Mammals 2003, 29.1, 104107 Opportunistic carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus  

E-print Network

Aquatic Mammals 2003, 29.1, 104­107 Opportunistic carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus, Orlando, FL 32816, USA Abstract The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus lati- rostris) is one of the most ecology to de ne critical habitats. Manatees generally are con- sidered to be strictly herbivious mammals

204

Finding Self-Similarities in Opportunistic People Networks  

E-print Network

network traces, and our contributions are the following: First, we identify the censorship issue, which is used in designing our proposed censorship removal algorithm (CRA) that is used to recover/reconnection is common, and/or link perfor- mance is highly variable or extreme. Therefore, traditional Internet

Ouhyoung, Ming

205

Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the International Space Station is a closed environment with rotations of astronauts and equipment that each introduce their own microbial flora, it is necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbial monitoring includes labor- and time-intensive methods to enumerate total bacterial and fungal cells, with limited characterization, during in-flight testing. Although this culture-based method is sufficient for monitoring the International Space Station, on future long-duration missions more detailed characterization will need to be performed during flight, as sample return and ground characterization may not be available. At a workshop held in 2011 at NASA's Johnson Space Center to discuss alternative methodologies and technologies suitable for microbial monitoring for these long-term exploration missions, molecular-based methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recommended. In response, a multi-center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Kennedy Space Center) collaborative research effort was initiated to explore novel commercial-off-the-shelf hardware options for space flight environmental monitoring. The goal was to evaluate quantitative or semi-quantitative PCR approaches for low-cost in-flight rapid identification of microorganisms that could affect crew safety. The initial phase of this project identified commercially available platforms that could be minimally modified to perform nominally in microgravity. This phase was followed by proof-of-concept testing of the highest qualifying candidates with a universally available challenge organism, Salmonella enterica. The analysis identified two technologies that were able to perform sample-to-answer testing with initial cell sample concentrations between 50 and 400 cells. In addition, the commercial systems were evaluated for initial flight safety and readiness.

Oubre, Cherie M.; Birmele, Michele N.; Castro, Victoria A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Jones, Kathy U.; Singhal, Adesh; Johnston, Angela S.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Ozbolt, Tamra A.; Jett, Daniel X.; Roberts, Michael S.; Ott, C. Mark

2013-01-01

206

[An opportunistic pathogen frequently isolated from immunocompromised patients: Burkholderia cepacia complex].  

PubMed

Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of 17 closely related species. For a long time B.cepacia complex is believed to be only a plant pathogen but later it has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. B.cepacia complex particularly causes bacteraemia/sepsis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, peritonitis, urinary and respiratory tract infections. Patients with cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease are predisposed to B.cepacia complex infections. B.cepacia complex can survive for a long period of time and can easily multiply in aqueous environments such as disinfectant agents and intravenous fluids used in hospitals. Patients may acquire B.cepacia complex either from the environment or through patient-to-patient transmission. It has always been a tedious task for routine microbiology laboratory to identify B.cepacia complex. In these laboratories, the identification of B.cepacia complex isolates is generally performed using a combination of selective media, conventional biochemical analysis and/or commercial systems. Three media commonly used for isolation of B.cepacia complex are as follows: the Pseudomonas cepacia agar, the oxidation-fermentation based polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar, and more recently the B.cepacia selective agar. Members of the B.cepacia complex can be identified by available commercial tests, such as API 20NE, Phoenix, MicroScan or VITEK. Molecular techniques are useful for confirmation of phenotypic identification and discrimination beyond the species-level. B.cepacia complex is intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial agents such as aminoglycosides, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, antipseudomonal penicillins and polymyxins. B.cepacia complex bacteria often develop resistance to beta-lactams due to presence of inducible chromosomal beta-lactamases and altered penicillin- binding proteins. Antibiotic efflux pumps in B.cepacia complex bacteria mediate resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and fluoroquinolones. Under antimicrobial pressure, resistance can quickly develop to all susceptible antimicrobials. In this review, the classification and microbiological features of B.cepacia complex, mechanisms of virulence and pathogenesis, epidemiological properties, clinical spectrum, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance and treatment, prevention and control measures were summarized. PMID:22639321

Baylan, Orhan

2012-04-01

207

Opportunistic Parasites among Immunosuppressed Children in Minia District, Egypt  

PubMed Central

A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children. PMID:22451735

Ahmad, Azza K.; Ali, Basma A.; Moslam, Fadia A.

2012-01-01

208

Opportunistic toenail onychomycosis. The fungal colonization of an available nail unit space by non-dermatophytes is produced by the trauma of the closed shoe by an asymmetric gait or other trauma. A plausible theory.  

PubMed

Opportunistic onychomycosis is defined, when a non-dermatophyte mould is cultured from an abnormal nail unit in the absence of a dermatophyte. The presumption is that the mould has caused the abnormal clinical appearance of the nail unit, yet there are no data available to substantiate this claim. Reports have only identified the mould being recovered from the nail unit niche. A review of the published dermatologic literature describing toenail opportunistic onychomycosis by non-dermatophyte fungi has shown toenails with onycholysis, nail bed (NB) keratosis and nail plate surface abnormalities. The appearance of these clinical changes is indistinguishable from the diagnosis of the Asymmetric Gait Nail Unit Signs (AGNUS). AGNUS is produced by the friction of the closed shoe in patients with an asymmetric gait, resulting primarily from the ubiquitous uneven flat feet. Most commonly, species of Acremonium (Cephalosporium), Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis and rarely species of many different fungi genera are capable of surviving and reproducing in a keratinous environment and change the clinical appearance of the involved nail unit. AGNUS toenails predispose to the colonization by the non-dermatophyte opportunistic fungi but not by dermatophyte fungi. PMID:24708482

Zaias, N; Escovar, S X; Rebell, G

2014-08-01

209

Use of opportunistic clinical data and a population pharmacokinetic model to support dosing of clindamycin for premature infants to adolescents.  

PubMed

Clindamycin is commonly prescribed to treat children with skin and skin-structure infections (including those caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)), yet little is known about its pharmacokinetics (PK) across pediatric age groups. A population PK analysis was performed in NONMEM using samples collected in an opportunistic study from children receiving i.v. clindamycin per standard of care. The final model was used to optimize pediatric dosing to match adult exposure proven effective against CA-MRSA. A total of 194 plasma PK samples collected from 125 children were included in the analysis. A one-compartment model described the data well. The final model included body weight and a sigmoidal maturation relationship between postmenstrual age (PMA) and clearance (CL): CL (l/h) = 13.7 × (weight/70)(0.75) × (PMA(3.1)/(43.6(3.1) + PMA(3.1))); V (l) = 61.8 × (weight/70). Maturation reached 50% of adult CL values at ~44 weeks PMA. Our findings support age-based dosing. PMID:24949994

Gonzalez, D; Melloni, C; Yogev, R; Poindexter, B B; Mendley, S R; Delmore, P; Sullivan, J E; Autmizguine, J; Lewandowski, A; Harper, B; Watt, K M; Lewis, K C; Capparelli, E V; Benjamin, D K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, M

2014-10-01

210

Stress responses in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii causes a wide range of severe infections among compromised and injured patients worldwide. The relevance of these infections are, in part, due to the ability of this pathogen to sense and react to environmental and host stress signals, allowing it to persist and disseminate in medical settings and the human host. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles that environmental and cellular stressors play in the ability of A. baumannii to resist nutrient deprivation, oxidative and nitrosative injury, and even the presence of the commonly used antiseptic ethanol, which could serve as a nutrient- and virulence-enhancing signal rather than just being a convenient disinfectant. Emerging experimental evidence supports the role of some of these responses in the pathogenesis of the infections A. baumannii causes in humans and its capacity to resist antibiotics and host response effectors. PMID:23464372

Fiester, Steven E; Actis, Luis A

2013-01-01

211

Opportunistic deep cutaneous mycoses in solid organ transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among organ transplant recipients, despite many progresses concerning diagnosis, preventions and treatment. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections in transplanted recipients include type and severity of immunosuppression, especially in life-saving organs as lung or liver, older age at transplantation, and technical complexity of surgery, living in endemic areas or exposure to a contaminated environment. Superficial fungal infections are caused by Candida, Dermatophytes, and Malassezia. In invasive mycoses, skin lesions may occur as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of invasive mycoses, or after direct inoculation in the skin. Aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Zygomycoses, dark mould infections, fusariosis and infections attributable to Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria species are the most common etiological agents. Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection are not specific, and a high degree of suspicion is required, and prompt biopsy for histology and culture is needed. Therapy with lyposomal amphotericin B and new triazoles are effective. PMID:25068229

Tessari, G; Cagalli, A; Girolomoni, G

2014-08-01

212

Opportunistic deep cutaneous mycoses in solid organ transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among organ transplant recipients, despite many progresses concerning diagnosis, preventions and treatment. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections in transplanted recipients include type and severity of immunosuppression, especially in life-saving organs as lung or liver, older age at transplantation, and technical complexity of surgery, living in endemic areas or exposure to a contaminated environment. Superficial fungal infections are caused by Candida, Dermatophytes, and Malassezia. In invasive mycoses, skin lesions may occur as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of invasive mycoses, or after direct inoculation in the skin. Aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Zygomycoses, dark mould infections, fusariosis and infections attributable to Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria species are the most common etiological agents. Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection are not specific, and a high degree of suspicion is required, and prompt biopsy for histology and culture is needed. Therapy with lyposomal amphotericin B and new triazoles are effective. PMID:24938725

Tessari, G; Cagalli, A; Girolomoni, G

2014-08-01

213

Antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from Rhea americana.  

PubMed

Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans. PMID:23899001

de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Cordeiro Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Teixeira Lima, Daniel; Paiva de Araújo Neto, Manoel; Jalles Monteiro, André; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio; Rocha Gadelha, Marcos Fábio

2013-08-01

214

An Opportunistic Routing Mechanism Combined with Long-Term and Short-Term Metrics for WMN  

PubMed Central

WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX. PMID:25250379

Piao, Xianglan; Qiu, Tie

2014-01-01

215

MOAR: A MultiChannel Opportunistic Auto-Rate Media Access Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 wireless media standard supports multiple fre- quency channels as well as multiple data rates at the physical (PHY) layer. Moreover, various auto rate adaptation mechanisms at the medium access layer have been proposed to exploit the multi-rate capabilities of IEEE 802.11. In this paper we introduce Multi- channel Opportunistic Auto Rate (MOAR), an enhanced MAC pro- tocol

Vikram Kanodia; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Edward W. Knightly

2004-01-01

216

The Opportunistic Pathogen Serratia marcescens Utilizes Type VI Secretion To Target Bacterial Competitors ?†  

PubMed Central

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most recently described and least understood of the protein secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. It is widely distributed and has been implicated in the virulence of various pathogens, but its mechanism and exact mode of action remain to be defined. Additionally there have been several very recent reports that some T6SSs can target bacteria rather than eukaryotic cells. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic enteric pathogen, a class of bacteria responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. We describe the identification of a functional T6SS in S. marcescens strain Db10, the first report of type VI secretion by an opportunist enteric bacterium. The T6SS of S. marcescens Db10 is active, with secretion of Hcp to the culture medium readily detected, and is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions from a large transcriptional unit. Expression of the T6SS genes did not appear to be dependent on the integrity of the T6SS. The S. marcescens Db10 T6SS is not required for virulence in three nonmammalian virulence models. It does, however, exhibit dramatic antibacterial killing activity against several other bacterial species and is required for S. marcescens to persist in a mixed culture with another opportunist pathogen, Enterobacter cloacae. Importantly, this antibacterial killing activity is highly strain specific, with the S. marcescens Db10 T6SS being highly effective against another strain of S. marcescens with a very similar and active T6SS. We conclude that type VI secretion plays a crucial role in the competitiveness, and thus indirectly the virulence, of S. marcescens and other opportunistic bacterial pathogens. PMID:21890705

Murdoch, Sarah L.; Trunk, Katharina; English, Grant; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

217

Reproductive Endocrinology of a Free-Living, Opportunistically Breeding Passerine (White-Winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate, in a free-living opportunistic breeder, the White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), the degree to which annual changes in photoperiod and differences in the timing of breeding in different years correlate with the secretion of reproductive hormones. Seasonal changes in concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin were compared in White-winged Crossbills in interior

Pierre Deviche; Peter J. Sharp

2001-01-01

218

Opportunistic Scheduling and Beamforming for MIMO-SDMA Downlink Systems with Linear Combining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes are pro- posed for multiuser MIMO-SDMA downlink systems with lin- ear combining in this work. Signals received from all anten- nas of each mobile terminal (MT) are linearly combined to im- prove the effective signal-to-noise-interference ratios (SINRs). By exploiting limited feedback on the effective SINRs, the base station (BS) schedules simultaneous data transmission on mul-

Man-On Pun; Visa Koivunen; H. Vincent Poor

2007-01-01

219

SINR Analysis of Opportunistic MIMO-SDMA Downlink Systems with Linear Combining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic scheduling (OS) schemes have been proposed previously by the authors for multiuser MIMO-SDMA downlink systems with linear combining. In particular, it has been demonstrated that significant performance improvement can be achieved by incorporating low-complexity linear combining techniques into the design of OS schemes for MIMO-SDMA. However, this previous analysis was performed based on the effec- tive signal-to-interference ratio (SIR),

Man-On Pun; Visa Koivunen; H. Vincent Poor

2008-01-01

220

Opportunistic Infections and Complications in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the correlation between various opportunistic infections and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children and the immune status of these patients, evaluated by absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count and CD4 percentage. Methods: This study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2010 at the Antiretroviral Treatment Centre of the Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak, Haryana, in northern India. A total of 20 HIV-1-infected children aged 4–57 months were studied. Demographic and baseline investigations were performed prior to the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A fixed-dose combination of HAART was given based on the patient’s weight. Baseline investigations were repeated after six months of HAART. Results: There was a significant increase in the patients’ haemoglobin, weight, height and CD4 count after six months of HAART. Significant improvements (P <0.05) were also noted in the patients’ immune status, graded according to the World Health Organization. Conclusion: This study observed that the severity and frequency of opportunistic complications in paediatric patients with HIV-1 increased with a fall in the CD4 count. The treatment of opportunistic infections, along with antiretroviral therapy, may lead to both clinical and immunological recovery as well as a decreased incidence of future opportunistic infections. The CD4 count may give treating physicians an initial idea about the immune status of each child and could also be used as a biological marker of HAART efficacy. Patient compliance must be ensured during HAART as this is a key factor in improving outcomes. PMID:25364555

Yadav, Jaivinder; Nanda, Sanjeev; Sharma, Deepak

2014-01-01

221

A rare opportunistic infection in a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple skin lesions.  

PubMed

Cutaneous lesions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represent diagnostic challenges. Opportunistic infections should be considered when lupus patients are on immunosuppressive therapy and other causes, such as disease activity, are less likely to explain the skin lesions. Within the spectrum of skin opportunistic infections that might occur in SLE patients, Blastomyces dermatitidis should be suspected when acid-fast positive material with no bacilliform organisms is seen on Ziehl-Nielsen skin biopsy preparations. In this study, we describe one patient with SLE on immunosuppressive therapy, who developed cutaneous blastomycosis despite living in a non-endemic area. Because of lack of awareness about this association and misinterpretation of the skin biopsy results, the diagnosis of atypical mycobacterial infection was initially considered. Subsequent proper tissue staining and interpretation revealed the correct diagnosis of disseminated cutaneous blastomycosis. This description represents the first report of this rare opportunistic skin infection in SLE, illustrating the importance of performing correct preparation and elucidation of the skin biopsy to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment delay. PMID:19762386

Hidron, A; Franco-Paredes, C; Drenkard, C

2009-10-01

222

Invasion Ability and Disease Dynamics of Environmentally Growing Opportunistic Pathogens under Outside-Host Competition  

PubMed Central

Most theories of the evolution of virulence concentrate on obligatory host-pathogen relationship. Yet, many pathogens replicate in the environment outside-host where they compete with non-pathogenic forms. Thus, replication and competition in the outside-host environment may have profound influence on the evolution of virulence and disease dynamics. These environmentally growing opportunistic pathogens are also a logical step towards obligatory pathogenicity. Efficient treatment methods against these diseases, such as columnaris disease in fishes, are lacking because of their opportunist nature. We present a novel epidemiological model in which replication and competition in the outside-host environment influences the invasion ability of a novel pathogen. We also analyze the long-term host-pathogen dynamics. Model parameterization is based on the columnaris disease, a bacterial fresh water fish disease that causes major losses in fish farms worldwide. Our model demonstrates that strong competition in the outside-host environment can prevent the invasion of a new environmentally growing opportunist pathogen and long-term disease outbreaks. PMID:25415341

Merikanto, Ilona; Laakso, Jouni T.; Kaitala, Veijo

2014-01-01

223

Antifungal activity of synthetic naphthoquinones against dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi: preliminary mechanism-of-action tests  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the antifungal activities of synthetic naphthoquinones against opportunistic and dermatophytic fungi and their preliminary mechanisms of action. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four synthetic naphthoquinones for 89 microorganisms, including opportunistic yeast agents, dermatophytes and opportunistic filamentous fungi, were determined. The compound that exhibited the best activity was assessed for its action against the cell wall (sorbitol test), for interference associated with ergosterol interaction, for osmotic balance (K+ efflux) and for membrane leakage of substances that absorb at the wavelength of 260 nm. All tested naphthoquinones exhibited antifungal activity, and compound IVS320 (3a,10b-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [b] naphtho [2,3-d] furan-5,10-dione)-dione) demonstrated the lowest MICs across the tested species. The MIC of IVS320 was particularly low for dermatophytes (values ranging from 5–28 ?g/mL) and Cryptococcus spp. (3–5 ?g/mL). In preliminary mechanism-of-action tests, IVS320 did not alter the fungal cell wall but did cause problems in terms of cell membrane permeability (efflux of K+ and leakage of substances that absorb at 260 nm). This last effect was unrelated to ergosterol interactions with the membrane. PMID:24998949

2014-01-01

224

Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A.?pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens?PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S.?marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A.?pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata. PMID:24983533

Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

2014-06-01

225

A Case of an Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitor Complicated by Multiple Treatment-Related Opportunistic Infections and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

This case report describes a patient with an idiopathic acquired Factor VIII inhibitor and severe bleeding. She was treated with rituximab after failing first-line treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide. Two months following rituximab treatment, our patient developed a succession of severe opportunistic infections requiring intensive care unit admission. Over a period of 12 weeks she required treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia, herpes simplex gingivostomatitis and pharyngotonsillitis, clostridium difficile-related diarrhoea, systemic cytomegalovirus infection, pneumocystis jiroveci, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis lung infections. After significant rehabilitation, the patient was finally discharged following a 5-month admission. This case highlights the complexity of balancing a life-threatening condition with the side effects of treatment. It also raises the issue of routine prophylaxis for immunosuppression in nonmalignant conditions, which will become a common dilemma with the expanding indications for rituximab use. PMID:24455336

Hutchinson, Anna L; Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

2013-01-01

226

A Case of an Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitor Complicated by Multiple Treatment-Related Opportunistic Infections and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a patient with an idiopathic acquired Factor VIII inhibitor and severe bleeding. She was treated with rituximab after failing first-line treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide. Two months following rituximab treatment, our patient developed a succession of severe opportunistic infections requiring intensive care unit admission. Over a period of 12 weeks she required treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia, herpes simplex gingivostomatitis and pharyngotonsillitis, clostridium difficile-related diarrhoea, systemic cytomegalovirus infection, pneumocystis jiroveci, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis lung infections. After significant rehabilitation, the patient was finally discharged following a 5-month admission. This case highlights the complexity of balancing a life-threatening condition with the side effects of treatment. It also raises the issue of routine prophylaxis for immunosuppression in nonmalignant conditions, which will become a common dilemma with the expanding indications for rituximab use. PMID:24455336

Hutchinson, Anna L.

2013-01-01

227

Cronobacter spp.--opportunistic food-borne pathogens. A review of their virulence and environmental-adaptive traits.  

PubMed

The genus Cronobacter consists of a diverse group of Gram-negative bacilli and comprises seven species: Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti. Cronobacter are regarded as opportunistic pathogens, and have been implicated in newborn and infant infections, causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and bacteraemia or sepsis. Cronobacter virulence is believed to be due to multiple factors. Some strains were found to produce diarrhoea or cause significant fluid accumulation in suckling mice. Two iron acquisition systems (eitCBAD and iucABCD/iutA), Cronobacter plasminogen activator gene (cpa), a 17 kb type VI secretion system (T6SS), and a 27 kb filamentous haemagglutinin gene (fhaBC) and associated putative adhesins locus are harboured on a family of RepFIB-related plasmids (pESA3 and pCTU1), suggesting that these are common virulence plasmids; 98% of 229 tested Cronobacter strains possessed these plasmids. Even though pESA3 and pCTU1 share a common backbone composed of the repA gene and eitCBAD and iucABCD/iutA gene clusters, the presence of cpa, T6SS and FHA loci depended on species, demonstrating a strong correlation with the presence of virulence traits, plasmid type and species. Other factors were observed, in that Cronobacter form biofilms, and show unusual resistance to heat, dry and acid stress growth conditions. The outer-membrane protein A is probably one of the best-characterized virulence markers of Cronobacter. Furthermore, it was reported that Cronobacter employ phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling, which activates protein kinase C-? and impairs the host cell's mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, in order to invade cells. Cronobacter can also use immature dendritic cells and macrophages to escape the immune response. This review addresses the various virulence and environmental-adaptive characteristics possessed by members of the genus Cronobacter. PMID:24878566

Jaradat, Ziad W; Al Mousa, Waseem; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Al Nabulsi, Anas; Tall, Ben D

2014-08-01

228

Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems ?  

PubMed Central

A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

Jjemba, Patrick K.; Weinrich, Lauren A.; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W.

2010-01-01

229

Cost-effectiveness of nationwide opportunistic screening program for dementia in South Korea.  

PubMed

Although more demand for screening for dementia is envisaged, the cost-effectiveness of opportunistic population screening for dementia at a nationwide level has never been directly investigated. Since 2010, Korea has implemented "the National Dementia Early Detection Program" (NDEDP) for the aged. This study aims to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the NDEDP of Korea and to explore the requirements for enhancing its cost-effectiveness. A Markov model was developed to simulate the disease progression of dementia patients. Data sources for the model parameters included the NDEDP database for cohort characteristics and other national representative data. The model's estimates of the expected costs and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) for each strategy were used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of screening compared to no screening, and sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of key variables on the cost-effectiveness. Screening showed that the cost per QALY gained ranged from $24,150 to $35,661 depending on the age group. The probability of screening being cost-effective was highest in the group over 75 years old in a wide range of willingness to pay (WTP). The implementation of an opportunistic screening program for dementia can be cost-effective depending on disease severity, treatment effect, costs by disease stage, ages of the participants, and the societal WTP. Above all things, improving access to more effective therapies in slowing the course of the disease is essential since the main benefit of earlier diagnosis for dementia is starting early treatment and subsequent savings. Although it is too early to conclude the cost-effectiveness of opportunistic population screening for dementia, this current study may be a meaningful step toward generating practical evidence for implementing an effective and efficient dementia screening program. PMID:25208621

Yu, Su-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jang, Su-Hyun; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

2015-01-01

230

A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data  

PubMed Central

Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

2012-01-01

231

Regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

Jjemba, Patrick K; Weinrich, Lauren A; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; Lechevallier, Mark W

2010-07-01

232

M2b macrophage elimination and improved resistance of mice with chronic alcohol consumption to opportunistic infections.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse was found to predispose persons to opportunistic infections. In this study, we tried to improve the host antibacterial resistance of chronic alcohol-consuming (CAC) mice to opportunistic infections. Bactericidal macrophages with functions to produce IL-12 and to express mRNAs for CXCL9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (M1 macrophages) were characterized as the main effector cells in host antibacterial innate immunities against infections with opportunistic pathogens. However, CAC mice were found to be carriers of M2b macrophages [macrophages with functions to produce IL-10 and to express mRNAs for CD163, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, and LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for high-voltage electron microscopy on T cells)], which were inhibitory on macrophage conversion from resident macrophages to M1 macrophages. Under treatment with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, a specific inhibitor of M2b macrophages, CAC mouse macrophages reverted to resident macrophages, and M1 macrophages were induced by a bacterial antigen from macrophages of CAC mice that were previously treated with the oligodeoxynucleotides. Opportunistic infections (enterococcal translocation and Klebsiella pneumonia) in CAC mice were completely controlled by CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. These results indicate that certain opportunistic infections in alcoholics are controllable through the modulation of M2b macrophages. PMID:25485859

Ohama, Hideko; Asai, Akira; Ito, Ichiaki; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Kobayashi, Makiko; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Fujio

2015-02-01

233

Anticipating challenges with in-building disinfection for control of opportunistic pathogens.  

PubMed

A new American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard for control of Legionella (ASHRAE Standard 188, 2013) emphasizes use of in-building disinfection techniques to reduce the exposure of at-risk consumers to opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). This standard and other recommendations for OPPP control have implications for scaling in and corrosion of plumbing systems, which can sometimes adversely affect the efficacy of the disinfection method and physical integrity of the plumbing system, prompting this proactive critical review of challenges associated with implementation of Standard 188. PMID:25109200

Rhoads, William J; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

2014-06-01

234

Mitochondrial Telomeres as Molecular Markers for Identification of the Opportunistic Yeast Pathogen Candida parapsilosis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that a large number of organisms carry linear mitochondrial DNA molecules possessing specialized telomeric structures at their ends. Based on this specific structural feature of linear mitochondrial genomes, we have developed an approach for identification of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis. The strategy for identification of C. parapsilosis strains is based on PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial telomere region. This assay is complemented by immunodetection of a protein component of mitochondrial telomeres. The results demonstrate that mitochondrial telomeres represent specific molecular markers with potential applications in yeast diagnostics and taxonomy. PMID:11923346

Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír; Ry?ovská, Adriana; Fukuhara, Hiroshi

2002-01-01

235

Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

2011-01-01

236

Opportunistic parasites in children with pneumococcal infection in greater Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Vaccination remains the primary preventive strategy in the elderly against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections. However, the effectiveness of vaccines decreases with increasing age and among patients. This study evaluated the opportunistic parasites infecting vaccinated and non-vaccinated pneumococcal children. The result showed that Invasive children (4%) had bacternrmid, septicemid and pneumococcal but no meningitis while the non-invasive ones (86%) had community acquired freunonia and otitis media. The non-vaccinated children were at risk of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichura, Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, bancroftian microfilaria, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Giadia lamblia, Entaemeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:23469649

Geneidy, Morsy R; El-Dahshan, Tarek A; Metwally, Karima M

2012-12-01

237

Opportunistic Scheduling and Beamforming for MIMO-SDMA Downlink Systems with Linear Combining  

E-print Network

Opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes are proposed for multiuser MIMO-SDMA downlink systems with linear combining in this work. Signals received from all antennas of each mobile terminal (MT) are linearly combined to improve the {\\em effective} signal-to-noise-interference ratios (SINRs). By exploiting limited feedback on the effective SINRs, the base station (BS) schedules simultaneous data transmission on multiple beams to the MTs with the largest effective SINRs. Utilizing the extreme value theory, we derive the asymptotic system throughputs and scaling laws for the proposed scheduling and beamforming schemes with different linear combining techniques. Computer simulations confirm that the proposed schemes can substantially improve the system throughput.

Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

2007-01-01

238

ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

239

AsrR Is an Oxidative Stress Sensing Regulator Modulating Enterococcus faecium Opportunistic Traits, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial resistance and adaptation for survival within the host, thereby contributes importantly to the opportunistic traits of E. faecium. PMID:22876178

Lebreton, François; van Schaik, Willem; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; Le Bras, Florian; Verneuil, Nicolas; Zhang, Xinglin; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Willems, Rob J. L.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

2012-01-01

240

Recent trends in the spectrum of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Opportunistic infections (OI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The pattern of OIs differs widely, hence it is necessary to correlate spectrum of OIs and CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals in specific localities. Materials and Methods: The present study describes the clinical and laboratory profiles of different OIs among 55 HIV seropositive patients. CD4 count was estimated and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 27 patients as per National Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Control Organization guidelines. These 27 patients were classified into stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 based on CD4 counts of >500 cells/?l, 200-499 cells/?l and <200 cells/?l respectively. The OIs presented by respective groups were documented. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be the most common OI constituting 43.6% of all cases followed by candidiasis (30.9%), cryptosporidial diarrhea (21.8%), herpes zoster (16.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (3.63%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (1.81%), and other miscellaneous infections (23.6%). Only 1 patient was found in stage I while 13 patients each were grouped in stage II or stage III. The mean CD4 count in our study population who were on ART was 230 ± 150 cells/µl. Conclusion: The pattern of OIs among our study group did not differ significantly from patients not receiving ART. The effect of ART on CD4 count differs from patient to patient based on the degree of depletion of CD4 count before the initiation of ART, drug adherence, concomitant OIs and their treatment. PMID:25097422

Shahapur, Praveen R.; Bidri, Rajendra C.

2014-01-01

241

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... lead to a pneumonia that is sometimes called desert fever, San Joaquin Valley fever, or valley fever. ... belli , which can enter the body through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, headache, abdominal ...

242

Heavy metal distribution in opportunistic beach nourishment: a case study in Greece.  

PubMed

The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed. PMID:24379742

Foteinis, Spyros; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G; Synolakis, Costas

2013-01-01

243

Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece  

PubMed Central

The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40?mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed. PMID:24379742

Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Synolakis, Costas

2013-01-01

244

Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides  

PubMed Central

Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L?1 (p<0.05) in both semi-continuous co-culture assays and in co-culture assays without nutrient supplementation. In contrast, although U. prolifera had a density effect on G. lichvoides, the differences among treatments were not significant (p>0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community. PMID:22496758

Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

245

From Environment to Man: Genome Evolution and Adaptation of Human Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Environment is recognized as a huge reservoir for bacterial species and a source of human pathogens. Some environmental bacteria have an extraordinary range of activities that include promotion of plant growth or disease, breakdown of pollutants, production of original biomolecules, but also multidrug resistance and human pathogenicity. The versatility of bacterial life-style involves adaptation to various niches. Adaptation to both open environment and human specific niches is a major challenge that involves intermediate organisms allowing pre-adaptation to humans. The aim of this review is to analyze genomic features of environmental bacteria in order to explain their adaptation to human beings. The genera Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Ochrobactrum provide valuable examples of opportunistic behavior associated to particular genomic structure and evolution. Particularly, we performed original genomic comparisons among aeromonads and between the strictly intracellular pathogens Brucella spp. and the mild opportunistic pathogens Ochrobactrum spp. We conclude that the adaptation to human could coincide with a speciation in action revealed by modifications in both genomic and population structures. This adaptation-driven speciation could be a major mechanism for the emergence of true pathogens besides the acquisition of specialized virulence factors. PMID:24704914

Aujoulat, Fabien; Roger, Frédéric; Bourdier, Alice; Lotthé, Anne; Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

2012-01-01

246

Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings  

PubMed Central

Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases. PMID:23901339

Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J.; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader

2013-01-01

247

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

248

Common sense representations of common illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 320 undergraduates provide evidence that common sense representations of common illnesses involve 5 components: (1) a label, (2) consequences, (3) a time line, (4) a cause, and (5) a cure. The content of schemas for a person's most recent illness is shown to have small but significant effects on changes in health locus of control beliefs but not

Richard R. Lau; Karen A. Hartman

1983-01-01

249

Internalised homonegativity predicts HIV-associated risk behavior in European men who have sex with men in a 38-country cross-sectional study: some public health implications of homophobia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Internalised homonegativity (IH) is hypothesised to be associated with HIV risk behaviour and HIV testing in men who have sex with men (MSM). We sought to determine the social and individual variables associated with IH and the associations between IH and HIV-related behaviours. Design and setting We examined IH and its predictors as part of a larger Internet-delivered, cross-sectional study on HIV and health in MSM in 38 European countries. Participants 181?495 MSM, IH data analysis subsample 144?177. All participants were male, over the age of consent for homosexual activity in their country of domicile, and have had at least one homosexual contact in the past 6?months. Methodology An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was disseminated in 25 languages through MSM social media, websites and organisations and responses saved to a UK-based server. IH was measured using a standardised, cross-culturally appropriate scale. Results Three clusters of European countries based on the level of experienced discrimination emerged. IH was predicted by country LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) legal climate, Gini coefficient and size of place of settlement. Lower IH was associated with degree the respondent was ‘out’ as gay to others and older age. ‘Outness’ was associated with ever having an HIV test and age, education and number of gay friends, while IH (controlling for the number of non-steady unprotected sex partners and perceived lack of control over safe sex) was associated with condom use for anal intercourse. Conclusions IH is associated with LGB legal climate, economic development indices and urbanisation. It is also associated with ‘outness’ and with HIV risk and preventive behaviours including HIV testing, perceived control over sexual risk and condom use. Homonegative climate is associated with IH and higher levels of HIV-associated risk in MSM. Reducing IH through attention to LGB human rights may be appropriate HIV reduction intervention for MSM. PMID:23386580

Ross, Michael W; Berg, Rigmor C; Schmidt, Axel J; Hospers, Harm J; Breveglieri, Michele; Furegato, Martina; Weatherburn, Peter

2013-01-01

250

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Nov. 2012 1 Abstract--This paper considers opportunistic primary-  

E-print Network

opportunistic primary- secondary spectrum sharing when the primary is a rotating radar. A secondary device, OFDMA, Primary-secondary spectrum sharing, Radar I. INTRODUCTION RIMARY-SECONDARY spectrum sharing can substantially alleviate spectrum scarcity [1]. Radars could be a good candidate for the primary systems

Peha, Jon M.

251

Pasquaud et al. Are fishes opportunistic in estuaries ? Exploitation of trophic resources by fish under stressful estuarine1  

E-print Network

. However, in spite of their temporal adaptation29 capacity, most fish species exhibited a specialistPasquaud et al. Are fishes opportunistic in estuaries ? 1 Exploitation of trophic resources by fish Girardin1 ,4 Benoît Sautour3 , Pierre Elie1 5 6 1 Cemagref, Estuarine Ecosystems and Diadromous Fish

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

A study on micro-fungi in arid areas: Notes on soil saprotrophs and animal opportunistic pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fungi were studied in three desert areas in Namibia with the aim of identifying saprotrophic microorganisms associated with animal communities as opportunistic pathogens. The extremely arid environment of the Naukluft Desert Park was found to be more selective for soil fungi, whereas the soils of Etosha Pan, with seasonal wet areas, and the mobile dunes of Sossousvlei, which absorb

Claudio Ciccarone; Angelo Rambelli

2000-01-01

253

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart Grid With Power  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart communications (PLCs) have recently absorbed interest in the smart grid since they offer communi- cation substations and end users or to provide the Internet access to homes. Since a transmission signal of nar

Bahk, Saewoong

254

O3: Optimized Overlay-based Opportunistic Routing Mi Kyung Han Apurv Bhartia Lili Qiu Eric Rozner  

E-print Network

) opportunistic routing is beneficial under high loss rates, whereas inter-flow coding is more effective under low this goal is a strong tension between oppor- tunistic routing and inter-flow network coding: to achieve high routing and rate limiting to pro- vide efficient and reliable overlay links for the overlay network

Qiu, Lili

255

Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling'?  

PubMed Central

The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented. PMID:25186140

Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

2014-01-01

256

Coping with the extremes: stress physiology varies between winter and summer in breeding opportunists  

PubMed Central

Seasonal changes in stress steroid hormone secretions are thought to reflect investment in self-maintenance versus reproduction. The capricious conditions hypothesis (CCH) posits that reduced corticosterone (CORT) secretion during stress coincident with parental phases of breeding is necessary in harsh environments because a full response would otherwise trigger repeated nest abandonments. To test this hypothesis, we measured seasonal changes in stress physiology in free-living red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra), an opportunistically breeding songbird that regularly breeds in summer and winter. This species allows unique comparisons of breeding physiology under very different seasonal environmental conditions within locations. We found strong support for the CCH: red crossbills showed reduced CORT secretion only when in high reproductive condition in the winter, when compared with summer breeders and winter non-breeders. These data demonstrate that behavioural status and local environmental conditions interact to affect mechanisms underlying investment trade-offs, presumably in a way that maximizes lifetime reproductive success. PMID:22012950

Cornelius, Jamie M.; Breuner, Creagh W.; Hahn, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

257

Coping with the extremes: stress physiology varies between winter and summer in breeding opportunists.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in stress steroid hormone secretions are thought to reflect investment in self-maintenance versus reproduction. The capricious conditions hypothesis (CCH) posits that reduced corticosterone (CORT) secretion during stress coincident with parental phases of breeding is necessary in harsh environments because a full response would otherwise trigger repeated nest abandonments. To test this hypothesis, we measured seasonal changes in stress physiology in free-living red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra), an opportunistically breeding songbird that regularly breeds in summer and winter. This species allows unique comparisons of breeding physiology under very different seasonal environmental conditions within locations. We found strong support for the CCH: red crossbills showed reduced CORT secretion only when in high reproductive condition in the winter, when compared with summer breeders and winter non-breeders. These data demonstrate that behavioural status and local environmental conditions interact to affect mechanisms underlying investment trade-offs, presumably in a way that maximizes lifetime reproductive success. PMID:22012950

Cornelius, Jamie M; Breuner, Creagh W; Hahn, Thomas P

2012-04-23

258

Characteristics of opportunistic species of the Corynebacterium and related coryneforms isolated from different clinical materials.  

PubMed

Taking into account the increasing contribution of species, which enter into the composition of purely physiological flora of the organism, of the Corynebacterium type and related coryneforms in opportunistic infections in people, the analysis of strains was made from different clinical materials from patients. Their identification was made on the basis of biochemical properties and their antibiotic sensitivity was characterized. It was found that strains with similar biochemical properties (C.striatum, C.amycolatum ) should be identified by means of genetic methods, all the more that they were isolated from clinically important materials. Out of the examined strains the biggest number of infections were caused by C.pseudodiphtheriticum, next C. striatum/C. amycolatum, Brevibacterium sp., C.propinquum, one: C.afermentans, C.jeikeium, C.group G, C.group F1, C.accolens, C.macqinleyi. The highest sensitivity of isolated strains was to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Imipenem. PMID:15315020

Chudnicka, Alina; Kozio?-Montewka, Maria

2003-01-01

259

SINR Analysis of Opportunistic MIMO-SDMA Downlink Systems with Linear Combining  

E-print Network

Opportunistic scheduling (OS) schemes have been proposed previously by the authors for multiuser MIMO-SDMA downlink systems with linear combining. In particular, it has been demonstrated that significant performance improvement can be achieved by incorporating low-complexity linear combining techniques into the design of OS schemes for MIMO-SDMA. However, this previous analysis was performed based on the effective signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), assuming an interference-limited scenario, which is typically a valid assumption in SDMA-based systems. It was shown that the limiting distribution of the effective SIR is of the Frechet type. Surprisingly, the corresponding scaling laws were found to follow $\\epsilon\\log K$ with $0<\\epsilon<1$, rather than the conventional $\\log\\log K$ form. Inspired by this difference between the scaling law forms, in this paper a systematic approach is developed to derive asymptotic throughput and scaling laws based on signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR) by utilizin...

Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

2008-01-01

260

Opportunistic infections in the liver of HIV-infected patients in Thailand: a necropsy study.  

PubMed

Liver necropsy from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus was analyzed in 117 cases. Wide ranges of opportunistic infections were recorded in 47%. Cryptococcosis (21.4%) was the most outstanding infection, followed by tuberculosis (16.2%), cytomegalovirus (5.1%) and penicillosis (3.4%). Non-specific alterations of the liver tissues included fatty steatosis (49.6%), fibrosis (55.6%), portal inflammation and reactive hepatitis. Cases of chronic active and chronic passive hepatitis and one case of hepatocellular carcinoma were reported. In the infected liver, predominant pathological changes included granuloma and spotty necrosis, which were attributed to tuberculous hepatitis. Infection with Cryptococcus usually showed no associated pathological change. The sensitivity for the clinical diagnosis of Cryptococcus was 88.8% and specificity was 91.7%. For tuberculosis, sensitivity was 20% and specificity was 67.9%. PMID:11414408

Viriyavejakul, P; Rojanasunan, P; Viriyavejakul, A; Punyarit, P; Punpoowong, B; Khachansaksumet, V; Riganti, M; Pongponratn, E

2000-12-01

261

Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional studies show that around half of individuals infected with HIV-1 have some degree of cognitive impairment despite the use of antiretroviral drugs. However, prevalence estimates vary depending on the population and methods used to assess cognitive impairment. Whether asymptomatic patients would benefit from routine screening for cognitive difficulties is unclear and the appropriate screening method and subsequent management is the subject of debate. In some patients, HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher concentrations in CSF than in blood, which potentially results from the poor distribution of antiretroviral drugs into the CNS. However, the clinical relevance of so-called CSF viral escape is not well understood. The extent to which antiretroviral drug distribution and toxicity in the CNS affect clinical decision making is also debated. PMID:25316020

Nightingale, Sam; Winsto, Alan; Letendre, Scott; Michael, Benedict D; McArthur, Justin C; Khoo, Saye; Solomon, Tom

2015-01-01

262

HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... operational problems and giving demand-driven support to countries and communities. WHO hosts the Stop TB Partnership secretariat as well as providing the staffed secretariat for the TB/HIV Working Group of the Stop TB ... to high burden countries to scale-up implementation of TB/HIV collaborative ...

263

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

264

The Common Style of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense has often been attributed to its style — to the simplicity and forcefulness with which Paine expressed ideas that many others before him had expressed. Comparative analysis of Common Sense and other pre-Revolutionary pamphlets suggests that Common Sense was indeed stylistically unique; no other pamphleteer came close to matching Paine's combination of

Lee Sigelman; Colin Martindale; Dean McKenzie

1996-01-01

265

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

266

Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rDNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, e.g. Legionella pneumophila, via parasitization of free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoebae. Yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise pl...

267

How Common Is the Common Core?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

2014-01-01

268

Idiopathic CD4 Lymphocytopenia: Spectrum of opportunistic infections, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) was first defined in 1992 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the repeated presence of a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of fewer than 300 cells per cubic millimeter or of less than 20% of total T cells with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and no condition that might cause depressed CD4 counts. Most of our knowledge about ICL comes from scattered case reports. The aim of this study was to collect comprehensive data from the previously published cases to understand the characteristics of this rare condition. We searched the PubMed database and Science Direct for case reports since 1989 for Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia cases. We found 258 cases diagnosed with ICL in 143 published papers. We collected data about age, sex, pathogens, site of infections, CD4 count, CD8 count, CD4:CD8 ratio, presence of HIV risk factors, malignancies, autoimmune diseases and whether the patients survived or died. The mean age at diagnosis of first opportunistic infection (or ICL if no opportunistic infection reported) was 40.7 ± 19.2 years (standard deviation), with a range of 1 to 85. One-sixty (62%) patients were males, 91 (35.2%) were females, and 7 (2.7%) patients were not identified whether males or females. Risk factors for HIV were documented in 36 (13.9%) patients. The mean initial CD4 count was 142.6 ± 103.9/mm3 (standard deviation). The mean initial CD8 count was 295 ± 273.6/mm3 (standard deviation). The mean initial CD4:CD8 ratio was 0.6 ± 0.7 (standard deviation). The mean lowest CD4 count was 115.4 ± 87.1/mm3 (standard deviation). The majority of patients 226 (87.6%) had at least one infection. Cryptococcal infections were the most prevalent infections in ICL patients (26.6%), followed by mycobacterial infections (17%), candidal infections (16.2%), and VZV infections (13.1%). Malignancies were reported in 47 (18.1%) patients. Autoimmune diseases were reported in 37 (14.2%) patients. PMID:23930241

Ahmad, Dina S.; Esmadi, Mohammad; Steinmann, William C.

2013-01-01

269

Common sense treatment for common lipid disorders.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a common, major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening for lipid disorders is simple, and available treatments decrease disease risk. However, secondary causes of dyslipidemia are probably underappreciated, and severe lipid elevations should be referred to a lipid specialist. Patients usually respond to lifestyle modifications and drug therapy guided by a stepwise approach supported by the results of clinical trials, but several misconceptions may interfere with treatment strategies. PMID:21568232

Johnson, Mariko; Semenkovich, Clay F

2011-01-01

270

Standard Integration of Sensing and Opportunistic Diffusion for Urban Monitoring in Vehicular Sensor Networks: the MobEyes Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging industrial relevance of vehicular sensor networks pushes towards their adoption for large-scale applications, from traffic routing and relief to environmental monitoring and distributed surveillance. With homeland security issues in mind, we have developed MobEyes, a fully distributed opportunistic harvesting system for urban monitoring. In MobEyes, regular vehicles equipped with sensors collect and locally store monitoring data while moving

Paolo Bellavista; Eugenio Magistretti; Uichin Lee; Mario Gerla

2007-01-01

271

Constraint satisfaction using a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that performs opportunistic arc and path revision  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that quickly solves (Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs)). This hybrid uses opportunistic arc and path revision in an interleaved fashion to reduce the size of the search space and to realize when to quit if a CSP is based on an inconsistent constraint network. This hybrid outperforms a well known hill-climbing algorithm, the Iterative Descent Method, on a test suite of 750 randomly generated CSPs.

Bowen, J. [National Univ. of Ireland, Cork (Ireland); Dozier, G. [North Carolina A& T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

272

Seasonal Changes in Brain GnRH Immunoreactivity and Song-Control Nuclei Volumes in an Opportunistically Breeding Songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera) are opportunistic breeders that can nest at almost any time of year if there is sufficient food. Other cardueline finches that have been shown to breed on a strictly seasonal schedule become absolutely refractory to the stimulatory effects of long-day photoperiod, dramatically down-regulate hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and reduce the volume of several song-control nuclei in

Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton; Pierre J. Deviche; Renee D. Crain; Gregory F. Ball; Thomas P. Hahn

2001-01-01

273

An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia  

PubMed Central

Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

2010-01-01

274

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts  

PubMed Central

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances. PMID:22665442

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

2012-01-01

275

New Zealand juvenile oyster mortality associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1-an opportunistic longitudinal study.  

PubMed

During the 2010-11 summer outbreak of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in New Zealand, an opportunistic longitudinal field study was conducted. OsHV-1 PCR-negative oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas) were relocated to an OsHV-1 PCR-positive area of the North Island of New Zealand that was experiencing juvenile oyster mortalities. Over a period of 13 d, spat were monitored for mortality, sampled for histopathology, and tested for the presence of OsHV-1 using real time PCR and Vibrio culture. Histopathology showed some evidence of tissue pathology; however, no consistent progressive pathology was apparent. Field mortalities were evident from Day 6 on. After 5 and 7 d of exposure, 83 and 100% of spat, respectively, tested positive for the virus by real time PCR. Vibrio species recovered during the longitudinal study included V. splendidus and V. aestuarianus. This study offers insight into the rapidity of onset and virulence of the virus in naïve oyster spat in New Zealand waters. PMID:24991849

Keeling, S E; Brosnahan, C L; Williams, R; Gias, E; Hannah, M; Bueno, R; McDonald, W L; Johnston, C

2014-07-01

276

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, osteopetrosis, lymphedema, and immunodeficiency in an infant with multiple opportunistic infections.  

PubMed

Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He subsequently developed gram-negative sepsis and multiple opportunistic infections including high-level cytomegalovirus viremia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The infant was noted to have mildly xerotic skin, fine sparse hair, and periorbital wrinkling, all features suggestive of ectodermal dysplasia. Skeletal imaging showed findings consistent with osteopetrosis, and immunologic investigation revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and mixed T- and B-cell dysfunction. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB) essential modulator (NEMO) gene, confirming the diagnosis of OL-HED-ID. Mutations in the NEMO gene have been reported in association with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), OL-HED-ID, and incontinentia pigmenti. In this case, we report a novel mutation in the NEMO gene associated with OL-HED-ID. This article highlights the dermatologic manifestations of a rare disorder, OL-HED-ID, and underscores the importance of early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent life-threatening infections. PMID:23405946

Carlberg, Valerie M; Lofgren, Sabra M; Mann, Julianne A; Austin, Jared P; Nolt, Dawn; Shereck, Evan B; Davila-Saldana, Blachy; Zonana, Jonathan; Krol, Alfons L

2014-11-01

277

Opportunistic out-crossing in Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae), a predominantly self-fertilizing native tobacco  

PubMed Central

Background Although Nicotiana attenuata is entirely self-compatible, chemical and other floral traits suggest selection for the maintenance of advertisement for moth pollinators. Results Experimental exclusions of pollinators from plants with emasculated flowers in natural populations in southern Utah during an outbreak of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata revealed that 24% of the seed set could be attributed to insect pollination, and eliminated wind pollination and apomixis as contributing to seed set. Hence these moths can mediate gene flow when self-pollen is unavailable. To quantify gene flow when self-pollen is available, plants were transformed with two marker genes: hygromycin-B resistance and ?-glucuronidase. The utility of these genetic markers to measure gene flow between plants was examined by mixing pollen from plants homozygous for both genes with self-pollen in different ratios and hand-pollinating emasculated flowers of plants growing in a natural population. The proportion of transformed seeds was positively correlated with the amount of transformed pollen applied to stigmas. In glasshouse experiments with the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and experimental arrays of transformed and wild-type plants, pollination mediated by moths accounted for 2.5% of the seed set. Conclusions Even though moth pollination is rare and highly variable for this largely selfing plant, N. attenuata opportunistically employs a mixed-mating system. PMID:12866951

Sime, Karen R; Baldwin, Ian T

2003-01-01

278

Optimal Opportunistic Scheduling and Adaptive Modulation Policies in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks with Network Coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an opportunistic scheduling and adaptive modulation scheme for a wireless network with an XOR network coding scheme, which results in a cross-layer problem for MAC and physical layers. A similar problem was studied in [2] which considered an idealized system with the Shannon capacity. They showed that it may not be optimal for a relay node to encode all possible native packets and there exists the optimal subset of native packets that depends on the channel condition at the receiver node of each native packet. In this paper, we consider a more realistic model than that of [2] with a practical modulation scheme such as M-PSK. We show that the optimal policy is to encode native as many native packets as possible in the network coding group into a coded packet regardless of the channel condition at the receiver node for each native packet, which is a different conclusion from that of [2]. However, we show that adaptive modulation, in which the constellation size of a coded packet is adjusted based on the channel condition of each receiver node, provides a higher throughput than fixed modulation, in which its constellation size is always fixed regardless of the channel condition at each receiver node.

Gong, Seong-Lyong; Kim, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jang-Won

279

Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection.  

PubMed

Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated "D-CAR") upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR(+) T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR(+) T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR(+) T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Manuri, Pallavi R; Albert, Nathaniel D; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M; Huls, M Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cooper, Laurence J N

2014-07-22

280

Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection  

PubMed Central

Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated “D-CAR”) upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR+ T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR+ T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR+ T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR+ T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M.; Huls, M. Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

2014-01-01

281

Agent-based modeling approach of immune defense against spores of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi like the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are a major threat to immunocompromised patients. An impaired immune system renders the body vulnerable to invasive mycoses that often lead to the death of the patient. While the number of immunocompromised patients is rising with medical progress, the process, and dynamics of defense against invaded and ready to germinate fungal conidia are still insufficiently understood. Besides macrophages, neutrophil granulocytes form an important line of defense in that they clear conidia. Live imaging shows the interaction of those phagocytes and conidia as a dynamic process of touching, dragging, and phagocytosis. To unravel strategies of phagocytes on the hunt for conidia an agent-based modeling approach is used, implemented in NetLogo. Different modes of movement of phagocytes are tested regarding their clearing efficiency: random walk, short-term persistence in their recent direction, chemotaxis of chemokines excreted by conidia, and communication between phagocytes. While the short-term persistence hunting strategy turned out to be superior to the simple random walk, following a gradient of chemokines released by conidial agents is even better. The advantage of communication between neutrophilic agents showed a strong dependency on the spatial scale of the focused area and the distribution of the pathogens. PMID:22557995

Tokarski, Christian; Hummert, Sabine; Mech, Franziska; Figge, Marc Thilo; Germerodt, Sebastian; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan

2012-01-01

282

Agent-Based Modeling Approach of Immune Defense Against Spores of Opportunistic Human Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi like the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are a major threat to immunocompromised patients. An impaired immune system renders the body vulnerable to invasive mycoses that often lead to the death of the patient. While the number of immunocompromised patients is rising with medical progress, the process, and dynamics of defense against invaded and ready to germinate fungal conidia are still insufficiently understood. Besides macrophages, neutrophil granulocytes form an important line of defense in that they clear conidia. Live imaging shows the interaction of those phagocytes and conidia as a dynamic process of touching, dragging, and phagocytosis. To unravel strategies of phagocytes on the hunt for conidia an agent-based modeling approach is used, implemented in NetLogo. Different modes of movement of phagocytes are tested regarding their clearing efficiency: random walk, short-term persistence in their recent direction, chemotaxis of chemokines excreted by conidia, and communication between phagocytes. While the short-term persistence hunting strategy turned out to be superior to the simple random walk, following a gradient of chemokines released by conidial agents is even better. The advantage of communication between neutrophilic agents showed a strong dependency on the spatial scale of the focused area and the distribution of the pathogens. PMID:22557995

Tokarski, Christian; Hummert, Sabine; Mech, Franziska; Figge, Marc Thilo; Germerodt, Sebastian; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan

2012-01-01

283

Structure of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by Burkholderia vietnamiensis, a cystic fibrosis opportunistic pathogen.  

PubMed

Burkholderia vietnamiensis belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and is an opportunistic pathogen for cystic fibrosis patients. As many other Burkholderia species, it has a mucoide phenotype, producing abundant exopolysaccharide. In general, polysaccharides contribute to bacterial survival in a hostile environment, are recognised as virulence factors and as important components in biofilm formation. The primary structure of the exopolysaccharide produced by B. vietnamiensis LMG 10929 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. The polymer consists of the trisaccharidic backbone 3)-?-D-Glcp-(1?4)-?-D-Glcp-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp-(1? with the side chain ?-D-Glcp-(1?4)-?-D-GlcAp-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp-(1? linked to C-3 of the ?-D-Glcp residue. The polysaccharide also bears acetyl substituents on about 20% of its repeating units and on at least two different positions. The presence of fucose residues is a novel structural feature among the exopolysaccharides produced by species of the B. cepacia complex. PMID:23544536

Cescutti, Paola; Cuzzi, Bruno; Herasimenka, Yury; Rizzo, Roberto

2013-04-15

284

Genetic and virulence variation in an environmental population of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Environmental populations of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus have been shown to be genotypically diverse and to contain a range of isolates with varying pathogenic potential. In this study, we combined two RAPD primers to investigate the genetic diversity of environmental isolates from Manchester collected monthly over 1 year alongside Dublin environmental isolates and clinical isolates from patients. RAPD analysis revealed a diverse genotype, but with three major clinical isolate clusters. When the pathogenicity of clinical and Dublin isolates was compared with a random selection of Manchester isolates in a Galleria mellonella larvae model, as a group, clinical isolates were significantly more pathogenic than environmental isolates. Moreover, when relative pathogenicity of individual isolates was compared, clinical isolates were the most pathogenic, Dublin isolates were the least pathogenic and Manchester isolates showed a range in pathogenicity. Overall, this suggests that the environmental population is genetically diverse, displaying a range in pathogenicity, and that the most pathogenic strains from the environment are selected during patient infection. PMID:24464798

Alshareef, Fadwa; Robson, Geoffrey D

2014-04-01

285

An Opportunistic Forwarding Scheme Exploiting both Long Progress and Adaptive Rate in Wireless Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) geographic routing is characterized by local forwarding decision. Links with a long progress are preferred under the greedy forwarding rule. However in a real system long links tend to have a high packet loss rate due to multipath fading. A sub-optimal solution may separately exploit path diversity or rate adaptation. In this paper we study channel efficiency of multi-hop forwarding and try to jointly optimize rate adaptation and forwarder selection in geographic routing by the tradeoff between progress and instantaneous rate. We define a new metric-Bit Transfer Speed (BTS)-as the ratio of the progress made towards the destination to the equivalent time taken to transfer a payload bit. This metric takes overhead, rate and progress into account. Then we propose a packet forwarding scheme that Opportunistically exploits both long Progress and Adaptive Rate (OPAR) by a cross-layer design of routing and MAC. In OPAR each node selects for a packet the forwarder with the highest BTS. The forwarder changes as local topology (progress), packet size (overhead ratio) or channel state (data rate) varies. Simulation results show that compared with the normalized advance (NADV) [7] scheme and contention-based forwarding (CBF) [17] scheme, OPAR has lower packet loss and can effectively reduce channel occupation time by over 30% in the scenario with moderate mobility speeds.

Tang, Suhua; Shirazi, Mehdad N.; Shagdar, Oyunchimeg; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Obana, Sadao

286

The role of opportunistic species of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in the pathogenesis of CAP (Community Acquired Pneumonia).  

PubMed

The analysis of eight cases of CAP (Community Acquired Pneumonia) was performed. The clinical samples of sputum were obtained from patients at which C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains were isolated in the quantity indicating the etiologic agent of infection. In two patients, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were isolated simultaneously. They were considered as coexisting in the infection. C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics. They were resistant to Erythromycin (87.5%), Clindamycin (87.5%), Lincomycin (75.5%), Trimeth./Sulfam.(37.5%), Chloramfenicol (37.5%). In the examined group of patients (five persons), the infection with C. pneumoniae was detected as recently passed or in progress with chronic character as the high level of specific antibodies (IgG or IgG and IgA) was present. That fact could predispose to infection with the opportunistic species of C. pseudodiphtheriticum. Of all the examined patients, three were infected with C. pseudodiphtheriticum as the only species responsible for infection (CAP). PMID:15314974

Chudnicka, Alina; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Kieszko, Robert; Milanowski, Janusz; Kozio?-Montewka, Maria

2003-01-01

287

Development of a rapid detection system for opportunistic pathogenic Cronobacter spp. in powdered milk products.  

PubMed

Certain species of the genus Cronobacter are considered opportunistic pathogens, but their detection in milk products according to ISO/TS 22964 may take up to six days. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive PCR-based detection system for these species including enrichment, DNA-isolation and detection by real-time PCR, using the outer membrane protein gene ompA as a target. The assay was successfully validated using type strains of the genus Cronobacter, as well as 18 strains of closely related genera as controls. A total of 40 Cronobacter spp. food isolates yielded positive results, while the food matrix itself did not influence the PCR reaction. An equal detection limit as achieved with the ISO/TS 22964 method was established in this study, when 0.01 CFU Cronobacter sakazakii DSM 4485(T) per gram powdered infant formula were successfully detected after 28 days of storage at ambient temperature. In comparison to the ISO/TS 22964 method, the method described here has an equal detection limit, but offers a specific detection at the genus level in an analysis time of 24 h. PMID:24929712

Zimmermann, Jennifer; Schmidt, Herbert; Loessner, Martin J; Weiss, Agnes

2014-09-01

288

Functional Characterization of the RNA Chaperone Hfq in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia. PMID:22923593

Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo

2012-01-01

289

Estimating spatial and temporal variability of juvenile North Sea plaice from opportunistic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys are often insufficient to accurately capture the distribution of a species in both space and time. Complementary to the use of research vessel data, platforms of opportunity can be a powerful strategy to monitor species distributions at high temporal and spatial resolution. In this study we use data from commercial fishing vessels, collecting - under the European Union data collection framework - biological data on all species that are caught and subsequently discarded. Using such discard data in combination with a systematic trawl survey, we model the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the central North Sea. There is a clear age-dependent difference between the commercial fishing vessel data and the research vessel data, with age 1 being the dominating age in the survey catches, while age 2 is the dominating age in the discards. The results show how immature plaice, slowly migrate from the nursery areas, westwards into the deeper regions of the North Sea. Also, the results show that during the study period, juvenile plaice gradually moved to deeper waters at an earlier age. Finally we discuss how the framework can be applied to similar opportunistic data to monitor seasonal and inter-annual migration of marine organisms, and to quantify how they may be influenced by biotic and abiotic gradients, such as temperature.

Poos, J. J.; Aarts, G.; Vandemaele, S.; Willems, W.; Bolle, L. J.; van Helmond, A. T. M.

2013-01-01

290

[Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].  

PubMed

Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, O?uz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

2006-01-01

291

Radiomarked Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

292

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

293

Psychology and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the nature of the relationship between psychology and common sense. It is postulated that common sense may be categorized in 3 ways: (a) as a set of shared fundamental assumptions, (b) as a set of maxims or shared beliefs, and (c) as a shared way of thinking. It is argued that psychology has and should have a different relationship

Garth J. Fletcher

1984-01-01

294

Prebreeding in Common Bean  

E-print Network

Prebreeding in Common Bean and Use of Genetic Diversity from Wild Germplasm JORGE A. ACOSTA to human welfare with five cultigens domesticated in pre-Columbian times: the common bean (P. vulgaris number of its species is found in Mesoamerica (Del- gado-Salinas, 1985; Freytag and Debouck, 2002). Among

Gepts, Paul

295

Restorative Commons: Creating Health  

E-print Network

#12; Cover Photo: New York City Housing Authority community garden, MarlboroRestorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay;#12;Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay Campbell

296

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

297

Campus Common Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

Bakken, Gordon Morris

1976-01-01

298

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

299

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

300

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

301

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

302

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

303

Adherence to Physician Recommendations for Surveillance in Opportunistic Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Necessity of Organized Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Limited evidence exists on the utilization of surveillance colonoscopy in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. We assessed adherence to physician recommendations for surveillance in opportunistic CRC screening in Germany. Methods A follow-up study of screening colonoscopy participants in 2007-2009 in Saarland, Germany, was conducted using health insurance claims data. Utilization of additional colonoscopies through to 2011 was ascertained. Adherence to surveillance intervals of 3, 6, 12 and 36 months, defined as having had colonoscopy at 2.5 to 4, 5 to 8, 10.5 to 16 and 33 to 48 months, respectively (i.e., tolerating a delay of 33% of each interval) was assessed. Potential predictors of non-adherence were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 20,058 screening colonoscopy participants were included in the study. Of those with recommended surveillance intervals of 3, 6, 12 and 36 months, 46.5% (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 37.3-55.7%), 38.5% (95%-CI: 29.6-47.3%), 25.4% (95%-CI: 21.2-29.6%) and 28.0% (95%-CI: 25.5-30.5%), respectively, had a subsequent colonoscopy within the specified margins. Old age, longer recommended surveillance interval, not having had polypectomy at screening and negative colonoscopy were statistically significant predictors of non-adherence. Conclusion This study suggests frequent non-adherence to physician recommendations for surveillance colonoscopy in community practice. Increased efforts to improve adherence, including introduction of more elements of an organized screening program, seem necessary to assure a high-quality CRC screening process. PMID:24324821

Stock, Christian; Holleczek, Bernd; Hoffmeister, Michael; Stolz, Thomas; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

2013-01-01

304

Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections among HIV-infected patients receiving medical care.  

PubMed

In 1995 and 1997, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) published recommendations for primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected adults. We evaluated their implementation at four hospital-based HIV clinics in New York City in patients who initially met the CD4+ criterion for prophylaxis between January, 1995 and April, 1997. Medical records were reviewed at 6-month intervals to determine drugs prescribed. We identified 149 patients for the PCP sample, 130 for MAC, and 138 for toxoplasmosis. In the three samples, 91% were black and Hispanic, 75% to 81% were male, and 43% to 47% had a history of injection drug use (IDU); median age was between 39 and 40 years. PCP prophylaxis was prescribed during 93% of intervals and did not vary significantly by clinic or patient characteristics. Over the study period, MAC prophylaxis increased from 22% to 62%, and prescriptions for macrolides increased from 38% to 87% of all prescriptions. In the logistic regression analysis, prescription for MAC prophylaxis at any time during the study period was less likely in blacks compared with whites (odds ratio [OR] = .08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .01, .52) and patients attending the clinic with the lowest rate of MAC prophylaxis (clinic D) compared with the clinic with the highest rate (clinic B; OR = .04; 95% CI = .01, .26). Toxoplasmosis prophylaxis was prescribed in 73% of intervals and did not differ significantly by antibody status (p = .42). Prescribing patterns were uniform across gender, HIV risk behavior, and age for PCP and MAC prophylaxis but differed by clinic and race for MAC prophylaxis. Trends in prophylaxis for opportunistic illnesses must continue to be monitored in light of the success of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. PMID:9833748

Sackoff, J; McFarland, J; Su, S; Bryan, E

1998-12-01

305

Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions of this research, namely, OLA with transmission threshold (OLA-T) and alternating OLA-T (A-OLA-T), offer an signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) advantage (i.e., benefits of diversity and array (power) gains) in a multi-path fading environment, thereby reducing transmit powers or extending range. Because these protocols do not address nodes individually, the network overhead remains constant for high density networks or nodes with mobility. During broadcasting across energy-constrained networks, while OLA-T saves energy by limiting node participation within a single broadcast, A-OLA-T optimizes over multiple broadcasts and drains the nodes in an equitable fashion. A major bottleneck for network sustainability is the ability of a rechargeable battery (RB) to store energy, which is limited by the number of charge-discharge cycles. Energy harvesting using a HESS that comprises a RB and a supercapacitor (SC) will minimize the RB usage, thereby preserving the charge-discharge cycles. Studying the HESS is important, rather than the SC-alone because while an SC with harvested energy may be sufficient for routine monitoring, if there is an alert, the RB could be used as necessary to support the heavier reporting requirements. Therefore, another key contribution of this research is the design and analysis of a novel routing metric called communications using HESS (CHESS), which extends the RB-life by relaying exclusively with SC energy.

Kailas, Aravind

306

COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

1 COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Claudio and social equity are among the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals - but, unfortunately proposes Commoning and Common Information Systems as a possible tentative to facilitate the inclusion

Boyer, Edmond

307

Rosacea: A Common, Yet Commonly Overlooked, Condition  

E-print Network

Rosacea is a common, but often overlooked, skin condition of uncertain etiology that can lead to significant facial disfigurement, ocular complications, and severe emotional distress. The progression of rosacea is variable; however, typical stages include: (1) facial flushing, (2) erythema and/or edema and ocular symptoms, (3) papules and pustules, and (4) rhinophyma. A history of exacerbation by sun exposure, stress, cold weather, hot beverages, alcohol consumption, or certain foods helps determine the diagnosis; the first line of treatment is avoidance of these triggering or exacerbating factors. Most patients respond well to long-term topical antibiotic treatment. Oral or topical retinoid therapy may also be effective. Laser treatment is an option for progressive telangiectasis or rhinophyma. Family physicians should be able to identify and effectively treat the majority of patients with rosacea. Consultation with subspecialists may be required for the management of rhinophyma, ocular complications, or severe disease. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:435-40,442. Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Family Physicians.) O A patient information handout on

B. Wayne Blount; Allen L. Pelletier

308

In Vitro Activity of the New Triazole Voriconazole (UK109,496) against Opportunistic Filamentous and Dimorphic Fungi and Common and Emerging Yeast Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 67 isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bipolaris spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pseudallescheria boydii, Rhizopus arrhizus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, His- toplasma capsulatum, and Sporothrix schenckii. The in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin B,

ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

1998-01-01

309

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

310

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

311

Algorithms for Communication in Wireless multi-hop ad hoc Networks using Broadcasts in Opportunistic Large Arrays (OLA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A new,physical layer technique,[1] for broadcasting in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks,makes,broadcast,a much more,efficient building block than traditional flooding broadcast. This broadcasting,technique requires that all nodes that receive a message,retransmit it at the same,time. Because the messages,are identical, interference can be constructive rather than destructive, and,the multiple,transmitters,act as an,antenna,array,? an Opportunistic Large Array, or OLA ? to transmit the message

Edoardo S. Biagioni

2007-01-01

312

Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model  

PubMed Central

Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections. PMID:24875186

Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

313

Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63?007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12?753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19?908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32?661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but still consistent with, a previous survey of appendix tissue that showed a prevalence of 292 per million with a 95% confidence interval of 60 to 853 per million. Continuing to archive and test tonsil specimens, especially in older birth cohorts, and other complementary large scale anonymous tissue surveys, particularly of post-mortem tissues, will further refine the calculated prevalence of PrPCJD. PMID:19460798

2009-01-01

314

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

315

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

316

The Common Denominator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

Grimes, Nikki

2005-01-01

317

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

318

Space station commonality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

319

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

320

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

Olson, Mark

2013-01-01

321

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

322

Information Commons to Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

Bayer, Marc Dewey

2008-01-01

323

COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

NGUYEN VAN EM

324

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

325

Where Are the Commonalities Among the Therapeutic Common Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little convergence or empirical research on factors shared by diverse psychotherapies. We reviewed 50 publications to discern commonalities among proposed therapeutic common factors. The number of factors per publication ranged from 1 to 20, with 89 different commonalities proposed in all. Analyses revealed that 41% of proposed commonalities were change processes; by contrast, only 6% of articulated commonalities

Lisa M. Grencavage; John C. Norcross

1990-01-01

326

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

327

Common spider bites.  

PubMed

There are more than 30,000 species of spiders, most of which cannot inflict serious bites to humans because of their delicate mouthparts and impotent or prey-specific venoms. However, some spiders produce toxic venoms that can cause skin lesions, systemic illnesses, and neurotoxicity. One of the more common bites is inflicted by the widow spiders (Latrodectus species). A bite from a widow spider results in muscle spasms and rigidity starting at the bite site within 30 minutes to two hours. Another common bite is inflicted by the recluse spider (Loxosceles species). Most bites from these spiders occur early in the morning and are initially painless. These bites usually progress to ulcerating dermonecrosis at the bite site. Spider bites can be prevented by simple measures. Early species identification and specific management can prevent most serious sequelae of spider bites. PMID:17390599

Diaz, James H; Leblanc, Kim Edward

2007-03-15

328

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Frederick A. Senese

329

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

330

Feeding host range of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) demonstrates its opportunistic host-seeking behavior in rural Singapore.  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a competent vector of arboviruses of public health importance, including dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus viruses. Ae. albopictus is the primary vector of chikungunya virus in Singapore. However, despite being ubiquitous, it plays a secondary role in DENV transmission. The vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus for DENV in field settings appears to be weak because dengue primarily occurs in Aedes aegypti (L.)-dominated, urban settings of the country. As host-seeking behavior is one of the determinants of vectorial capacity, we screened 6,762 female Ae. albopictus from rural, semiurban, and urban locations in Singapore for avian and nonavian bloodmeals using two polymerase chain reaction-sequencing assays developed in-house. The majority (83.2%, n = 79) of bloodmeals from rural and semiurban areas were from humans. However, Ae. albopictus was also found to feed on shrews, swine, dogs, cats, turtles, and multiple hosts in rural settings. In urban areas, all positive bloodmeals were from humans. There were no avian bloodmeals. Our findings testify that Ae. albopictus is highly anthropophagic even in rural settings, but become opportunistic in extremely low human abundance. This opportunistic feeding behavior warrants further investigations into the vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus to assess its role in arbovirus transmission in endemic habitats. PMID:25118424

Kek, Relus; Hapuarachchi, H C; Chung, Chiew-Yuan; Humaidi, Mahathir Bin; Razak, Muhammad Aliff B A; Chiang, Suzanna; Lee, Caleb; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Ng, Lee-Ching

2014-07-01

331

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

332

Common drive unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

1987-01-01

333

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

334

Common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) is a heterogeneous immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and a variety of immunological abnormalities. In addition to recurrent infections, patients with this syndrome also suffer from an increased incidence of autoimmune disease and malignancy. Because the spectrum of associated diseases is broad, patients with CVI are seen by a variety of medical specialists. In this review, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CVI are discussed. PMID:11202479

Sneller, M C

2001-01-01

335

Common gynecologic infections.  

PubMed

Many women seek care for vulvar, vaginal, or pelvic complaints. Primary care providers should possess a solid understanding of the differential diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic infections. Many infections in the reproductive tract are sexually transmitted, whereas other common infections are attributable to an overgrowth of the normally present bacteria or yeast in the vagina. Presenting symptoms and signs are helpful in determining the source of infection, but often a battery of tests must be performed to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19231601

Biggs, Wendy S; Williams, Rachel M

2009-03-01

336

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

337

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed  

E-print Network

Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed seedling. Life. psilostachya DC.) Differs by having a perennial nature with prolific creeping roots, densely hairy leaves

338

Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

339

Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(2):e30-e35.]. PMID:25658216

Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

2015-02-01

340

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

341

CPL: Common Pipeline Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules (using programs such as EsoRex).

ESO CPL Development Team

2014-02-01

342

Common herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

Turkoski, B B

2000-01-01

343

Cytomegalovirus disease in patients with common variable immunodeficiency: three case reports.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent clinically relevant primary immunodeficiency and shows enormous heterogeneity in clinical presentation. Despite clinical immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections are not a typical manifestation of CVID. A retrospective study of 32 patients followed up for 335 patient-years was performed to determine the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Symptomatic CMV infection was documented in 3 CVID patients. Patients No. 1 and 2 suffered from CMV pneumonia, with complications due to atypical mycobacteriosis in patient No. 1. Patient No. 3 suffered from CMV enteritis. A history of cancer and chronic hepatitis C infection (patient No. 1), immunosuppressive therapy for interstitial lung disease (patient No. 2) and serious enteropathy complicated with malnutrition (patient No. 3) may have contributed to the complications despite only mild abnormalities in T-cell subpopulations. The direct detection of CMV in bronchoalveolar lavage, stool or tissue samples was the most beneficial diagnostic laboratory method, whereas the detection of CMV DNA in blood did not produce positive results. Adequate treatment of CMV disease led to significant clinical improvement in all 3 patients. The frequency of CMV disease appears to be higher than previously described. In our experience, the probability of opportunistic infections in CVID patients increases with secondary comorbidities and their management. PMID:24247002

Kralickova, Pavlina; Mala, Eva; Vokurkova, Doris; Krcmova, Irena; Pliskova, Lenka; Stepanova, Vlasta; Bartos, Vladimir; Koblizek, Vladimir; Tacheci, Ilja; Bures, Jan; Brozik, Jan; Litzman, Jiri

2014-01-01

344

Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

2013-01-01

345

Deep Trench Capacitor based Step-up and Step-down DC/DC Converters in 32nm SOI with Opportunistic  

E-print Network

domains. Using ultra-high density deep trench capacitors, we are able to achieve an output power densityDeep Trench Capacitor based Step-up and Step-down DC/DC Converters in 32nm SOI with Opportunistic University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA Abstract-A switched capacitor step-down converter

Kim, Chris H.

346

InProc.oftheTheFullyNetworkedCarWorkshop,GenevaInternationalMotorShow,Geneva,Switzerland,March34,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links  

E-print Network

applications, based on satellite communication links (i.e., LEO/MEO satellite constellations). In such scenario,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links for Safety Applications A.M. Vegni1 , C. Vegni2 , and T, Boston, MA tdcl@ bu.edu Satellite radio is one of a complementary set of network connectivity

347

Risk Assessment of the Schmutzdecke of Biosand Filters: Identification of an Opportunistic Pathogen in Schmutzdecke Developed by an Unsafe Water Source  

PubMed Central

The biosand filter (BSF) is widely applied in developing counties as an appropriate technology-based product for supplying “safe” water. Biosand filters exhibit relatively high purifying efficiency because of the schmutzdecke (biofilm) embedded in them. However, schmutzdecke should be cleaned or discarded on a regular basis to maintain the purifying efficiency of the BSF. Due to its role in BSFs, the purifying function of schmutzdecke, rather than its potential risk when not properly discarded, has so far been the primary focus of research. This study aims to provide a risk assessment of schmutzdecke in an attempt to draw attention to a wholly new angle of schmutzdecke usage. We conducted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to identify opportunistic pathogens in schmutzdecke developed using water from the Hyung-San River. The results reveal that the schmutzdecke derived from this water source contains diverse and relatively high portions of opportunistic pathogen strains; 55% of all isolates collected from schmutzdecke were identified as opportunistic pathogens. Moreover, the diversity of microorganisms is increased in the schmutzdecke compared to its water source in terms of diversity of genus, phylum and opportunistic pathogen strain. As a whole, our study indicates a potential risk associated with schmutzdecke and the necessity of a solid guideline for the after-treatment of discarded schmutzdecke. PMID:24534769

Hwang, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Min Seo; Shin, Soo Min; Hwang, Cher Won

2014-01-01

348

In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B against Opportunistic Moniliaceous and Dematiaceous Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NCCLS proposed standard M38-P describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds); however, standard conditions are not available for testing their fungicidal activities (minimum fungicidal or lethal concentrations (MFCs)). This study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against 260 common and emerging

ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

2001-01-01

349

ALMOST COMMON PRIORS ZIV HELLMAN  

E-print Network

the common priors assumption, `anything is possible', in the sense that heterogeneous priors allowALMOST COMMON PRIORS ZIV HELLMAN ABSTRACT. What happens when priors are not common? We introduce a measure for how far a type space is from having a common prior, which we term prior distance. If a type

Hart, Sergiu

350

PHYSICS AND COMMON SENSE* NICHOLASMAXWELL  

E-print Network

PHYSICS AND COMMON SENSE* NICHOLASMAXWELL I Physicalism and Common Sense THE basic problem with our ordinary common sense views about the world based on our ordinary experience? In order to discuss of common sense, of our ordinary experience, and therefore that scientific discoveries cannot contradict

Blandford, Ann

351

Common Knowledge Revisited Ronald Fagin  

E-print Network

that in order for something to be a convention, it must in fact be common knowledge among the members of a group means "go" and red means "stop" is presumably common knowledge among the drivers in our society.) CommonCommon Knowledge Revisited Ronald Fagin IBM Almaden Research Center 650 Harry Road San Jose, CA

Halpern, Joseph Y.

352

Dual roles of an algal farming damselfish as a cultivator and opportunistic browser of an invasive seaweed.  

PubMed

Herbivory is a fundamental process determining reef resilience, and while algal farming damselfishes can help shape benthic assemblages, an understanding of their contribution to areas outside of defended territories is relatively unexplored. Here, we demonstrate how the farming damselfish Stegastes marginatus plays a dual role in benthic structuring by 1) contributing to persistence of the invasive macroalga Acanthophora spicifera within a Hawaiian marine protected area, where the macroalga occurred exclusively inside Stegastes territories, and 2) behaving as an opportunistic browser of the exotic alga outside their territorial borders. Greater than 50% of the biomass of tethered A. spicifera was consumed within one-hour when placed outside Stegastes territories, compared to <5% lost from tethers within territories or herbivore exclusion cages. In situ remote video revealed that tethered A. spicifera located outside territories was grazed primarily by the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus (?68% of total bites) and, surprisingly, by S. marginatus (?27% of total bites) that left their territories to feed on this resource on 107 occasions during 400 min of filming. Further, for over half of those occurrences where S. marginatus grazed on the tethered macroalga outside of territories, they fed alongside conspecifics and other species, displaying little of the aggressiveness that characterizes this damselfish. These results show that S. marginatus plays a wider role in determining benthic assemblages than previously recognized, acting both as cultivators of a canopy-forming invasive macroalga within their territories, and as opportunistic browsers in neighboring sites. Consequently, S. marginatus can affect benthic species composition across their territory borders. These results provide a rare example of interspecific facilitation of an exotic alga by an indigenous marine fish. Accounting for fish behaviors more broadly is important to further our understanding of ecological processes that shape reef ecosystems to improve management of MPAs that often support extensive farming damselfish populations. PMID:25329385

Peyton, Kimberly A; Valentino, Lauren M; Maruska, Karen P

2014-01-01

353

Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)  

PubMed Central

Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Lud?k; Haberová, Tamara

2013-01-01

354

Dual Roles of an Algal Farming Damselfish as a Cultivator and Opportunistic Browser of an Invasive Seaweed  

PubMed Central

Herbivory is a fundamental process determining reef resilience, and while algal farming damselfishes can help shape benthic assemblages, an understanding of their contribution to areas outside of defended territories is relatively unexplored. Here, we demonstrate how the farming damselfish Stegastes marginatus plays a dual role in benthic structuring by 1) contributing to persistence of the invasive macroalga Acanthophora spicifera within a Hawaiian marine protected area, where the macroalga occurred exclusively inside Stegastes territories, and 2) behaving as an opportunistic browser of the exotic alga outside their territorial borders. Greater than 50% of the biomass of tethered A. spicifera was consumed within one-hour when placed outside Stegastes territories, compared to <5% lost from tethers within territories or herbivore exclusion cages. In situ remote video revealed that tethered A. spicifera located outside territories was grazed primarily by the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus (?68% of total bites) and, surprisingly, by S. marginatus (?27% of total bites) that left their territories to feed on this resource on 107 occasions during 400 min of filming. Further, for over half of those occurrences where S. marginatus grazed on the tethered macroalga outside of territories, they fed alongside conspecifics and other species, displaying little of the aggressiveness that characterizes this damselfish. These results show that S. marginatus plays a wider role in determining benthic assemblages than previously recognized, acting both as cultivators of a canopy-forming invasive macroalga within their territories, and as opportunistic browsers in neighboring sites. Consequently, S. marginatus can affect benthic species composition across their territory borders. These results provide a rare example of interspecific facilitation of an exotic alga by an indigenous marine fish. Accounting for fish behaviors more broadly is important to further our understanding of ecological processes that shape reef ecosystems to improve management of MPAs that often support extensive farming damselfish populations. PMID:25329385

Peyton, Kimberly A.; Valentino, Lauren M.; Maruska, Karen P.

2014-01-01

355

Regular habitat switch as an important feeding strategy of an opportunistic seabird species at the interface between land and sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During deteriorated prey availability, purely pelagic, specialised seabird species have to alter their feeding strategy by extending foraging radii and/or time spent at sea or reducing feeding intervals of chicks. In contrast, more generalised species such as the opportunistic black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus) breeding at the German North Sea coast, can be assumed to react on prey shortages by switching foraging habitats. The coastal zone of the German North Sea provides a rich habitat mosaic consisting of the offshore zone, tidal flats and terrestrial habitats. Thus, we expected distinct temporal and spatial patterns of habitat switch in accordance with prey availability and environmental constraints. We carried out ship-based and aerial surveys as well as dietary analyses and observations on flight activity. We found a significant switch from terrestrial to marine feeding sites both on a daily basis (related to tidal cycle) and over the whole breeding season. Most likely, the latter switch is the result of lower prey availability in the terrestrial habitats and an increasing quality (in terms of prey abundance and energy intake) of the marine area. While there was only moderate variability in habitat use among different years, we revealed significant differences in the diet of birds from different colonies. The high dietary plasticity and flexible feeding strategy, switching between terrestrial and marine prey is certainly of major importance for the success of an opportunistic avian top predator in a complex coastal zone. It is suggested that - compared to situations elsewhere - the number of breeding pairs of black-headed gulls in the German North Sea coast are still stable due to the switch of foraging habitats performed by individuals in this region.

Schwemmer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan

2008-03-01

356

Indigenous opportunistic bacteria inhabit mammalian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and share a mucosal antibody-mediated symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The indigenous bacteria create natural cohabitation niches together with mucosal Abs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here we report that opportunistic bacteria, largely Alcaligenes species, specifically inhabit host Peyer's patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles, with the associated preferential induction of antigen-specific mucosal IgA Abs in the GI tract. Alcaligenes were identified as the dominant bacteria on the interior of PPs from naïve, specific-pathogen-free but not from germ-free mice. Oral transfer of intratissue uncultured Alcaligenes into germ-free mice resulted in the presence of Alcaligenes inside the PPs of recipients. This result was further supported by the induction of antigen-specific Ab-producing cells in the mucosal (e.g., PPs) but not systemic compartment (e.g., spleen). The preferential presence of Alcaligenes inside PPs and the associated induction of intestinal secretory IgA Abs were also observed in both monkeys and humans. Localized mucosal Ab-mediated symbiotic immune responses were supported by Alcaligenes-stimulated CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) producing the Ab-enhancing cytokines TGF-?, B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family, and IL-6 in PPs. These CD11c+ DCs did not migrate beyond the draining mesenteric lymph nodes. In the absence of antigen-specific mucosal Abs, the presence of Alcaligenes in PPs was greatly diminished. Thus, indigenous opportunistic bacteria uniquely inhabit PPs, leading to PP-DCs-initiated, local antigen-specific Ab production; this may involve the creation of an optimal symbiotic environment on the interior of the PPs. PMID:20360558

Obata, Takashi; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Setoyama, Hiromi; Matsuki, Takahiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Naoko; Gohda, Masashi; Kagiyama, Yuki; Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Mukai, Akira; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Iijima, Hideki; Goto, Masatoshi; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

357

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

358

Stellar mergers are common  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed Galactic rate of stellar mergers or the initiation of common envelope phases brighter than MV = -3 (MI = -4) is of the order of ˜0.5 (0.3) yr-1 with 90 per cent confidence statistical uncertainties of 0.24-1.1 (0.14-0.65) and factor of ˜2 systematic uncertainties. The (peak) luminosity function is roughly {d}N/{d} L ? L^{-1.4± 0.3}, so the rates for events more luminous than V1309 Sco (MV ? -7 mag) or V838 Mon (MV ? -10 mag) are lower at r ˜ 0.1 and ˜0.03/year, respectively. The peak luminosity is a steep function of progenitor mass, L ? M2 - 3. This very roughly parallels the scaling of luminosity with mass on the main sequence, but the transients are ˜2000-4000 times more luminous at peak. Combining these, the mass function of the progenitors, dN/dM ? M-2.0 ± 0.8, is consistent with the initial mass function, albeit with broad uncertainties. These observational results are also broadly consistent with the estimates of binary population synthesis models. While extragalactic variability surveys can better define the rates and properties of the high-luminosity events, systematic, moderate depth (I ? 16 mag) surveys of the Galactic plane are needed to characterize the low-luminosity events. The existing Galactic samples are only ˜20 per cent complete, and Galactic surveys are (at best!) reaching a typical magnitude limit of ? 13 mag.

Kochanek, C. S.; Adams, Scott M.; Belczynski, Krzysztof

2014-09-01

359

Cutaneous manifestations of opportunistic infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) presents most commonly as a cutaneous disease and is caused by two organisms. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana. Biopsy confirmation of cutaneous BA is essential because lesions can mimic nodular Kaposi's sarcoma in appearance. Although the vast majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with BA have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 100 cells per mm3, the disease responds well to antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial skin pathogen affecting HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of skin disease due to S. aureus may be explained by high nasal carriage rates for the organism ( > or = 50%) and altered immune function in conjunction with an impaired cutaneous barrier. Herpes simplex virus causes mucocutaneous disease early in the course HIV infection and ulcerative lesions at any site in advanced HIV infection. Herpes zoster is common early in the course of HIV infection; recurrent and disseminated herpes zoster infections are characteristic of patients with advanced HIV disease. Acyclovir resistance is usually seen in patients with large, untreated, ulcerative lesions of herpes simplex virus and in patients with chronic, verrucous lesions of varicella-zoster virus. Cutaneous cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidiomycosis are markers of disseminated disease and require biopsy confirmation. Scabies is easily diagnosed but may be atypical in presentation and difficult to eradicate in advanced HIV disease. PMID:7553576

Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D; Berger, T G

1995-01-01

360

Non-viral Opportunistic Infections in New Users of TNF Inhibitor Therapy: Results of the SAfety Assessment of Biologic ThERapy (SABER) Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine among patients with autoimmune diseases in the United States whether the risk of non-viral opportunistic infections (OIs) was increased among new users of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFI), when compared to users of non-biologic agents used for active disease. Methods We identified new users of TNFI among cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and psoriasis-psoriatic arthritis-ankylosing spondylitis (PsO-PsA-AS) patients during 1998–2007 using combined data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, two pharmaceutical assistance programs for the elderly, Tennessee Medicaid, and US Medicaid/Medicare programs. We compared incidence of non-viral OIs among new TNFI users and patients initiating non-biologic disease modifying drugs (DMARDs) overall and within each disease cohort. Cox regression models were used to compare propensity-score and steroid- adjusted OI incidence between new TNFI and non-biologic DMARD users. Results Within a cohort of 33,324 new TNFI users we identified 80 non-viral OIs, the most common of which was pneumocystosis (n=16). In the combined cohort, crude rates of non-viral OIs among new users of TNFI as compared to those initiating non-biologic DMARDs was 2.7 verus 1.7 per 1000-person years[adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6)]. Baseline corticosteroid use was associated with non-viral OIs (aHR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.0). In the RA cohort, rates of non-viral OIs among new users of infliximab were higher when compared to patients newly starting non-biologic DMARDs (aHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2, 5.6) or new etanercept users (aHR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.4). Conclusions In the US, the rate of non-viral OIs was higher among new users of TNFI with autoimmune diseases as compared to non-biologic DMARD users. PMID:23852763

Baddley, John W.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Chen, Lang; Liu, Liyan; Grijalva, Carlos G; Delzell, Elizabeth; Beukelman, Timothy; Patkar, Nivedita M.; Xie, Fenglong; Saag, Kenneth G.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Lewis, James D.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

361

Common sense concepts about motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense beliefs of college students about motion and its causes are surveyed and analyzed. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newtonian theory is developed as a guide to instruction.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun; David Hestenes

1985-01-01

362

6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

363

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ...

364

Commons Request Form Organization Information  

E-print Network

Commons Request Form Organization Information Organization: _______________________________________________________________ Phone: __________________ Email:______________________________________ Event Information Date Date Received ______ Time Received ______ Event Time: _____ to _____ ___ Student Organization

365

Culture and the Common School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

Feinberg, Walter

2007-01-01

366

Minimum Common String Partition Parameterized  

E-print Network

Minimum Common String Partition Parameterized Peter Damaschke Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chalmers University, 41296 G¨oteborg, Sweden ptr@cs.chalmers.se Abstract. Minimum Common String occurences in x. In the Minimum Common String Partition (MCSP) problem, two strings x, y of length n

Damaschke, Peter

367

The common ancestry of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common

Eugene V Koonin; Yuri I Wolf

2010-01-01

368

Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).  

PubMed

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

369

Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

370

Common liability to addiction and “gateway hypothesis”: Theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Two competing concepts address the development of involvement with psychoactive substances: the “gateway hypothesis” (GH) and common liability to addiction (CLA). Method The literature on theoretical foundations and empirical findings related to both concepts is reviewed. Results The data suggest that drug use initiation sequencing, the core GH element, is variable and opportunistic rather than uniform and developmentally deterministic. The association between risks for use of different substances, if any, can be more readily explained by common underpinnings than by specific staging. In contrast, the CLA concept is grounded in genetic theory and supported by data identifying common sources of variation in the risk for specific addictions. This commonality has identifiable neurobiological substrate and plausible evolutionary explanations. Conclusions Whereas the “gateway” hypothesis does not specify mechanistic connections between “stages”, and does not extend to the risks for addictions, the concept of common liability to addictions incorporates sequencing of drug use initiation as well as extends to related addictions and their severity, provides a parsimonious explanation of substance use and addiction co-occurrence, and establishes a theoretical and empirical foundation to research in etiology, quantitative risk and severity measurement, as well as targeted non-drug-specific prevention and early intervention. PMID:22261179

Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirillova, Galina P.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Conway, Kevin P.; Maher, Brion S.; Iacono, William G.; Bierut, Laura; Neale, Michael C.; Clark, Duncan B.; Ridenour, Ty A.

2013-01-01

371

Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest  

E-print Network

Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Game Theory.S. Zollman Signaling #12;Signaling and Game Theory Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Introduction Pure Common Interest Partial Common Interest Introduction Methodologies in game theory Signaling

Zollman, Kevin

372

Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

Dunkle, Cheryl A.

2012-01-01

373

Common Waterfowl in the Southeast Common name1,2  

E-print Network

lesser scaup Aythya affinis greater scaup Aythya marila common goldeneye Bucephala clangula Barrow Anas clypeata canvasback Aythya valisineria redhead Aythya americana ring-necked duck Aythya collaris

Gray, Matthew

374

Physiological responses of the opportunistic macroalgae Cladophora vagabunda (L.) van den Hoek and Gracilaria tikvahiae (McLachlan) to environmental disturbances associated with eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability of macroalgae to tolerate environmental disturbances often contributes to their success in marine communities. We investigated the effects of episodic and chronic disturbances (hypoxia\\/anoxia, elevated ammonium, reduced light) associated with eutrophication on physiological responses (respiration, photosynthesis, growth, nutrient uptake) of the macroalgae, Cladophora vagabunda (L.) van den Hoek and Gracilaria tikvahiae (McLachlan). These opportunistic species accumulate into thick (0.3

P. Peckol; J. S. Rivers

1995-01-01

375

Opportunistic versus life-cycle-oriented decision making in multi-loop recovery: an eco-eco study on disposed vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Multinational companies have recently been encouraged by government policies to implement Extended Producer Responsibility.\\u000a One objective is to stimulate high-level recovery, and the other is to introduce life cycle thinking. This paper studies decision\\u000a making in recovery, comparing opportunistic decision making with short-term profit maximization (usually leading to one loop)\\u000a versus a life-cycle perspective (leading to multiple loops). The question

Harold Krikke

2010-01-01

376

Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches  

PubMed Central

Indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of the Peyer’s patches play a key role in the development of the mucosal immune, but their population composition has been ignored. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the changes in the composition of indigenous opportunistic bacteria in the Peyer’s patches are associated with obesity. C57BL/6J-male mice had been fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet. After 25 weeks, mice in high-fat diet exhibit either an obesity-prone (OP) or an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. Control diet group (CT) and OR group had a significant larger bacteria diversity than that in the OP group. Allobaculum and Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in high-fat diet induced OP mice compared with CT and OR mice, whereas Rhizobium and Lactococcus was significantly increased. The result of quantitative real-time PCR was consistent with that of 454 pyrosequencing. Significant correlations between mRNA expression of inflammation marks and the top 5 abundance genera bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches were observed by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Taken together, the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches plays a major role in the development of inflammation for an occurrence of obesity. PMID:25320459

Qiao, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xie, Zhenxing; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

2014-01-01

377

Network analysis suggests a potentially 'evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities.  

PubMed

The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only 'non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially 'evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the 'confrontation' between the 'evil' alliance and 'benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

Sam Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A; Forney, Larry J

2015-01-01

378

Miniaturized and high-throughput assays for analysis of T-cell immunity specific for opportunistic pathogens and HIV.  

PubMed

Monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses is valuable in numerous conditions that include infectious diseases, vaccinations, and opportunistic infections associated with acquired or congenital immune defects. A variety of assays that make use of peripheral lymphocytes to test activation markers, T-cell receptor expression, or functional responses are currently available. The last group of assays calls for large numbers of functional lymphocytes. The number of cells increases with the number of antigens to be tested. Consequently, cells may be the limiting factor, particularly in lymphopenic subjects and in children, the groups that more often require immune monitoring. We have developed immunochemical assays that measure secreted cytokines in the same wells in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are cultured. This procedure lent itself to miniaturization and automation. Lymphoproliferation and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay have been adapted to a miniaturized format. Here we provide examples of immune profiles and describe a comparison between miniaturized assays based on cytokine secretion or proliferation. We also demonstrate that these assays are convenient for use in testing antigen specificity in established T-cell lines, in addition to analysis of PBMC. In summary, the applicabilities of miniaturization to save cells and reagents and of automation to save time and increase accuracy were demonstrated in this study using different methodological approaches valuable in the clinical immunology laboratory. PMID:24477854

Li Pira, Giuseppina; Ivaldi, Federico; Starc, Nadia; Landi, Fabiola; Locatelli, Franco; Rutella, Sergio; Tripodi, Gino; Manca, Fabrizio

2014-04-01

379

Miniaturized and High-Throughput Assays for Analysis of T-Cell Immunity Specific for Opportunistic Pathogens and HIV  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses is valuable in numerous conditions that include infectious diseases, vaccinations, and opportunistic infections associated with acquired or congenital immune defects. A variety of assays that make use of peripheral lymphocytes to test activation markers, T-cell receptor expression, or functional responses are currently available. The last group of assays calls for large numbers of functional lymphocytes. The number of cells increases with the number of antigens to be tested. Consequently, cells may be the limiting factor, particularly in lymphopenic subjects and in children, the groups that more often require immune monitoring. We have developed immunochemical assays that measure secreted cytokines in the same wells in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are cultured. This procedure lent itself to miniaturization and automation. Lymphoproliferation and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay have been adapted to a miniaturized format. Here we provide examples of immune profiles and describe a comparison between miniaturized assays based on cytokine secretion or proliferation. We also demonstrate that these assays are convenient for use in testing antigen specificity in established T-cell lines, in addition to analysis of PBMC. In summary, the applicabilities of miniaturization to save cells and reagents and of automation to save time and increase accuracy were demonstrated in this study using different methodological approaches valuable in the clinical immunology laboratory. PMID:24477854

Ivaldi, Federico; Starc, Nadia; Landi, Fabiola; Locatelli, Franco; Rutella, Sergio; Tripodi, Gino; Manca, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

380

A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis. PMID:23597661

JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

2013-01-01

381

COS1, a two-component histidine kinase that is involved in hyphal development in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Two-component histidine kinases recently have been found in eukaryotic organisms including fungi, slime molds, and plants. We describe the identification of a gene, COS1, from the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans by using a PCR-based screening strategy. The sequence of COS1 indicates that it encodes a homolog of the histidine kinase Nik-1 from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. COS1 is also identical to a gene called CaNIK1 identified in C. albicans by low stringency hybridization using CaSLN1 as a probe [Nagahashi, S., Mio, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Arisawa, M., Bussey, H. & Yamada-Okabe, H. (1998) Microbiol. 44, 425–432]. We assess the function of COS1/CaNIK1 by constructing a diploid deletion mutant. Mutants lacking both copies of COS1 appear normal when grown as yeast cells; however, they exhibit defective hyphal formation when placed on solid agar media, either in response to nutrient deprivation or serum. In constrast to the ?nik-1 mutant, the ?cos1/?cos1 mutant does not demonstrate deleterious effects when grown in media of high osmolarity; however both ?nik-1 and ?cos1/?cos1 mutants show defective hyphal formation. Thus, as predicted for Nik-1, Cos1p may be involved in some aspect of hyphal morphogenesis and may play a role in virulence properties of the organism. PMID:9618540

Alex, Lisa A.; Korch, Christopher; Selitrennikoff, Claude P.; Simon, Melvin I.

1998-01-01

382

Network analysis suggests a potentially ‘evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only ‘non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially ‘evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the ‘confrontation' between the ‘evil' alliance and ‘benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

(Sam) Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A.; Forney, Larry J.

2015-01-01

383

A five-year survey of dematiaceous fungi in a tropical hospital reveals potential opportunistic species.  

PubMed

Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi) are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%), voriconazole (90.7%), ketoconazole (86.7%) and itraconazole (85.3%) showed in vitro activity (MIC ? 1 µg/mL) to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%), caspofungin (74.7%) and amphotericin B (70.7%). Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3%) of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL) to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae) showed potential multidrug resistance. PMID:25098697

Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

2014-01-01

384

Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attracts egg predators and opportunists through chemosensory cues.  

PubMed

Two separate field experiments were conducted in a series of small boreal lakes to test for the attraction of egg predators to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning shoals and subsequently to determine whether chemosensory cues attract egg predators to these sites. In the first experiment, minnow traps set on spawning sites captured significantly more egg predators than those set on structurally similar non-spawning sites. Captures of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, common shiner Luxilus cornutus, blacknose shiner Notropis heterolepis and virile crayfish Orconectes virilis were more than double on spawning sites relative to non-spawning sites for the two study lakes. To test whether chemosensory cues could attract egg predators to S. namaycush spawning sites, paired minnow traps were placed on eight to 10 sites in each of the three study lakes; one trap contained visually concealed S. namaycush spawning substratum and the other with visually concealed non-spawning substratum. Traps containing spawning substratum consistently captured more fish and had higher mean daily catches than those that contained non-spawning substratum. The combined results demonstrate a greater prevalence of egg predators on S. namaycush spawning shoals that appears to be the result of chemosensory attraction to spawning substratum. PMID:24724980

Wasylenko, B A; Callaghan, D T; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

2014-05-01

385

Genomic Survey of the Non-Cultivatable Opportunistic Human Pathogen, Enterocytozoon bieneusi  

PubMed Central

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian associated with human disease, particularly in the immunocompromised population. In the setting of HIV infection, it is associated with diarrhea and wasting syndrome. Like all microsporidia, E. bieneusi is an obligate, intracellular parasite, but unlike others, it is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Studies of E. bieneusi have been greatly limited due to the absence of genomic data and lack of a robust cultivation system. Here, we present the first large-scale genomic dataset for E. bieneusi. Approximately 3.86 Mb of unique sequence was generated by paired end Sanger sequencing, representing about 64% of the estimated 6 Mb genome. A total of 3,804 genes were identified in E. bieneusi, of which 1,702 encode proteins with assigned functions. Of these, 653 are homologs of Encephalitozoon cuniculi proteins. Only one E. bieneusi protein with assigned function had no E. cuniculi homolog. The shared proteins were, in general, evenly distributed among the functional categories, with the exception of a dearth of genes encoding proteins associated with pathways for fatty acid and core carbon metabolism. Short intergenic regions, high gene density, and shortened protein-coding sequences were observed in the E. bieneusi genome, all traits consistent with genomic compaction. Our findings suggest that E. bieneusi is a likely model for extreme genome reduction and host dependence. PMID:19132089

Lei, Shi; Feng, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Quanshun; Corradi, Nicolas; Mayanja, Harriet; Tumwine, James K.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Weiss, Louis M.; Tzipori, Saul

2009-01-01

386

A Five-Year Survey of Dematiaceous Fungi in a Tropical Hospital Reveals Potential Opportunistic Species  

PubMed Central

Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi) are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%), voriconazole (90.7%), ketoconazole (86.7%) and itraconazole (85.3%) showed in vitro activity (MIC ?1 µg/mL) to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%), caspofungin (74.7%) and amphotericin B (70.7%). Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3%) of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL) to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae) showed potential multidrug resistance. PMID:25098697

Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

2014-01-01

387

Dishwashers--a man-made ecological niche accommodating human opportunistic fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Habitats in human households may accommodate microorganisms outside the common spectrum of ubiquitous saprobes. Enrichment of fungi that may require specific environmental conditions was observed in dishwashers, 189 of which were sampled in private homes of 101 towns or communities. One-hundred-two were sampled from various localities in Slovenia; 42 from other European countries; 13 and 3 from North and South America, respectively; 5 from Israel; 10 from South Africa; 7 from Far East Asia; and 7 from Australia. Isolation was performed on samples incubated at 37°C. Species belonging to genera Aspergillus, Candida, Magnusiomyces, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhodotorula were found occasionally, while the black yeasts Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis (Chaetothyriales) were persistently and most frequently isolated. Sixty-two percent of the dishwashers were positive for fungi, and 56% of these accommodated Exophiala. Both Exophiala species are known to be able to cause systemic disease in humans and frequently colonize the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. We conclude that high temperature, high moisture and alkaline pH values typically occurring in dishwashers can provide an alternative habitat for species also known to be pathogenic to humans. PMID:21944212

Zalar, P; Novak, M; de Hoog, G S; Gunde-Cimerman, N

2011-10-01

388

The opportunistic nature of Trichinella--exploitation of new geographies and habitats.  

PubMed

For more than 100 years, Trichinella spiralis (former Trichina spiralis) was considered a zoonotic parasite of the domestic habitat involving pigs, synanthropic rats and humans. In the last 70 years, there has been increasing evidence that the biomass of nematodes of the genus Trichinella is greater in wild animals than in domestic animals. Omnivores and carnivores (mammals, birds and some reptiles), mainly those with cannibalistic and scavenger behaviour, act primarily as reservoirs for the 12 Trichinella taxa recognized to date. The distribution areas of Trichinella spp. hosts can help to identify the environmental suitability where the different Trichinella taxa can be detected. Both the survival of larvae in decaying muscles of their hosts, which is favoured by high humidity and low temperatures, and human behaviour in the domestic and wild habitats play roles in the transmission patterns of these nematodes. Although Trichinella taxa develop in different host species circulating in different geographical regions, there is a common denominator among the hosts, namely their scavenging behaviour. PMID:23433987

Pozio, Edoardo

2013-05-20

389

Global Transcriptome Changes Underlying Colony Growth in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common and deadly pulmonary fungal infection worldwide. In the lung, the fungus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix. To identify candidate genes involved in this biofilm (BF) growth, we used RNA-Seq to compare the transcriptomes of BF and liquid plankton (PL) growth. Sequencing and mapping of tens of millions sequence reads against the A. fumigatus transcriptome identified 3,728 differentially regulated genes in the two conditions. Although many of these genes, including the ones coding for transcription factors, stress response, the ribosome, and the translation machinery, likely reflect the different growth demands in the two conditions, our experiment also identified hundreds of candidate genes for the observed differences in morphology and pathobiology between BF and PL. We found an overrepresentation of upregulated genes in transport, secondary metabolism, and cell wall and surface functions. Furthermore, upregulated genes showed significant spatial structure across the A. fumigatus genome; they were more likely to occur in subtelomeric regions and colocalized in 27 genomic neighborhoods, many of which overlapped with known or candidate secondary metabolism gene clusters. We also identified 1,164 genes that were downregulated. This gene set was not spatially structured across the genome and was overrepresented in genes participating in primary metabolic functions, including carbon and amino acid metabolism. These results add valuable insight into the genetics of biofilm formation in A. fumigatus and other filamentous fungi and identify many relevant, in the context of biofilm biology, candidate genes for downstream functional experiments. PMID:21724936

Gibbons, John G.; Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; McGary, Kriston L.

2012-01-01

390

Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens. PMID:25516620

Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; de Valk, Henriette; Courbil, Rémi; Chabanel, Anne; Simonet, Marion; Maire, Francoise; Jbilou, Saadia; Tiberghien, Pierre; Blanchard, Hervé; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Bernet, Claude; Simon, Loïc; Sénéchal, Hélène; Pouchol, Elodie; Angot, Christiane; Ribaud, Patricia; Socié, G.; Flèche, M.; Brieu, Nathalie; Lagier, Evelyne; Chartier, Vanessa; Allegre, Thierry; Maulin, Laurence; Lanic, Hélène; Tilly, Hervé; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Pihet, Marc; Schmidt, Aline; Kouatchet, Achille; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; Ifrah, Norbert; Mercat, Alain; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Albert, Olivier; Leguay, Thibaut; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bonhomme, Julie; Reman, Oumédaly; Lesteven, Claire; Poirier, Philippe; Chabrot, Cécile Molucon; Calvet, Laure; Baud, Olivier; Cambon, Monique; Farkas, Jean Chistophe; Lafon, Bruno; Dalle, Frédéric; Caillot, Denis; Lazzarotti, Aline; Aho, Serge; Combret, Sandrine; Facon, Thierry; Sendid, Boualem; Loridant, Séverine; Louis, Terriou; Cazin, Bruno; Grandbastien, Bruno; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lotthé, Anne; Cartron, Guillaume; Ravel, Christophe; Colson, Pascal; Gaudard, Philippe; Bonmati, Caroline; Simon, Loic; Rabaud, Christian; Machouart, Marie; Poisson, Didier; Carp, Diana; Meunier, Jérôme; Gaschet, Anne; Miquel, Chantal; Sanhes, Laurence; Ferreyra, Milagros; Leibinger, Franck; Geudet, Philippe; Toubas, Dominique; Himberlin, Chantal; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Delmer, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Gargala, Gilles; Michot, Jean-Baptiste; Girault, Christophe; David, Marion; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Jardin, Fabrice; Honderlick, Pierre; Caille, Vincent; Cerf, Charles; Cassaing, Sophie; Recher, Christian; Picard, Muriel; Protin, Caroline; Huguet, Françoise; Huynh, Anne; Ruiz, Jean; Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice; Letocart, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Verdeil, Xavier; Cavalié, Laurent; Chauvin, Pamela; Iriart, Xavier; Valentin, Alexis; Bouvet, Emmanuelle; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Jeblaoui, Asma; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan; Zalar, Polona; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Gurgui, Merce

2014-01-01

391

Primary common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary or stasis stones in the common duct are a distinct clinical, anatomical, and pathological entity. In the older patient with chills, fever, and jaundice, it is axiomatic that a primary or stasis stone will be found in a common duct that measures 20 mm or more in diameter. Furthermore, about 20% of such patients will not have stones in

John L. Madden

1978-01-01

392

OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

Stolarik, E. G.

1981-01-01

393

Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed. PMID:24209729

Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

2013-12-01

394

The Common Core Takes Hold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

Rothman, Robert

2014-01-01

395

Understanding Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

Kendall, John S.

2011-01-01

396

Common Sense and Maximum Entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the question of how to draw inferences common sensically from uncertain knowledge. Since the early work of Shore and Johnson, [10], Paris and Vencovsk a, [6], and Csiszár, [1], it has been known that the Maximum Entropy Inference Process is the only inference process which obeys certain common sense principles of uncertain reasoning. In this paper we

Jeff Paris

2000-01-01

397

Building on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards, released in June 2010, offer an opportunity to shift education away from shallow, test-prep instruction and toward a focus on key cognitive skills, writes Conley. Two consortia of states are now developing common assessments to measure these standards--assessments that will be designed to capture deeper, more…

Conley, David T.

2011-01-01

398

Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia  

E-print Network

Pelican Lagoon (MG) #12;A bird walk on Oxley Creek Common The different areas of the Common have been of Torresian Crows, more if it has food, less if they are just mobbing it. A Brown Falcon was regular in 2008 the barbeque. Brown Honeyeater (MG) 2 Walk down to the Canoe Pontoon ­ Area 1 Superb Fairy-wren, White

Queensland, University of

399

Common Carrier Earth Station Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report provides documentation for the Common Carrier Earth Station Application File used by the Common Carrier bureau in processing applications for licenses and permits. Each application is made up of 15 records containing such information as the status of the station, identification information, and any special provisions.

1992-12-01

400

Why Common Ground Thinking Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

Jacobsen, Wayne

2000-01-01

401

Learning Words with Common Rimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

Dwyer, Edward J.

402

Susceptibility genes in common complex kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This manuscript reviews recent efforts to identify genetic variants conferring risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A brief overview of methods for identifying gene variants is provided, along with genetic associations and new avenues under exploration. Recent findings The role of renal failure susceptibility genes including MYH9, ELMO1, UMOD and ACTN4 has become clearer over the last 18 months. The spectrum of MYH9-associated kidney disease including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), global glomerulosclerosis and collapsing glomerulopathy, related entities contributing to approximately 43% of end-stage renal disease in African Americans, has come to light. Summary MYH9 will re-categorize FSGS and related disorders, and has clarified the relationship between hypertension and kidney disease. MYH9 polymorphisms account for much of the excess risk of HIV-associated nephropathy and non-diabetic kidney disease in African Americans. Kidney disease associations with ELMO1 and UMOD have been replicated and applications of genome-wide association studies based on expression data are providing novel insights on renal protein expression. These breakthroughs will alter our approach to kidney disease surveillance and lead to new therapeutic options. PMID:19838113

Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I.

2010-01-01

403

Common epitope on HIV p24 and human platelets.  

PubMed

Mimicry of human antigen by HIV may underlie the autoreactivity seen in AIDS. A mouse monoclonal antibody (VIC8) raised against HIV p24 cross-reacted with human platelets; binding could be abolished by recombinant p24 antigen. VIC8 bound less well to platelets from patients with HIV than to those from healthy individuals. In the HIV group, binding was not related to p24 antigenaemia, disease stage, or platelet counts. This cross-reactivity is another example of antigenic mimicry by HIV and may be mechanistically important in HIV-associated autoimmune-like thrombocytopenia. PMID:7694021

Hohmann, A W; Booth, K; Peters, V; Gordon, D L; Comacchio, R M

1993-11-20

404

Sporotrichosis: An Emerging Neglected Opportunistic Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; p<0.0001). Patients from group 1 were younger than those from group 2 (??=?38.38±10.17 vs. 46.34±15.85; p<0.001) and differed from group 2 in terms of their race/ethnic background, with 70.8% non-white patients in group 1 vs. 38.6% from group 2 (p<0.0001). Close to half (?44%) of the patients from group 1 were hospitalized due to sporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; p<0.001). Over the period under analysis, eight patients died due to sporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development programs and entitled to integrated management and care of their superimposed burdens. PMID:25166475

Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

2014-01-01

405

Further Explorations of Common-Sense Representations of Common Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for measuring people’s illness cognitions—their common-sense representations of common illnesses. Data were collected from 1,628 different respondents who described a recent illness from 1 to 3 separate times over a 17-month period. A free-clustering task performed by a set of naive participants confirmed that these cognitions fall into the five components that have been previously

Richard R. Lau; Teresa M. Bernard; Karen A. Hartman

1989-01-01

406

Evolving Strategies, Opportunistic Implementation: HIV Risk Reduction in Tanzania in the Context of an Incentive-Based HIV Prevention Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic. The shortcomings of BCC interventions are partly due to barriers arising from structural or economic constraints. Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex set of risk factors that may lead to HIV infection. Methods In 2009/2010 we conducted 216 in-depth interviews with a subset of study participants enrolled in the RESPECT study - an HIV prevention trial in Tanzania that used cash awards to incentivize safer sexual behaviors. We analyzed community diaries to understand how the study was perceived in the community. We drew on these data to enhance our understanding of how the intervention influenced strategies for risk reduction. Results We found that certain situations provide increased leverage for sexual negotiation, and these situations facilitated opportunistic implementation of risk reduction strategies. Opportunities enabled by the RESPECT intervention included leveraging conditional cash awards, but participants also emphasized the importance of exploiting new health status knowledge from regular STI testing. Risk reduction strategies included condom use within partnerships and/or with other partners, and an unexpected emphasis on temporary abstinence. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of increasing opportunities for implementing risk reduction strategies. We found that an incentive-based intervention could be effective in part by creating such opportunities, particularly among groups such as women with limited sexual agency. The results provide new evidence that expanding regular testing of STIs is another important mechanism for providing opportunities for negotiating behavior change, beyond the direct benefits of testing. Exploiting the latent demand for STI testing should receive renewed attention as part of innovative new combination interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:22952872

Packel, Laura; Keller, Ann; Dow, William H.; de Walque, Damien; Nathan, Rose; Mtenga, Sally

2012-01-01

407

In vitro activities of isavuconazole and comparator antifungal agents tested against a global collection of opportunistic yeasts and molds.  

PubMed

Isavuconazole is a new broad-spectrum triazole with a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile. We report the MIC distributions for isavuconazole and 111 isolates of Candida (42 Candida albicans, 25 Candida glabrata, 22 Candida parapsilosis, 14 Candida tropicalis, and 8 Candida krusei isolates), as determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Also, the relative activities of isavuconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, and the three echinocandins were assessed against a recent (2011) global collection of 1,358 isolates of Candida spp., 101 of Aspergillus spp., 54 of non-Candida yeasts, and 21 of non-Aspergillus molds using CLSI BMD methods. The overall essential agreement (EA) (±2 log2 dilutions) between the CLSI and EUCAST methods was 99.1% (EA at ±1 log2 dilution, 90.1% [range, 80.0 to 100.0%]). The activities of isavuconazole against the larger collection of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. were comparable to those of posaconazole and voriconazole; the MIC90 values for isavuconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against Candida spp. were 0.5, 1, and 0.25 ?g/ml and against Aspergillus spp. were 2, 1, and 1 ?g/ml, respectively. Isavuconazole showed good activities against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC90, 0.12 ?g/ml) and other non-Candida yeasts (MIC90, 1 ?g/ml) but was less potent against non-Aspergillus molds (MIC90, >8 ?g/ml). Isavuconazole MIC values for three mucormycete isolates were 4, 1, and 2 ?g/ml, whereas all three were inhibited by 1 ?g/ml posaconazole. Isavuconazole demonstrates broad-spectrum activity against this global collection of opportunistic fungi, and the CLSI and EUCAST methods can be used to test this agent against Candida, with highly comparable results. PMID:23740727

Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

2013-08-01

408

Opportunistic mothers: female marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) reduce their investment in offspring when they have to, and when they can  

PubMed Central

All female primates incur energetic costs associated with producing and caring for offspring, but females belonging to the New World primate family Callitrichidae, the marmosets and tamarins, appear to face even further demands. In fact, the energetic demands of rearing callitrichid infants are thought to have led to the evolution of cooperative infant care in these species. If this explanation is true, then one might expect that natural selection should also have shaped patterns of maternal behavior to be sensitive to the costs of reproduction and equipped females to reduce their investment in offspring under certain conditions. Therefore, we examined the maternal effort and postpartum endocrine profiles of individual female marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) across conditions that represented two hallmarks of callitrichid reproduction—conception during the early postpartum period and alloparental assistance. When females conceived during the early postpartum period and faced the upcoming demands of caring for their newly conceived litters (Study 1), they significantly reduced their caregiving effort and had significantly higher postpartum levels of estradiol relative to breeding attempts in which conception occurred later in the postpartum period. Postpartum estradiol was negatively correlated with maternal carrying effort. When experienced alloparents were present (Study 2), females again reduced their caregiving effort relative to breeding attempts in which experienced alloparents were not present. Postpartum cortisol, however, did not vary as a function of experienced alloparental assistance. The results of these studies suggest that female marmosets have been subjected to similar selection pressures as females of other primate taxa—to maximize their reproductive success by reducing their investment in offspring under the worst and best of conditions—and suggest that hormones may mediate within-female variation in maternal care. These studies also provide support for the notion that mothers are “flexible opportunists” when it comes to providing care to their young. PMID:15935439

Fite, Jeffrey E.; Patera, Kimberly J.; French, Jeffrey A.; Rukstalis, Michael; Hopkins, Elizabeth C.; Ross, Corinna N.

2010-01-01

409

A case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis complicated by cyclophosphamide toxicity and opportunistic infections: choosing between Scylla and Charybdis  

PubMed Central

Background We report a case of progressive Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener’s Granulomatosis) with life-threatening complications of both the underlying disease and induction immunosuppressive therapy. Here, for the first time, cyclophosphamide toxicity and severe opportunistic infections including pneumocystis jirovecii- pneumonia were found in one case in a close temporal relationship. Case presentation A 34-year-old male patient of Caucasian ethnicity presented with acute renal failure necessitating hemodialysis treatment due to Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener’s Granulomatosis). Kidney disease progressed to end-stage renal disease shortly after first diagnosis. After the 2nd bolus of cyclophosphamide shortly, induction immunosuppression (glucocorticoid/cyclophosphamide) was interrupted for repeat infections and resumed 5 years later. By that time, the lungs developed large pulmonary cavernae most likely due to smoldering granuloma indicative for the failed goal of disease remission. Therefore, induction immunosuppression was resumed. Following two monthly boli of cyclophosphamide, the patient developed pericardial effusion and, consecutively, atrioventricular blockade most likely due to cyclophosphamide. After recovery, the patient was discharged without cotrimoxacole. 10 weeks after the last cyclophosphamide bolus and 6 weeks after cessation of cotrimoxacole, the patient was readmitted to the intensive-care unit with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and died 6 months later or 74 months after first diagnosis of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis. Conclusions This case illustrates both the need for adequate immunosuppressive therapy to reach disease remission and the limitations thereof in terms of complications including cardiotoxicity of cyclophosphamide and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. In line with current recommendations, the present case strongly encourages pneumocystis jirovecii- pneumonia chemoprophylaxis for at least 6 months following induction therapy in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis. PMID:24495297

2014-01-01

410

Incidence of opportunistic illness before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in children in LEGACY  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about immune-reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in children in the United States. Methods LEGACY is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants age 0-24 years at enrollment during 2005-2007 from 22 US clinics. For this analysis, we included participants with complete medical record abstraction from birth or time of HIV diagnosis through 2006. Opportunistic illness (OI) included AIDS-defining conditions and selected HIV-related diagnoses. We calculated the incidence (#/100 patient-years) of OI diagnosed in the six months pre- and post-initiation of the first HAART regimen with a virologic response. We defined OI as IRIS if an OI’s incidence increased after HAART initiation. “Responders” were defined as experiencing ?1 log decline in viral load within six months following HAART initiation. Results Among 575 patients with complete chart abstraction, 524 received HAART. Of these 524 patients, 343 were responders, 181 were non-responders, and 86 experienced OI. Responders accounted for 98/124 (79%) of OI. Pre-HAART and post-HAART OI incidences were 43.7 and 24.4 (P = 0.003), respectively, among responders, and 15.9 and 9.1 (P =0.2), respectively, among non-responders. Overall, OI incidences among responders and non-responders were 33.8 and 12.3, respectively (P = 0.002). Responders were more likely to experience herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and CMV, before HAART initiation (all, P<0.05). Conclusions We detected few OIs and no IRIS among participants initiating HAART. The unexpectedly higher OI prevalence among responders, mostly occurring before HAART initiation, may have motivated higher adherence by responders and subsequent categorization as a responder. PMID:24067552

Nesheim, Steven R.; Hardnett, Felicia; Wheeling, John T.; Siberry, George K.; Paul, Mary E.; Emmanuel, Patricia; Bohannon, Beverly; Dominguez, Kenneth

2013-01-01

411

Diet composition of common ravens across the urban-wildland interface of the West Mojave Desert  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common ravens (Corvus corax) are human-subsidized scavengers and predators in the Mojave Desert. They have increased dramatically in number and have been implicated as contributors to the decline in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations. Known patterns of increased fledging success near human developments suggested that food was the most likely resource subsidy received by ravens. Because ravens are opportunistic foragers with a generalist diet, we predicted that the types of resource subsidy provided by different kinds of human developments should be reflected in measures of diet composition of breeding ravens. We estimated diet composition from contents of raven pellets collected at nests and related diet composition to distance of the nests from roads and point sources of resource subsidies, such as towns or landfills. Ravens that nested close to point subsidies far from major roads had the greatest incidence of trash in their diets. Ravens that nested close to roads but far from point subsidies had a low incidence of trash and a higher incidence of presumably road-killed mammals and reptiles. Ravens far from both roads and point subsidies had more plant material and arthropods, and ravens close to both roads and point subsidies had more birds and amphibians. Diet diversity was not related to distance from roads or developments. Fledging success was correlated with diet composition, such that birds with diets consistent with trash or road-kill subsidies fledged the greatest number of chicks. Our results suggest that ravens forage opportunistically on foods available near their nests, and different kinds of human developments contribute different foods. Improved management of landfills and highway fencing to reduce road-kills may help slow the growth of raven populations in the Mojave.

Kristan, W. B., III; Boarman, W.I.; Crayon, J.J.

2004-01-01

412

Adolescents' theories of the commons.  

PubMed

Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

2014-01-01

413

Entomology CSIRO Australia: Common names  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With almost 5000 entries this compendium of common names of Australian insects is one of the most thorough identification tools available online. Most of the pages include images and ranges as well as descriptions of the taxon.

0002-11-30

414

Inherited risk for common disease  

E-print Network

Linkage disequilibrium studies have discovered few gene-disease associations for common diseases. The explanation has been offered that complex modes of inheritance govern risk for cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ...

Banava, Helen

2007-01-01

415

Common Sense Concepts of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common sense (CS) misconceptions are not arbitrary or trivial. Indeed, every one of the misconceptions about motion common among students today was seriously advocated by leading intellectuals in pre-Newtonian times. If the evaluation of CS was so difficult for the intellectual giants from Aristotle to Galileo, we should not be surprised it is a problem for ordinary students today. Accordingly, common sense beliefs should be treated with genuine respect by instructors and regarded as serious alternative hypotheses to be evaluated by scientific procedures. A taxonomy of common sense concepts which conflict with Newton s laws is presented. Elementary teachers who are aware of these CS beliefs can teach deliberately to avoid contributing to student development of misconceptions.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun

1985-01-01

416

6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

417

6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

418

6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

419

6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

420

Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19671377

Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2010-01-01

421

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

422

Antibiotic use for common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics do not help patients with an uncomplicated common cold. Antibiotics can have side effects for the individual taking\\u000a them that range from unpleasant to serious, even lethal. Antibiotic use also contributes to communal harm by encouraging antibiotic\\u000a resistance. If there can be no benefit, but there can be harm, why is the common cold the commonest reason for doctors

Timothy W. Kenealy; Bruce Arroll

423

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

424

Garlic for the common cold.  

PubMed

Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single trial suggested that garlic may prevent occurrences of the common cold but more studies are needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence. PMID:25386977

Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

2014-01-01

425

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

426

The last common bilaterian ancestor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

2002-01-01

427

Activation and Coagulation Biomarkers are Independent Predictors for the Development of Opportunistic Disease in Patients with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the SMART trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in HIV-positive patients were examined. Methods Inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD. Results The 91 patients who developed an OD were matched to 182 controls. Patients with hsCRP?5 ?g/mL at baseline had a 3.5 (95%CI: 1.5-8.1) higher odds of OD versus those with hsCRP<1 ?g/ml, Ptrend=0.003, and patients with IL-6?3 pg/mL at baseline had a 2.4 (95%CI: 1.0-5.4) higher odds of OD versus those with IL-6<1.5 pg/mL, Ptrend=0.02. No other baseline biomarkers predicted development of an OD. Latest hsCRP (OR: 7.6 (95%CI: 2.0-28.5) for those with hsCRP?5 ?g/mL versus hsCRP<1 ?g/mL, Ptrend=0.002), latest amyloid-A (OR: 3.8 (95%CI: 1.1-13.4) for those with amyloid-A ?6 mg/L versus amyloid-A <2 mg/L, Ptrend=0.03) and latest IL-6 (OR 2.4 (95%CI: 0.7-8.8) for those with IL-6?3 pg/mL versus IL-6<1.5 pg/mL, Ptrend=0.04) were also associated with developing an OD. Conclusions Higher IL-6 and hsCRP independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting risk of OD. PMID:19678756

Rodger, Alison J; Fox, Zoe; Lundgren, Jens D; Kuller, Lew; Boesecke, Christoph; Gey, Daniela; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Phillips, Andrew N

2010-01-01

428

Evaluating the effectiveness of opportunistic eye screening model for people with Diabetes attending Diabetes clinic at Mnazi Mmoja hospital, Zanzibar  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and its related microvascular complications like Diabetic retinopathy are showing an alarming rise in developing countries like Zanzibar. Objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact of integrating eye screening for all subjects attending the diabetes clinic at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital in Zanzibar and to estimate the prevalence of visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy among the subjects. Methods This is a cross sectional study involving 356 randomly selected patients who had attended the diabetes clinic between July and August 2012. All subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination including fundus evaluation after dilatation by a cataract surgeon and an ophthalmologist, independently. Data was collected using the designated questionnaire and analysed using the SPSS software. Blindness and visual impairment was defined as presenting VA <3/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye respectively and DR was graded using the International classification of Diabetic Retinopathy severity grading scale. Results A total of 356/967 subjects were recruited in a duration of 2 months; 176 (49.4%) were male and the mean age was 52.21 (SD 15.3). Targeted eye screening of diabetics showed that 231/356 (65%) of the subjects had eye problems, including potentially blinding conditions that required immediate intervention in contrast to the existing self reported referral where only 10% of an average of 200 diabetics underwent eye checkup in a year. The prevalence of visual impairment was 20.2%; 95% CI: 16.4-24.7 and blindness in 9.3%; 95% CI: 6.7 -12.7. The prevalence of DR was 28.3% and sight-threatening DR was reported in 9%. Among the DR cases, 30% had sight threatening DR including 28% macular edema, 2% severe NPDR and PDR. Multivariate analysis showed a higher risk for any DR in older subjects >50 years (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.14 – 4.25) and in females (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.07 – 3.44). Conclusion Opportunistic DR screening model achieved higher yield of identification of visual impairment and DR compared to the yield of 10% of existing self reported Diabetic eye screening model at Zanzibar. Integration of eye screening at diabetes clinics helps in early identification and provision of appropriate treatment for reducing blindness due to diabetes. PMID:24957576

2014-01-01

429

Design and analysis of OFDM based CRAHN with common control channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless communication, the important factor to face its spectrum scarcity; to solve that scenario we are going to use the spectrum opportunistically. The Cognitive radio (CR) technology is defined to solve the problems in wireless networks resulting from the limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage by sharing the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. In cognitive radio

T. Vidhya; V. Arun

2012-01-01

430

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Common Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous genetic syndromes have had the cognitive and behavioral components of the phenotype delineated, leading to improved\\u000a diagnosis of the condition, as well as to better management and interventional approaches. This article is a review of some\\u000a of what is known about the neurodevelopmental aspects of some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Helga V. Toriello

431

Community Commons Program Development Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

Culp, Kieta Osteen

432

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK  

E-print Network

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL THINKING PEDAGOGY 30 October, 2012 Pathways Critical Thinking Task Force Table of Contents Framework Narrative 1-10 Introduction and Rationale 1: Critical Thinking Rubric Template Appendix B: "Purple Paper: Critical Thinking Task Force" Exhibits Exhibit

Gering, Jon C.

433

Common sleep disorders in children.  

PubMed

Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

2014-03-01

434

Sequential bargaining with common values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the alternating-offers bargaining problem of assigning an indivisible and commonly valued object to one of two players who jointly own this object. The players are asymmetrically informed about the object’s value and have veto power over any settlement. There is no depreciation during the bargaining process which involves signalling of private information. We characterise the perfect Bayesian equilibrium

Paul Schweinzer

2010-01-01

435

Treatment of the common cold.  

PubMed

The common cold is a viral illness that affects persons of all ages, prompting frequent use of over-the-counter and prescription medications and alternative remedies. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms (e.g., cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). Dextromethorphan may be beneficial in adults with cough, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated in children and adolescents. Codeine has not been shown to effectively treat cough caused by the common cold. Although hydrocodone is widely used and has been shown to effectively treat cough caused by other conditions, the drug has not been studied in patients with colds. Topical (intranasal) and oral nasal decongestants have been shown to relieve nasal symptoms and can be used in adolescents and adults for up to three days. Antihistamines and combination antihistamine/decongestant therapies can modestly improve symptoms in adults; however, the benefits must be weighed against potential side effects. Newer nonsedating antihistamines are ineffective against cough. Topical ipratropium, a prescription anticholinergic, relieves nasal symptoms in older children and adults. Antibiotics have not been shown to improve symptoms or shorten illness duration. Complementary and alternative therapies (i.e., Echinacea, vitamin C, and zinc) are not recommended for treating common cold symptoms; however, humidified air and fluid intake may be useful without adverse side effects. Vitamin C prophylaxis may modestly reduce the duration and severity of the common cold in the general population and may reduce the incidence of the illness in persons exposed to physical and environmental stresses. PMID:17323712

Simasek, Madeline; Blandino, David A

2007-02-15

436

Common Core: Rx for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

Jaeger, Paige

2012-01-01

437

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

438

NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund  

Cancer.gov

The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.