Sample records for common hiv-associated opportunistic

  1. [HIV-associated neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Hahn, K; Husstedt, I W

    2010-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated polyneuropathy has become the most common neurological complication of HIV infection and is one of the main risk factors for development of a neuropathy worldwide. Therefore HIV should always be considered as an underlying cause in patients with neuropathy. Many types of peripheral neuropathies are seen in HIV infection depending on the stage of infection. The inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies both acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome, GBS) and chronic (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, CIDP) occur mainly at the time of seroconversion or early in the course of the disease while syndromes associated with opportunistic infections like CMV (i.e. polyradiculoneuropathy) occur in the late phase of HIV infection and are related to the loss of immune function. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neuropathy in HIV-infected patients. We review the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, pathophysiology and management strategies for HIV-associated polyneuropathies. PMID:20195565

  2. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-05-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  3. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  4. HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Laurence; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian; den Boon, Saskia; Kovacs, Joseph; Meshnick, Steven; Miller, Robert F; Walzer, Peter D; Worodria, William; Masur, Henry

    2011-06-01

    During the past 30 years, major advances have been made in our understanding of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), but significant gaps remain. Pneumocystis is classified as a fungus and is host-species specific, but an understanding of its reservoir, mode of transmission, and pathogenesis is incomplete. PCP remains a frequent AIDS-defining diagnosis and is a frequent opportunistic pneumonia in the United States and in Europe, but comparable epidemiologic data from other areas of the world that are burdened with HIV/AIDS are limited. Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is the gold standard procedure to diagnose PCP, but noninvasive diagnostic tests and biomarkers show promise that must be validated. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended first-line treatment and prophylaxis regimen, but putative trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole drug resistance is an emerging concern. The International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) study was established to address these knowledge gaps. This review describes recent advances in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of HIV-associated PCP and ongoing areas of clinical and translational research that are part of the IHOP study and the Longitudinal Studies of HIV-associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV). PMID:21653531

  5. HIV-Associated Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > HIV-Associated Cancers HIV-Associated Cancers [1] The Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab [2], along with the Office of HIV and AIDS Malignancies (OHAM)Opens in a New

  6. HIV-Associated Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > HIV-Associated Cancers HIV-Associated Cancers [1] The Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab [2], along with the Office of HIV and AIDS Malignancies (OHAM)Opens in a New

  7. HIV-associated pruritus: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Fiza; Rudikoff, Donald

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life-threatening opportunistic infection has become less common in patients with HIV infection and longevity has increased dramatically. With increased longevity, the problems of living with a chronic disease have become more prominent in this patient population. Disorders such as fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities can result from antiviral medications and from HIV disease itself. Pruritus is one of the most common symptoms encountered in patients with HIV. The spectrum of skin diseases in such patients encompasses dermatoses of diverse etiologies; a few are peculiar to patients with HIV while others are not. Some of these conditions may cause severe and sometimes intractable pruritus that provokes scratching, picking, disfigurement, sleep loss, and significant psychological stress. Moreover, the expense of ongoing medical treatments can be daunting. Skin rash can sometimes be the initial presentation of HIV infection or serve as a harbinger of disease progression. Causes of pruritus include skin infections, infestations, papulosquamous disorders, photodermatitis, xerosis, drug reactions, and occasionally lymphoproliferative disorders. Drug eruptions are particularly common in patients who are HIV positive, presumably as a result of immune dysregulation, altered drug metabolism, and polypharmacy. Itching can also result from systemic diseases such as chronic renal failure, liver disease, or systemic lymphoma. Workup of pruritus should include a careful examination of the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes to establish a primary dermatologic diagnosis. If no dermatologic cause is found, a systemic cause or medication-related etiology should be sought. Idiopathic HIV pruritus is a diagnosis of exclusion and should only be considered when a specific diagnosis cannot be established. The management of HIV-associated pruritus should be directed at the underlying condition. Phototherapy has been found to be useful in the treatment of several HIV-associated dermatoses and idiopathic pruritus as well. Unfortunately, some of the treatments that have been suggested for patients with HIV are anecdotal or based on small uncontrolled studies. The last decade has seen a surge in the utilization of HAART which, to some degree, reconstitutes the immune system and ameliorates some dermatologic diseases. On the other hand, some skin diseases flare temporarily when HAART is started. Unless frank drug allergy is suspected, HAART does not need to be stopped. PMID:12627993

  8. [HIV associated neurocognitive disorders].

    PubMed

    Bragança, Miguel; Palha, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new antiretroviral therapies, there has been significant developments in the understanding of the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated brain disease and the effects of these drugs in the CNS. This fact originated a substantial improvement in the survival of patients and influenced the course of cognitive impairment associated with HIV infection. This review intends to be an update on the epidemiological, etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects related to neurodeterioration. A key challenge for the clinician working in this area is to diagnose, as early as possible, the cognitive deficits ocuring in the primary stages of the disease, to determine the prognosis (according to clinical, laboratory and neuropsychological findings) and establish a therapeutic approach. So the neuropsychological assessment should be included in the routine evaluation of these patients. This would have an important impact on their quality of life and improve, the antiretroviral therapy compliance. PMID:22127910

  9. Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flepisi, Brian Thabile; Bouic, Patrick; Sissolak, Gerhard; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of cancer, and predict response to chemotherapy. They offer the hope of early detection as well as tracking disease progression and recurrence. Current progress in the characterization of molecular genetics of HIV-associated cancers may form the basis for improved patient stratification and future targeted or individualized therapies. Biomarker use for cancer staging and personalization of therapy at the time of diagnosis could improve patient care. This review focuses on the relevance of biomarkers in the most common HIV-associated malignancies, namely, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. PMID:25057241

  10. HIV-associated immune-mediated renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L Kimmel; Terry M Phillips; Andrea Ferreira-Centeno; Tunde Farkas-Szallasi; A Andrew Abraham; Carleton T Garrett

    1993-01-01

    HIV-associated immune-mediated renal disease. Although focal glomerulosclerosis is the most common renal disease, other proliferative glomerulonephritides are encountered in HIV-infected patients. We studied four HIV-infected patients with renal insufficiency, proteinuria, and proliferative glomerulonephritis, consistent with immune-mediated disease, to investigate the role of the virus and immune complexes in the pathogenesis of the nephropathy. Circulating immune complexes (CICs) and HIV-reactive antibodies

  11. HIV-Associated Disruption of Tight and Adherens Junctions of Oral Epithelial Cells Facilitates HSV-1 Infection and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  12. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    PubMed

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water. PMID:25803794

  13. Cost consequences of HIV-associated lipoatrophy.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, J; Rajagopalan, R; Shewade, A; Loutfy, M R

    2009-05-01

    HIV-associated lipoatrophy may affect up to 35% of patients who have received antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for more than one year, and may result in depression, social isolation, and career barriers. Interventions including the injection of dermal fillers for restoration of facial fat loss are being used for treating HIV-associated lipoatrophy. Since reimbursement is often lacking, patients must consider the pros and cons of such interventions, weighed against the other costs of daily life. The primary goal of the study is to provide reliable estimates of the costs of treating HIV-associated lipoatrophy, specifically facial lipoatrophy. Costs are provided for a single site and are estimated from published studies reporting administration patterns of dermal fillers, publicly available list prices, and physician service fees for similar subcutaneous injections of the face. Fourteen studies were identified that reported experience with five dermal fillers used to treat HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: poly-L-lactic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, polyalkylimide gel, hyaluronic acid, and silicone oil. Typical courses involve four physician visits, but could vary from 1 to 13. The cost of a course of dermal filler treatment at a single site ranges across four products (all other than hyaluronic acid) from $3690 to $16,544, and is typically not covered by the payers. Physician fees for an entire course of similar outpatient procedures reimbursed by insurers are approximately $500, and may vary according to location, specialty, and market conditions. These procedures need to be repeated per site injected with intervals of 1-3 years. Treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy may represent a considerable out-of-pocket expense for many patients with HIV. This could have implications for deciding whether to undergo a restorative procedure, which procedure to undergo, and whether to pursue other options that may include switching ARV regimens. PMID:19444676

  14. Treating opportunistic infections among HIV-exposed and infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, Lynne M; Oleske, James; Serchuck, Leslie; Van Dyke, Russell; Wilfert, Cathy

    2004-12-01

    In 2001, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America convened a working group to develop guidelines for therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infections to serve as a companion to the Guidelines for Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Infected Persons. In recognition of unique considerations related to HIV infection among infants, children, and adolescents, a separate pediatric working group was established. Because HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections to their infants than women without HIV infection, guidelines for treating opportunistic pathogens among children should consider treatment of congentially acquired infections among both HIV-exposed but uninfected children and those with HIV infection. In addition, the natural history of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children might differ from that among adults. Compared with opportunistic infections among HIV-infected adults, which are often caused by reactivation of pathogens acquired before HIV infection when host immunity was intact, opportunistic infections among children often reflect primary acquisition of the pathogen and, among children with perinatal HIV infection, infection acquired after HIV infection has been established and begun to compromise an already immature immune system. Laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic infections can be more difficult with children. Finally, treatment recommendations should consider differences between adults and children in terms of drug pharmacokinetics, dosing, formulations, administration, and toxicities. This report focuses on treatment of opportunistic infections that are common in HIV-exposed and infected infants, children, and adolescents in the United States. PMID:15577752

  15. Treatment Options for HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Onyebujoh, Philip Chukwuka; Ribeiro, Isabela; Whalen, Christopher Curtis

    2007-08-15

    The vicious interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) pandemics poses special challenges to national control programs and individual physicians. Although recommendations for the treatment of TB in HIV-infected patients do not significantly differ from those for HIV-uninfected patients, the appropriate management of HIV-associated TB is complicated by health system issues, diagnostic difficulties, adherence concerns, overlapping adverse-effect profiles and drug interactions, and the occurrence of paradoxical reactions after the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy. In this article, recommended treatment strategies and novel approaches to the management of HIV-associated TB are reviewed, including adjuvant treatment and options for treatment simplification. A focused research agenda is proposed in the context of the limitations of the current knowledge framework. PMID:17726832

  16. Leptin in congenital and HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Michael A; Farr, Olivia M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy metabolism via peripheral action on glucose synthesis and utilization as well as through central regulation of food intake. Patients with decreased amounts of fat in their adipose tissue (lipoatrophy) will have low leptin levels, and hypoleptinemic states have been associated with a variety of metabolic dysfunctions. Pronounced complications of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver are observed in patients suffering from congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy while somewhat less pronounced abnormalities are associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the so-called HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Previous uncontrolled open-label studies have demonstrated that physiological doses of leptin repletion have corrected many of the metabolic derangements observed in subjects with rare fat maldistribution syndromes such as generalized lipodystrophy. In the much more commonly encountered HIV-associated lipodystrophy, leptin replacement has been shown to decrease central fat mass and to improve insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and glucose levels. The United States Food and Drug Administration has recently granted approval for recombinant leptin therapy for congenital and acquired generalized lipodystrophy, however large, well-designed, placebo-controlled studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy, safety and adverse effects of leptin replacement. In this review, we present the role of leptin in the metabolic complications of congenital and acquired lipodystrophy and discuss current and emerging clinical therapeutic uses of leptin in humans with lipodystrophy. PMID:25267014

  17. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: A review for NPs.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Elizabeth; Justino, J Daniel

    2015-07-15

    This review discusses HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Practical screening methods are needed for the nurse practitioner to detect neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. PMID:26080290

  18. Treating Opportunistic Infections among HIV?Exposed and Infected Children: Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne M. Mofenson; James Oleske; Leslie Serchuck; Russell Van Dyke; Cathy Wilfert

    2005-01-01

    Summary In 2001, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America convened a working group to develop guidelines for therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infections to serve as a companion to the Guidelines for Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Infected Persons. In recognition of unique considerations related to HIV infection among infants, children,

  19. Role of the macrophage in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and other comorbidities in patients on effective antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Jay; Volsky, David J

    2015-06-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has altered the outcomes of HIV infection in treated populations by greatly reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections, cancer, and HIV-associated dementia. Despite these benefits, treated patients remain at high risk of chronic diseases affecting the peripheral organs and brain. Generally, these morbidities are attributed to persistence of latent HIV in resting T cells, chronic inflammation, and metabolic effects of ART. This review makes the case that monocytes/macrophages warrant attention as persistent reservoirs of HIV under ART, source of systemic and brain inflammation, and important targets for HIV eradication to control chronic HIV diseases. PMID:25933548

  20. HIV-associated renal diseases and highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Röling, J; Schmid, H; Fischereder, M; Draenert, R; Goebel, F D

    2006-05-15

    Renal disease is becoming an increasingly prevalent entity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients; it occurs in a variety of clinical settings and is associated with histopathological changes. HIV-related renal impairment can present as acute or chronic kidney disease; it can be caused directly or indirectly by HIV and/or by drug-related effects that are directly nephrotoxic or lead to changes in renal function by inducing metabolic vaculopathy and renal damage. Acute renal failure is frequently caused by the toxic effects of antiretroviral therapy or nephrotoxic antimicrobial substances used in the treatment of opportunistic infections. Chronic renal disease can be caused by multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, leading to HIV-associated nephropathy, a form of collapsing focal glomerulosclerosis, thrombotic microangiopathy, and various forms of immune complex glomerulonephritis. The increase in life expectancy and alteration of lipid metabolism due to receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy are expected to result in an increased prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and, thus, to secondary diabetic and hypertensive renal damage. Antiretroviral agents, such as indinavir and tenofovir, have been associated with nephrotoxic drug effects that have been shown to be reversible in most cases. In this article, we review the current knowledge about acute and chronic HIV-associated renal disease, metabolic alterations and related nephropathies, and toxic drug effects of combination antiretroviral pharmacotherapy. PMID:16619164

  1. An official ATS workshop report: Emerging issues and current controversies in HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina; Beck, James M; Huang, Laurence

    2011-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases are major causes of morbidity and death in persons with HIV infection. Millions of people with HIV/AIDS throughout the world are at risk of opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, and Pneumocystis pneumonia. However, the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy has turned HIV into a chronic disease, and noninfectious lung diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are also emerging as important causes of illness. Despite the importance of these diseases and the rapidly evolving understanding of their pathogenesis and epidemiology, few avenues exist for the discussion and dissemination of new clinical and basic insights. In May of 2008, the American Thoracic Society sponsored a 1-day workshop, "Emerging Issues and Current Controversies in HIV-Associated Pulmonary Diseases," which brought together basic and clinical researchers in HIV-associated pulmonary disease. A review of the literature was performed by workshop participants, and the workshop included 18 presentations on diverse topics summarized in this article. PMID:21364216

  2. Targeting platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand: a new treatment strategy for HIV-associated neuroinflammation?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) continues to be one of the most prevalent global health afflictions to date. The advent and introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has made a significant impact on the course of infection. However, as patients are living longer, many HIV-associated illnesses are becoming prevalent among the infected population, especially those associated with chronic inflammation. Consistently, HIV-associated neuroinflammation is believed to be a major catalyst in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which are estimated to persist in approximately 50% of infected individuals regardless of cART. This dramatically underscores the need to develop effective adjunctive therapies capable of controlling this aspect of the disease, which are currently lacking. We previously demonstrated that the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is elevated in both the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively impaired infected individuals compared to their non-impaired infected counterparts. Our group, and others have recently demonstrated that there is an increasing role for this inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neuroinflammation, thereby identifying this molecule as a potential therapeutic target for the management of HAND. Platelets are the major source of circulating sCD40L, and these small cells are increasingly implicated in a multitude of inflammatory disorders, including those common during HIV infection. Thus, antiplatelet therapies that minimize the release of platelet-derived inflammatory mediators such as sCD40L are an innovative, non-traditional approach for the treatment of HIV-associated neuroinflammation, with the potential to benefit other HIV-associated illnesses. PMID:24289660

  3. Gp120 in the pathogenesis of human HIV-associated pain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Subo; Shi, Yuqiang; Chen, Jinghong; Zhou, Xiangfu; Li, Guangyu; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Carlton, Susan M.; Ferguson, Monique R.; MD, Alai Tan.; Sarna, Sushil K.; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain is a common neurological comorbidity of HIV-1 infection, but the etiological cause remains elusive. The objective of this study was to identify the HIV-1 causal factor that critically contributes to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated pain. Methods We first compared the levels of HIV-1 proteins in postmortem tissues of the spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH) from HIV-1/AIDS patients who developed chronic pain (‘pain-positive’ HIV-1 patients) and HIV-1 patients who did not develop chronic pain (‘pain-negative’ HIV-1 patients). Then, we used the HIV-1 protein that was specifically increased in the ‘pain-positive’ patients to generate mouse models. Finally, we performed comparative analyses on the pathological changes in the models and the HIV-1 patients. Results We found that HIV-1 gp120 was significantly higher in ‘pain-positive’ HIV-1 patients (vs. ‘pain-negative’ HIV-1 patients). This finding suggested that gp120 was a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model generated by intrathecal injection (i.t.) of gp120 and compared the pathologies of the model and the ‘pain-positive’ human HIV-1 patients. The results showed that the mouse model and ‘pain-positive’ human HIV-1 patients developed extensive similarities in their pathological phenotypes, including pain behaviors, peripheral neuropathy, glial reactivation, synapse degeneration and aberrant activation of pain-related signaling pathways in the SDH. Interpretation Our findings suggest that gp120 may critically contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated pain. PMID:24633867

  4. HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: Perspective on Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Nabha, Linda; Duong, Lan; Timpone, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in dramatic improvement in AIDS associated morbidity and mortality. Although combination ART has resulted in a significant reduction in HIV associated dementia, the most severe form of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the overall prevalence of HAND among this population is estimated at 40%. It has been recognized that the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir for HIV, and neuronal damage begins at the time of acute infection and persists due to chronic infection of microglial and perivascular macrophages. Although combination ART has resulted in virologic control in the plasma compartment, virologic breakthrough can potentially ensue within the CNS compartment due to limited ART drug exposure. The purpose of this review is to discuss the definition, clinical spectrum and risk factors associated with HAND, review the pathogenesis of HAND, and address the pharmacologic challenges associated with ART drug exposure in the CNS compartment. PMID:23733447

  5. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Díaz, José A; Lee, Samuel A

    2011-02-01

    A growing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent diagnoses of invasive fungal infections, including those caused by unusual yeasts. The incidence of non-albicans species of Candida is increasing compared with that of Candida albicans, and several species, such as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, may be resistant to azole antifungal therapy. Trichosporon species are the second most common cause of fungaemia in patients with haematological malignant disease and are characterised by resistance to amphotericin and echinocandins and poor prognosis. Rhodotorula species belong to the family Cryptococcaceae, and are a cause of catheter-related fungaemia, sepsis, and invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients. An increasing number of sporadic cases of invasive fungal infections by non-neoformans cryptococci have been reported in immunocompromised hosts, especially for patients with advanced HIV infection or cancer who are undergoing transplant. Other uncommon yeasts that can cause invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients include Geotrichum, Hansenula, Malassezia, and Saccharomyces. Host immune status is a crucial determinant of the type of invasive fungal infection a patient is at risk for. Diagnosis can be challenging and relies heavily on traditional cultures of blood and other sterile sites, although serum (1,3)-?-D-glucan testing might have an adjunctive role. Although rare yeasts are emerging as opportunistic human pathogens, diagnosis remains challenging and treatment suboptimal. PMID:21272794

  6. The role of the tumor microenvironment in HIV-associated lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joseph G; Liapis, Konstantinos; Gribben, John G

    2015-05-01

    There has been considerable interest in the role of the lymphoma microenvironment. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), AIDS-related diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma remains common and HIV-relatedHIV-associated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is increasing in incidence. Less is known about the impact HIV and HAART have on the lymphoma microenvironment. AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is highly angiogenic, demonstrates increased lymphoblastic histology, proliferation, increased activated cytotoxic T cells, reduced CD4(+) and FOXP3(+) T cells, but no differences in tumor-associated macrophages. Early initiation of HAART improves immunosurveillance, but cases without viral antigens appear able to avoid immunologic reaction. Increased T cell infiltrates seen with HAART treatment in HIV-related classical Hodgkin's lymphoma may contribute to malignant cell growth. PMID:25985176

  7. The diagnosis, management and prevention of HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S; Meintjes, G

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its strong association with HIV infection are the most important causes of the high rates of infectious morbidity and mortality in South African adults. The interaction between HIV and TB leads to more frequent smear-negative and extrapulmonary disease, resulting in atypical clinical presentations and altered performance characteristics of diagnostic tests. New and emerging diagnostics are being used to support earlier initiation of therapy and detection of drug resistance, although these have inherent limitations and empirical therapy is often still required. The management of HIV-associated TB is complicated by rapid clinical progression of disease, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, drug-drug interactions and shared toxicities. A strong evidence base now provides guidance on the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the use of corticosteroids in TB and the use of isoniazid preventive therapy. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the diagnosis, management and prevention of HIV-associated TB, with a focus on recent evidence in the field. PMID:26042273

  8. [HIV associated nephropathy syndrome: a case report in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Dia, D; Fall, K; Niang, A; Guibal, A; Fall, S; Dieng, M; Diallo, I; Debonne, J M

    2004-01-01

    HIV associated nephropathy syndrome ( HIVAN Syndrome ) is a recently identified entity and no study has been done in Senegal. So we report this observation. A 40 years old black patient was admitted for renal oedema syndrome and immunosuppressive signs. The biological investigations noticed a non-pur nephrotic syndrome and severe renal failure. Ultrasonography showed quite normal kidney sizes with hyper echogenicity and dediferenciation. HIV research was positive with 45 CD4 lymphocytes / mm3. This patient had no known causes of nephrotic syndrome ( diabetis, lupus ,amyloidosis.). So the diagnosis of HIVAN syndrome was determined with the clinical features and the bad outcome. We emphasize on the necessity to think about HIVAN in every black patient presenting a quickly progressive non-pur nephrotic syndrome. We expect prospectives studies to describe the clinical signs and the frequency of HIVAN syndrome in Senegal. PMID:15782480

  9. Functional Consequences of HIV-Associated Neuropsychological Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jessica M.; Ettenhofer, Mark L.; Hinkin, Charles H.; van Gorp, Wilfred G.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the “real world” implications of infection with HIV/AIDS from a neuropsychological perspective. Relevant literature is reviewed which examines the relationships between HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment and employment, driving, medication adherence, mood, fatigue, and interpersonal functioning. Specifically, the relative contributions of medical, cognitive, psychosocial, and psychiatric issues on whether someone with HIV/AIDS will be able to return to work, adhere to a complicated medication regimen, or safely drive a vehicle will be discussed. Methodological issues that arise in the context of measuring medication adherence or driving capacity are also explored. Finally, the impact of HIV/AIDS on mood state, fatigue, and interpersonal relationships are addressed, with particular emphasis on how these variables interact with cognition and independent functioning. The purpose of this review is to integrate neuropsychological findings with their real world correlates of functional behavior in the HIV/AIDS population. PMID:19472057

  10. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Antinori, A; Arendt, G; Becker, J T; Brew, B J; Byrd, D A; Cherner, M; Clifford, D B; Cinque, P; Epstein, L G; Goodkin, K; Gisslen, M; Grant, I; Heaton, R K; Joseph, J; Marder, K; Marra, C M; McArthur, J C; Nunn, M; Price, R W; Pulliam, L; Robertson, K R; Sacktor, N; Valcour, V; Wojna, V E

    2007-10-30

    In 1991, the AIDS Task Force of the American Academy of Neurology published nomenclature and research case definitions to guide the diagnosis of neurologic manifestations of HIV-1 infection. Now, 16 years later, the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke have charged a working group to critically review the adequacy and utility of these definitional criteria and to identify aspects that require updating. This report represents a majority view, and unanimity was not reached on all points. It reviews our collective experience with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), particularly since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, and their definitional criteria; discusses the impact of comorbidities; and suggests inclusion of the term asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to categorize individuals with subclinical impairment. An algorithm is proposed to assist in standardized diagnostic classification of HAND. PMID:17914061

  11. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antinori, A.; Arendt, G.; Becker, J.T.; Brew, B.J.; Byrd, D.A.; Cherner, M.; Clifford, D.B.; Cinque, P.; Epstein, L.G.; Goodkin, K.; Gisslen, M.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R.K.; Joseph, J.; Marder, K.; Marra, C.M.; McArthur, J.C.; Nunn, M.; Price, R.W.; Pulliam, L.; Robertson, K.R.; Sacktor, N.; Valcour, V.; Wojna, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    In 1991, the AIDS Task Force of the American Academy of Neurology published nomenclature and research case definitions to guide the diagnosis of neurologic manifestations of HIV-1 infection. Now, 16 years later, the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke have charged a working group to critically review the adequacy and utility of these definitional criteria and to identify aspects that require updating. This report represents a majority view, and unanimity was not reached on all points. It reviews our collective experience with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), particularly since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, and their definitional criteria; discusses the impact of comorbidities; and suggests inclusion of the term asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to categorize individuals with subclinical impairment. An algorithm is proposed to assist in standardized diagnostic classification of HAND. PMID:17914061

  12. Prepulse Inhibition in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Vaida, Florin; Grant, Igor; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). 37 HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, though the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated. PMID:23552464

  13. Advances in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Despite improved outcomes among persons living with HIV who are treated with antiretroviral therapy, they remain at increased risk for acute and chronic kidney diseases. Moreover, since HIV can infect renal epithelial cells, the kidney might serve as a viral reservoir that would need to be eradicated when attempting to achieve full virologic cure. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism by which HIV infects renal epithelial cells and the viral and host factors that promote development of kidney disease. Polymorphisms in APOL1 confer markedly increased risk of HIV-associated nephropathy; however, the mechanism by which ApoL1 variants may promote kidney disease remains unclear. HIV-positive persons are at increased risk of acute kidney injury, which may be a result of a high burden of subclinical kidney disease and/or viral factors and frequent exposure to nephrotoxins. Despite the beneficial effect of antiretroviral therapy in preventing and treating HIVAN, and possibly other forms of kidney disease in persons living with HIV, some of these medications, including tenofovir, indinavir, and atazanavir can induce acute and/or chronic kidney injury via mitochondrial toxicity or intratubular crystallization. Further research is needed to better understand factors that contribute to acute and chronic kidney injury in HIV-positive patients and to develop more effective strategies to prevent and treat kidney disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:24827777

  14. Current knowledge on HIV-associated Plasmablastic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, Michele; Castillo, Jorge J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated PBL is an AIDS-defining cancer, classified by WHO as a distinct entity of aggressive DLBCL. To date less than 250 cases have been published, of them 17 are pediatric. The pathogenesis of this rare disease is related to immunodeficiency, chronic immune stimulation and EBV. Clinically is a rapid growing destructive disease mainly involving the oral cavity even if extraoral and extranodal sites are not infrequent. The diagnosis requires tissue mass or lymph node biopsy and core needle or fine needle biopsy is acceptable only for difficult access sites. Classically immunophenotype is CD45, CD20, CD79a negative and CD38, CD138, MUM1 positive, EBER and KI67 is >80%. Regarding the therapy, standard treatment is, usually, CHOP or CHOP-like regimens while more intensive regimens as CODOX-M/IVAC or DA-EPOCH are possible options. Use of cART is recommended during chemotherapy, keeping in mind the possible overlapping toxicities. Rituximab is not useful for this CD20 negative disease and CNS prophylaxis is mandatory. Intensification with ABMT in CR1 may be considered for fit patients. For refractory/relapsed patients, therapy is, usually, considered palliative, however, in chemo-sensitive disease, intensification + ABMT or new drugs as Bortezomib may be considered. Factors affecting outcome are achieving complete remission, PS, clinical stage, MYC, IPI score. Reported median PFS ranges between 6–7 months and median OS ranges between 11–13 months. Long term survivors are reported but mostly in pediatric patients. Finally, due to the scarcity of data on this subtype of NHL we suggest that the diagnosis and the management of HIV-positive PBL patients should be performed in specialized centers. PMID:25408850

  15. Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation. PMID:23982074

  16. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  17. An Unusual Case of Anti-GBM Antibody Elevation in HIV-Associated Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Raafat; Poenariu, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The most commonly seen glomerular disease in HIV infected patients is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN); however, a multitude of other nephropathies can occur in HIV infection with an almost equal cumulative frequency. We report an unusual case of a patient with clinical and histological evidence of HIVAN in which the diagnosis was initially confounded by the finding of an elevated serum anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 27-year-old African American female with a history of schizophrenia, cocaine abuse, and HIV infection who upon admission to our hospital was found to have severe acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis. Urine studies revealed nephrotic range proteinuria and a serological workup was positive for anti-GBM antibody elevation with a value of 91 units (normal: 0–20 units). A renal biopsy revealed HIVAN with no evidence of crescentic glomerulonephritis or anti-GBM disease. Conclusion. This case highlights the need for careful interpretation of anti-GBM antibody tests in HIV infected patients with kidney disease and, in particular, the need for biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis prior to starting therapy. More research is needed to study the prognostic correlation between the degree of anti-GBM antibody elevation in HIVAN and disease severity. PMID:24995137

  18. Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Peterson, Kristen L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Harris, J. Kirk; Pace, Norman R.

    2009-01-01

    The environments we humans encounter daily are sources of exposure to diverse microbial communities, some of potential concern to human health. In this study, we used culture-independent technology to investigate the microbial composition of biofilms inside showerheads as ecological assemblages in the human indoor environment. Showers are an important interface for human interaction with microbes through inhalation of aerosols, and showerhead waters have been implicated in disease. Although opportunistic pathogens commonly are cultured from shower facilities, there is little knowledge of either their prevalence or the nature of other microorganisms that may be delivered during shower usage. To determine the composition of showerhead biofilms and waters, we analyzed rRNA gene sequences from 45 showerhead sites around the United States. We find that variable and complex, but specific, microbial assemblages occur inside showerheads. Particularly striking was the finding that sequences representative of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other opportunistic human pathogens are enriched to high levels in many showerhead biofilms, >100-fold above background water contents. We conclude that showerheads may present a significant potential exposure to aerosolized microbes, including documented opportunistic pathogens. The health risk associated with showerhead microbiota needs investigation in persons with compromised immune or pulmonary systems. PMID:19805310

  19. A Case of Severe HIV-Associated Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Acitretin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; Shin, Jin Ho; Cho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hyang Im; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Psoriasis in patients with HIV responds poorly to treatment and has a high morbidity rate, thus posing a challenge to clinicians. Until now, there have been no documented cases of acitretin therapy for HIV-associated psoriasis in Korea. Here, we report a case of safe and successful therapy with acitretin in a 52-year-old man with HIV-associated psoriasis that responded poorly to previous treatments including steroids and ultraviolet B phototherapy. We also review the relevant literature. PMID:25024875

  20. Role of TNF block genetic variants in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in black Southern Africans.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Hendry, Liesl M; Kamerman, Peter R; Chew, Constance S N; Price, Patricia; Cherry, Catherine L; Lombard, Zané

    2015-03-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. The TNF block is a region within the central MHC that contains many immunoregulatory genes. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the TNF block have been associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians and whites. Here we investigated genetic associations with HIV-SN in 342 black Southern Africans (190 cases and 152 neuropathy-free controls) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the TNF block and a set of haplotypes defined by 31 SNPs in Asian and white populations (denoted FVa). We included population-appropriate tagSNPs derived from an African population (Yoruban, YRI, HapMap) and derived extended haplotypes comprising 61 SNPs (denoted FVa_ext b). We found no association between HIV-SN and carriage of two SNPs (TNF-1031/rs1799964*C and BAT1 (intron10)/rs9281523*C) associated with HIV-SN in whites and Asians. Additionally, a haplotype containing TNF-1031/rs1799964*C associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians, but was not present in this African population. However, alleles of seven SNPs associated with reduced risk of HIV-SN (corrected for age, height and multiple comparisons). These were rs11796*A, rs3130059*G, rs2071594*C, NFKBIL1-62/rs2071592*A, rs2071591*A, LTA+252/rs909253*G, rs1041981*C. One haplotype (FV18_ext1), not containing these alleles, was associated with increased risk of HIV-SN after correction for age, height and multiple comparisons. Our results confirm the involvement of genes in the TNF block in altering risk for HIV-SN, but genotypes critical in this African population differed from those affecting HIV-SN in whites and Asians. These differences support the need for genetic association studies in diverse populations. PMID:24896147

  1. Asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment increases risk for symptomatic decline

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Donald R.; Deutsch, Reena; Woods, Steven P.; Vaida, Florin; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Atkinson, J.H.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; McCutchan, John A.; Abramson, Ian; Gamst, Anthony; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Smith, Davey M.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), the clinical relevance of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), the most common HAND diagnosis, remains unclear. We investigated whether HIV-infected persons with ANI were more likely than those who were neurocognitively normal (NCN) to experience a decline in everyday functioning (symptomatic decline). Methods: A total of 347 human participants from the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort were NCN (n = 226) or had ANI (n = 121) at baseline. Neurocognitive assessments occurred approximately every 6 months, with median (interquartile range) follow-up of 45.2 (28.7–63.7) months. Symptomatic decline was based on self-report (SR) or objective, performance-based (PB) problems in everyday functioning. Proportional hazards modeling was used to generate risk ratios for progression to symptomatic HAND after adjusting for baseline and time-dependent covariates, including CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4), virologic suppression, CART, and mood. Results: The ANI group had a shorter time to symptomatic HAND than the NCN after adjusting for baseline predictors: adjusted risk ratios for symptomatic HAND were 2.0 (confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.6; p = 0.02) for SR, 5.8 (CI 3.2–10.7; p < 0.0001) for PB, and 3.2 (CI 2.0–5.0; p < 0.0001) for either SR or PB. Current CD4 and depression were significant time-dependent covariates, but antiretroviral regimen, virologic suppression, and substance abuse or dependence were not. Conclusions: This longitudinal study demonstrates that ANI conveys a 2-fold to 6-fold increase in risk for earlier development of symptomatic HAND, supporting the prognostic value of the ANI diagnosis in clinical settings. Identifying those at highest risk for symptomatic decline may offer an opportunity to modify treatment to delay progression. PMID:24814848

  2. Opportunistic use of radio-frequency spectrum: a network perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Steenstrup

    2005-01-01

    We address opportunistic use of RF spectrum for communication among frequency-agile nodes composing a network, under the assumptions that the network and its environment are time-varying and users external to the network may have precedence in access and use of certain frequencies under certain conditions. We consider three different frequency assignment problems: (1) finding a common broadcast frequency for a

  3. Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios

    E-print Network

    Shihada, Basem

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios Alexander W. Min, Kyu-Han Kim,§ Jatinder spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of ac- cessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary

  4. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  5. Social Trust in Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha Trifunovic; Franck Legendre; Carlos Anastasiades

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks enable mobile users to participate in various social interactions with applications such as content distribution and micro-blogs. Because of their distributed nature, securing user interactions relies rather on trust than hard cryptography. Trust is often based on past user interactions such as in reputation systems relying on ratings. Yet, a more fundamental trust, social trust - assessing a

  6. Opportunistic Software Deployment in Disconnected

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . INTRODUCTION An approach to handle the complexity of mod- ern software applications is to defineOpportunistic Software Deployment in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Frédéric Guidec, Nicolas presents a middleware platform allowing the dissemination of software com- ponents on handheld devices

  7. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

  8. Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment. PMID:24462448

  9. HIV-associated nephropathy and end-stage renal disease in children in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data

  10. Long-term efficacy and safety of polyalkylimide gel for the treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Antoniou; Janet M. Raboud; Colin Kovacs; Christina Diong; Jason Brunetta; Graham Smith; Roberta Halpenny; Francis Beninger; Mona R. Loutfy

    2009-01-01

    The long-term safety and efficacy of products used in the correction of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy (FLA) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term efficacy and safety of polyalkylimide gel (PAIG) in the treatment of HIV-associated FLA. In this open-label, randomized, single-center study, 31 HIV-positive individuals (median age 48 years (interquartile ranges (IQR) 45, 55,

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V.; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

  12. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  13. Pathogen-specific T cell susceptibility to HIV influences the natural history of opportunistic infections

    PubMed Central

    Saharia, Kapil K.; Koup, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    During HIV infection, the timing of opportunistic infections is not always associated with severity of CD4 T cell depletion and different opportunistic pathogens reactivate at different CD4 T cell thresholds. Here we review how differences in the phenotype and function of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells influence susceptibility to HIV infection. By focusing on three common opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus, and cytomegalovirus) we examine how differential depletion of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells impacts the natural history of these pathogens in HIV infection. A broader understanding of this relationship can better inform treatment strategies against co-pathogens. PMID:24243010

  14. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

  15. Beyond Contact Predictions in Mobile Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    predictions. Index Terms--Opportunistic networks, intermittent connec- tions, support vector machine, link, laptops, tablets, or game stations. These devices allow each person to carry wireless technologies

  16. HIV-Associated Anemia After 96 Weeks on Therapy: Determinants Across Age Ranges in Uganda and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Ssali, Francis; Musiime, Victor; Kiweewa, Francis; Kityo, Cissy; Salata, Robert; Mugyenyi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the detrimental effects of HIV-associated anemia on morbidity, we determined factors associated with anemia after 96 weeks of antiretroviral therapy (ART) across age groups. An HIV-positive cohort (n=3,580) of children age 5–14, reproductive age adults 18–49, and older adults ?50 from two randomized trials in Uganda and Zimbabwe were evaluated from initiation of therapy through 96 weeks. We conducted logistic and multinomial regression to evaluate common and differential determinants for anemia at 96 weeks on therapy. Prior to initiation of ART, the prevalence of anemia (age 5–11 <10.5?g/dl, 12–14 <11?g/dl, adult females <11?g/dl, adult males <12?g/dl) was 43%, which decreased to 13% at week 96 (p<0.001). Older adults had a significantly higher likelihood of anemia compared to reproductive age adults (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.44–4.70, p=0.002). Reproductive age females had a significantly higher odds of anemia compared to men at week 96 (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.40, p<0.001), and particularly a greater odds for microcytic anemia compared to males in the same age group (p=0.001). Other common factors associated with anemia included low body mass index (BMI) and microcytosis; greater increases in CD4 count to week 96 were protective. Thus, while ART significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia at 96 weeks, 13% of the population continued to be anemic. Specific groups, such as reproductive age females and older adults, have a greater odds of anemia and may guide clinicians to pursue further evaluation and management. PMID:24506102

  17. Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senhua Huang; Xin Liu; Zhi Ding

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by regulatory initiatives and radio technol- ogy advances, opportunistic spectrum access has the potential to mitigate spectrum scarcity and satisfy the increasing demand for spectrum. In this paper, we consider a scenario where secondary users can opportunistically access unused spectrum vacated by idle primaries. We introduce two metrics to protect primary performance, namely collision probability and overlapping time. We

  18. Impact of Altruism on Opportunistic Communications

    E-print Network

    Hui, Pan "Ben"

    1 Impact of Altruism on Opportunistic Communications Kuang Xu, Pan Hui, Victor O.K. Li, Jon of different altruism distributions on the system throughput and delay of opportunistic communications. We the result of the study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the impact of altruism

  19. Hindering Eavesdropping via IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption

    E-print Network

    Castelluccia, Claude

    Hindering Eavesdropping via IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption Claude Castelluccia1 , Gabriel Montenegro/INRIA/UCB Lyon) 46, All´ee d'Italie, 69007 Lyon, France Abstract. This paper presents an opportunistic encryption proposal enables the dynamic configu- ration of an encrypted tunnel between the two nodes' IPsec gateways

  20. Bootstrapping opportunistic networks using social roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Bigwood; Tristan Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic routing protocols can enable mes- sage delivery in disconnected networks of mobile devices. To conserve energy in mobile environments, such routing protocols must minimise unnecessary message-forwarding. This paper presents an opportunistic routing protocol that leverages social role information. We compute node roles from a social network graph to identify nodes with similar contact re- lationships, and use these roles

  1. Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype Does Not Increase Risk of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E.E.; Woods, S.P.; Letendre, S.L.; Franklin, D.R.; Bloss, C.; Goate, A.; Heaton, R.K.; Collier, A.C.; Marra, C.M.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Abramson, I.; Gamst, A.; Fennema-Notestine, C.; Smith, D.M.; Grant, I.; Vaida, F.; Clifford, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-seropositive (HIV+) apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers are at increased risk for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) compared to APOE4 noncarriers with HIV in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group sample. APOE genotype was determined in 466 CHARTER participants with varying disease stages and histories of antiretroviral treatment who did not have severe psychiatric or medical comorbid conditions that preclude diagnosis of HAND. HAND diagnoses were based on results of comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation and use of current neuroAIDS diagnostic criteria. HAND status consisting of two levels: neuropsychologically normal status (i.e., no HAND) and any HAND diagnosis (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, minor neurocognitive disorder, HIV-associated dementia). Logistic regression analyses revealed no association between APOE4 carrier status and HAND, and there were no interactions between APOE4 carrier status and ethnicity, age, substance use disorders, duration of infection, or nadir CD4. Results did not differ when analysis was restricted to symptomatic HAND, and no APOE4 gene dose-dependent relationship to HAND emerged. APOE4 status was not associated with concurrent HAND in this large, well-characterized sample. This does not preclude emergence of an association between APOE4 status and HAND as this population ages. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to examine APOE4 as a risk factor for neurocognitive decline, incident HAND at older ages, and potential associations with CSF amyloid. PMID:23408335

  2. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  3. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  4. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

  5. HIV-associated thrombocytopenia: in vitro megakaryocyte colony formation in 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Abgrall, J F; el Kassar, N; Berthou, C; Cauvin, J M; Renard, I; Autrand, C; Zilliken, P; Sensebe, L; Guern, G; Le Gall, G

    1992-01-01

    In vitro bone-marrow megakaryocyte colony formation was studied in 10 patients with HIV-associated thrombocytopenia to investigate the mechanism of thrombocytopenia. Increased colony formation was observed in 3 patients and decreased growth in 7 patients. No relationship was noted between the growth potential of megakaryocyte progenitors and platelet count, number of CD4+ celts, platelet response to azidothymidine, and platelet count 7 days after culture. In all patients, megakaryocyte morphology was abnormal: blebbing of the membrane and abnormal chromatin with separated lobes of nuclei. Further studies are needed to determine if growth potential of megakaryocyte progenitors is useful in understanding the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:1530216

  6. Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

  7. Serological Diagnostic Assays for HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Siev and colleagues present an evaluation of antibody responses to four immunodominant proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa (M. Siev, D. Wilson, S. Kainth, V. O. Kasprowicz, C. M. Feintuch, E. Jenny-Avital, and J. J. Achkar, 21:791–798, 2014, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00805-13). This commentary discusses the enormous need for simple point-of-care assays for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients with and without HIV coinfection in high-burden settings and considers the potential role of serological assays and the huge challenges inherent in developing and validating such assays. PMID:24739979

  8. Serological diagnostic assays for HIV-associated tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Lawn, Stephen D

    2014-06-01

    In this issue of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Siev and colleagues present an evaluation of antibody responses to four immunodominant proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa (M. Siev, D. Wilson, S. Kainth, V. O. Kasprowicz, C. M. Feintuch, E. Jenny-Avital, and J. J. Achkar, 21:791-798, 2014, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00805-13). This commentary discusses the enormous need for simple point-of-care assays for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients with and without HIV coinfection in high-burden settings and considers the potential role of serological assays and the huge challenges inherent in developing and validating such assays. PMID:24739979

  9. Role of Neurotrophic Factor alterations in the neurodegenerative process in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Langford, T. D.; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, E.

    2014-01-01

    Migration of HIV infected cells into the CNS is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These neuro-psychiatric syndromes are related to the neurodegenerative pathology triggered by the release of HIV proteins and cytokine/chemokines from monocytes/macrophages into the CNS –a condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). As a result of more effective combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) patients with HIV are living longer and thus the frequency of HAND has increased considerably, resulting in an overlap between the neurodegenerative pathology associated with HIV and that related to aging. In fact, HIV infection is believed to hasten the aging process. The mechanisms through which HIV and aging lead to neurodegeneration include: abnormal calcium flux, excitotoxicity, signaling abnormalities, oxidative stress and autophagy defects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that defects in the processing and transport of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) might also play a role. Recent evidence implicates alterations in neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with HAND in the context of aging. Here, we report FGF overexpression curtails gp120-induced neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, our data show disparities in brain neurotrophic factor levels may be exacerbated in HIV patients over 50 years of age. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on neurotrophins and HAND in the context of developing new therapies to combat HIV infection in the aging population. PMID:24510686

  10. Central and peripheral markers of neurodegeneration and monocyte activation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jennifer L; Gill, Alexander J; Douglas, Steven D; Kolson, Dennis L

    2015-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affect up to 50 % of HIV-infected adults, independently predict HIV morbidity/mortality, and are associated with neuronal damage and monocyte activation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament subunits (NFL, pNFH) are sensitive surrogate markers of neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases. In HIV, CSF NFL is elevated in individuals with and without cognitive impairment, suggesting early/persistent neuronal injury during HIV infection. Although individuals with severe cognitive impairment (HIV-associated dementia (HAD)) express higher CSF NFL levels than cognitively normal HIV-infected individuals, the relationships between severity of cognitive impairment, monocyte activation, neurofilament expression, and systemic infection are unclear. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 48 HIV-infected adults with varying levels of cognitive impairment, not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), enrolled in the CNS Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. We quantified NFL, pNFH, and monocyte activation markers (sCD14/sCD163) in paired CSF/plasma samples. By examining subjects off ART, these correlations are not confounded by possible effects of ART on inflammation and neurodegeneration. We found that CSF NFL levels were elevated in individuals with HAD compared to cognitively normal or mildly impaired individuals with CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadirs ?200. In addition, CSF NFL levels were significantly positively correlated to plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and negatively correlated to plasma CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, suggesting a link between neuronal injury and systemic HIV infection. Finally, CSF NFL was significantly positively correlated with CSF pNFH, sCD163, and sCD14, demonstrating that monocyte activation within the CNS compartment is directly associated with neuronal injury at all stages of HAND. PMID:25776526

  11. Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology

    E-print Network

    Toledano, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

  12. Liver Enlargement Associated with Opportunistic Infections in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragica Terzic; Branko Brmbolic; Djordje Jevtovic; Brankica Dupanovic; Milos Kora; Dubravka Selemovic; Neda Svirtlih; Nenad Draskovic; Boban Mugosa; Ivan Boricic; Zoran Terzic

    Background & Aim. Liver disease is commonly present in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim was to determine the frequency of liver enlargement and its association with opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection. Patients and methods. A total of 400 HIV-infected patients were investigated. Commercial kits (Ortho EIA; BioRad, ELISA) were used for detection of serum specific antibodies

  13. HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Chin-Hong, Peter; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Berry, J. Michael; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Shiboski, Caroline H.; Jay, Naomi; Rubin, Mary; Chein, Aung; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral and anal epithelial cells and tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration into the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia. PMID:24074602

  14. HIV-associated lung infections and complications in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Crothers, Kristina; Thompson, Bruce W; Burkhardt, Kathryn; Morris, Alison; Flores, Sonia C; Diaz, Philip T; Chaisson, Richard E; Kirk, Gregory D; Rom, William N; Huang, Laurence

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of lung diseases associated with HIV is broad, and many infectious and noninfectious complications of HIV infection have been recognized. The nature and prevalence of lung complications have not been fully characterized since the Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study more than 15 years ago, before antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased life expectancy. Our understanding of the global epidemiology of these diseases in the current ART era is limited, and the mechanisms for the increases in the noninfectious conditions, in particular, are not well understood. The Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV) Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00933595) is a collaborative multi-R01 consortium of research projects established by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to examine a diverse range of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected persons. This article reviews our current state of knowledge of the impact of HIV on lung health and the development of pulmonary diseases, and highlights ongoing research within the Lung HIV Study. PMID:21653528

  15. HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Kristina; Thompson, Bruce W.; Burkhardt, Kathryn; Morris, Alison; Flores, Sonia C.; Diaz, Philip T.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Rom, William N.; Huang, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of lung diseases associated with HIV is broad, and many infectious and noninfectious complications of HIV infection have been recognized. The nature and prevalence of lung complications have not been fully characterized since the Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study more than 15 years ago, before antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased life expectancy. Our understanding of the global epidemiology of these diseases in the current ART era is limited, and the mechanisms for the increases in the noninfectious conditions, in particular, are not well understood. The Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV) Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00933595) is a collaborative multi-R01 consortium of research projects established by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to examine a diverse range of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected persons. This article reviews our current state of knowledge of the impact of HIV on lung health and the development of pulmonary diseases, and highlights ongoing research within the Lung HIV Study. PMID:21653528

  16. Lower cognitive reserve among individuals with syndromic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Woods, Steven Paul; Smith, Christine; Weber, Erica; Scott, J Cobb; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    HIV-seropositive individuals with low cognitive reserve are at high risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive reserve would also play a unique role in the expression of everyday functioning complications among those with HAND (i.e., syndromic versus subsyndromic impairment). Eighty-six individuals with HIV infection were evaluated; 53 individuals evidenced normal neurocognitive performance, 16 had subsyndromic HAND (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment), and 17 were diagnosed with syndromic HAND based on a comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. Cognitive reserve represented a combined score including years of education, estimated verbal IQ, and highest occupational attainment. The groups were comparable (e.g. demographics), and the HAND groups had similar rates of global neurocognitive impairment. The syndromic HAND group evidenced lower reserve scores relative to both other groups, suggesting that individuals with lower reserve may be less able to effectively counteract their neurocognitive impairment to maintain independence in daily living activities than HIV-infected individuals with high cognitive reserve. PMID:22677976

  17. HIV-Associated Distal Neuropathic Pain is Associated with Smaller Total Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter

    PubMed Central

    Keltner, John R.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Vaida, Florin; Wang, Dongzhe; Franklin, Donald R.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Sanders, Chelsea; McCutchan, J. Allen; Archibald, Sarah L.; Miller, David J.; Kesidis, George; Cushman, Clint; Kim, Sung Min; Abramson, Ian; Taylor, Michael J.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Julaton, Michelle D.; Notestine, Randy J.; Corkran, Stephanie; Cherner, Mariana; Duarte, Nichole A.; Alexander, Terry; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Simpson, David M.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Morgello, Susan; Brown, Greg; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Jernigan, Terry L.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients. The clinical expression of HIV neuropathy is highly variable: many individuals report few symptoms, but about half report distal neuropathic pain (DNP), making it one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage, making it unclear why some patients do, and others do not, report pain. To better understand central nervous system contributions to HIV DNP, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes in 241 HIV-infected participants from an observational multi-site cohort study at five US sites (CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER). The association between DNP and the structural imaging outcomes was investigated using both linear and nonlinear (Gaussian Kernel support vector) multivariable regression, controlling for key demographic and clinical variables. Severity of DNP symptoms was correlated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volume (R = ?0.24; p = 0.004). Understanding the mechanisms for this association between smaller total cortical volumes and DNP may provide insight into HIV DNP chronicity and treatment-resistance. PMID:24549970

  18. Antibodies against Mycobacterial proteins as biomarkers for HIV-associated smear-negative tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Feintuch, Catherine M; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R; Achkar, Jacqueline M

    2014-06-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV(+)) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV(+) controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST(+); n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV(-)) (n = 18) and HIV(+) (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV(-) (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV(+) TST(+) controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV(+) control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV(+) smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV(+) individuals. PMID:24671553

  19. Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Feintuch, Catherine M.; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV+) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV+ controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+; n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV?) (n = 18) and HIV+ (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV? (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV+ TST+ controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV+ control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV+ smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV+ individuals. PMID:24671553

  20. Prevalence of non-confounded HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the context of plasma HIV RNA suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucette A. Cysique; Bruce J. Brew

    2011-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is known to occur in the context of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART;\\u000a plasma HIV RNA <50 copies\\/ml). Here, we newly provide an analysis of its prevalence and nature in the absence of medical or\\u000a psychiatric confounds that may otherwise inflate the prevalence rate. We enrolled a cohort of 116 advanced HIV?+?individuals\\u000a on cART (51% virally suppressed

  1. The role of protease inhibitors in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated insulin resistance: Cellular mechanisms and clinical implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa A. Noor

    2007-01-01

    HIV-associated insulin resistance frequently presents as relative lack of peripheral adipose tissue storage associated with\\u000a dyslipidemia. This review discusses explanations for the links between acute and subacute abnormalities in glucose metabolism\\u000a and chronic changes in adipose tissue distribution. Specifically, the molecular mechanisms by which the HIV protease inhibitor\\u000a class of drugs may affect the normal stimulatory effect of insulin on

  2. Opportunistic testing: the death of informed consent?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2013-01-01

    This Article focuses on one aspect of prenatal diagnosis: noninvasive prenatal diagnosis, particularly the detection of Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) through a simple test of maternal blood. Although I discuss issues salient to this particular test, I place it in the context of "opportunistic" testing generally. It is my view that opportunistic testing presents the most serious challenge to patient autonomy we are facing in the twenty-first century. In this Article, I will explain what I mean by opportunistic testing and consider three different examples of how it threatens informed consent: (1) Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) screening, (2) newborn screening, and (3) prenatal diagnosis of maternal blood tests for fetal anomalies. PMID:23808098

  3. Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing

    E-print Network

    Chachulski, Szymon (Szymon Kazimierz)

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current opportunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, imposing a strict schedule on ...

  4. Trading Structure for Randomness in Wireless Opportunistic Routing

    E-print Network

    Chachulski, Szymon

    2007-02-23

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current opportunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, imposing a strict schedule on ...

  5. A better screening tool for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: is it what clinicians need?

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Marie-J.; Mayo, Nancy; Fellows, Lesley K.; Lebedeva, Elena; Higgins, Johanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Ances, Beau M.; Koski, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Existing screening tools for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) may lack the accuracy required for clinical use. We hypothesized that the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening tool for HAND might be improved with a stronger scoring methodology. Design: Two hundred HIV-positive participants aged 18–65 years completed the MoCA and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Methods: HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria, and an NPZ-8 score was also calculated. Rasch analysis was applied to the MoCA items to create a quantitative score. Results: The optimal cut-off on the quantitative MoCA for detecting impairment as per Frascati criteria yielded a sensitivity of 0.74 and a specificity of 0.68. Overall accuracy was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73–0.85), an improvement over standard scoring methods. However, whether cognition was quantified with the quantitative MoCA or with NPZ-8, there was substantial overlap between diagnostic categories; several individuals categorized as impaired had better overall cognitive function as assessed by NPZ-8 or quantitative MoCA than those classified as normal using standard criteria. Conclusion: Quantifying performance on MoCA items through Rasch analysis improves its accuracy as a screening tool for HAND, and demonstrates that cognition can be measured as a unidimensional construct in HIV, at least at the level of precision of bedside testing. However, the current categorical diagnostic approach to HAND is poorly aligned with summary measures of cognitive ability. Measuring cognition as a quasi-continuous construct may be more relevant than conventional HAND diagnostic categories for many clinical purposes. PMID:25291105

  6. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male = 211, female = 266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20-34; 35-49; 50-65 years) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high-school/associates degree, bachelor's degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using analysis of covariance, ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n?=?236; male = 198, female = 38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p < .001) and memory (p < .001) and measures of psychomotor speed (p < .001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort than in the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups. PMID:23113809

  7. CCL3 genotype and current depression increase risk of HIV-associated dementia

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew J; Singer, Elyse J; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hinkin, Charles H; Papp, Jeanette; Dandekar, Sugandha; Giovanelli, Allison; Shapshak, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) has continued to rise even as incidence has fallen. Several host genetic variants have been identified that modify risk for HAD. However, the findings have not been replicated consistently and most studies did not consider the multitude of factors that might themselves confer risk for HAD. In the current study, we sought to replicate the findings of previous studies in a neurologically and behaviorally well-characterized cohort. Methods The sample consisted of 143 HIV+ individuals enrolled in the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC). Based on consensus diagnosis, 117 were considered neurologically normal upon study entry, and 26 had HAD. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within seven genes (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, interleukin-1? [IL-1?], IL-10, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and tumor necrosis factor-?). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict group membership (normal vs HAD), with predictor variables including length of infection, age, current drug dependence, current depression, and genotype. Results The two groups were statistically similar with regards to demographic characteristics, current drug use, and disease factors. The HAD group had significantly greater number of individuals with current depression. Only one SNP, rs1130371 within the gene for CCL3, was entered into the analysis as the others showed symmetric distribution between groups. Logistic regression indicated that current depression and CCL3 genotype were significant predictors of HAD. Depression conferred a fivefold greater risk of HAD, while the TT genotype for CCL3 SNP (rs1130371) was associated with twofold risk for HAD. Conclusion Depression and CCL3 genotype predicted HAD. The fact that SNPs previously found to be associated with HAD were not in our analysis, and that rs1130371 is in high linkage disequilibrium with neighboring genes indicates that more dense genotyping in significantly larger cohorts is required to further characterize the relationship between genotype and risk for HAD. PMID:20725607

  8. Comparison of scales to evaluate the progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishiena S; Moxley, Richard T; Creighton, Jason; Roosa, Heidi Vornbrock; Skolasky, Richard L; Selnes, Ola A; McArthur, Justin; Sacktor, Ned

    2010-01-01

    Aim First, to compare the characterization of neurocognitive deficits in milder stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) derived from existing dementia rating scales of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) with the 2007 consensus (‘Frascati’) classification. Second, to identify potential sociodemographic and clinical predictors of HAND progression during 1-year follow-up. Methods 104 HIV-infected subjects in an existing cohort system were evaluated with a medical history, exam, neuropsychological test battery and functional assessments. The degree of HAND was rated using the AAN, MSK and Frascati scales. The degree of concordance among these scales was determined. In addition, 45 subjects were reassessed for changes in their neurocognitive status at 1-year follow-up. Associations between age, education, sex, depression ratings, substance abuse, race, hepatitis C serostatus, CD4 count and progression of HAND were examined. Results There was excellent concordance (? > 0.8) among the Frascati, MSK and AAN ratings. Subjects rated as having minor cognitive motor disorder on the AAN scale (n = 45) were evenly split between Frascati rating of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (n = 24) and mild neurocognitive disorder (n = 21). At 1-year follow-up of 45 subjects, 31% had worsened, 13% had improved and 56% were stable. Predictors of progression included age older than 50 years (odds ratio: 5.57; p = 0.013) and female gender (odds ratio: 3.13; p = 0.036). Conclusion The Frascati HAND rating scale has excellent concordance with previous neurocognitive rating scales and can be used to better characterize milder stages of cognitive impairment. Older individuals and women appeared to be more likely to show neurocognitive progression. PMID:20824119

  9. Dual-mixed HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Sheldon R.; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Little, Susan J.; Wagner, Gabriel; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV coreceptor usage of CXCR4 (X4) is associated with decreased CD4+ T-cell counts and accelerated disease progression, but the role of X4 tropism in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not previously been described. Methods This longitudinal study evaluated data on 197 visits from 72 recently HIV-infected persons who had undergone up to 4 sequential neurocognitive assessments over a median of 160 days (IQR 138–192). Phenotypic tropism testing (Trofile ES, Monogram, Biosciences) was performed on stored blood samples. Multivariable mixed model repeated measures regression was used to determine the association between HAND and dual-mixed (DM) viral tropism, estimated duration of infection (EDI), HIV RNA, CD4 count and problematic methamphetamine use. Results Six subjects (8.3%) had dual mixed tropism (DM) at their first neurocognitive assessment and four converted to DM in subsequent sampling (for total of 10 DM) at a median EDI of 10.1 months (IQR 7.2–12.2). There were 44 (61.1%) subjects who demonstrated HAND on at least one study visit. HAND was associated with DM tropism (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 0.9–20.5) and shorter EDI (odds ratio 1.1 per month earlier, 95% CI 1.0–1.2). Conclusion This study found that recency of HIV-1 infection and the development of DM tropism may be associated with HAND in the relatively early stage of infection. Together these data suggest that viral interaction with cellular receptors may play an important role in the early manifestation of HAND. PMID:24078557

  10. Complement and HIV-I infection/ HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over fifteen years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose binding lectins (MBL) and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. Also, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting to the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

  11. Tubular cell phenotype in HIV-associated nephropathy: Role of phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Ayasolla, Kamesh R; Rai, Partab; Rahimipour, Shai; Hussain, Mohammad; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2015-08-01

    Collapsing glomerulopathy and microcysts are characteristic histological features of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). We have previously reported the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of glomerular and tubular cell phenotypes in HIVAN. Since persistent tubular cell activation of NF?B has been reported in HIVAN, we now hypothesize that HIV may be contributing to tubular cell phenotype via lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediated downstream signaling. Interestingly, LPA and its receptors have also been implicated in the tubular interstitial cell fibrosis (TIF) and cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Primary human proximal tubular cells (HRPTCs) were transduced with either empty vector (EV/HRPTCs), HIV (HIV/HRPTCs) or treated with LPA (LPA/HRPTC). Immunoelectrophoresis of HIV/HRPTCs and LPA/HRPTCs displayed enhanced expression of pro-fibrotic markers: a) fibronectin (2.25 fold), b) connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; 4.8 fold), c) ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA; 12 fold), and d) collagen I (5.7 fold). HIV enhanced tubular cell phosphorylation of ILK-1, FAK, PI3K, Akt, ERKs and P38 MAPK. HIV increased tubular cell transcriptional binding activity of NF-?B; whereas, a LPA biosynthesis inhibitor (AACOCF3), a DAG kinase inhibitor, a LPA receptor blocker (Ki16425), a NF-?B inhibitor (PDTC) and NF?B-siRNA not only displayed downregulation of a NF?B activity but also showed attenuated expression of profibrotic/EMT genes in HIV milieu. These findings suggest that LPA could be contributing to HIV-induced tubular cell phenotype via NF?B activation in HIVAN. PMID:26079546

  12. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male=211, female=266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20–34; 35–49; 50–65) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high school/associates degree, Bachelor’s degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n=236; male=198 female=38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p<0.001) and memory (p<0.001), and measures of psychomotor speed (p<0.001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort compared to the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups. PMID:23113809

  13. Randomized Trial of Central Nervous System–Targeted Antiretrovirals for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Vaida, Florin; Haubrich, Richard; Heaton, Robert K.; Sacktor, Ned; Clifford, David B.; Best, Brookie M.; May, Susanne; Umlauf, Anya; Cherner, Mariana; Sanders, Chelsea; Ballard, Craig; Simpson, David M.; Jay, Cheryl; McCutchan, J. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Antiretroviral (ARV) medications differentially penetrate across the blood-brain barrier into central nervous system (CNS) tissues, potentially influencing their effectiveness in treating brain infection. Methods.?This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) called for 120 participants at 5 study sites to be randomized 1:1 to CNS-targeted (CNS-T) or non–CNS-T ART. Entry clinical factors such as ARV experience were balanced across arms using an adaptive randomization approach. The primary outcome, change in neurocognitive performance, was measured as the difference in global deficit score (GDS) from baseline to week 16. Results.?The study was terminated early on the recommendation of its data safety monitoring board on the basis of slow accrual and a low likelihood of detecting a difference in the primary outcome. No safety concerns were identified. Of 326 participants screened, 59 met entry criteria and were randomized. The primary intent-to-treat analysis included 49 participants who completed week 16. These comprised 39 men and 10 women with a mean age of 44 years (SD, 10 years), and median nadir and current CD4+ T-cell counts of 175 cells/µL and 242 cells/µL, respectively. The proportional improvement in GDS from baseline was nonsignificantly larger (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?31% to 62%) in the CNS-T arm than in the non-CNS-T arm, representing a treatment effect size of 0.09 (95% CI, ?.48 to .65). Prespecified secondary analysis showed a trend interaction (P = .087), indicating that participants who had baseline plasma virologic suppression may have benefited from CNS-T. Conclusions.?This study found no evidence of neurocognitive benefit for a CNS-T strategy in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. A benefit for a subgroup or small overall benefits could not be excluded. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00624195. PMID:24352352

  14. Neurovirological correlation with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and encephalitis in a HAART-era cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Morgello, Susan; Masliah, Eliezer; Commins, Deborah; Achim, Cristian L.; Fox, Howard S.; Kolson, Dennis L.; Grant, Igor; Singer, Elyse; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Sherman, Seth; Gensler, Gary; Moore, David J.; Chen, Tiansheng; Soukup, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Replicating HIV-1 in the brain is present in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and microglial nodule encephalitis (MGNE) and is putatively linked with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A clinico-neurovirological correlation was conducted to elucidate the relationship between brain viral load and clinical phenotype. Subjects and assays HIV gag/pol RNA and DNA copies were quantified with RT-PCR or PCR in 148 HAART-era brain specimens. Comparison to HAND, HIVE and MGNE and correlation with neuropsychological (NP) test scores were done using one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer and Spearman’s tests respectively. Results Brain HIV RNA was higher in subjects with HAND plus HIVE vs without HAND (delta = 2.48 log10 units, n = 27 vs 36, p < 0.001). In HAND without HIVE or MGNE, brain HIV RNA was not significantly different vs without HAND (p = 0.314). Worse NP scores correlated significantly with higher HIV RNA and interferon responses in brain specimens (p<0.001), but not with HIV RNA levels in premortem blood plasma (n = 114) or cerebrospinal fluid (n = 104). In subjects with MGNE, brain HIV RNA was slightly higher versus without MGNE (p<0.01), and much lower versus with HIVE (p<0.001). Conclusion Brain HIV RNA and to a lesser extent HIV DNA are correlated with worse NP performance in the 6 months before death. Linkage occurs primarily in patients with HIVE and MGNE; while on HAART these patients could obtain added NP improvement by further reducing brain HIV. Patients not in those groups are less certain to obtain added NP benefit. PMID:23242157

  15. Spectrum Characterization for Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Systems

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    1 Spectrum Characterization for Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Systems Tevfik Y¨ucek and H, Tampa, FL, 33620 yucek@eng.usf.edu and arslan@eng.usf.edu Abstract-- Spectrum sensing is one of the most challenging problems in cognitive radio systems. The spectrum of interest needs to be characterized and unused

  16. Trustworthy opportunistic sensing: A Social Computing Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henric Johnson; Niklas Lavesson; Daniela Oliveira; S. Felix Wu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances have lead to a society with communication platforms like iPhone and Kinect Xbox that are able to inject sensing presence into online social networks (OSNs). Thus, it is possible to create large- scale opportunistic networks by integrating sensors, applications and social networks and this development could also promote innovative collaborative cyber security models. In this

  17. DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    , this assumption needs to be reexamined for sensor networks. Channel acquisition requires, at least, each activatedDISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points

  18. Randomised Pharmacokinetic Trial of Rifabutin with Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thu, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Barrail-Tran, Aurélie; Duc, Nguyen Hong; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Laureillard, Didier; Thi Xuan Lien, Truong; Borand, Laurence; Quillet, Catherine; Connolly, Catherine; Lagarde, Dominique; Pym, Alexander; Lienhardt, Christian; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Harries, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Background Rifampicin and protease inhibitors are difficult to use concomitantly in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis because of drug-drug interactions. Rifabutin has been proposed as an alternative rifamycin, but there is concern that the current recommended dose is suboptimal. The principal aim of this study was to compare bioavailability of two doses of rifabutin (150 mg three times per week and 150 mg daily) in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis who initiated lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam. Concentrations of lopinavir/ritonavir were also measured. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, multi-dose, two-arm, cross-over trial, conducted in Vietnamese adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City (Clinical trial registry number NCT00651066). Rifabutin pharmacokinetics were evaluated before and after the introduction of lopinavir/ritonavir -based antiretroviral therapy using patient randomization lists. Serial rifabutin and 25-O-desacetyl rifabutin concentrations were measured during a dose interval after 2 weeks of rifabutin 300 mg daily, after 3 weeks of rifabutin 150 mg daily with lopinavir/ritonavir and after 3 weeks of rifabutin 150 mg three times per week with lopinavir/ritonavir. Results Sixteen and seventeen patients were respectively randomized to the two arms, and pharmacokinetic analysis carried out in 12 and 13 respectively. Rifabutin 150 mg daily with lopinavir/ritonavir was associated with a 32% mean increase in rifabutin average steady state concentration compared with rifabutin 300 mg alone. In contrast, the rifabutin average steady state concentration decreased by 44% when rifabutin was given at 150 mg three times per week with lopinavir/ritonavir. With both dosing regimens, 2 – 5 fold increases of the 25-O-desacetyl- rifabutin metabolite were observed when rifabutin was given with lopinavir/ritonavir compared with rifabutin alone. The different doses of rifabutin had no significant effect on lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations. Conclusions Based on these findings, rifabutin 150 mg daily may be preferred when co-administered with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00651066 PMID:24465443

  19. Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Amitriptyline for Analgesia in Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dinat, Natalya; Marinda, Edmore; Moch, Shirra; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Kamerman, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study at a single center in South Africa, to ascertain whether amitriptyline is an effective analgesic for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity in: i) antiretroviral drug naive individuals, and ii) antiretroviral drug users. 124 HIV-infected participants (antiretroviral drug naive = 62, antiretroviral drug users = 62) who met the study criteria for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were randomized to once-daily oral amitriptyline (titrated to a median: interquartile range of 50: 25-50 mg) or placebo for six weeks, followed by a three-week washout period and subsequent treatment crossover. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in worst pain intensity of the feet (measured by participant self-report using an 11-point numerical pain rating scale) after six weeks of treatment. 122 of 124 participants completed all study visits and were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. In the antiretroviral drug-naive group (n = 61) there was no significant difference in the mean change in pain score from baseline after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline [amitriptyline: 2.8 (SD 3.3) vs. placebo: 2.8 (3.4)]. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the change in pain score after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline in the antiretroviral drug-user group (n = 61) [amitriptyline: 2.7 (3.3) vs. placebo: 2.1 (2.8)]. Controlling for period effects and treatment order effects did not alter the outcome of the analyses. Nor did analyzing the intention-to-treat cohort (missing data interpolated using baseline observation carried forward) alter the outcome of the analyses. In summary, amitriptyline, at the doses used here, was no more effective than an inactive placebo at reducing pain intensity in individuals with painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity, irrespective of whether they were on antiretroviral therapy or not. Trial Registration ISRCTN 54452526 PMID:25974287

  20. Uncommon opportunistic fungi: new nosocomial threats.

    PubMed

    Groll, A H; Walsh, T J

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades opportunistic fungal infections have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe underlying illnesses and compromised host defenses. While Aspergillus and Candida spp. collectively account for the majority of these infections, recent epidemiological trends indicate a shift towards infections by Aspergillus spp., nonalbicans Candida spp., as well as previously uncommon opportunistic fungi. Apart from an expanding number of different Zygomycetes, previously uncommon hyaline filamentous fungi (such as Fusarium species, Acremonium species, Paecilomyces species, Pseudallescheria boydii, and Scedosporium prolificans), dematiaceous filamentous fungi (such as Bipolaris species, Cladophialophora bantiana, Dactylaria gallopava, Exophiala species, and Alternaria species) and yeast-like pathogens (such as Trichosporon species, Blastoschizomyces capitatus, Malassezia species, Rhodotorula rubra and others) are increasingly encountered as causing life threatening invasive infections that are often refractory to conventional therapies. On the basis of past and current trends, the spectrum of fungal pathogens will continue to evolve in the settings of an expanding population of immunocompromised hosts, selective antifungal pressures, and shifting conditions in hospitals and the environment. An expanded and refined drug arsenal, further elucidation of pathogenesis and resistance mechanisms, establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlations, incorporation of pharmacodynamics, combination- and immunotherapies offer hope for substantial progress in prevention and treatment. PMID:11525222

  1. The efficacy and safety of insulin-sensitizing drugs in HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddharth H Sheth; Robin J Larson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by insulin resistance, abnormal lipid metabolism and redistribution of body fat. To date, there has been no quantitative summary of the effects of insulin sensitizing-agents for the treatment of this challenging problem. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, clinical trial registries, conference proceedings and references for randomized trials evaluating rosiglitazone, pioglitazone or

  2. Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract-- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

  3. Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract--- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near­optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

  4. SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Qing Zhao@ece.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we study two important concepts in opportunis- tic spectrum access: spectrum intuitive terms central to opportunistic spectrum access. Their implications in spectrum opportunity

  5. Evaluating Opportunistic Routing Protocols with Large Realistic Contact Traces

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    - tolerant network (DTN) [6]. Delay-tolerant networks provide service despite long link delays or frequent Opportunistic Networks, Routing, Simulation 1. INTRODUCTION Mobile opportunistic networks are one kind of delay link breaks. Long link delays happen in networks with communication between nodes at a great distance

  6. Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szymon Chachulski; Michael Jennings; Sachin Katti; Dina Katabi

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current oppor- tunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, impos- ing a strict schedule on routers' access to the medium. Although the scheduler delivers opportunistic gains, it misses some of the inherent features of the 802.11 MAC. For example, it

  7. Iterative Spectrum Shaping with Opportunistic Multiuser Detection

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Rui

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a new decentralized resource allocation strategy, named iterative spectrum shaping (ISS), for the multi-carrier-based multiuser communication system, where two coexisting users independently and sequentially update transmit power allocations over parallel subcarriers to maximize their individual transmit rates. Unlike the conventional iterative water-filling (IWF) algorithm that applies the single-user detection (SD) at each user's receiver by treating the interference from the other user as additional noise, the proposed ISS algorithm applies multiuser detection techniques to decode both the desired user's and interference user's messages if it is feasible, thus termed as opportunistic multiuser detection (OMD). Two encoding methods are considered for ISS: One is carrier independent encoding where independent codewords are modulated by different subcarriers for which different decoding methods can be applied; the other is carrier joint encoding where a single codeword is modulated by all t...

  8. Excellent clinical outcomes and retention in care for adults with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma treated with systemic chemotherapy and integrated antiretroviral therapy in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Herce, Michael E; Kalanga, Noel; Wroe, Emily B; Keck, James W; Chingoli, Felix; Tengatenga, Listern; Gopal, Satish; Phiri, Atupere; Mailosi, Bright; Bazile, Junior; Beste, Jason A; Elmore, Shekinah N; Crocker, Jonathan T; Rigodon, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) is the most common cancer in Malawi. In 2008, the non-governmental organization, Partners In Health, and the Ministry of Health established the Neno Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (NKSC) to treat HIV-KS in rural Neno district. We aimed to evaluate 12-month clinical outcomes and retention in care for HIV-KS patients in the NKSC, and to describe our implementation model, which featured protocol-guided chemotherapy, integrated antiretroviral therapy (ART) and psychosocial support delivered by community health workers. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data from 114 adult HIV-KS patients who received ART and ?1 chemotherapy cycle in the NKSC between March 2008 and February 2012. Results At enrolment 97% of patients (n/N=103/106) had advanced HIV-KS (stage T1). Most patients were male (n/N=85/114, 75%) with median age 36 years (interquartile range, IQR: 29–42). Patients started ART a median of 77 days prior to chemotherapy (IQR: 36–252), with 97% (n/N=105/108) receiving nevirapine/lamivudine/stavudine. Following standardized protocols, we treated 20 patients (18%) with first-line paclitaxel and 94 patients (82%) with bleomycin plus vincristine (BV). Of the 94 BV patients, 24 (26%) failed to respond to BV requiring change to second-line paclitaxel. A Division of AIDS grade 3/4 adverse event occurred in 29% of patients (n/N=30/102). Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 event (n/N=17/102, 17%). Twelve months after chemotherapy initiation, 83% of patients (95% CI: 74–89%) were alive, including 88 (77%) retained in care. Overall survival (OS) at 12 months did not differ by initial chemotherapy regimen (p=0.6). Among patients with T1 disease, low body mass index (BMI) (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR=4.10, 95% CI: 1.06–15.89) and 1 g/dL decrease in baseline haemoglobin (aHR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.03–2.25) were associated with increased death or loss to follow-up at 12 months. Conclusions The NKSC model resulted in infrequent adverse events, low loss to follow-up and excellent OS. Our results suggest it is safe, effective and feasible to provide standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens from the developed world, integrated with ART, to treat HIV-KS in rural Malawi. Baseline BMI and haemoglobin may represent important patient characteristics associated with HIV-KS survival in rural sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26028156

  9. Current Understanding and Potential Immunotherapy for HIV-Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus (SCCA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Marin-Muller; Min Li; Changyi Chen; Qizhi Yao

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease in the average population but is an increasing concern among\\u000a immunocompromised individuals, such as the HIV-seropositive. Coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population\\u000a is common. HPV infection is difficult to clear with a compromised immune system, which results in a greater risk of tumor\\u000a development and a more

  10. Antibiotic resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, María B.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins—antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections—have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  11. Routing with Opportunistically Coded Exchanges in Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-print Network

    Nelakuditi, Srihari

    significant gain particularly when there are many long distance flows. I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATIONRouting with Opportunistically Coded Exchanges in Wireless Mesh Networks Bin Ni, Naveen Santhapuri network coding to wireless mesh networks leveraging the broadcast nature of wireless transmissions

  12. Efficient Social-aware Content Placement in Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    Efficient Social-aware Content Placement in Opportunistic Networks Panagiotis Pantazopoulos Ioannis Stavrakakis Department of Informatics and Telecommunications National & Kapodistrian University of Athens for Informatics and Telematics - CNR via G. Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy Email: {a.passarella, marco

  13. Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Hartmann; Scott Doorley; Scott R. Klemmer

    This paper is about opportunistic practices in interactive system design: about copying and pasting source code from public online forums into one's own scripts; about taking apart consumer electronics and reappropriating their com- ponents for design prototypes; about \\

  14. Adaptive Power Control for Single and Multiuser Opportunistic Systems

    E-print Network

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2010-07-14

    In this dissertation, adaptive power control for single and multiuser opportunistic systems is investigated. First, a new adaptive power-controlled diversity combining scheme for single user systems is proposed, upon which is extended...

  15. Optimal Channel Probing and Transmission Scheduling for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Chang, Nicholas B.

    In this study, we consider optimal opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) policies for a transmitter in a multichannel wireless system, where a channel can be in one of multiple states. In such systems, the transmitter typically ...

  16. Opportunistic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the age of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Huppmann, Alison R; Orenstein, Jan Marc

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1996 advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, the incidence of most opportunistic disorders in the developed world has dramatically declined but definitely has not disappeared. The number of new yearly HIV infections (about 55,000) and the total number of US infections (more than 1.1 million) remain very significant. Post-HAART gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and biopsy results are still common, especially in large inner-city hospitals. The same opportunistic GI disorders were diagnosed in 442 endoscopies performed since 1996 as before, but at about one half the rate. The esophagus had the highest rate of positive biopsy results (46%), especially due to Candida. Helicobacter pylori infection has become the most common gastric infection. The small bowel still showed cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidia, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. In decreasing order, the most common large bowel infections were CMV, cryptosporidiosis, MAC, and spirochetosis. Cases of adenovirus, bacterial colitis, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphoma were still diagnosed. Rectal biopsy specimens were the least productive. Microsporidiosis is now being diagnosed with special stains. Thus, where HIV/AIDS is common, it is important to be able to diagnose these GI processes. In addition to presenting post-HAART incidences, diagnostic features and aids are described for selected entities. PMID:21078437

  17. Adaptive Power Control for Single and Multiuser Opportunistic Systems 

    E-print Network

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2010-07-14

    ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR SINGLE AND MULTIUSER OPPORTUNISTIC SYSTEMS A Dissertation by SUNG SIK NAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY May 2009 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR SINGLE AND MULTIUSER OPPORTUNISTIC SYSTEMS A Dissertation by SUNG SIK NAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  18. An Interface for Opportunistic Discovery of Information for Young People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamshid Beheshti; Andrew Large

    \\u000a The exploratory study investigates a virtual reality interface for opportunistic discovery for young people. We recruited\\u000a ten volunteer students, who performed a pre-assigned information search task in a VR library which consists of about 1500\\u000a web sites depicted as books organized on the shelves. We calculated a metric for opportunistic discovery of information (ODI)\\u000a based on the distance of books

  19. Theranostic quantum dots for crossing blood–brain barrier in vitro and providing therapy of HIV-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixia; Mahajan, Supriya; Roy, Indrajit; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex physiological checkpoint that restricts the free diffusion of circulating molecules from the blood into the central nervous system. Delivering of drugs and other active agents across the BBB is one of the major technical challenges faced by scientists and medical practitioners. Therefore, development of novel methodologies to address this challenge holds the key for both the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases, such as HIV-associated encephalopathy. Bioconjugated quantum dots (QDs) are excellent fluorescent probes and nano-vectors, being designed to transverse across the BBB and visualize drug delivery inside the brain. This paper discusses the use of functionalized QDs for crossing the blood–brain barrier and treating brain disease. We highlight the guidelines for using in vitro BBB models for brain disease studies. The theranostic QDs offers a strategy to significantly improve the effective dosages of drugs to transverse across the BBB and orientate to the targets inside the brain. PMID:24298256

  20. Rapamycin-induced modulation of miRNA expression is associated with amelioration of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Plagov, Andrei; Lan, Xiqian; Mathieson, Peter W; Saleem, Moin A; Husain, Mohammad; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggested that miRNAs are involved in the development of the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Rapamycin, a widely used mTOR inhibitor, has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of HIVAN. However, the role of miRNA in the regulation of these processes has not been investigated so far. In the current study, we have used a microarray-based approach in combination with real-time PCR to profile the miRNA expression patterns in rapamycin-treated HIVAN mice (Tg26). Our results demonstrated that 19 miRNAs belonging to 13 different families expressed differentially in renal tissues of rapamycin-receiving Tg26 mice when compared to Tg26 mice-receiving saline only. The patterns of miRNAs expression in rapamycin-receiving Tg26 mice took a reverse turn. These miRNAs were classified into 8 functional categories. In in vitro studies, we examined the expression of specific miRNAs in HIV-1 transduced human podocytes (HIV/HPs). HIV/HPs displayed attenuation of expression of miR-99a, -100a, -199a and miR-200, whereas, rapamycin inhibited this effect of HIV. These findings suggest that rapamycin-mediated up-regulation of specific miRNAs could contribute to amelioration of renal lesions in HIVAN mice. PMID:23611955

  1. Down-regulation of NF-?B transcriptional activity in HIV-associated kidney disease by BRD4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangtao; Liu, Ruijie; Zhong, Yifei; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Zhang, Weijia; Zeng, Lei; Rusinova, Elena; Gerona-Nevarro, Guillermo; Moshkina, Natasha; Joshua, Jennifer; Chuang, Peter Y; Ohlmeyer, Michael; He, John Cijiang; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2012-08-17

    NF-?B-mediated inflammation is the major pathology in chronic kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) that ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. HIV infection in the kidney induces NF-?B activation, leading to the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. In this study, we explored selective inhibition of NF-?B transcriptional activity by small molecule blocking NF-?B binding to the transcriptional cofactor BRD4, which is required for the assembly of the productive transcriptional complex comprising positive transcription elongation factor b and RNA polymerase II. We showed that our BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain)-specific bromodomain inhibitor MS417, designed to block BRD4 binding to the acetylated NF-?B, effectively attenuates NF-?B transcriptional activation of proinflammatory genes in kidney cells treated with TNF? or infected by HIV. MS417 ameliorates inflammation and kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, an animal model for HIVAN. Our study suggests that BET bromodomain inhibition, targeting at the proinflammatory activity of NF-?B, represents a new therapeutic approach for treating NF-?B-mediated inflammation and kidney injury in HIVAN. PMID:22645123

  2. Planning deficits in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: component processes, cognitive correlates, and implications for everyday functioning.

    PubMed

    Cattie, Jordan E; Doyle, Katie; Weber, Erica; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    Executive dysfunction remains among the most prevalent cognitive domains impaired in persons with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, little is known specifically about the cognitive architecture or everyday functioning implications of planning, which is an aspect of executive functions involving the identification, organization, and completion of sequential behaviours toward the accomplishment of a goal. The current study examined these issues using the Tower of London(DX) in 53 individuals with HAND, 109 HIV-infected persons without HAND, and 82 seronegative participants. The HAND+ group performed significantly more poorly than HIV-infected individuals without HAND on number of correct moves, total moves, execution time, time violations, and rule violations. Within the HIV+ group as a whole, greater total move scores and rule violations were most strongly associated with executive dysfunction. Of clinical relevance, elevated total moves and rule violations were significant, independent predictors of self-reported declines in instrumental activities of daily living and unemployment status in HIV. These results suggest that planning accuracy, efficiency, and rule-bound control are impaired in HAND and may meaningfully affect more cognitively complex aspects of everyday living. PMID:22731608

  3. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

  4. Expression of monocyte markers in HIV1 infected individuals with or without HIV associated dementia and normal controls in Bangkok Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ratto-Kim; Thippawan Chuenchitra; Lynn Pulliam; Robert Paris; Suchitra Sukwit; Siriphan Gongwon; Pasiri Sithinamsuwan; Samart Nidhinandana; Sataporn Thitivichianlert; Bruce T. Shiramizu; Mark S. de Souza; Suwicha T. Chitpatima; Bing Sun; Hans Rempel; Sorachai Nitayaphan; Kenneth Williams; Jerome H. Kim; Cecilia M. Shikuma; Victor G. Valcour

    2008-01-01

    HIV Associated Dementia (HAD) is a complication of HIV infection in developed countries and is still poorly defined in resource-limited settings. In this study we investigated the expression of the monocyte phenotype CD14CD16HLADR and the inflammatory profiles in monocytes supernatants by surface-enhanced laser desorption\\/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry in a cohort of HAD and non-HAD Thai volunteers prior to

  5. A Cohort Pilot Study on HIV-Associated Neuropsychological Impairments in Hemophilia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Cutica, Ilaria; Krampe, Caspar; Reinecke, Laura F.; Russell-Edu, William; Santoro, Cristina; Rocino, Angiola; Santagostino, Elena; Rusconi, Vega; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the management of HIV infection with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, it is well known that HIV can directly infect the central nervous system and, as a result of such infection, neuropsychological impairments can be manifested. In this study, we tried to determine whether seropositivity was associated with a poor neuropsychological performance in patients with hemophilia and HIV. Such a cohort of patients is very often underrepresented and understudied in the HIV literature. To amend such a gap, we carried out an extensive neuropsychological evaluation on these patients, and compared their performance with that of a group of seronegative hemophilia patients. The results revealed that HIV infection in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) hemophilia patients was associated with deficits in attention, short-term memory, abstraction, and visual recognition. Such results are still preliminary and explorative due to the small cohort of patients enrolled. However, the results do seem to have some important implications for day-to-day functioning, as the level of impairment detected may cause difficulties in completing common everyday tasks such as maintaining adherence to complex medication regimens or maintaining social life activities. Continued research into the mechanisms related to HIV and neurocognitive dysfunction may provide targets for interventions that could have meaningful consequences in the real world for HIV hemophilia patients. PMID:26082706

  6. A Degenerative Retinal Process in HIV-Associated Non-Infectious Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, William R.; Sprague, L. James; Gomez, Maria Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; El-Emam, Sharif; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Bosten, Jenny; Ayyagari, Radha; Hardiman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    HIV retinopathy is the most common non-infectious complication in the eyes of HIV-positive individuals. Oncotic lesions in the retinal nerve fiber layer, referred to as cotton wool spots (CWS), and intraretinal (IR) hemorrhages are frequently observed but are not unique to this pathology. HIV-positive patients have impaired color vision and contrast sensitivity, which worsens with age. Evidence of inner–retinal lesions and damage have been documented ophthalmoscopically, however their long term structural effect has not been investigated. It has been hypothesized that they may be partially responsible for loss of visual function and visual field. In this study we utilized clinical data, retinal imaging and transcriptomics approaches to comprehensively interrogate non-infectious HIV retinopathy. The methods employed encompassed clinical examinations, fundus photography, indirect ophthalmoscopy, Farmsworth-Munsell 100 hue discrimination testing and Illumina BeadChip analyses. Here we show that changes in the outer retina, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to vision changes in non-infectious HIV retinopathy. We find that in HIV-positive retinae there is an induction of rhodopsin and other transcripts (including PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRX, NRL) involved in visual transduction, as well as structural components of the rod photoreceptors (ABCA4 and ROM1). This is consistent with an increased rate of renewal of rod outer segments induced via increased phagocytosis by HIV-infected RPE previously reported in culture. Cone-specific transcripts (OPN1SW, OPN1LW, PDE6C, PDE6H and GRK7) are uniformly downregulated in HIV positive retina, likely due to a partial loss of cone photoreceptors. Active cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages (IRH) may not affect photoreceptors directly and the interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients. PMID:24069333

  7. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-09-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  8. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  9. Persistence of HIV? Associated Cognitive Impairment, Inflammation and Neuronal Injury in era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Harezlak, J; Buchthal, S; Taylor, M; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, ES; Alger, J; Singer, E; Campbell, T; Yiannoutsos, C; Cohen, R; Navia, BA

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design This study is an observational cohort study. Methods MRS was performed in 268 patients: HIV-negative controls (N=28), HIV-positive neuroasymptomatic (NA) subjects (N=124), and subjects with AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC; N=50) on stable ART with a mean duration of infection of 12 years and CD4 of 309 cells/mm3. Four metabolites were measured over creatine (Cr): N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), marker of neuronal integrity; Choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), markers of inflammation, and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) in the basal ganglia (BG), frontal white matter (FWM) and mid-frontal Cortex (MFC). Analyses included ANOVA, ANCOVA, linear and nonparametric regression models. Results Cognitive impairment was found in 48% of HIV infected subjects. Both HIV positive groups showed significant increases in MI/Cr or Cho/Cr in all brain regions when compared to controls; a significant decrease in Glx/Cr in the FWM was observed in the NA group; only ADC subjects showed a significant reduction in NAA/ Cr although a significant trend for decreasing NAA/Cr in the BG was found across the groups. Effects related to aging and duration of infection but not central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) were observed. Conclusions Brain inflammatory changes remain ubiquitous among HIV-infected subjects whereas neuronal injury occurs predominantly in those with cognitive impairment. Together these findings indicate that despite the widespread use of HAART, HIV-associated cognitive impairment and brain injury persist in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:21297425

  10. Opportunistic MSPA Demonstration #1: Final Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. S.; Finley, S. G.; Heckman, D. P.; Lay, N. E.; Lush, C. M.; MacNeal, B. E.

    2015-02-01

    The Opportunistic Multiple Spacecraft Per Antenna (OMSPA) concept seeks to provide smallsat missions with a low-attributed-aperture-fee technique for obtaining routine downlink in a manner that is very low cost to the Deep Space Network (DSN). Unlike traditional MSPA in which the number of spacecraft that can be supported is limited by the number of available receivers, OMSPA makes use of a digital recorder at each station that is capable of capturing IF signals from every spacecraft in the antenna beam within the frequency bands of interest. When smallsat missions see one or more opportunities to intercept the traditionally scheduled antenna beam of a "host" spacecraft, they can transmit open loop during those opportunities. Via a secure Internet site, the smallsat mission operators can then retrieve relevant portions of the digital recording for subsequent demodulation and decoding or subscribe to a service that does it for them. The demonstration discussed in this article was intended to provide prospective smallsat users and the DSN, as the prospective service provider, with demonstrable proof that the OMSPA concept is, in fact, an operationally viable means for obtaining routine downlink telemetry. To do this, the demonstration began by treating Mars Odyssey as a "smallsat" and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) as the "host" spacecraft. Using a specially created Beam Intercept Planning System (BIPS) and a DSN 7-Day Schedule Cross-Comparison (7-DSC) tool, opportunities were identified when Mars Odyssey would be transmitting while in MRO's ground antenna beam. Existing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receivers (VSRs) were used to record the Mars Odyssey downlink telemetry during these opportunities. The recordings were played back to a secure server outside the Flight Operations Network firewall, but inside the JPL firewall. The demonstration team's signal processing personnel retrieved the recordings from this secure server and downloaded them to a workstation containing an OMSPA Software Demodulator (OSD) tool that was developed to demodulate and decode the Mars Odyssey signal. Validation of the recovered data was then accomplished by comparing the transfer frames obtained through OMSPA with those recovered via Mars Odyssey's formally scheduled downlink. The demonstration successfully achieved its intended purpose. All of the above steps were accomplished within an operationally viable timeframe, with at least 99.95 percent of the transfer frames being successfully recovered from each demonstration recording.

  11. HIV associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Siddiqui, R K; Siddiqui, A K; Zaidi, S A; Cervia, J

    2002-09-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a known complication of HIV infection. Endothelial cell injury appears to be the primary event causing platelet activation and deposition in the microvasculature. Direct cytopathic roles of HIV as well as other factors such as malignancy, drugs, and infectious agents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-TMA. Although the the majority of patients present in a more advanced stage of HIV disease, TMA can be the initial presenting symptom of HIV infection. Clinical features are those of idiopathic TMA, and the diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with new onset thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. Therapy with plasma exchange or infusion appears to be efficacious. A rapid diagnosis and institution of plasmapheresis is crucial for a favourable outcome. The long term prognosis of HIV-TMA is unfavourable and may depend on the stage of HIV infection. The recent data after the use of highly active retroviral treatment, however, are unavailable and current prognosis is therefore uncertain. PMID:12357011

  12. HIV-Associated lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Straus

    2001-01-01

    Intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) with a B-cell phenotype are AIDS-defining illnesses. The incidence\\u000a of systemic NHL is over 100 times increased, primary central nervous system NHL is over 3000 times increased, and Hodgkin’s\\u000a disease is approximately 10 times increased in the HIV-infected population. Unusual extranodal presentations of NHL and Hodgkin’s\\u000a disease are seen in HIV-infected individuals. High-grade histologies

  13. HIV-Associated Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel G. Madariaga; Susan Swindells

    This chapter reviews the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) including its impact in altering the natural course of human\\u000a immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease; an overview of current regimens in use; factors influencing the choice of initial therapy;\\u000a complications and adverse effects; and treatment failure, and resistance. The focus is on management of primary HIV-related\\u000a diseases of the nervous system. While

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) CD8+ T-Cells That Express Interferon-Gamma Contribute to HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Rachel D.; Hong, Suzi; Crescini, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Spina, Celsa; Letendre, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect cognition and everyday functioning despite anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Previous studies focused on mechanisms related to monocyte/macrophage mediated inflammation. However, in the ART era, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of CD8+ T-cells in CNS pathogenesis. Methods To investigate the relationship between T-cell responses and neurocognitive impairment (NCI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell intracellular cytokine (IFN?, IL-2, TNF?) and lytic marker (CD107a) expression were assessed in HIV infected subjects who underwent comprehensive neurocognitive (NC) evaluation and either initiated or changed ART. Results Data were collected from 31 participants at 70 visits. The frequency of cytokine expressing T-cells in CSF was significantly higher than in peripheral blood for CD4+T-cells: TNF?, IL-2, IFN? and CD8+T-cells: IL-2 and IFN?. Analysis of T-cell activity and NCI as a function of CSF HIV RNA levels suggested a general association between NCI, high CSF CD8+ (but not CD4+T-cell) cytokine expression and CSF HIV RNA <103 copies/ml (p<0.0001). Specifically, CSF CD8+ T-cell IFN? expression correlated with severity of NCI (r = 0.57, p = 0.004). Multivariable analyses indicated that CSF CD8+T-cell IFN? and myeloid activation (CD163) contributed equally and independently to cognitive status and a composite variable produced the strongest correlation with NCI (r = 0.83, p = 0.0001). In contrast, CD8+ cytolytic activity (CD107a expression) was negatively correlated with NCI (p = 0.05) but was dependent on CD4 levels >400/?l and low CSF HIV RNA levels (<103 copies/ml). In our longitudinal analysis of 16 subjects, higher CSF CD8+IFN? expression at baseline predicted NC decline at follow-up (p = 0.02). Severity of NCI at follow-up correlated with level of residual HIV RNA in CSF. Conclusions Presence of IFN? expressing CD8+ T-cells, absence of cytolytic CD8+ T-cells, high myeloid activation, and failure of ART to suppress HIV replication in CSF contribute to increased risk of HAND. PMID:25719800

  15. Opportunistic High Energy Physics Computing in User Space with Parrot Dillon Skeehan, Paul Brenner

    E-print Network

    Thain, Douglas

    Opportunistic High Energy Physics Computing in User Space with Parrot Dillon Skeehan, Paul Brenner; opportunistic computing; job eviction; HTCondor; CVMFS; Parrot; XROOTD; user space; remote I/O; high energy

  16. Outage Probability Analysis of ARQ-Based DF Opportunistic Relaying with Outdated CSI

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jae Hong

    , opportunistic relaying, outdated CSI. I. INTRODUCTION Cooperative diversity is an effective technique to improve for environment with fast channel variation [6], the effect of outdated CSI on ARQ-based opportunistic relayingOutage Probability Analysis of ARQ-Based DF Opportunistic Relaying with Outdated CSI Jinhyun Park

  17. Implant infections: a haven for opportunistic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Schierholz; J. Beuth

    2001-01-01

    The insertion of implants and medical devices has emerged as a common and often life-saving procedure. A current estimate of the rate of total hip replacement in the world is approximately one million a year, and knee replacements more than 250000. More than 30% of hospitalized patients have one or more vascular catheters in place. More than 10% of hospitalized

  18. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina S. Druzhinina; Verena Seidl-Seiboth; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella; Benjamin A. Horwitz; Charles M. Kenerley; Enrique Monte; Prasun K. Mukherjee; Susanne Zeilinger; Igor V. Grigoriev; Christian P. Kubicek

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology

  19. The Vicinity Package for Opportunistic Networks Tiphaine Phe-Neau

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . For instance, topological distance between spatial nodes is often of thousands of kilometers inducing long´es tiphaine.phe-neau@lip6.fr Abstract--Opportunistic networks have grown into a major trend in the wireless investigated the use of vicinity knowledge into pairwise shortest distance prediction and found out a very

  20. Opportunistic Communications for Networked Controlled Systems of Autonomous Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    Opportunistic Communications for Networked Controlled Systems of Autonomous Vehicles Hua Chen of communication connectivity in networks of autonomous vehicles. It is difficult to overcome deep fading from time of autonomous vehicles with energy con- sumption and total operation time constraints in an adversarial

  1. Cooperative Opportunistic Large Array Approach for Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-print Network

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    1 Cooperative Opportunistic Large Array Approach for Cognitive Radio Networks Vandana Rohokale E-mail: cornean@math.aau.dk Abstract-- Cognitive Radio (CR) seems to be a promising solution increase their effective QoS via cooperation. For cognitive radio networks, sharing of primary user

  2. ANTENNA SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN MIMO BROADCAST CHANNELS

    E-print Network

    Sadjadpour, Hamid

    of partial finite-rate feed- back on the capacity of MIMO broadcast channels in net- works with limitedANTENNA SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN MIMO BROADCAST CHANNELS Lemonia ac- cess (TDMA) to increase the capacity of wireless cellular net- works. The main idea behind

  3. Opportunistic ALOHA and cross layer design for sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvathinathan Venkitasubramaniam; Srihari Adireddy; Lang Tong

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel distributed medium access control scheme called opportunistic ALOHA for reachback in sensor networks with mobile agents. Each sensor transmits its information with a probability that is a function of its channel state (propagation channel gain). This function called transmission control is then designed under the assumption that orthogonal CDMA is employed to transmit information. The gains

  4. Opportunistic Data Dissemination in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Wolfson, Ouri E.

    are in close geographic proximity, then one can call the other's cell phone and suggest a short face mobile sensors to propagate the information to human rescuers. Sensors can also be installed on wildOpportunistic Data Dissemination in Mobile Peer-to- Peer Networks A. Prasad Sistla1, Ouri Wolfson1

  5. The effect of imperfect feedback on broadcast opportunistic beamforming schemes

    E-print Network

    Spagnolini, Umberto

    The effect of imperfect feedback on broadcast opportunistic beamforming schemes R. Bosisio(1) , J- mation (CSI) at the transmitter. The main idea is to gen- erate a random precoding at the BS CSI). The OB scheme can be enhanced by capitalizing on the knowledge at the BS of the channels spatial

  6. Autonomy and Intelligence - Opportunistic Service Delivery in Mobile Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangyan Chen; Michael J. O'grady; Gregory M. P. O'hare

    2006-01-01

    Significant opportunities exist for mobile network operators to enhance and refine those services they offer their subscribers. Developments in mobile devices have rendered it feasible to deploy solutions that incorporate an intelligent agent component. The use of agents is particularly apt in those situations that facilitate what may be termed opportunistic services provision. Such services are suited to certain domains

  7. Opportunistic Sensing for Smart Heating Control in Private Households

    E-print Network

    in the home, our solution may significantly lower the adoption barrier of smart heating solutions. 1-grained data from smart electricity meters, which are increasingly finding their way into private homes [1Opportunistic Sensing for Smart Heating Control in Private Households Wilhelm Kleiminger, Silvia

  8. Mobile Data Offloading through Opportunistic Communications and Social Participation

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    , University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Abstract 3G networks are currently overloaded, due, is that 3G cellular networks are currently overloaded. According to AT&T's media newsroom, its network not always be able to connect to the Internet through them, Pitk¨anen et al. [40] explore opportunistic web

  9. What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness-supported cooperative work General Terms Algorithms, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords Community awareness

  10. What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    community awareness in such situations. In particular, a large body of research in Computer SupportedWhat's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness

  11. Arcanobacterium pyogenes : molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Helen Jost; Stephen J. Billington

    2005-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen of economically important livestock, causing diseases as diverse as mastitis, liver abscessation and pneumonia. This organism possesses a number of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential. A. pyogenes expresses a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which is a haemolysin and is cytolytic for immune cells, including macrophages. Expression of pyolysin is

  12. Folk-IS: Opportunistic Data Services in Least Developed Countries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . of Zaragoza, Spain silarri@unizar.es ABSTRACT According to a wide range of studies, IT should become a key as opportunistic networking, without the need of any form of infrastructure. We review the technical challenges in the cloud where service providers deliver a myriad of digital services in the context of healthcare

  13. A Game Theoretic Approach for Stable Network Topologies in Opportunistic

    E-print Network

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    , Michael Köster, Matei Popovici Abstract Opportunistic networks (ON) are particular types of delay-tolerant, novel communication methods and new types of network architectures, such as delay-tolerant [4] and oppor network is a particular type of delay-tolerant network in which par- ticipants are mobile and able

  14. Analysis of Core-Assisted Routing in Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Abdulla; Robert Simon

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic Networks (ONs) are a newly emerg- ing type of Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) systems that oppor- tunistically exploit unplanned contacts among nodes to share information. As with all DTN environments ONs experience frequent and large delays, and an end-to-end path from the source to destination may only exist for a brief and unpredictable period of time. Such network conditions

  15. Optimality of Myopic Sensing in Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    E-print Network

    Liu, Mingyan

    environment, cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-jamming. Opportunistic access, cognitive radio, POMDP, restless multi-armed bandit process, myopic policy. I to developing bounds on the performance of resource-constrained Jamming. A jammer that has access to only one

  16. Optimality of Myopic Sensing in Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    environment, cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-jamming. Index Terms--Opportunistic access, cognitive radio, POMDP, restless multi-armed bandit process, myopic to developing bounds on the performance of resource-constrained Jamming. A jammer that has access to only one

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Opportunistic Routing in Low Traffic Scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul C. Shah; Sven Wiethölter; Adam Wolisz; Jan M. Rabaey

    2005-01-01

    Opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed as efficient methods to exploit the high node densities in sen- sor networks to mitigate the effect of varying channel con- ditions and non-availability of nodes that power down pe- riodically. They work by integrating the network and data link layers so that they can take a joint decision as to the next hop

  18. Autonomic detection of dynamic social communities in Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonora Borgia; Marco Conti; Andrea Passarella

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we focus on approaches which aim at discovering communities of people in Opportunistic Networks. We first study the behaviour of three community detection distributed algorithms proposed in literature (1), in a scenario where people move according to a mobility model which well reproduces the nature of human contacts, namely HCMM (2). By a simulation analysis, we show

  19. Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS Methods Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. Results At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Conclusions Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. PMID:23068916

  20. Experience and challenges presented by a multicenter crossover study of combination analgesic therapy for the treatment of painful HIV-associated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Taylor; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lee, Anthony; Evans, Scott; Bastow, Barbara; Simpson, David; Gilron, Ian; Dworkin, Robert; Daar, Eric S.; Wieclaw, Linda; Clifford, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared to placebo. Design This study was a phase II, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover multi-center study of analgesic therapy for patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain due to HIV-associated polyneuropathy. Duloxetine, methadone, combination duloxetine-methadone, and placebo were administered in four different possible sequences. The primary outcome measure was mean pain intensity (MPI) measured daily in a study-supplied pain diary. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled from 8 study sites and 8 patients completed the entire trial. Study treatments failed to show statistically significant change in MPI compared to placebo. Adverse events were frequent and associated with high rates of drug discontinuation and study drop-out. Conclusions Challenges with participant recruitment and poor retention precluded trial completion to its planned targets, limiting our evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of the study treatments. Challenges to successful completion of this study and lessons learned are discussed. PMID:23565581

  1. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  2. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  3. Halo: Managing Node Rendezvous in Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenman, Shane B.; Lu, Hong; Campbell, Andrew T.

    One vision of an opportunistic sensor network (OSN) uses sensor access points (SAPs) to assign mobile sensors with sensing tasks submitted by applications that could be running anywhere. Tasked mobile sensors might upload sensed data back to these applications via subsequent encounters with this SAP tier. In a people-centric OSN, node mobility is uncontrolled and the architecture relies on opportunistic rendezvous between human-carried sensors and SAPs to provide tasking/uploading opportunities. However, in many reasonable scenarios application queries have a degree of time sensitivity such that the sensing target must be sampled and/or the resulting sensed data must be uploaded within a certain time window to be of greatest value. Halo efficiently, in terms of packet overhead and mobile sensor energy, provides improved delay performance in OSNs by: (i) managing tasking/uploading opportunity, and (ii) using mobility-informed scheduling at the SAP.

  4. Optimality of Myopic Sensing in Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sahand H A; Javidi, Tara; Zhao, Qing; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    We consider opportunistic communications over multiple channels where the state ("good" or "bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user, with limited sensing and access capability, chooses one channel to sense and subsequently access (based on the sensed channel state) in each time slot. A reward is obtained when the user senses and accesses a "good" channel. The objective is to design the optimal channel selection policy that maximizes the expected reward accrued over time. This problem can be generally cast as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) or a restless multi-armed bandit process, to which optimal solutions are often intractable. We show in this paper that the myopic policy, with a simple and robust structure, achieves optimality under certain conditions. This result finds applications in opportunistic communications in fading environment, cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-ja...

  5. Risk Assessment of Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Rusin; Joan B. Rose; Charles N. Haas; Charles P. Gerba

    \\u000a This study was undertaken to examine quantitatively the risks to human health posed by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria\\u000a found naturally in ambient and potable waters. There is no clear-cut evidence that the HPC bacteria as a whole pose a public\\u000a health risk. Only certain members are opportunistic pathogens. Using the four-tiered approach for risk assessment from the\\u000a National Academy

  6. Opportunistic routing in multi-hop wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjit Biswas; Robert Morris

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Extremely Opportunistic Routing (ExOR), a new unicast routing technique for multi-hop wireless networks. ExOR forwards each packet through a sequence of nodes, deferring the choice of each node in the sequence until after the previous node has transmitted the packet on its radio. ExOR then determines which node, of all the nodes that successfully received that transmission,

  7. Reliable management of checkpointing and application data in opportunistic grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael Y. de Camargo; Fernando Castor Filho; Fabio Kon

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic computational grids use idle processor cycles from shared machines to enable the execution of long-running parallel\\u000a applications. Besides computational power, these applications may also consume and generate large amounts of data, requiring\\u000a an efficient data storage and management infrastructure. In this article, we present an integrated middleware infrastructure\\u000a that enables the use of not only idle processor cycles, but

  8. Expression of monocyte markers in HIV-1 infected individuals with or without HIV associated dementia and normal controls in Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Pulliam, Lynn; Paris, Robert; Sukwit, Suchitra; Gongwon, Siriphan; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Thitivichianlert, Sataporn; Shiramizu, Bruce T; de Souza, Mark S; Chitpatima, Suwicha T; Sun, Bing; Rempel, Hans; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Williams, Kenneth; Kim, Jerome H; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Valcour, Victor G

    2008-03-01

    HIV Associated Dementia (HAD) is a complication of HIV infection in developed countries and is still poorly defined in resource-limited settings. In this study we investigated the expression of the monocyte phenotype CD14CD16HLADR and the inflammatory profiles in monocytes supernatants by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry in a cohort of HAD and non-HAD Thai volunteers prior to the initiation of ARV. The CD14CD16HLADR phenotype was significantly increased in monocytes from HAD and non-HAD versus negative controls, but there was no difference in phenotype and in the secretion protein profiles between the two seropositive groups. In addition, monocytes supernatants from HAD and non-HAD did not induced apoptosis or cell death in brain aggregate culture. In conclusion it appears that HAD in Thai individuals has a different immunological profile then in North America cohorts. PMID:18191233

  9. Expression of monocyte markers in HIV-1 infected individuals with or without HIV associated dementia and normal controls in Bangkok Thailand?

    PubMed Central

    Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Pulliam, Lynn; Paris, Robert; Sukwit, Suchitra; Gongwon, Siriphan; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Thitivichianlert, Sataporn; Shiramizu, Bruce T.; de Souza, Mark S.; Chitpatima, Suwicha T.; Sun, Bing; Rempel, Hans; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Williams, Kenneth; Kim, Jerome H.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Valcour, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    HIV Associated Dementia (HAD) is a complication of HIV infection in developed countries and is still poorly defined in resource-limited settings. In this study we investigated the expression of the monocyte phenotype CD14CD16HLADR and the inflammatory profiles in monocytes supernatants by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry in a cohort of HAD and non-HAD Thai volunteers prior to the initiation of ARV. The CD14CD16HLADR phenotype was significantly increased in monocytes from HAD and non-HAD versus negative controls, but there was no difference in phenotype and in the secretion protein profiles between the two seropositive groups. In addition, monocytes supernatants from HAD and non-HAD did not induced apoptosis or cell death in brain aggregate culture. In conclusion it appears that HAD in Thai individuals has a different immunological profile then in North America cohorts. PMID:18191233

  10. Identification of putative biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the CSF of HIV-infected patients under cART therapy determined by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bora, Adriana; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chang, Linda; Moxley, Richard; Sacktor, Ned; Haughey, Norman; McArthur, Justin C; Cotter, Robert; Nath, Avindra; Graham, David R

    2014-10-01

    We identified and measured proteins in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) involved in HIV-associated neurological disorders. Protein levels were determined by mass spectrometry (MS) in pooled CSF taken from three patient groups (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients that developed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), HIV-1-infected patients without HAND, and healthy controls). Pools were generated from 10 patients each per group. CSF from individual patient groups were digested with trypsin and separately labeled using with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). After combining all samples in one, peptides were extensively fractionated by offline two-dimensional separation and identified by tandem MS. One hundred and ninety three proteins were deemed to be interpretable for quantitation based on permutation tests with a 95 % confidence interval with a p value???0.05. Using a cutoff of 1.5-fold for upregulation and 0.6 for downregulation, 16 proteins were differentially expressed in HIV?+?HAND (reporter p value ?0.05) with seven of them previously described as HIV-interacting proteins: endoplasmin, mitochondrial damage mediator-BH3-interacting domanin death agonist, orosomucoid, apolipoprotein E, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, peroxiredoxin-2, and the nuclear protein, ruvB-like 2. Several previously unidentified proteins with possible neurological implication in HIV patients include forming-binding protein 1, C-reactive protein, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin receptor 1, renin receptor, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 14, multimerin-2, alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, caldesmon, and cadherin EGF LAG G-type receptor. Our results suggest that not only a few but possibly a combination of biomarkers that are highly correlated can predict neurocognitive status in HIV-infected patients and might be involved in monocyte or macrophage activation. PMID:25056907

  11. Identification of putative biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the CSF of HIV-infected patients under cART therapy determined by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Adriana; Mohien, Ceereena Ubaida; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chang, Linda; Moxley, Richard; Sacktor, Ned; Haughey, Norman; McArthur, Justin C.; Cotter, Robert; Nath, Avindra; Graham, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We identified and measured proteins in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) involved in HIV-associated neurological disorders. Protein levels were determined by mass spectrometry (MS) in pooled CSF taken from three patient groups (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients that developed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), HIV-1-infected patients without HAND, and healthy controls). Pools were generated from 10 patients each per group. CSF from individual patient groups were digested with trypsin and separately labeled using with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). After combining all samples in one, peptides were extensively fractionated by offline two-dimensional separation and identified by tandem MS. One hundred and ninety three proteins were deemed to be interpretable for quantitation based on permutation tests with a 95 % confidence interval with a p value?0.05. Using a cutoff of 1.5-fold for upregulation and 0.6 for downregulation, 16 proteins were differentially expressed in HIV+HAND (reporter p value ?0.05) with seven of them previously described as HIV-interacting proteins: endoplasmin, mitochondrial damage mediator-BH3-interacting domanin death agonist, orosomucoid, apolipoprotein E, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, peroxiredoxin-2, and the nuclear protein, ruvB-like 2. Several previously unidentified proteins with possible neurological implication in HIV patients include forming-binding protein 1, C-reactive protein, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin receptor 1, renin receptor, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 14, multimerin-2, alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, caldesmon, and cadherin EGF LAG G-type receptor. Our results suggest that not only a few but possibly a combination of biomarkers that are highly correlated can predict neurocognitive status in HIV-infected patients and might be involved in monocyte or macrophage activation. PMID:25056907

  12. “My body’s a 50 year-old but my brain is definitely an 85 year-old”: exploring the experiences of men ageing with HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hopcroft, Lisa; Bester, Laura; Clement, Daniel; Quigley, Adria; Sachdeva, Manisha; Rourke, Sean B; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating HIV, neurocognition and ageing is well developed using neuropsychometric or other quantitative approaches; however, little is known about individuals’ subjective experiences. The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of men aged 50 and older who self-identify as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. In particular, this study uses the Episodic Disability Framework (EDF) to explore participants’ perceptions regarding: 1) symptoms/impairments, difficulties with day-to-day activities, challenges with social inclusion and uncertainty; 2) ageing as related to their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges, and 3) the episodic nature of their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 men aged 50 years and older who self-identified as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Participants were recruited from a neurobehavioural research unit (NBRU) at a large hospital in Toronto, Canada. Data were analyzed thematically and with reference to the EDF. Results Participants’ experiences reflected all concepts within the EDF to some extent. Difficulties with daily activities were diverse but were addressed using similar living strategies. Participants described challenges with work and social relationships resulting from neurocognitive challenges. Participants downplayed the significance of uncertainty in their lives, which they attributed to effective living strategies. Most men reported confusion regarding the link between their neurocognitive challenges and ageing. Others discussed ageing as an asset that helped with coping. Conclusions This is the first study to use a disability framework to examine the subjective experiences of men ageing with HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Findings reframe the episodic disability experienced by these individuals as being predictably linked to certain triggers. As such, support for managing neurocognitive challenges could focus on triggers that exacerbate the condition in addition to the impairments themselves. The study also describes ageing as not only a source of problems but also as an asset among men growing older with HIV. PMID:23883539

  13. The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Louis M.; Cushion, Melanie T.; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P.; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    2013-01-01

    The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms. PMID:23560871

  14. Antibacterial activity of cerium colloids against opportunistic microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Babenko, L P; Zholobak, N M; Shcherbakov, A B; Voychuk, S I; Lazarenko, L M; Spivak, M Ya

    2012-01-01

    The CeO2 sol with the size of nanoparticles 2-4 nm has been synthesized. It has been determined that the synthesized nanocrystalline cerium has antibacterial activity in vitro against different groups of opportunistic microorganisms: clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The rate of viability depression of test-cultures depends on the concentration of cerium dioxide nanoparticles and time of incubation. It is shown that the sol interacts with the bacterial cell surface. It is suggested that the observed differences of antibacterial action of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide can be related to the structural characteristics of the cell surface. PMID:22830198

  15. Power Allocation for Amplify-and-Forward Opportunistic Relaying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Hui; Zhu, Shihua; Lv, Gangming

    In this letter, power allocation methods are devised for Amplify-and-Forward (AF) opportunistic relaying systems aiming at minimizing the outage probability. First, we extend the result on outage probability in [8] and develop an approximate expression to simplify the power allocation problem. A corresponding optimization problem is constructed and proved to be convex. Then an iterative numerical method is proposed to find the optimal power allocation factor. We also propose a near-optimal method which can directly calculate the power allocation factor to reduce computational complexity. Numerical results show that the proposed methods have a similar performance with the ideal one, and outperform equal power allocation significantly with little overhead.

  16. Barriers to opportunistic chlamydia testing in primary care

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Freeman, Elaine; Bowen, Jo; Shefras, Julia; Fenton, Kevin A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Opportunistic testing and screening for genital chlamydia infection in sexually active women under the age of 25 years can lead to a reduction in chlamydia infection and its related morbidity. Aims: To explore the barriers to testing for genital chlamydial infection in primary care. Design of study: Qualitative study with focus groups. Setting: Rural and urban general practice in Southwest England. Methods: Focus groups were held with randomly selected high- and low-testing general practices in Herefordshire, Gloucestershire and Avon. The high- and low-testing practices did not differ in their age/sex make-up, or by deprivation indices. Open questions were asked about the management of genitourinary symptoms and opportunistic testing for chlamydia. Data were collected and analysed concurrently until saturation occurred. Results: Although staff from high test rate practices were much more aware of the evidence for opportunistic chlamydia testing and screening, none of the practices were happy to discuss chlamydia in a consultation unrelated to sexual health. The greatest barriers to opportunistic chlamydia testing and screening were lack of knowledge of the benefits of testing, when and how to take specimens, lack of time, worries about discussing sexual health, and lack of guidance. Healthcare staff stated that any increased testing should be accompanied by clear, concise primary care trust guidance on when and how to test, including how to obtain informed consent and perform contact tracing. Staff felt that testing could be undertaken at family planning clinics or with cervical smears if patients received information before the consultation. Alternatively, in larger practices specific chlamydia clinics could be held. Conclusion: The Department of Health needs to be aware of the extreme pressures that primary care staff are under, and the potential barriers to any screening implementation. Efforts to increase chlamydia screening in this setting should be accompanied by clear guidance and education. Any chlamydia clinics or increased testing must have appropriate financial and staff resources. Genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, or level three practices with GUM expertise, will need to be increased in parallel with testing in primary care to provide appropriate contact tracing and follow-up. PMID:15239912

  17. On-demand Video Streaming in Mobile Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayoung Yoon; Jongwon Kim; Feiselia Tan; Robert Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Providing on-demand video streaming services to large numbers,of nodes,in mobile,wireless networks,is a challenging task. We propose MOVi (Mobile Opportunistic Video-on-demand), a mobile peer-to-peer video-on-demand application based on ubiquitous WiFi enabled devices such as smartphones,and Ultra Mobile PCs. MOVi poses new challenges in on-demand video streaming caused by limited wireless communication range, user mobility and variable user population density. MOVi

  18. Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

  19. HIV Protease Inhibitors: Effect on the Opportunistic Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Yenisey; Monzote, Lianet

    2011-01-01

    The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the natural history of AIDS disease has been allowed to prolong the survival of people with HIV infection, particularly whose with increased HIV viral load. Additionally, the antiretroviral therapy could exert a certain degree of protection against parasitic diseases. A number of studies have been evidenced a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic parasitic infections in the era of HAART. Although these changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity, induced by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or HIV protease inhibitors, in combination with at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors included in HAART, there are evidence that the control of these parasitic infections in HIV-positive persons under HAART, is also induced by the inhibition of the proteases of the parasites. This review focuses on the principal available data related with therapeutic HIV-protease inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo effects on the opportunistic protozoan parasites. PMID:21629510

  20. Human platelet gel supernatant inactivates opportunistic wound pathogens on skin.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Donate, Amy L; Hargrave, Barbara Y; Heller, Loree C

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human platelets produces a gel-like substance referred to as platelet rich plasma or platelet gel. Platelet gel is used clinically to promote wound healing; it also exhibits antimicrobial properties that may aid in the healing of infected wounds. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of human platelet gel against the opportunistic bacterial wound pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus on skin. These opportunistic pathogens may exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance, necessitating the development of alternative treatment options. The antimicrobial efficacy of platelet gel supernatants was quantified using an in vitro broth dilution assay, an ex vivo inoculated skin assay, and in an in vivo skin decontamination assay. Human platelet gel supernatants were highly bactericidal against A. baumannii and moderately but significantly bactericidal against S. aureus in vitro and in the ex vivo skin model. P. aeruginosa was not inactivated in vitro; a low but significant inactivation level was observed ex vivo. These supernatants were quite effective at inactivating a model organism on skin in vivo. These results suggest application of platelet gel has potential clinical applicability, not only in the acceleration of wound healing, but also against relevant bacteria causing wound infections. PMID:24433255

  1. Clinical efficacy of first- and second-line treatments for HIV-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a tri-centre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara; Miller, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives First-line therapy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Few data exist to guide the choice of second-line therapy for patients failing or developing toxicity to first-line therapy. Methods A case note review of 1122 patients with 1188 episodes of HIV-associated PCP from three observational cohorts in Copenhagen, London and Milan, between 1989 and 2004, was conducted. Results Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (962 PCP episodes, 81%) was the most frequently used first-line therapy, followed by intravenous pentamidine (87 episodes, 7%), clindamycin/primaquine (72 episodes, 6%) and ‘other’ (atovaquone, dapsone/pyrimethamine, trimetrexate or inhaled pentamidine; 67 episodes, 6%). Rates of unchanged therapy were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole?=?79%, clindamycin/primaquine?=?65% and pentamidine?=?60% (P?HIV-associated PCP, and was associated with more treatment changes. Clindamycin/primaquine appeared superior to pentamidine as second-line therapy for PCP in patients failing or developing toxicity with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. In patients failing first-line treatment with non-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole regimens, second-line therapy should be trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PMID:19858161

  2. On cognitive radio networks with opportunistic power control strategies in fading channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Chen; Guanding Yu; Zhaoyang Zhang; Hsiao-hwa Chen; Peiliang Qiu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio system in fading wireless channels and propose an opportunistic power control strategy for the cognitive users, which serves as an alternative way to protect the primary user's transmission and to realize spectrum sharing between the primary user and the cognitive users. The key feature of the proposed strategy is that, via opportunistically

  3. COUPON: A Cooperative Framework for Building Sensing Maps in Mobile Opportunistic

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    opportunistic networks are not sufficient for sensing applications as spatial-temporal correlation among sensory1 COUPON: A Cooperative Framework for Building Sensing Maps in Mobile Opportunistic Networks Dong for building various sensing maps. Most of existing mobile sensing applications consider users reporting

  4. Effect of Outdated CSI on the Performance of Opportunistic Relaying with ARQ

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jae Hong

    Effect of Outdated CSI on the Performance of Opportunistic Relaying with ARQ Jinhyun Park and Jae analysis by comparison with computer simulation and show the effect of outdated CSI on its outage relaying in high mobility environment to improve reliability [8], effect of outdated CSI on opportunistic

  5. Does Opportunistic Fraud in Automobile theft Insurance Fluctuate with the Business Cycle ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Dionne; Kili C. Wang

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the empirical relationship between opportunistic fraud and business cycle. We find that residual opportunistic fraud exists both in the contract with replacement cost endorsement and the contract with no-deductible endorsement in the Taiwan automobile theft insurance market. These results are consistent with previous literature on the relationship between fraud activity and insurance contracting. We also show that the

  6. Spectrum-Sensing Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Outage and Diversity Performance

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Spectrum-Sensing Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Outage and Diversity Performance Kyounghwan a spectrum-sensing opportunistic wire- less relay network which is defined by a source node, a destination spectrum nomi- nally assigned to a primary node. We aim to understand the per- formance of this system

  7. Link Throughput of Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access with Limited Sensing

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    in cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, opportunistic transmissions in fading environments, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-jamming. The objective of this paper is to characterize the optimal to infinity. Index Terms--Opportunistic access, cognitive radio, spectrum overlay, dynamic channel selection

  8. Objective evidence for the use of polylactic acid implants in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy using three-dimensional surface laser scanning and psychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Ong, J; Clarke, A; White, P; Johnson, M A; Withey, S; Butler, P E M

    2009-12-01

    The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although patients often have excellent disease control with these combinations of antiretrovirals, they are at risk for the multiple toxicities associated with these drugs. Facial lipoatrophy is a particularly distressing complication of some HAART regimes. This disfigurement can lead to significant psychosocial stress, resulting in decreased treatment compliance. Polylactic acid (PLA) facial implants provide a potential method of restoring a normal appearance. One hundred consecutive patients had a course of PLA facial implants. All patients were assessed clinically and had photographs, facial surface laser scans and completed psychological questionnaires throughout the course of treatment. After a mean of 4.85 treatments per patient, there were improvements in all measures. The mean clinical scores improved from a moderate-severe grade to none-mild grade after treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) laser surface scans showed a volume increase of 2.81 cc over the treated area of the cheek. There were significant improvements in all of the psychological measures. This study shows clear objective evidence of the psychological and physical benefit of PLA implants in HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy. PMID:19036657

  9. Task Importance Affects Event-based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Method All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: 1) without PM task requirements; 2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and 3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. Results In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Conclusions Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. PMID:24834469

  10. Trends in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus antibodies prior to the development of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Katie; Johnston, W Thomas; Nalwoga, Angela; Webb, Emily L; Mayanja, Billy N; Miley, Wendell; Elliott, Alison M; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-06-15

    HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa since both the causative agent, Kaposi's sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV), and the major risk factor, HIV, are prevalent. In a nested case-control study within a long-standing clinical cohort in rural Uganda, we used stored sera to examine the evolution of antibody titres against the KSHV antigens K8.1 and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) among 30 HIV-infected subjects who subsequently developed HIV-related KS (cases) and among 108 matched HIV/KSHV coinfected controls who did not develop KS. Throughout the 6 years prior to diagnosis, antibody titres to K8.1 and LANA were significantly higher among cases than controls (p?

  11. Tonic Activation of Brain GnRH Immunoreactivity despite Reduction of Peripheral Reproductive Parameters in Opportunistically Breeding Zebra Finches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Perfito; George Bentley; Michaela Hau

    2006-01-01

    Opportunistically breeding species offer the unique opportunity to understand mechanisms in reproductive physiology that allow for extreme flexibility in the regulation of reproduction. We studied a well-known opportunistic breeder, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to test the hypothesis that the reproductive axis of opportunists is in a constant state of ‘near-readiness’. In wild zebra finches, reproduction is highly correlated with

  12. Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

  13. First evidence of overlaps between HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases: proteomic analysis of the frontal cortex from HIV+ patients with and without dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhou; Eve Diefenbach; Ben Crossett; Sieu L Tran; Thomas Ng; Helen Rizos; Rejane Rua; Bin Wang; Amit Kapur; Kaushal Gandhi; Bruce J Brew; Nitin K Saksena

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is poorly understood. To date, detailed proteomic fingerprinting directly from autopsied brain tissues of HAD and HIV non-dementia patients has not been performed. RESULT: Here, we have analyzed total proteins from the frontal cortex of 9 HAD and 5 HIV non-dementia patients. Using 2-Dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) to analyze the brain tissue

  14. Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

  15. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease. PMID:23747028

  16. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  17. Social Opportunistic Computing: Design for Autonomic User-Centric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras, Iacopo; Tacconi, David; Bassoli, Arianna

    The proliferation of mobile devices equipped with short-range wireless connectivity allows users to produce, access and share digital resources in a wide number of everyday occasions. In this chapter, we consider a content distribution application scenario, aimed at the diffusion of data in autonomic computing environments, and investigate the way the social attitudes of mobile users impact the design of an autonomic opportunistic communication system. We analyze the results of a simulation which combines both a real-world pattern of proximity-based encounters, as measured in an office environment, with a series of userdefined preferences regarding content. Results show how the system design space varies according to these social parameters, and the importance of designing systems which are build taking into account the user and its social habits and preferences.

  18. Coordinated Multicasting With Opportunistic User Selection in Multicell Wireless Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.-W. Peter; Li, Wei-Chiang; Chang, Tsung-Hui; Lee, Chia-Han

    2015-07-01

    Physical layer multicasting with opportunistic user selection (OUS) is examined for multicell multi-antenna wireless systems. By adopting a two-layer encoding scheme, a rate-adaptive channel code is applied in each fading block to enable successful decoding by a chosen subset of users (which varies over different blocks) and an application layer erasure code is employed across multiple blocks to ensure that every user is able to recover the message after decoding successfully in a sufficient number of blocks. The transmit signal and code-rate in each block determine opportunistically the subset of users that are able to successfully decode and can be chosen to maximize the long-term multicast efficiency. The employment of OUS not only helps avoid rate-limitations caused by the user with the worst channel, but also helps coordinate interference among different cells and multicast groups. In this work, efficient algorithms are proposed for the design of the transmit covariance matrices, the physical layer code-rates, and the target user subsets in each block. In the single group scenario, the system parameters are determined by maximizing the group-rate, defined as the physical layer code-rate times the fraction of users that can successfully decode in each block. In the multi-group scenario, the system parameters are determined by considering a group-rate balancing optimization problem, which is solved by a successive convex approximation (SCA) approach. To further reduce the feedback overhead, we also consider the case where only part of the users feed back their channel vectors in each block and propose a design based on the balancing of the expected group-rates. In addition to SCA, a sample average approximation technique is also introduced to handle the probabilistic terms arising in this problem. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes is demonstrated by computer simulations.

  19. [Prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy in Brazilian outpatients: relation with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Diehl, Leandro A; Dias, Janaína R; Paes, Aline C S; Thomazini, Maria C; Garcia, Lorena R; Cinagawa, Eduardo; Wiechmann, Susana L; Carrilho, Alexandre J F

    2008-06-01

    Lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients (LDHIV) affects 40-50% of HIV-infected patients, but there are no data on its prevalence in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the LDHIV prevalence among HIV-infected adult Brazilian individuals, as well as to evaluate LDHIV association with cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MS). It was included 180 adult HIV-infected outpatients consecutively seen in the Infectology Clinic of Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Anthropometric and clinical data (blood pressure, family and personal comorbidities, duration of HIV infection/AIDS, antiretroviral drugs used, CD4+ cells, viral load, fasting glycemia and plasma lipids) were obtained both from a clinical interview as well as from medical charts. LDHIV was defined as the presence of body changes self-reported by the patients and confirmed by clinical exam. MS was defined using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria, reviewed and modified by AHA/NHLBI. A 55% prevalence of LDHIV was found. Individuals with LDHIV presented a longer infected period since HIV infection, longer AIDS duration and longer use of antiretroviral drugs. In multivariate analysis, women (p=0.006) and AIDS duration >8 years (p<0.001) were independently associated with LDHIV. Concerning MS diagnostic criteria, high blood pressure was found in 32%, low HDL-cholesterol in 68%, hypertriglyceridemia in 55%, altered waist circumference in 17% and altered glycemia and/or diabetes in 23% of individuals. Abnormal waist and hypertriglyceridemia were more common in LDHIV-affected individuals. MS was diagnosed in 36%. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with MS were: BMI >25 kg/m(2) (p<0.001), family history of obesity (p=0.01), indinavir (p=0.001) and age >40 years on HIV first detection (p=0.002). There was a trend to higher frequency of LDHIV among patients with MS (65% versus 50%, p=0.051). LDHIV prevalence among our patients (55%) was similar to previous reports from other countries. MS prevalence in these HIV-infected individuals seems to be similar to the prevalence reported on Brazilian non-HIV-infected adults. PMID:18604379

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Vogt, Monica; Wood, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnostic accuracy of sputum smear microscopy and routine chest radiology for HIV-associated tuberculosis is poor, and culture-based diagnosis is slow, expensive, and is unavailable in most resource-limited settings. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a urine antigen test Determine TB-LAM Ag (Determine TB-LAM; Alere, Waltham, MA, USA) for screening for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods In this descriptive study, consecutive adults referred to a community-based ART clinic in Gugulethu township, South Africa, were all screened for tuberculosis by obtaining sputum samples for fluorescence microscopy, automated liquid culture (gold-standard test), and Xpert MTB/RIF assays (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and urine samples for the Clearview TB-ELISA (TB-ELISA; Alere, Waltham, MA, USA) and Determine TB-LAM test. Patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from one or more sputum samples were defined as cases of tuberculosis. The diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM used alone or combined with sputum smear microscopy was compared with that of sputum culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for all patients and subgroups of patients stratified by CD4 cell count. Findings Patients were recruited between March 12, 2010, and April 20, 2011. Of 602 patients enrolled, 542 were able to provide one or more sputum samples, and 94 had culture-positive tuberculosis (prevalence 17·4%, 95% CI 14·2–20·8). Complete results from all tests were available for 516 patients (median CD4 count, 169·5 cells per ?L; IQR 100–233), including 85 culture-positive tuberculosis, 24 of whom (28·2%, 95% CI 19·0–39·0) had sputum smear-positive disease. Determine TB-LAM test strips provided results within 30 min. Agreement was very high between two independent readers of the test strips (?=0·97) and between the test strips and TB-ELISA (?=0·84). Determine TB-LAM had highest sensitivity at low CD4 cell counts: 66·7% (95% CI 41·0–86·7) at <50 cells per ?L, 51·7% (32·5–70·6) at <100 cells per ?L, and 39·0% (26·5–52·6) at <200 cells per ?L; specificity was greater than 98% for all strata. When combined with smear microscopy (either test positive), sensitivity was 72·2% (95% CI 46·5–90·3) at CD4 counts less than 50 cells per ?L, 65·5% (45·7–82·1) at less than 100 cells per ?L, and 52·5% (39·1–65·7) at less than 200 cells per ?L, which did not differ statistically from the sensitivities obtained by testing a single sputum sample with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Interpretation Determine TB-LAM is a simple, low-cost, alternative to existing diagnostic assays for tuberculosis screening in HIV-infected patients with very low CD4 cell counts and provides important incremental yield when combined with sputum smear microscopy. Funding Wellcome Trust. PMID:22015305

  1. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  2. Opportunistic salpingectomies for the prevention of a high-grade serous carcinoma: a statement by the Kommission Ovar of the AGO.

    PubMed

    Pölcher, Martin; Hauptmann, Steffen; Fotopoulou, Christina; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Mustea, Alexander; Runnebaum, Ingo; Sehouli, Jalid

    2015-07-01

    The detection of premalignant cells in the epithelium of the fallopian tube has resulted in revolutionary theories regarding the origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinomas (STIC) have been detected in patients with BRCA 1 or 2 mutations and are considered as the most likely precursors of the high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), which is the most common histological subtype in patients with EOC. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is associated with a significant reduction in risk of developing EOC. According to various national guidelines, prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be performed in the age group 40-45 years. As in patients with BRCA mutations, the prophylactic removal of the fallopian tubes is also performed in women without an increased genetic risk, for example, in surgical treatments of benign conditions. There is a current debate as to whether prophylactic or so-called opportunistic salpingectomy will influence the overall incidence of EOC in the coming years. Opponents of this theory warn of a higher surgical morbidity and the higher risk of a premature menopause through impaired vascular supply to the ovaries. The value of opportunistic salpingectomies has not yet been clarified since there are currently no systematic risk-benefit evaluations. This review will attempt to give an overview of the current body of evidence regarding the risks and benefits of opportunistic salpingectomies. PMID:25914073

  3. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: a case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuro HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Robert K.; Kamminga, Jody; Lane, Tammy; Gates, Thomas M.; Moore, Danielle M.; Hubner, Emma; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    The Australian HIV-infected (HIV+) population is largely comprised of high-functioning men who have sex with men (MSM). Like other English-speaking countries, Australia mostly relies on US neuropsychological normative standards to detect and determine the prevalence of neurological disorders. Whether the US neuropsychological (NP) normative standards are appropriate in Australian HIV+ MSM has not been established. Ninety virally suppressed HIV+ and 49 HIV-uninfected (HIV?) men (respectively 86 and 85 % self-reported MSM; mean age 54 and 56 years, mean premorbid verbal IQ estimate 110 and 111) undertook standard NP testing. The raw neuropsychological data were transformed using the following: (1) US standards as uncorrected scaled scores and demographically corrected T scores (US norms); and (2) z scores (without demographic corrections) derived from Australian comparison group scaled scores (local norms). To determine HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder prevalence, we used a standard definition of impairment based upon a battery-wide summary score: the global deficit score (GDS). Impairment classification (GDS?0.5) based on the local norms was best at discriminating between the two groups (HIV?=14.3 % vs. HIV+ = 53.3 %; p<0.0001). This definition was significantly associated with age. Impairment classification based on the US norms yielded much lower impairment rate regardless of the HIV status (HIV?=4.1 % vs. HIV+=14.7 %; p= 0.05), but was associated with historical AIDS, and not age. Both types of summary scores were associated with reduced independence in activities of daily living (p? 0.03). Accurate neuropsychological classifications of high (or low) functioning individuals may need country-specific norms that correct for performance-based (e.g., reading) estimates of premorbid cognition in addition to the traditional demographic factors. PMID:24696363

  4. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  5. Mechanisms of HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity via CDK5 translocation and hyper-activation: role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jerel Adam; Dumaop, Wilmar; Crews, Leslie; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Metcalf, Jeff; He, Johnny; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    The advent of more effective antiretroviral therapies has reduced the frequency of HIV dementia, however the prevalence of milder HIV associated neurocognitive disorders [HAND] is actually rising. Neurodegenerative mechanisms in HAND might include toxicity by secreted HIV-1 proteins such as Tat, gp120 and Nef that could activate neuro-inflammatory pathways, block autophagy, promote excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that Tat could interfere with several signal transduction mechanisms involved in cytoskeletal regulation, cell survival and cell cycle re-entry. Among them, Tat has been shown to hyper-activate cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] 5, a member of the Ser/Thr CDKs involved in cell migration, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. CDK5 is activated by binding to its regulatory subunit, p35 or p39. For this manuscript we review evidence showing that Tat, via calcium dysregulation, promotes calpain-1 cleavage of p35 to p25, which in turn hyper-activates CDK5 resulting in abnormal phosphorylation of downstream targets such as Tau, collapsin response mediator protein-2 [CRMP2], doublecortin [DCX] and MEF2. We also present new data showing that Tat interferes with the trafficking of CDK5 between the nucleus and cytoplasm. This results in prolonged presence of CDK5 in the cytoplasm leading to accumulation of aberrantly phosphorylated cytoplasmic targets [e.g.: Tau, CRMP2, DCX] that impair neuronal function and eventually lead to cell death. Novel therapeutic approaches with compounds that block Tat mediated hyper-activation of CDK5 might be of value in the management of HAND. PMID:25760044

  6. Regulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected monocytes: implications for HIV- associated neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) play major roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence and disease pathogenesis. Macrophage antigen presentation and effector cell functions are impaired by HIV-1 infection. Abnormalities of macrophage effector cell function in bone marrow, lung, and brain likely result as a direct consequence of cellular activation and HIV replication. To further elucidate the extent of macrophage dysfunction in HIV-1 disease, a critical activation-specific regulatory molecule, nitric oxide (NO.), which may contribute to diverse pathology, was studied. Little, if any, NO. is produced by uninfected human monocytes. In contrast, infection with HIV-1 increases NO. production to modest, but significant levels (2-5 microM). Monocyte activation (with lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or through interactions with astroglial cells) further enhances NO. production in HIV-infected cells, whereas its levels are diminished by interleukin 4. These results suggest a possible role for NO. in HIV-associated pathology where virus-infected macrophages are found. In support of this hypothesis, RNA encoding the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was detected in postmortem brain tissue from one pediatric AIDS patient with advanced HIV encephalitis. Corresponding iNOS mRNA was not detected in brain tissue from five AIDS patients who died with less significant brain disease. These results demonstrate that HIV-1 can influence the expression of NOS in both cultured human monocytes and brain tissue. This newly described feature of HIV-macrophage interactions suggests previously unappreciated mechanisms of tissue pathology that result from productive viral replication. PMID:7530762

  7. Absolute leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: evidence of accelerated cell senescence in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joseph C Y; Leung, Janice M; Ngan, David A; Nashta, Negar F; Guillemi, Silvia; Harris, Marianne; Lima, Viviane D; Um, Soo-Jung; Li, Yuexin; Tam, Sheena; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Raju, Rekha; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Bourbeau, Jean; Tan, Wan C; Harrigan, P Richard; Sin, Don D; Montaner, Julio; Man, S F Paul

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL) in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001); however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469). Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019) and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023) had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026), smoking (p=0.005), reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030), and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049). HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects. PMID:25885433

  8. Absolute Leukocyte Telomere Length in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals: Evidence of Accelerated Cell Senescence in HIV-Associated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, David A.; Nashta, Negar F.; Guillemi, Silvia; Harris, Marianne; Lima, Viviane D.; Um, Soo-Jung; Li, Yuexin; Tam, Sheena; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Raju, Rekha; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon A.; Bourbeau, Jean; Tan, Wan C.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Sin, Don D.; Montaner, Julio; Man, S. F. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL) in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001); however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469). Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019) and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023) had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026), smoking (p=0.005), reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030), and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049). HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects. PMID:25885433

  9. Opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans elicits a temporal response in primary human mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, José Pedro; Stylianou, Marios; Nilsson, Gunnar; Urban, Constantin F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are frequently afflicted with severe mycoses caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. Besides being a commensal, colonizing predominantly skin and mucosal surfaces, Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Mast cells are present in tissues prone to fungal colonization being expectedly among the first immune cells to get into contact with C. albicans. However, mast cell-fungus interaction remains a neglected area of study. Here we show that human mast cells mounted specific responses towards C. albicans. Collectively, mast cell responses included the launch of initial, intermediate and late phase components determined by the secretion of granular proteins and cytokines. Initially mast cells reduced fungal viability and occasionally internalized yeasts. C. albicans could evade ingestion by intracellular growth leading to cellular death. Furthermore, secreted factors in the supernatants of infected cells recruited neutrophils, but not monocytes. Late stages were marked by the release of cytokines that are known to be anti-inflammatory suggesting a modulation of initial responses. C. albicans-infected mast cells formed extracellular DNA traps, which ensnared but did not kill the fungus. Our results suggest that mast cells serve as tissue sentinels modulating antifungal immune responses during C. albicans infection. Consequently, these findings open new doors for understanding fungal pathogenicity. PMID:26192381

  10. Transplantation-Associated Long-Term Immunosuppression Promotes Oral Colonization by Potentially Opportunistic Pathogens without Impacting Other Members of the Salivary Bacteriome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K.; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

  11. Transplantation-associated long-term immunosuppression promotes oral colonization by potentially opportunistic pathogens without impacting other members of the salivary bacteriome.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Patricia I; Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

  12. Common Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

    A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

  13. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL DATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  14. ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS OF AIRBORNE HYSPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR MAPPING OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN FRESHWATER COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  15. From Spectrum Pooling to Space Pooling: Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Cognitive Networks

    E-print Network

    Perlaza, Samir M.

    We describe a noncooperative interference alignment (IA) technique which allows an opportunistic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link (secondary) to harmlessly coexist with another MIMO link (primary) in the same ...

  16. Opportunistic scheduling with limited channel state information: A rate distortion approach

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Matthew

    We consider an opportunistic communication system in which a transmitter selects one of multiple channels over which to schedule a transmission, based on partial knowledge of the network state. We characterize a fundamental ...

  17. Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment. PMID:23420204

  18. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; LaMontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system. Methods: A decision tree was constructed and parameterised using empirical data from a chlamydia screening pilot study and other sources. The model was run using baseline data from the pilot, and univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: The total estimated cost for offering screening over 12 months to 33 215 females aged 16–24 was £493 412. The average cost (with partner management) was £14.88 per screening offer (90% credibility interval (CI) 10.34 to 18.56), £21.83 per testing episode (90% CI 18.16 to 24.20), and £38.36 per positive episode (90% CI 33.97 to 42.25). The proportion of individuals accepting screening, the clinician (general practitioner/nurse) time and their relative involvement in discussing screening, the test cost, the time to notify patients of their results, and the receptionist time recruiting patients had the greatest impact on the outcomes in both the univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Results from this costing study may be used to inform resource allocation for current and future chlamydia screening programme implementation. PMID:15459403

  19. Isobaric tagging-based quantification by mass spectrometry of differentially regulated proteins in synaptosomes of HIV/gp120 transgenic mice: implications for HIV-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sugato; Liao, Lujian; Russo, Rossella; Nakamura, Tomohiro; McKercher, Scott R; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Haun, Florian; Nikzad, Rana; Zaidi, Rameez; Holland, Emily; Eroshkin, Alexey; Yates, John R; Lipton, Stuart A

    2012-08-01

    HIV/gp120 transgenic mice manifest neuropathological features similar to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in humans, including astrogliosis, microglia activation, and decreased neuronal synapses. Here, proteomic screening of synaptosomes from HIV/gp120 transgenic mice was conducted to determine potential neuronal markers and drug targets associated with HAND. Synaptosomes from 13 month-old wild-type (wt) and HIV/gp120 transgenic mouse cortex were subjected to tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and subsequent analysis using an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer in pulsed-Q dissociation (PQD) mode for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 1301 proteins were identified in both wt and HIV/gp120 transgenic mice. Three of the most differentially-regulated proteins were validated by immunoblotting. To elucidate putative pathways associated with the proteomic profile, 107 proteins manifesting a ?1.5 fold change in expression were analyzed using a bioinformatics pathway analysis tool. This analysis revealed direct or indirect involvement of the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, a well-known neuronal survival pathway. Immunoblots confirmed a lower phospho (p)Akt/Akt ratio in synaptosomes from HIV/gp120 transgenic animals compared to wt, suggesting that this neuroprotective pathway was inactivated in the HIV/gp120 transgenic brain. Based on this information, we then compared immunoblots of pAkt/Akt in the forebrains of these mice as well as in human postmortem brain. We observed a significant decrease in the pAkt/Akt ratio in synaptosomes and forebrain of HIV/gp120 transgenic compared to wt mice, and a similar decrease in human forebrain from HAND patients compared to neurologically unimpaired HIV+ and HIV- controls. Moreover, mechanistic insight into an additional pathway for decreased Akt activity in HIV/gp120 mouse brains and human HAND brains was shown to occur via S-nitrosylation of Akt protein, a posttranslational modification known to inhibit Akt activity and contribute to neuronal cell injury and death. Thus, MS proteomic profiling in the HIV/gp120 transgenic mouse predicted dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway observed in human brains with HAND, providing evidence that this mouse is a useful disease model and that the Akt pathway may provide multiple drug targets for the treatment of HIV-related dementias. PMID:22575597

  20. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus ? Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

  1. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  2. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  3. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Jo; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI). However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia. PMID:22096404

  4. Characterization of the Population Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin in Neonates Using an Opportunistic Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Tremoulet, Adriana; Le, Jennifer; Poindexter, Brenda; Sullivan, Janice E.; Laughon, Matthew; Delmore, Paula; Salgado, Andrea; Ian-U Chong, Sandy; Melloni, Chiara; Gao, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Capparelli, Edmund V.

    2014-01-01

    Although ampicillin is the most commonly used drug in neonates, developmental pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing are lacking. Ampicillin is primarily renally eliminated, and developmental changes are expected to influence PK. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, opportunistic, prospective PK study of ampicillin in neonates stratified by gestational age (GA) (?34 or >34 weeks) and postnatal age (PNA) (?7 or >7 days). Drug concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. PK data were analyzed using population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM 7.2. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the probability of target attainment for the time in which the total steady-state ampicillin concentrations remained above the MIC (T>MIC) for 50%, 75%, and 100% of the dosing interval. A total of 142 PK samples from 73 neonates were analyzed (median [range] GA, 36 [24 to 41] weeks; PNA, 5 [0 to 25] days). The median ampicillin dose was 200 (100 to 350) mg/kg/day. Postmenstrual age and serum creatinine were covariates for ampicillin clearance (CL). A simplified dosing regimen of 50 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?7 days, 75 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?8 and ?28 days, and 50 mg/kg every 8 h for GA of >34 weeks and PNA of ?28 days achieved the prespecified surrogate efficacy target in 90% of simulated subjects. Ampicillin CL was associated with neonatal development. A simplified dosing regimen stratified by GA and PNA achieves the desired surrogate therapeutic target in the vast majority of neonates. PMID:24614374

  5. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  6. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Fungi, and Opportunistic Pathogens in Unchlorinated Drinking Water in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The multiplication of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies might pose a threat to public health. In this study, distributed unchlorinated drinking water from eight treatment plants in the Netherlands was sampled and analyzed for fungi, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and several opportunistic pathogens by using selective quantitative PCR methods. Fungi and NTM were detected in all drinking water samples, whereas Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were sporadically observed. Mycobacterium avium complex and Acanthamoeba spp. were not detected. Season had no influence on the occurrence of these organisms, except for NTM and S. maltophilia, which were present in higher numbers in the summer. Opportunistic pathogens were more often observed in premise plumbing water samples than in samples from the distribution system. The lowest number of these organisms was observed in the finished water at the plant. Thus, fungi, NTM, and some of the studied opportunistic pathogens can multiply in the distribution and premise plumbing systems. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and/or total organic carbon (TOC) had no clear effects on fungal and NTM numbers or on P. aeruginosa- and S. maltophilia-positive samples. However, L. pneumophila was detected more often in water with AOC concentrations above 10 ?g C liter?1 than in water with AOC levels below 5 ?g C liter?1. Finally, samples that contained L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, or S. maltophilia were more frequently positive for a second opportunistic pathogen, which shows that certain drinking water types and/or sampling locations promote the growth of multiple opportunistic pathogens. PMID:23160134

  7. Distributed opportunistic argumentation guided by autonomous agent interaction 

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul William

    2011-01-01

    Within a distributed system, autonomous agents may find it necessary to cooperate in order to achieve their objectives. Interaction protocols provide standard frameworks within which to conduct common classes of interaction, ...

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart Grid With Power

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart communications (PLCs) have recently absorbed interest in the smart grid since they offer communi- cation--Access network, narrowband PLC, opportunistic routing, power line communications, smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION

  9. TECHNICAL REPORT TR-07-04, UC DAVIS, JULY 2007. 1 Link Throughput of Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    in cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, opportunistic trans- missions in fading environments, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-jamming. The objective of this report is to characterize the optimal to infinity. Index Terms Opportunistic access, cognitive radio, spectrum overlay, dynamic channel selection

  10. Stealing bivalves from common eiders: kleptoparasitism by glaucous gulls in spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øystein Varpe

    2010-01-01

    Here I report on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), an opportunistic, generalist predator, stealing bivalves from a diving duck, the common eider (Somateria mollissima). The study took place in spring, the pre-breeding period of the common eider, in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden) at western\\u000a Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Eiders were abundant, their presence predictable, and they fed on large prey requiring surface handling—all

  11. Common cold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124

  12. Opportunistic Collaboration: Unlocking the Archives of the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Sian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To review a small specialist repository's strategic and opportunistic approach to utilising collaborative regional and national digital initiatives to increase access. The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (BIAD) Archives activity is evaluated to determine whether a project-based approach recognises and meets the needs of historians,…

  13. Optimization of Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Ghasemi; Elvino S. Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the low utilization of the licensed spectrum across many frequency bands, sensing-based oppor- tunistic spectrum access has recently emerged as an alternative to the outdated exclusive spectrum access policy. Under this new paradigm, a secondary (unlicensed) user monitors a primary (licensed) frequency band for a given time and opportunistically transmits if it does not detect any ongoing licensed

  14. Exploiting Multi-Antennas for Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Zhang; Ying-Chang Liang

    2008-01-01

    In cognitive radio (CR) networks, there are scenarios where the secondary (lower priority) users intend to communicate with each other by opportunistically utilizing the transmit spectrum originally allocated to the existing primary (higher priority) users. For such a scenario, a secondary user usually has to tradeoff between two conflicting goals at the same time: one is to maximize its own

  15. Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae, and the new species M.

    E-print Network

    Falkinham, Joseph

    mycobacteria are present in drinking water, resistant to disinfection, able to provoke inflammatory reac- tions as from indoor swimming pools, hot tubs, and water-damaged buildings. Environmental opportunistic, and readily aerosolized. In all outbreaks, the water sources of the aerosols were disinfected. Disinfection

  16. Many U.S. AIDS Patients Still Die When 'Opportunistic' Infections Strike

    MedlinePLUS

    Many U.S. AIDS Patients Still Die When 'Opportunistic' Infections Strike Study of San Francisco data for 1997-2012 shows 35 percent ... in San Francisco who were diagnosed with an AIDS-related infection died within five years. "The main ...

  17. Performance Analysis of Adaptive Modulation for Cognitive Radios with Opportunistic Access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunfei Chen; Mohamed-Slim Alouini; Liang Tang

    2011-01-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cogni- tive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error

  18. Self-adaptive distributed power control for opportunistic QOS provision in wireless communication networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. de S. Chaves; J. M. T. Romano; M. Abbas-Turki; H. Abou-Kandil

    2009-01-01

    Emerging wireless communication networks are required to provide data services which tolerate large variations of link quality. Such applications allow flexible power control procedures. In this paper, we approach the distributed power control problem from an automatic control point of view. A new framework for opportunistic power control is proposed, where the target quality of service at each link is

  19. Optimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    Optimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry Torgny Svensson # Abstract In the aircraft industry maximizing availability is essential. Maintenance schedules maintenance to enable the minimization of the total expected cost to have a functional aircraft engine

  20. Vibrio vulnificusBiotype 2, Pathogenic for Eels, Is Also an Opportunistic Pathogen for Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARMEN AMARO; ANDELENA G. BIOSCA

    We report that the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is also an opportunistic pathogen for humans. Results from a detailed comparative study using reference strains of both biotypes revealed that the clinical strain ATCC 33817, originally isolated from a human leg wound and classified as V. vulnificus (no reference on its biotype is noted), belongs to biotype 2 of

  1. Framework for utility driven congestion control in delay tolerant opportunistic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Radenkovic; Andrew Grundy

    2011-01-01

    Detecting and dealing with congestion in delay tolerant opportunistic networks is an important and challenging problem. In this paper we describe CAFREP, a unified congestion control framework for routing in such networks that adapts both data sending rates and data forwarding policies through a novel reactive fully distributed approach. CAFREP enables congestion control by detecting and reacting to congested nodes

  2. Opportunistic Real-Time Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Ravindran, Binoy

    resource constraints. Particularly, routing protocols for low- rate WSNs suffer from maintaining routing metrics and sta- ble links of paths. Even though opportunistic routing pro- tocols are well-suited to WSNs delivery. The design of real-time routing schemes in LR-WSNs must consider the following issues. First

  3. Performance Evaluation of Opportunistic Round Robin Scheduling for V-BLAST Users over MIMO Channels

    E-print Network

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    S). These requirements make scheduling an important technique for optimizing the performance of a communication system in [7]. They showed that the scheduler should allocate all the power to at most MR users, where MR improves the performance of the uplink system. The opportunistic round robin scheduler is totally fair

  4. Outage performance analysis and optimal power allocation of opportunistic cooperation communications without direct-link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Xiaojie; Xu Youyun; Zhang Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The performance of cooperative communications highly depends on careful resource management, such as power allocation and relay selection. Great deal of works has been done in this field in the past few years. However, the power allocation and relay selection of opportunistic cooperative system without direct-link between source and the destination have not been extensively studied. In this paper, we

  5. Opportunistic Power Allocation for Point-to-Point Communication in Self-Organized Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Opportunistic Power Allocation for Point-to-Point Communication in Self-Organized Networks Mehdi channel models taking into account path-loss and fading are also considered. Optimal power allocation communication. Finally, the study of a hybrid system was used in [4]-[6]. In the first part of this contribution

  6. Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research Theus, mobility and communication ties. Stumbl is a Facebook application that provides participating users with a user-friendly interface to report their daily face-to-face meetings with other Facebook friends

  7. Traitement d'Image Embarqu et Communication Opportuniste sur Drones Lgers pour Systmes de

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Traitement d'Image Embarqué et Communication Opportuniste sur Drones Légers pour Systèmes de Surveillance Contexte : Les drones sont en passe de devenir des systèmes de surveillance performants et niveau de qualité et de versatilité, les drones se doivent de fournir un certain nombre de services

  8. Gingival Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Responses to Commensal and Opportunistic Oral Microbial Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Hasegawa; Jeffrey J. Mans; Song Mao; M. Cecilia Lopez; Henry V. Baker; Martin Handfield; Richard J. Lamont

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling and ontology tools were utilized to define the biological pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by coculture with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii and the opportunistic commensal Fusobacterium nucleatum. Overall, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii perturbed the gingival epithelial cell transcriptome much less significantly than the oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans perturbed the transcriptome, indicating that

  9. Opportunistic routing in wireless ad hoc networks: Upper bounds for the packet propagation speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Jacquet; Bernard Mans; Paul Muhlethaler; Georgios Rodolakis

    2008-01-01

    Classical routing strategies for mobile ad hoc networks forward packets on a pre-defined route (typically obtained by a shortest path routing protocol). Research has high-lighted the interest in developing opportunistic routing schemes, where the next relay is selected dynamically for each packet and each hop. This allows each packet to take advantage of the local pattern of transmissions at any

  10. Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Machouart; J. Larche; K. Burton; J. Collomb; P. Maurer; A. Cintrat; M. F. Biava; S. Greciano; A. F. A. Kuijpers; N. Contet-Audonneau; G. S. de Hoog; A. Gerard; B. Fortier

    2006-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a

  11. On End-to-end Throughput of Opportunistic Routing in Multirate and Multihop Wireless

    E-print Network

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    On End-to-end Throughput of Opportunistic Routing in Multirate and Multihop Wireless Networks Kai in multi-hop wireless networks presents a great challenge mainly due to unreliable wireless links of the wireless medium. Previous studies on OR focused on networks with a single channel rate. The performance

  12. The Quest for a Killer App for Opportunistic and Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-print Network

    Hui, Pan "Ben"

    The Quest for a Killer App for Opportunistic and Delay Tolerant Networks (Invited Paper) Anders other research areas become over-hyped and later die out as there was no killer app for them that made. In this paper, we embark upon a quest to find out what characterizes a potential killer applications for DTNs

  13. Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1?/? mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1?/? mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  14. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

  15. Opportunistic pathogens in roof-captured rainwater samples, determined using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Brandes, H; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2014-04-15

    In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used for the detection of four opportunistic bacterial pathogens in water samples collected from 72 rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Tank water samples were also tested for fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) using culture-based methods. Among the 72 tank water samples tested, 74% and 94% samples contained E. coli and Enterococcus spp., respectively, and the numbers of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in tank water samples ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 log?? colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL of water. In all, 29%, 15%, 13%, and 6% of tank water samples contained Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, respectively. The genomic units (GU) of opportunistic pathogens in tank water samples ranged from 1.5 to 4.6 log?? GU per 100 mL of water. A significant correlation was found between E. coli and Enterococcus spp. numbers in pooled tank water samples data (Spearman's rs = 0.50; P < 0.001). In contrast, fecal indicator bacteria numbers did not correlate with the presence/absence of opportunistic pathogens tested in this study. Based on the results of this study, it would be prudent, to undertake a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) analysis of opportunistic pathogens to determine associated health risks for potable and nonpotable uses of tank water. PMID:24531256

  16. Design and Implementation of a Middleware for Data Storage in Opportunistic Grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael Y. de Camargoand; Fabio Kon

    2007-01-01

    Shared machines in opportunistic grids typically have large quantities of unused disk space. These resources could be used to store application and checkpointing data when the machines are idle, allowing those machines to share not only computational cycles, but also disk space. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of OppStore, a middleware that provides reliable distributed data

  17. Scedosporium apiospermum : changing clinical spectrum of a therapy-refractory opportunist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Guarro; A. Serda Kantarcioglu; Regine Horré; Juan Luis Rodriguez-Tudela; Manuel Cuenca Estrella; Juan Berenguer; G. Sybren De Hoog

    2006-01-01

    Current knowledge on the opportunist Scedosporium apiospermum (teleomorph: Pseudallescheria boydii), generated over a period of more than 120 years, is reviewed. The natural environmental habitat of the fungus is unknown; nutrient- rich, brackish waters like river estuaria have been suggested. The fungus is strongly promoted by agricultural and particularly by industrial pollution.

  18. Hide-and-Lie: Enhancing Application-level Privacy in Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Bencsáth, Boldizsár

    and Technology {dora, holczer}@crysys.hu ABSTRACT A delay-tolerant network is a mobile ad hoc network where. INTRODUCTION A delay-tolerant network (DTN) is a mobile ad hoc net- work. In DTNs, the messages--Privacy General Terms Security, Performance Keywords Opportunistic networks, Privacy in data forwarding 1

  19. Clustering for Opportunistic Communication Jay Budzik, Shannon Bradshaw, Xiaobin Fu, and Kristian J. Hammond

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Shannon

    and Retrieval]: Systems and Software ­ current awareness systems, user profiles and alert services. I.2 work on I2I, a system aimed at fostering opportunistic communication among users viewing based. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.3 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Group

  20. HEALTH C.H.I.P.s: Opportunistic Community Use of Computerized Health Information Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvan, Deborah; Wiggers, John; Hazell, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    Computerized health information programs have been shown to have potential to improve knowledge, attitudes and behavior. However, relatively little is known regarding their capacity to engage the public for opportunistic, spontaneous use in community settings. Two studies were undertaken to provide insight to this practical issue. An intercept…

  1. Two studies of opportunistic programming: interleaving web foraging, learning, and writing code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Brandt; Philip J. Guo; Joel Lewenstein; Mira Dontcheva; Scott R. Klemmer

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of online resources in prob- lem solving. We look specifically at how programmers—an exemplar form of knowledge workers—opportunistically in- terleave Web foraging, learning, and writing code. We de- scribe two studies of how programmers use online resources. The first, conducted in the lab, observed participants' Web use while building an online chat room. We found

  2. Overview of Cryptosporidium Presentations at the 10th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Xiao

    2009-01-01

    It has been over 100 years since the discovery of Cryptospo- ridium in the stomachs of house mice by the prominent Amer- ican microbiologist Ernest E. Tyzzer in 1907 (58) and over 30 years since the identification of Cryptosporidium as a human pathogen in 1976 (38, 40). Cryptosporidiosis remains an im- portant opportunistic pathogen in human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons. This

  3. Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Birmele, Michele N.; Castro, Victoria A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Jones, Kathy U.; Singhal, Adesh; Johnston, Angela S.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Ozbolt, Tamra A.; Jett, Daniel X.; Roberts, Michael S.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Because the International Space Station is a closed environment with rotations of astronauts and equipment that each introduce their own microbial flora, it is necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbial monitoring includes labor- and time-intensive methods to enumerate total bacterial and fungal cells, with limited characterization, during in-flight testing. Although this culture-based method is sufficient for monitoring the International Space Station, on future long-duration missions more detailed characterization will need to be performed during flight, as sample return and ground characterization may not be available. At a workshop held in 2011 at NASA's Johnson Space Center to discuss alternative methodologies and technologies suitable for microbial monitoring for these long-term exploration missions, molecular-based methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recommended. In response, a multi-center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Kennedy Space Center) collaborative research effort was initiated to explore novel commercial-off-the-shelf hardware options for space flight environmental monitoring. The goal was to evaluate quantitative or semi-quantitative PCR approaches for low-cost in-flight rapid identification of microorganisms that could affect crew safety. The initial phase of this project identified commercially available platforms that could be minimally modified to perform nominally in microgravity. This phase was followed by proof-of-concept testing of the highest qualifying candidates with a universally available challenge organism, Salmonella enterica. The analysis identified two technologies that were able to perform sample-to-answer testing with initial cell sample concentrations between 50 and 400 cells. In addition, the commercial systems were evaluated for initial flight safety and readiness.

  4. Opportunistic toenail onychomycosis. The fungal colonization of an available nail unit space by non-dermatophytes is produced by the trauma of the closed shoe by an asymmetric gait or other trauma. A plausible theory.

    PubMed

    Zaias, N; Escovar, S X; Rebell, G

    2014-08-01

    Opportunistic onychomycosis is defined, when a non-dermatophyte mould is cultured from an abnormal nail unit in the absence of a dermatophyte. The presumption is that the mould has caused the abnormal clinical appearance of the nail unit, yet there are no data available to substantiate this claim. Reports have only identified the mould being recovered from the nail unit niche. A review of the published dermatologic literature describing toenail opportunistic onychomycosis by non-dermatophyte fungi has shown toenails with onycholysis, nail bed (NB) keratosis and nail plate surface abnormalities. The appearance of these clinical changes is indistinguishable from the diagnosis of the Asymmetric Gait Nail Unit Signs (AGNUS). AGNUS is produced by the friction of the closed shoe in patients with an asymmetric gait, resulting primarily from the ubiquitous uneven flat feet. Most commonly, species of Acremonium (Cephalosporium), Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis and rarely species of many different fungi genera are capable of surviving and reproducing in a keratinous environment and change the clinical appearance of the involved nail unit. AGNUS toenails predispose to the colonization by the non-dermatophyte opportunistic fungi but not by dermatophyte fungi. PMID:24708482

  5. Antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from Rhea americana.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Cordeiro Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Teixeira Lima, Daniel; Paiva de Araújo Neto, Manoel; Jalles Monteiro, André; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio; Rocha Gadelha, Marcos Fábio

    2013-08-01

    Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans. PMID:23899001

  6. Larval habitat choice in still water and flume flows by the opportunistic bivalve Mulinia lateralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassle, Judith P.; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Butman, Cheryl Ann

    Competent pediveligers of the coot clam Mulinia lateralis (Say) clearly preferred an organically-rich mud over abiotic glass beads in 24-h flume experiments, and often demonstrated the same choice in still-water experiments. We hypothesize that peediveligers with characteristic helical swimming paths above the bottom can exercise habitat choice in both still water nad flow, but that the limited swimming ambits of physiologically older periveligers require near-bottom flows to move the larvae between sediment patches so that they can exercise habitat choice. Although M. lateralis larvae are planktotrophic, their ability to delay metamorphosis in the absence of a preferred sediment cue is limited to about five days, a shorter time than the lecithotrophi larvae of the opportunistic polychaete species, Capitella spp. I and II. Field distributions of all three opportunistic species may result, at least in part, from active habitat selection for high-organic sediments by settling larvae.

  7. [Prophylactic efficacy of a basidiomycetes preparation AHCC against lethal opportunistic infections in mice].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, H; Ikeda, T; Tansho, S; Ono, Y; Yamazaki, M; Sato, A; Yamaoka, K; Yamaguchi, H; Abe, S

    2000-08-01

    The prophylactic effects of a Basidiomycetes preparation, AHCC, against experimental opportunistic infections were investigated in leukopenic mice. In cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice, oral or intraperitoneal administration of the AHCC at doses of 1000 or 50 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 4 consecutive days prior to Candida albicans infection significantly prolonged the survival periods of the infected mice, and decreased the viable counts of C. albicans cells recovered from their kidneys. Similarly, the oral treatment with AHCC protected mice from lethal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intraperitoneal one also protected mice from infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These results suggest a potential usefulness of the AHCC as a prophylactic agent for the management of patients with opportunistic infections. PMID:10946621

  8. An opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifeng; Wang, Haotian; Piao, Xianglan; Qiu, Tie

    2014-01-01

    WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX. PMID:25250379

  9. ContentPlace: social-aware data dissemination in opportunistic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Boldrini; Marco Conti; Andrea Passarella

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with data dissemination in resource con- strained opportunistic networks, i.e., multi-hop ad hoc net- works in which simultaneous paths between endpoints are not available, in general, for end-to-end communication. One of the main challenges is to make content available in those regions of the network where interested users are present, without overusing available resources (e.g., by avoiding

  10. The Opportunistic Pathogen Serratia marcescens Utilizes Type VI Secretion To Target Bacterial Competitors ?†

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Sarah L.; Trunk, Katharina; English, Grant; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most recently described and least understood of the protein secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. It is widely distributed and has been implicated in the virulence of various pathogens, but its mechanism and exact mode of action remain to be defined. Additionally there have been several very recent reports that some T6SSs can target bacteria rather than eukaryotic cells. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic enteric pathogen, a class of bacteria responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. We describe the identification of a functional T6SS in S. marcescens strain Db10, the first report of type VI secretion by an opportunist enteric bacterium. The T6SS of S. marcescens Db10 is active, with secretion of Hcp to the culture medium readily detected, and is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions from a large transcriptional unit. Expression of the T6SS genes did not appear to be dependent on the integrity of the T6SS. The S. marcescens Db10 T6SS is not required for virulence in three nonmammalian virulence models. It does, however, exhibit dramatic antibacterial killing activity against several other bacterial species and is required for S. marcescens to persist in a mixed culture with another opportunist pathogen, Enterobacter cloacae. Importantly, this antibacterial killing activity is highly strain specific, with the S. marcescens Db10 T6SS being highly effective against another strain of S. marcescens with a very similar and active T6SS. We conclude that type VI secretion plays a crucial role in the competitiveness, and thus indirectly the virulence, of S. marcescens and other opportunistic bacterial pathogens. PMID:21890705

  11. Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black YeastLike Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. de Hoog; V. Vicente; R. B. Caligiorne; S. Kantarcioglu; K. Tintelnot; A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende; G. Haase

    2003-01-01

    A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spini- fera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligo- sperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and

  12. Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks that have an Opportunistic Large Array (OLA) Physical Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi V. Thanayankizil; Aravind Kailas; Mary Ann Ingram

    2009-01-01

    The Opportunistic Large Array (OLA is a simple strategy that provides a Signal-to-Noise Ra- tio (SNR) advantage from the spatial diversity of distributed single-antenna radios. In this paper, we present a collection of broadcasting and upstream routing protocols that have been developed for the OLA physical layer. We consider several benefits of OLA transmissions, namely, en- ergy efficiency, survivability during

  13. Priority Linear Coding Based Opportunistic Routing for Video Streaming in Ad Hoc Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Li; Limin Sun; Xinyun Zhou; Liqun Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a priority (or progressive) linear coding based opportunistic routing mechanism (OR-PLC) for H.264 video streaming over multi-hop ad hoc networks. OR-PLC assigns different error protection priorities to video packets according to their perceptual importance to mitigate error propagation problem so that the video quality is enhanced in receiver. Furthermore, OR-PLC exploits the broadcast feature of

  14. Opportunistic evolution: Abiotic environmental stress and the fossil record of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. DIMICHELE; TOM L. PHILLIPS; RICHARD G. OLMSTEAD

    1987-01-01

    DiMichele, W.A., Phillips, T.L. and Olmstead, R.G., 1987. Opportunistic evolution: abiotic environmental stress and the fossil record of plants. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 50: 151-178. Abiotic stress has played a major role in the evolution of vascular plants by creating or delimiting habitats with low interspecific competition. These are, in effect, opportunities for survival of divergent phenotypes through non- adaptive evolution.

  15. A Priority Based Opportunistic Routing Mechanism for Real-Time Voice Service in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhen; Mu Qing Wu; Jing Fang Su; Da Peng Wu; Chun Xiu Xu

    2010-01-01

    Traditional routing protocols send traffic along pre-determined paths and have been shown ineffective in coping with unreliable\\u000a and unpredictable wireless medium which is caused by the multi-path fading. The most difference between the opportunistic\\u000a routing and the traditional routing mechanism is that the opportunistic routing mechanism can use several lossy broadcast\\u000a links to support reliable transmission. In this paper, an

  16. Invasion Ability and Disease Dynamics of Environmentally Growing Opportunistic Pathogens under Outside-Host Competition

    PubMed Central

    Merikanto, Ilona; Laakso, Jouni T.; Kaitala, Veijo

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of the evolution of virulence concentrate on obligatory host-pathogen relationship. Yet, many pathogens replicate in the environment outside-host where they compete with non-pathogenic forms. Thus, replication and competition in the outside-host environment may have profound influence on the evolution of virulence and disease dynamics. These environmentally growing opportunistic pathogens are also a logical step towards obligatory pathogenicity. Efficient treatment methods against these diseases, such as columnaris disease in fishes, are lacking because of their opportunist nature. We present a novel epidemiological model in which replication and competition in the outside-host environment influences the invasion ability of a novel pathogen. We also analyze the long-term host-pathogen dynamics. Model parameterization is based on the columnaris disease, a bacterial fresh water fish disease that causes major losses in fish farms worldwide. Our model demonstrates that strong competition in the outside-host environment can prevent the invasion of a new environmentally growing opportunist pathogen and long-term disease outbreaks. PMID:25415341

  17. Antifungal activity of synthetic naphthoquinones against dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi: preliminary mechanism-of-action tests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activities of synthetic naphthoquinones against opportunistic and dermatophytic fungi and their preliminary mechanisms of action. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four synthetic naphthoquinones for 89 microorganisms, including opportunistic yeast agents, dermatophytes and opportunistic filamentous fungi, were determined. The compound that exhibited the best activity was assessed for its action against the cell wall (sorbitol test), for interference associated with ergosterol interaction, for osmotic balance (K+ efflux) and for membrane leakage of substances that absorb at the wavelength of 260 nm. All tested naphthoquinones exhibited antifungal activity, and compound IVS320 (3a,10b-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [b] naphtho [2,3-d] furan-5,10-dione)-dione) demonstrated the lowest MICs across the tested species. The MIC of IVS320 was particularly low for dermatophytes (values ranging from 5–28 ?g/mL) and Cryptococcus spp. (3–5 ?g/mL). In preliminary mechanism-of-action tests, IVS320 did not alter the fungal cell wall but did cause problems in terms of cell membrane permeability (efflux of K+ and leakage of substances that absorb at 260 nm). This last effect was unrelated to ergosterol interactions with the membrane. PMID:24998949

  18. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  19. Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Didier, Elizabeth S

    2005-04-01

    Microsporidia have emerged as causes of infectious diseases in AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, children, travelers, contact lens wearers, and the elderly. These organisms are small single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were considered to be early eukaryotic protozoa but were recently reclassified with the fungi. Of the 14 species of microsporidia currently known to infect humans, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common causes of human infections and are associated with diarrhea and systemic disease. Species of microsporidia infecting humans have been identified in water sources as well as in wild, domestic, and food-producing farm animals, raising concerns for waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission. Current therapies for microsporidiosis include albendazole which is a benzimidazole that inhibits microtubule assembly and is effective against several microsporidia, including the Encephalitozoon species, but is less effective against E. bieneusi. Fumagillin, an antibiotic and anti-angiogenic compound produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, is more broadly effective against Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi but is toxic when administered systemically to mammals. Gene target studies have focused on methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) for characterizing the mechanism of action and for identifying more effective, less toxic fumagillin-related drugs. Polyamine analogues have shown promise in demonstrating anti-microsporidial activity in culture and in animal models, and a gene encoding topoisomerase IV was identified in Vittaforma corneae, raising prospects for studies on fluoroquinolone efficacy against microsporidia. PMID:15777637

  20. HIV-related neurocognitive impairment – A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Rackstraw

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairments following central nervous system opportunistic infections and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) were common clinical features of HIV infection prior to anti-retroviral therapy. As HIV infection has evolved from an invariably fatal disease with a poor prognosis to a condition requiring long-term management, HIV-related neurocognitive disorders have been the subject of increasing research. This review will examine the recent changes

  1. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  2. REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubna Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

  3. Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems ?

    PubMed Central

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Weinrich, Lauren A.; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

  4. AsrR Is an Oxidative Stress Sensing Regulator Modulating Enterococcus faecium Opportunistic Traits, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, François; van Schaik, Willem; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; Le Bras, Florian; Verneuil, Nicolas; Zhang, Xinglin; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Willems, Rob J. L.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial resistance and adaptation for survival within the host, thereby contributes importantly to the opportunistic traits of E. faecium. PMID:22876178

  5. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus Strains V1 and V2, Opportunistic Marine Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus strains V1 and V2, isolated from juvenile Sparus aurata and Dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. The genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a G+C content of 44.5% for V. alginolyticus V1 and 5,068,299 bp with a G+C content of 44.8% for strain V2. These genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen. PMID:26139724

  7. Anticipating challenges with in-building disinfection for control of opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, William J; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2014-06-01

    A new American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard for control of Legionella (ASHRAE Standard 188, 2013) emphasizes use of in-building disinfection techniques to reduce the exposure of at-risk consumers to opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). This standard and other recommendations for OPPP control have implications for scaling in and corrosion of plumbing systems, which can sometimes adversely affect the efficacy of the disinfection method and physical integrity of the plumbing system, prompting this proactive critical review of challenges associated with implementation of Standard 188. PMID:25109200

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus Strains V1 and V2, Opportunistic Marine Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; D’Alvise, Paul; Kalatzis, Panos G.; Kokkari, Constantina; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus strains V1 and V2, isolated from juvenile Sparus aurata and Dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. The genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a G+C content of 44.5% for V. alginolyticus V1 and 5,068,299 bp with a G+C content of 44.8% for strain V2. These genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen. PMID:26139724

  9. Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black Yeast-Like Fungi

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. S.; Vicente, V.; Caligiorne, R. B.; Kantarcioglu, S.; Tintelnot, K.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Haase, G.

    2003-01-01

    A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spinifera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligosperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and Rhinocladiella similis are introduced and compared with their morphologically similar counterparts at larger phylogenetic distances outside the E. spinifera clade. Exophiala jeanselmei is redefined. New combinations are proposed in Exophiala: Exophiala exophialae for Phaeococcomyces exophialae and Exophiala heteromorpha for E. jeanselmei var. heteromorpha. PMID:14532218

  10. Analogous telesensing pathways regulate mating and virulence in two opportunistic human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard J; Dunny, Gary M

    2010-01-01

    Telesensing, or probing of the environment by the release of chemical messengers, plays a central role in the sexual programs of microbial organisms. Sex pheromones secreted by mating cells are sensed by potential partner cells and mediate cell-to-cell contact and the subsequent exchange of genetic material. Although the mechanisms used by bacterial and fungal species to promote genetic exchange are distinct, recent studies have uncovered surprising parallels between pheromone signaling in these species. In addition, it is now apparent that pheromone signaling not only controls sexual reproduction and genetic exchange but can also activate expression of potential virulence factors in diverse opportunistic pathogens. PMID:20827374

  11. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC or MAI) is a bacterial infection that can cause recurring fevers, general sick feelings, ... See Fact Sheet 517. Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs, and can cause meningitis. ...

  12. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10(5), 10(3) and 10(5) copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P < 0.05) along the pipeline, suggesting multiplication and hence viability. No seasonality in the decrease in chlorine residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens. PMID:26042986

  13. Gluconobacter as Well as Asaia Species, Newly Emerging Opportunistic Human Pathogens among Acetic Acid Bacteria ? †

    PubMed Central

    Alauzet, Corentine; Teyssier, Corinne; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Gouby, Anne; Chiron, Raphael; Rabaud, Christian; Counil, François; Lozniewski, Alain; Marchandin, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are broadly used in industrial food processing. Among them, members of the genera Asaia, Acetobacter, and Granulibacter were recently reported to be human opportunistic pathogens. We isolated AAB from clinical samples from three patients and describe here the clinical and bacteriological features of these cases. We report for the first time (i) the isolation of a Gluconobacter sp. from human clinical samples; (ii) the successive isolation of different AAB, i.e., an Asaia sp. and two unrelated Gluconobacter spp., from a cystic fibrosis patient; and (iii) persistent colonization of the respiratory tract by a Gluconobacter sp. in this patient. We reviewed the main clinical features associated with AAB isolation identified in the 10 documented reports currently available in the literature. Albeit rare, infections as well as colonization with AAB are increasingly reported in patients with underlying chronic diseases and/or indwelling devices. Clinicians as well as medical microbiologists should be aware of these unusual opportunistic pathogens, which are difficult to detect during standard medical microbiological investigations and which are multiresistant to antimicrobial agents. Molecular methods are required for identification of genera of AAB, but the results may remain inconclusive for identification to the species level. PMID:20826638

  14. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J.; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases. PMID:23901339

  15. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Breastfeeding > Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Common breastfeeding challenges Sore nipples Low milk supply Oversupply of milk Engorgement Plugged ducts Breast ...

  16. EGCG mitigates neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in the presence of IFN-?: role of JAK/STAT1 signaling and implications for HIV-associated dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hauyan; Zeng, Jin; Sun, Nan; Nikolic, Veljko; Ehrhart, Jared; Shytle, Douglas; Fernandez, Francisco; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of the central nervous system occurs in the vast majority of HIV infected patients. HIV-associated dementia (HAD) represents the most severe form of HIV-related neuropsychiatric impairment and is associated with neuropathology involving HIV proteins and activation of proinflammatory cytokine circuits. Interferon-? (IFN-?) activates the JAK/STAT1 pathway, a key regulator of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling, and is elevated in brains of HIV-1 infected brains progressing to HAD. Recent reports suggest that green tea derived (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can attenuate neuronal damage mediated by this pathway in conditions such as brain ischemia. In order to investigate the therapeutic potential of EGCG to mitigate the neuronal damage characteristic of HAD, IFN-? was evaluated for its ability to enhance well-known neurotoxic properties of HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in primary neurons and mice. Indeed, IFN-? enhanced the neurotoxicity of gp120 and Tat via increased JAK/STAT signaling. Additionally, primary neurons pretreated with a JAK1 inhibitor or those derived from STAT1-deficient mice were largely resistant to the IFN-? enhanced neurotoxicity of gp120 and Tat. Moreover, EGCG treatment of primary neurons from normal mice reduced IFN-? enhanced neurotoxicity of gp120 and Tat, while attenuating JAK/STAT1 pathway activation. EGCG was also found to attenuate the neurotoxic properties of HIV-1 proteins in the presence of IFN-? in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that EGCG attenuates the neurotoxicity of IFN-? augmented neuronal damage from HIV-1 gp120 and Tat both in vitro and in vivo. Thus EGCG may represent a novel, and naturally occurring compound for the prevention and treatment this disease. PMID:17078933

  17. PAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY*

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    ligand binding/activation to downstream transducer proteins. PAS1 domains are structural modules that can sequences of the different PAS domains show little similarity, their three-dimensional structures appearPAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY* Received for publication, February 19, 2003

  18. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  19. Rsum --La planification d'actions de maintenance prventive opportuniste permet de minimiser le nombre d'arrts de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    prévisionnelle. La maintenance proactive repose sur trois processus (processus de surveillance et diagnostic1 Résumé -- La planification d'actions de maintenance préventive opportuniste permet de minimiser le nombre d'arrêts de production superflus, et les décisions de maintenance doivent être

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. X, NO. X, AUGUST 200X 1 A Policy-Oriented Architecture for Opportunistic

    E-print Network

    Prasad, Sanjiva

    ]. In general, short-distance wireless technologies are better than long-distance technologies on parameters to a user in that access point's coverage area. Thus, long distance technologies such as EDGE have a range for Opportunistic Communication on Multiple Wireless Networks Aaditeshwar Seth1, Matei Zaharia1, Srinivasan Keshav1

  1. Cross-Layer Based Opportunistic MAC Protocols for QoS Provisionings Over Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hang Su; Xi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We propose the cross-layer based opportunistic multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer with the packets scheduling at MAC layer, for the wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, the MAC protocols enable the secondary users to identify and utilize the leftover frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference to

  2. Variation in the effectiveness of biotic defence: the case of an opportunistic ant-plant protection mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Di Giusto; Marie-Charlotte Anstett; Edmond Dounias; Doyle B. McKey

    2001-01-01

    Benefits to plants in facultative ant protection mutualisms are highly variable. This allows examination of the sources of this variation and the mechanisms by which ants protect plants. We studied opportunistic interactions between ants and an extrafloral nectary-bearing vine, Dioscorea praehensilis, during 3 different years. Variation in plant protection among years was striking. Several factors affected the effectiveness of the

  3. Pasquaud et al. Are fishes opportunistic in estuaries ? Exploitation of trophic resources by fish under stressful estuarine1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the system.33 34 Keywords: Pelagic and demersal fish - Stomach contents - Diet composition - Feeding35Pasquaud et al. Are fishes opportunistic in estuaries ? 1 Exploitation of trophic resources by fish Girardin1 ,4 Benoît Sautour3 , Pierre Elie1 5 6 1 Cemagref, Estuarine Ecosystems and Diadromous Fish

  4. 704 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, APRIL 2011 Opportunistic Multiple Access for Cognitive

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    of wireless networks and meeting the demands of future wireless applications. In cooperative communications [1, queuing theory, multiple access. I. INTRODUCTION THE SCARCITY of energy and bandwidth, the two fun704 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, APRIL 2011 Opportunistic

  5. An opportunistic scheduling with fairness for NRT traffic in presence of RT traffic for UMTS/TDD

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    TDD systems are intended to provide a global mobility and wide range of applications with different QoS.Bonnet@eurecom.fr Abstract-- In UMTS-TDD (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - Time Division Duplex) the data rates with an opportunistic scheduling at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer to minimize Node-B transmitting power

  6. Introduction of an opportunistic bacterial cotton pathogen into bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, seed and boll rot associated with microorganism infections have had a significantly negative impact on cotton yield in southeastern Cotton Belt states. Based on Koch’s postulates, we previously established that an opportunistic strain of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans, originall...

  7. [Parasitocenotic relationships in the marita micropopulations of Opisthorchis and opportunistic microorganisms (an in vitro model)].

    PubMed

    Kataeva, L V; Nizhegorodtseva, N F; Stepanova, T F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relation of exometabolites of Opisthorchis maritas and the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, by studying some physiological functions of mature Opisthorchis and the properties of bacteria in the artificial media during co-cultivation. Its modified procedure was used to examine tile hature of relationships in the micro- population of the parasite and opportunistic bacteria. The Opistorchis felineus maritas obtained from the liver of an infested animal were the object of helminthological examinations. Co-cultivation of the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus with Opistorchis felineus maritas showed that the latter exerted some inhibitory effects on the growth and reproduction of bacteria; moreover, there were no changes in their biochemical processes, virulence factors; and antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:25924276

  8. SINR Analysis of Opportunistic MIMO-SDMA Downlink Systems with Linear Combining

    E-print Network

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic scheduling (OS) schemes have been proposed previously by the authors for multiuser MIMO-SDMA downlink systems with linear combining. In particular, it has been demonstrated that significant performance improvement can be achieved by incorporating low-complexity linear combining techniques into the design of OS schemes for MIMO-SDMA. However, this previous analysis was performed based on the effective signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), assuming an interference-limited scenario, which is typically a valid assumption in SDMA-based systems. It was shown that the limiting distribution of the effective SIR is of the Frechet type. Surprisingly, the corresponding scaling laws were found to follow $\\epsilon\\log K$ with $0epsilonK$ form. Inspired by this difference between the scaling law forms, in this paper a systematic approach is developed to derive asymptotic throughput and scaling laws based on signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR) by utilizin...

  9. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling'?

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented. PMID:25186140

  10. In Vitro antimycotic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against opportunistic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-05-01

    Xanthorrhizol was isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Zingiberaceae) and its in vitro activity against opportunistic filamentous fungi was evaluated using the NCCLS (M38-A) standard method. Xanthorrhizol was found to be active against all the species tested, namely Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: the MICs being 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microg/mL, while the MFCs were 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 8.0, 2.0 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively. The susceptibility of six species of filamentous fungi to xanthorrhizol was comparable to that of the commercial antifungal, amphotericin B. Xanthorrhizol also has activity to inhibit the conidial germination of all tested species. The results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol can be developed as a natural antifungal agent. PMID:17236167

  11. Osteoporosis in acute fractures of the cervical spine: the role of opportunistic CT screening.

    PubMed

    Emohare, Osa; Dittmer, Alison; Morgan, Robert A; Switzer, Julie A; Polly, David W

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Recently published data make it possible to generate estimates of bone mineral density (BMD) by using CT attenuation; this innovation can save time and reduce costs. Although advanced age is associated with reduced BMD, especially in patients with a fracture of C-2, relatively few patients ever undergo formal dual x-ray absorptiometry studies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to assess the utility of this technique in elucidating BMD in patients with an acute fracture of the cervical spine. METHODS Patients who presented to a Level I trauma center with an acute fracture of the cervical spine and underwent abdominal (or L-1) CT scanning either at admission or in the 6 months before or after the injury were evaluated. Using a picture-archiving and communication system, the authors generated regions of interest of similar size in the body of L-1 (excluding the cortex) and computed mean values for CT attenuation. The values derived were compared with threshold values, which differentiate between osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic states; age-stratified groups were also compared. RESULTS Of the 91 patients whose data were reviewed, 51 were < 65 years old (mean 43.2 years) and 40 were ? 65 years old (mean 80.9 years). The overall mean CT attenuation values (in Hounsfield units [HU]), stratified according to age, were 193.85 HU for the younger cohort and 117.39 HU for the older cohort; the result of a comparison between these two values was significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Using opportunistic CT scanning, this study demonstrates the relative frequency of osteoporosis in acute fractures of the cervical spine. It also objectively correlates overall BMD with the known higher frequency of C-2 fractures in older patients. This technique harnesses the presence of opportunistic CT scans of the abdomen, which potentially reduces the need for the extra time and cost that may be associated with dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning. PMID:25860516

  12. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. I: Acceptability of urine testing in primary and secondary healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, J; Catchpole, M; Rogers, P; Perkins, E; Jackson, N; Carlisle, C; Randall, S; Hopwood, J; Hewitt, G; Underhill, G; Mallinson, H; McLean, L; Gleave, T; Tobin, J; Harindra, V; Ghosh, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the acceptability of opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young people in a range of healthcare settings. Design: An opportunistic screening programme (1 September 1999 to 31 August 2000) using urine samples tested by ligase chain reaction (LCR). Data on uptake and testing were collected and in-depth interviews were used for programme evaluation. Setting: General practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine clinics, adolescent sexual health clinics, termination of pregnancy clinics, and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics) in two health authorities (Wirral and Portsmouth and South East Hampshire). Main participants: Sexually active women aged between 16 and 24 years attending healthcare settings for any reason. Main outcome measures: Uptake data: proportion of women accepting a test by area, healthcare setting, and age; overall population coverage achieved in 1 year. Evaluation data: participants' attitudes and views towards opportunistic screening and urine testing. Results: Acceptance of testing by women (16–24 years) was 76% in Portsmouth and 84% in Wirral. Acceptance was lower in younger women (Portsmouth only) and varied by healthcare setting within each site. 50% of the target female population were screened in Portsmouth and 39% in Wirral. Both the opportunistic offer of screening and the method of screening were universally acceptable. Major factors influencing a decision to accept screening were the non-invasive nature of testing and treatment, desire to protect future fertility, and the experimental nature of the screening programme. Conclusions: An opportunistic model of urine screening for chlamydial infection is a practical, universally acceptable method of screening. PMID:12576607

  13. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2012, 57% (0.3 million) were enrolled on ART and 80% (0.4 million) were enrolled on ... Three interlinked patient monitoring systems for HIV care/ART, MCH/PMTCT (including malaria prevention during pregnancy), and ...

  14. HIV-associated Obstructive Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gingo, Matthew R.; Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), epidemiologic studies have found that HIV-infected persons have a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HIV-uninfected persons. Recently, pulmonary function studies in HIV-infected persons have shown a high prevalence of airway obstruction, bronchodilator reversibility, and impaired diffusing capacity. In comparison to HIV-uninfected persons and those with well-controlled HIV disease, HIV-infected persons with poor viral control or lower CD4 cell count have more airflow obstruction, a greater decline in lung function, and possibly more severe diffusing impairment. This chapter will review the evidence linking HIV infection to obstructive lung disease and discuss management issues related to the treatment of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23702176

  15. HIV-associated chronic immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4+ T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4+ T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4+ T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation that have been observed to be characteristic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to ‘show AIDS the door’, and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives. PMID:23772616

  16. Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Sam; Winsto, Alan; Letendre, Scott; Michael, Benedict D; McArthur, Justin C; Khoo, Saye; Solomon, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that around half of individuals infected with HIV-1 have some degree of cognitive impairment despite the use of antiretroviral drugs. However, prevalence estimates vary depending on the population and methods used to assess cognitive impairment. Whether asymptomatic patients would benefit from routine screening for cognitive difficulties is unclear and the appropriate screening method and subsequent management is the subject of debate. In some patients, HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher concentrations in CSF than in blood, which potentially results from the poor distribution of antiretroviral drugs into the CNS. However, the clinical relevance of so-called CSF viral escape is not well understood. The extent to which antiretroviral drug distribution and toxicity in the CNS affect clinical decision making is also debated. PMID:25316020

  17. Science Center Cambridge Common

    E-print Network

    Johnston Gate Science Center Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD YARD HA HAMMOND STREETLibrary Center Holyoke Science Center Widener Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD BROADW AY PRESCOTTS QUINCYSTREET EVERETT STREET STREET MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE

  18. Power system commonality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin D. Littman

    1992-01-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

  19. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  20. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rDNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, e.g. Legionella pneumophila, via parasitization of free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoebae. Yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise pl...

  1. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  2. Life-history and demographic spatial variation in Mediterranean populations of the opportunistic polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Massamba-N’Siala; Roberto Simonini; Piero Cossu; Ferruccio Maltagliati; Alberto Castelli; Daniela Prevedelli

    2011-01-01

    The spatial scale of life-history and demographic variation was investigated in the opportunistic polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica La Greca and Bacci. Individuals were collected along the Italian coasts from three thermally different biogeographical regions\\u000a of the Mediterranean Sea. For each region, populations from four harbours were considered, and for each harbour, two sites\\u000a were examined. Life-history and demographic traits were investigated

  3. Design and performance evaluation of ContentPlace, a social-aware data dissemination system for opportunistic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Boldrini; Marco Conti; Andrea Passarella

    In this paper we present and evaluate ContentPlace, a data dissemination system for opportunistic networks, i.e., mobile networks in which stable simultaneous multi-hop paths between communication endpoints cannot be provided. We consider a scenario in which users both produce and consume data objects. ContentPlace takes care of moving and replicating data objects in the network such that intereste d users

  4. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  5. Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary

    E-print Network

    who reviewed drafts of this document and contributed to its technical content. The authors would like the development of the document. Abstract This report defines the Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) DictionaryCommon Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire

  6. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  7. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Manuri, Pallavi R; Albert, Nathaniel D; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M; Huls, M Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2014-07-22

    Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated "D-CAR") upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR(+) T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR(+) T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR(+) T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

  8. Studies of Opinion Stability for Small Dynamic Networks with Opportunistic Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    There are numerous examples of societies with extremely stable mix of contrasting opinions. We argue that this stability is a result of an interplay between society network topology adjustment and opinion changing processes. To support this position we present a computer model of opinion formation based on some novel assumptions, designed to bring the model closer to social reality. In our model, the agents, in addition to changing their opinions due to influence of the rest of society and external propaganda, have the ability to modify their social network, forming links with agents sharing the same opinions and cutting the links with those they disagree with. To improve the model further we divide the agents into "fanatics" and "opportunists," depending on how easy it is to change their opinions. The simulations show significant differences compared to traditional models, where network links are static. In particular, for the dynamical model where inter-agent links are adjustable, the final network structure and opinion distribution is shown to resemble real world observations, such as social structures and persistence of minority groups even when most of the society is against them and the propaganda is strong.

  9. Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions: more than an opportunistic criminal association?

    PubMed

    Méar, J-B; Kipnis, E; Faure, E; Dessein, R; Schurtz, G; Faure, K; Guery, B

    2013-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans are frequently coexisting opportunistic pathogens, responsible for colonization and infection in predisposed patients. They share a virulence specificity relying on auto-inducing, cell density-dependent molecules named quorum-sensing (QS). C. albicans virulence depends on its QS that influences morphological switch from yeast to filamentous form. Similarly, the production of P. aeruginosa virulence factors depends partly on QS molecules. Interactions have been investigated and demonstrated in vitro. P. aeruginosa may kill C. albicans either by producing toxins, such as pyocyanin, or by direct contact on its biofilm-dependent filamentous form. Cross-kingdom communication is a more subtle interaction: C. albicans can adapt its morphology in the presence of P. aeruginosa QS molecules, and inhibit P. aeruginosa QS-dependent virulence factor secretion, through farnesol, one of its QS molecule. But the in vivo relevance of these interactions is still controversial, as models of airway colonization/infection by C. albicans followed by subsequent P. aeruginosa pneumonia give contradictory results, suggesting the probable involvement of the immune system as a third party player. Finally, the authors of clinical studies performed in ventilated patients, indicate that C. albicans colonization could be a risk factor for P. aeruginosa pneumonia. The clinical outcome of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa interaction is uncertain, the virulence modulation demonstrated in these interactions opens new possibilities for future anti-infectious therapeutics. PMID:23622953

  10. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Cécile; Cacaci, Margherita; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rattei, Thomas; Eder, Thomas; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Kalinowski, Jörn; Hain, Torsten; Hartke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis) by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. ?- and ?- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model. PMID:25978463

  11. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees. PMID:24485932

  12. Opportunistic macroalgae metrics for transitional waters. Testing tools to assess ecological quality status in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Patrício, J; Neto, J M; Teixeira, H; Marques, J C

    2007-12-01

    Macroalgae communities constitute one of the ecological quality elements for the evaluation of the ecological quality status (EQS) of coastal and transitional waters, required to implement the WFD. While these algae are natural components of estuarine systems and play important roles in several estuarine processes, macroalgal blooms are of ecological concern because they can reduce the habitat quality. Several works are being carried out to set standard methods for monitoring macroalgae blooms, in order to develop tools to derive EQS based upon this biological quality element. The aim of this paper is to apply the methodology described by Scanlan et al. [Scanlan, C.M., Foden, J., Wells, E., Best, M.A., 2007. The monitoring of opportunistic macroalgal blooms for the water framework directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55, 162-171] to a series of data assembled in the south arm of the Mondego estuary (Atlantic coast of Portugal) considering two different ecological situations. Additionally, an alternative assessment method intended to be used when no biomass data are available was also tested. In general, both options captured the inter-annual variations in accordance with the system evolution. Option 2, less expensive and time-consuming, allowed an EQS evaluation with accurate results when biomass data were not available. The results suggest that sampling should be carried out from April to June. PMID:17889036

  13. Opportunistic out-crossing in Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae), a predominantly self-fertilizing native tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sime, Karen R; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-01-01

    Background Although Nicotiana attenuata is entirely self-compatible, chemical and other floral traits suggest selection for the maintenance of advertisement for moth pollinators. Results Experimental exclusions of pollinators from plants with emasculated flowers in natural populations in southern Utah during an outbreak of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata revealed that 24% of the seed set could be attributed to insect pollination, and eliminated wind pollination and apomixis as contributing to seed set. Hence these moths can mediate gene flow when self-pollen is unavailable. To quantify gene flow when self-pollen is available, plants were transformed with two marker genes: hygromycin-B resistance and ?-glucuronidase. The utility of these genetic markers to measure gene flow between plants was examined by mixing pollen from plants homozygous for both genes with self-pollen in different ratios and hand-pollinating emasculated flowers of plants growing in a natural population. The proportion of transformed seeds was positively correlated with the amount of transformed pollen applied to stigmas. In glasshouse experiments with the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and experimental arrays of transformed and wild-type plants, pollination mediated by moths accounted for 2.5% of the seed set. Conclusions Even though moth pollination is rare and highly variable for this largely selfing plant, N. attenuata opportunistically employs a mixed-mating system. PMID:12866951

  14. Biolistic transformation of a fluorescent tagged gene into the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya; Bose, Indrani; Luckie, Taylor; Smith, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, an invasive opportunistic pathogen of the central nervous system, is the most frequent cause of fungal meningitis worldwide resulting in more than 625,000 deaths per year worldwide. Although electroporation has been developed for the transformation of plasmids in Cryptococcus, only biolistic delivery provides an effective means to transform linear DNA that can be integrated into the genome by homologous recombination.  Acetate has been shown to be a major fermentation product during cryptococcal infection, but the significance of this is not yet known. A bacterial pathway composed of the enzymes xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) and acetate kinase (Ack) is one of three potential pathways for acetate production in C. neoformans. Here, we demonstrate the biolistic transformation of a construct, which has the gene encoding Ack fused to the fluorescent tag mCherry, into C. neoformans. We then confirm integration of the ACK-mCherry fusion into the ACK locus. PMID:25867491

  15. Development of a rapid detection system for opportunistic pathogenic Cronobacter spp. in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jennifer; Schmidt, Herbert; Loessner, Martin J; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-09-01

    Certain species of the genus Cronobacter are considered opportunistic pathogens, but their detection in milk products according to ISO/TS 22964 may take up to six days. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive PCR-based detection system for these species including enrichment, DNA-isolation and detection by real-time PCR, using the outer membrane protein gene ompA as a target. The assay was successfully validated using type strains of the genus Cronobacter, as well as 18 strains of closely related genera as controls. A total of 40 Cronobacter spp. food isolates yielded positive results, while the food matrix itself did not influence the PCR reaction. An equal detection limit as achieved with the ISO/TS 22964 method was established in this study, when 0.01 CFU Cronobacter sakazakii DSM 4485(T) per gram powdered infant formula were successfully detected after 28 days of storage at ambient temperature. In comparison to the ISO/TS 22964 method, the method described here has an equal detection limit, but offers a specific detection at the genus level in an analysis time of 24 h. PMID:24929712

  16. Evaluation of zebrafish as a model to study the pathogenesis of the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter turicensis

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Alexander; Eshwar, Athmanya K; Neuhauss, Stephan CF; Ruetten, Maja; Lehner, Angelika; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of life-threatening systemic infections, primarily in premature, low-birth weight and/or immune-compromised neonates. Knowledge remains scarce regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease development. In this study, we evaluated the use of a zebrafish model to study the pathogenesis of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827T, a clinical isolate responsible for two fatal sepsis cases in neonates. Here, the microinjection of approximately 50 colony forming units (CFUs) into the yolk sac resulted in the rapid multiplication of bacteria and dissemination into the blood stream at 24 h post infection (hpi), followed by the development of a severe bacteremia and larval death within 3 days. In contrast, the innate immune response of the embryos was sufficiently developed to control infection after the intravenous injection of up to 104 CFUs of bacteria. Infection studies using an isogenic mutant devoid of surviving and replicating in human macrophages (?fkpA) showed that this strain was highly attenuated in its ability to kill the larvae. In addition, the suitability of the zebrafish model system to study the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat Cronobacter infections in zebrafish embryos was examined. Our data indicate that the zebrafish model represents an excellent vertebrate model to study virulence-related aspects of this opportunistic pathogen in vivo. PMID:26060602

  17. Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Machouart, M.; Larché, J.; Burton, K.; Collomb, J.; Maurer, P.; Cintrat, A.; Biava, M. F.; Greciano, S.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gérard, A.; Fortier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis. PMID:16517858

  18. Genetic identification of the main opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Machouart, M; Larché, J; Burton, K; Collomb, J; Maurer, P; Cintrat, A; Biava, M F; Greciano, S; Kuijpers, A F A; Contet-Audonneau, N; de Hoog, G S; Gérard, A; Fortier, B

    2006-03-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis. PMID:16517858

  19. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M.; Huls, M. Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated “D-CAR”) upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR+ T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR+ T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR+ T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR+ T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

  20. Propionibacterium acnes: from Commensal to Opportunistic Biofilm-Associated Implant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Coenye, Tom

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implantassociated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections. PMID:24982315

  1. Functional Characterization of the RNA Chaperone Hfq in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia. PMID:22923593

  2. New Zealand juvenile oyster mortality associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1-an opportunistic longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Keeling, S E; Brosnahan, C L; Williams, R; Gias, E; Hannah, M; Bueno, R; McDonald, W L; Johnston, C

    2014-07-01

    During the 2010-11 summer outbreak of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in New Zealand, an opportunistic longitudinal field study was conducted. OsHV-1 PCR-negative oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas) were relocated to an OsHV-1 PCR-positive area of the North Island of New Zealand that was experiencing juvenile oyster mortalities. Over a period of 13 d, spat were monitored for mortality, sampled for histopathology, and tested for the presence of OsHV-1 using real time PCR and Vibrio culture. Histopathology showed some evidence of tissue pathology; however, no consistent progressive pathology was apparent. Field mortalities were evident from Day 6 on. After 5 and 7 d of exposure, 83 and 100% of spat, respectively, tested positive for the virus by real time PCR. Vibrio species recovered during the longitudinal study included V. splendidus and V. aestuarianus. This study offers insight into the rapidity of onset and virulence of the virus in naïve oyster spat in New Zealand waters. PMID:24991849

  3. Evaluation of zebrafish as a model to study the pathogenesis of the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter turicensis.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Alexander; Eshwar, Athmanya K; Neuhauss, Stephan Cf; Ruetten, Maja; Lehner, Angelika; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2015-05-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of life-threatening systemic infections, primarily in premature, low-birth weight and/or immune-compromised neonates. Knowledge remains scarce regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease development. In this study, we evaluated the use of a zebrafish model to study the pathogenesis of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827(T), a clinical isolate responsible for two fatal sepsis cases in neonates. Here, the microinjection of approximately 50 colony forming units (CFUs) into the yolk sac resulted in the rapid multiplication of bacteria and dissemination into the blood stream at 24 h post infection (hpi), followed by the development of a severe bacteremia and larval death within 3 days. In contrast, the innate immune response of the embryos was sufficiently developed to control infection after the intravenous injection of up to 10(4) CFUs of bacteria. Infection studies using an isogenic mutant devoid of surviving and replicating in human macrophages (?fkpA) showed that this strain was highly attenuated in its ability to kill the larvae. In addition, the suitability of the zebrafish model system to study the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat Cronobacter infections in zebrafish embryos was examined. Our data indicate that the zebrafish model represents an excellent vertebrate model to study virulence-related aspects of this opportunistic pathogen in vivo. PMID:26060602

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  5. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  6. Ten Common NWP Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-05-02

    This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

  7. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ... Z: Genu Varum In-toeing & Out-toeing in Toddlers Blount Disease Bones, Muscles, and Joints Should I ...

  8. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  9. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  10. Common Knowledge and Convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Sillari

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the epistemic assumptions that David Lewis makes in his account of social conventions. In particular,\\u000a I focus on the assumption that the agents have common knowledge of the convention to which they are parties. While evolutionary\\u000a analyses show that the common knowledge assumption is unnecessary in certain classes of games, Lewis’ original account (and,\\u000a more recently, Cubitt

  11. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc; Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Iii, Joseph O Falkinham; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0-15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L) and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs)] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium) were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs). The SGWHs were operated at 32-37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate) conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC) and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89). Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points) and over a limited TOC range (0-1000 µg/L), no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26066310

  12. What It Takes to Be a Pseudomonas aeruginosa? The Core Genome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Updated

    PubMed Central

    Valot, Benoît; Guyeux, Christophe; Rolland, Julien Yves; Mazouzi, Kamel; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen able to thrive in highly diverse ecological niches and to infect compromised patients. Its genome exhibits a mosaic structure composed of a core genome into which accessory genes are inserted en bloc at specific sites. The size and the content of the core genome are open for debate as their estimation depends on the set of genomes considered and the pipeline of gene detection and clustering. Here, we redefined the size and the content of the core genome of P. aeruginosa from fully re-analyzed genomes of 17 reference strains. After the optimization of gene detection and clustering parameters, the core genome was defined at 5,233 orthologs, which represented ~ 88% of the average genome. Extrapolation indicated that our panel was suitable to estimate the core genome that will remain constant even if new genomes are added. The core genome contained resistance determinants to the major antibiotic families as well as most metabolic, respiratory, and virulence genes. Although some virulence genes were accessory, they often related to conserved biological functions. Long-standing prophage elements were subjected to a genetic drift to eventually display a G+C content as higher as that of the core genome. This contrasts with the low G+C content of highly conserved ribosomal genes. The conservation of metabolic and respiratory genes could guarantee the ability of the species to thrive on a variety of carbon sources for energy in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Virtually all the strains, of environmental or clinical origin, have the complete toolkit to become resistant to the major antipseudomonal compounds and possess basic pathogenic mechanisms to infect humans. The knowledge of the genes shared by the majority of the P. aeruginosa isolates is a prerequisite for designing effective therapeutics to combat the wide variety of human infections. PMID:25961859

  13. Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailas, Aravind

    Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions of this research, namely, OLA with transmission threshold (OLA-T) and alternating OLA-T (A-OLA-T), offer an signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) advantage (i.e., benefits of diversity and array (power) gains) in a multi-path fading environment, thereby reducing transmit powers or extending range. Because these protocols do not address nodes individually, the network overhead remains constant for high density networks or nodes with mobility. During broadcasting across energy-constrained networks, while OLA-T saves energy by limiting node participation within a single broadcast, A-OLA-T optimizes over multiple broadcasts and drains the nodes in an equitable fashion. A major bottleneck for network sustainability is the ability of a rechargeable battery (RB) to store energy, which is limited by the number of charge-discharge cycles. Energy harvesting using a HESS that comprises a RB and a supercapacitor (SC) will minimize the RB usage, thereby preserving the charge-discharge cycles. Studying the HESS is important, rather than the SC-alone because while an SC with harvested energy may be sufficient for routine monitoring, if there is an alert, the RB could be used as necessary to support the heavier reporting requirements. Therefore, another key contribution of this research is the design and analysis of a novel routing metric called communications using HESS (CHESS), which extends the RB-life by relaying exclusively with SC energy.

  14. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L) and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs)] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium) were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs). The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate) conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC) and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89). Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points) and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L), no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26066310

  15. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  16. Common-place

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

  17. In Vitro Activity of the New Triazole Voriconazole (UK109,496) against Opportunistic Filamentous and Dimorphic Fungi and Common and Emerging Yeast Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 67 isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bipolaris spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pseudallescheria boydii, Rhizopus arrhizus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, His- toplasma capsulatum, and Sporothrix schenckii. The in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin B,

  18. Cassia alata and the preclinical search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Crockett, C O; Guede-Guina, F; Pugh, D; Vangah-Manda, M; Robinson, T J; Olubadewo, J O; Ochillo, R F

    1992-11-01

    In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of opportunistic infections in patients afflicted with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we investigated antibacterial and antifungal activities of water extracts of Cassia alata (C. alata). The extracts are traditionally used in Ivory Coast, West Africa to treat bacterial infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), and fungal infections caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) and dermatophytes. Our working hypothesis was that the extract contains active ingredient(s) which can be isolated, identified and developed into useful antibacterial/antifungal agents for the treatment of opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. We used the broth dilution and agar dilution methods. Specifically, we focused on E. coli and C. albicans and the effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated relative to those of standard antibacterial agent chloramphenicol and antifungal agent amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the water extract of C. alata against E. coli were 1.6 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, respectively; corresponding data for chloramphenicol were 2 micrograms/ml and 10 micrograms/ml. Similarly, the MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extract against C. albicans were 0.39 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml in contrast to 0.58 micrograms/ml and 0.98 micrograms/ml for amphotericin B. From the dose-response curve plots, the extract had an IC50 of 31 mg/ml for E. coli and 28 mg/ml for C. albicans. The data suggest that C. alata extracts contain agent(s) which have therapeutic potential and might be useful if isolated and developed for the treatment of opportunistic infections of AIDS patients. PMID:1472906

  19. Cassia alata and the preclinical search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Crockett, C O; Guede-Guina, F; Pugh, D; Vangah-Manda, M; Robinson, T J; Olubadewo, J O; Ochillo, R F

    1992-08-01

    In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of opportunistic infections in patients afflicted with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we investigated antibacterial and antifungal activities of water extracts of Cassia alata (C. alata). The extracts are traditionally used in Ivory Coast, West Africa to treat bacterial infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), and fungal infections caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) and dermatophytes. Our working hypothesis was that the extract contains active ingredient(s) which can be isolated, identified and developed into useful antimicrobial/antifungal agents for the treatment of opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. We used the broth dilution and agar dilution methods. Specifically, we focused on E. coli and C. albicans and the effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated relative to those of standard antibacterial agent chloramphenicol and antifungal agent amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the water extract of C. alata against E. coli were 1.6 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml respectively; corresponding data for chloramphenicol were 2 ug/ml. Similarly, the MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extract against C. albicans were 0.39 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml in contrast to 0.58 ug/ml and 0.98 ug/ml for amphotericin B. From the dose-response curve plots, the extract had an IC50 of 31 mg/ml for E. coli and 28 mg/ml for C. albicans. The data suggest that C. alata extracts contain agent(s) which have therapeutic potential and might be useful if isolated and developed for the treatment of opportunistic infections of AIDS patients. PMID:1468110

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  1. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  2. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  3. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  4. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  5. COMMON LISP: The language

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input/output; file system interface; and errors.

  6. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  7. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  8. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  9. COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NGUYEN VAN EM

    Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

  10. COMMONS\\/COMMODITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bingchun Meng; Fei Wu

    2012-01-01

    The development of digital technology and computer networks has enabled many kinds of online collaboration. This article examines Zimuzu, a Chinese case of online peer production that produces and distributes online Chinese subtitles of foreign media content. Zimuzu provides an opportunity to extend our understanding of how the tensions between the commodity and commons production models are being articulated in

  11. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  12. CISNET: Common Input Generators

    Cancer.gov

    For purposes of generating common parameters for the larger CISNET simulation models, a series of smaller, focused models was created in collaboration between the CISNET consortium members and NCI. These parameter generators are "mini models" in themselves in that they involve input data, processing guided by assumptions, and produce results.

  13. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Resources Basic Information Fast Facts Common Eye Disorders Eye Health Tips Burden of Vision Loss Comorbid Conditions Health Across Lifespan ... Division of Diabetes Translation , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social ...

  14. Reproductive endocrinology of a free-living, opportunistically breeding passerine (white-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera).

    PubMed

    Deviche, P; Sharp, P J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, in a free-living opportunistic breeder, the White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), the degree to which annual changes in photoperiod and differences in the timing of breeding in different years correlate with the secretion of reproductive hormones. Seasonal changes in concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin were compared in White-winged Crossbills in interior Alaska (64 degrees 50'N, 147 degrees 50'W) in plasma samples taken in May-December 1994 and July 1998-August 1999. The birds were in breeding condition in May-July 1994 and in February-April 1999. Additional observations were made on plasma testosterone (T) in males in 1998/1999. In 1998, in adult males, plasma LH and T were low in September-October (LH: <0.4 ng/ml; T: undetectable) and increased significantly in November (LH: 3.65 +/- 2.20 ng/ml) and December (T: 0.69 +/- 0.88 ng/ml). Thereafter, plasma T increased to 2.35 +/- 2.03 ng/ml in March/April and returned to basal levels by June/July. In 1998/1999, in females, plasma LH did not change seasonally. In males in 1994, plasma LH was higher in June (2.15 +/- 1.22 ng/ml) and July (2.86 +/- 0.69 ng/ml) than in the same period in 1999 (June: 1.20 +/- 1.82 ng/ml; July: 1.37 +/- 1.03 ng/ml), which is consistent with the later breeding season in 1994. In 1994 and 1998/1999 in both sexes, concentrations of plasma prolactin were elevated when day lengths exceeded about 12 h, being high during late spring to early fall (males: 40-130 ng/ml; females: 40-140 ng/ml) and low during winter (<15 ng/ml in both sexes). In 1994 and 1998, molt occurred during the fall, at a time when breeding did not occur, although conifer seeds were sufficiently abundant to support a large bird population. These data are consistent with the view that White-winged Crossbills have the potential to breed at all times of the year except when molting in the fall. It is likely that a photoinduced increase in prolactin secretion is a factor that induces molt. Crossbills may not breed when they are molting because of increased metabolic demands for feather formation and for the maintenance of basal metabolism at a time of year when ambient temperatures fall well below 0 degrees. Alternatively or in addition, the birds may become reproductively photorefractory. PMID:11589628

  15. Identification of Patients with RAG Mutations Previously Diagnosed with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Buchbinder, David; Baker, Rebecca; Lee, Yu Nee; Ravell, Juan; Zhang, Yu; McElwee, Joshua; Nugent, Diane; Coonrod, Emily M.; Durtschi, Jacob D.; Augustine, Nancy H.; Voelkerding, Karl V.; Csomos, Krisztian; Rosen, Lindsey; Browne, Sarah; Walter, Jolan E.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Hill, Harry R.; Kumánovics, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combined immunodeficiency (CID) presents a unique challenge to clinicians. Two patients presented with the prior clinical diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) disorder marked by an early age of presentation, opportunistic infections, and persistent lymphopenia. Due to the presence of atypical clinical features, next generation sequencing was applied documenting RAG deficiency in both patients. Methods Two different genetic analysis techniques were applied in these patients including whole exome sequencing in one patient and the use of a gene panel designed to target genes known to cause primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) in a second patient. Sanger dideoxy sequencing was used to confirm RAG1 mutations in both patients. Results Two young adults with a history of recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, viral infections, and autoimmune disease as well as progressive hypogammaglobulinemia, abnormal antibody responses, lymphopenia and a prior diagnosis of CVID disorder were evaluated. Compound heterozygous mutations in RAG1 (1) c256_257delAA, p86VfsX32 and (2) c1835A>G, pH612R were documented in one patient. Compound heterozygous mutations in RAG1 (1) c.1566G>T, p.W522C and (2) c.2689C>T, p. R897X) were documented in a second patient post-mortem following a fatal opportunistic infection. Conclusion Astute clinical judgment in the evaluation of patients with PIDD is necessary. Atypical clinical findings such as early onset, granulomatous disease, or opportunistic infections should support the consideration of atypical forms of late onset CID secondary to RAG deficiency. Next generation sequencing approaches provide powerful tools in the investigation of these patients and may expedite definitive treatments. PMID:25516070

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Common Compound Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frederick A. Senese

    This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

  18. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  19. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  20. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  1. Digital Resource Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".

  2. Opportunistic testing for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in south-western Switzerland, 2012: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A; Greub, G; Jaton, K; Petignat, C; Ambord, C; Fellay, J; Masserey, E; Spencer, B

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of opportunistic screening of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis was assessed in a cross-sectional study in 2012, in two cantons of south-western Switzerland: Vaud and Valais. Sexually active persons younger than 30 years, not tested for C. trachomatis in the last three months, were invited for free C. trachomatis testing by PCR in urine or self-applied vaginal swabs. Of 2,461 consenting participants, 1,899 (77%) were women and all but six (0.3%) submitted a sample. Forty-seven per cent of female and 25% of male participants were younger than 20 years. Overall, 134 (5.5%) of 2,455 tested participants had a positive result and were followed up. Seven per cent of all candidates for screening were not invited, 10% of invited candidates were not eligible, 15% of the eligible candidates declined participation, 5% of tested participants testing positive were not treated, 29% of those treated were not retested after six months and 9% of those retested were positive for C. trachomatis. Opportunistic C. trachomatis testing proved technically feasible and acceptable, at least if free of charge. Men and peripheral rural regions were more difficult to reach. Efforts to increase testing and decrease dropout at all stages of the screening procedure are necessary. PMID:25764187

  3. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    PubMed

    Babi?, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. PMID:25749362

  4. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    PubMed

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus. PMID:23033786

  5. Commonly used gastrointestinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the spectrum and mechanisms of neurologic adverse effects of commonly used gastrointestinal drugs including antiemetics, promotility drugs, laxatives, antimotility drugs, and drugs for acid-related disorders. The commonly used gastrointestinal drugs as a group are considered safe and are widely used. A range of neurologic complications are reported following use of various gastrointestinal drugs. Acute neurotoxicities, including transient akathisias, oculogyric crisis, delirium, seizures, and strokes, can develop after use of certain gastrointestinal medications, while disabling and pervasive tardive syndromes are described following long-term and often unsupervised use of phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and other drugs. In rare instances, some of the antiemetics can precipitate life-threatening extrapyramidal reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or serotonin syndrome. In contrast, concerns about the cardiovascular toxicity of drugs such as cisapride and tegaserod have been grave enough to lead to their withdrawal from many world markets. Awareness and recognition of the neurotoxicity of gastrointestinal drugs is essential to help weigh the benefit of their use against possible adverse effects, even if uncommon. Furthermore, as far as possible, drugs such as metoclopramide and others that can lead to tardive dyskinesias should be used for as short time as possible, with close clinical monitoring and patient education. PMID:24365343

  6. Liquidity commonality beyond best prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kempf; Daniel Mayston

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the commonality of liquidity in an open limit order book market. We find that commonality in liquidity becomes stronger the deeper we look into the limit order book. While commonality is only about 2% at the best prices, it increases up to about 20% inside the limit order book. Furthermore, we find strong time variation in commonality

  7. COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction

    E-print Network

    Reed, Nancy E.

    COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction to Symbolic Computation #12;COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Touretzky, David S. Common LISP : a gentle introduction to symbolic computation / David S. Touretzky p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-8053-0492-4 1. COMMON LISP

  8. COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction

    E-print Network

    Touretzky, David S.

    COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction to Symbolic Computation #12; COMMON LISP: A Gentle Introduction. Library of Congress Cataloging­in­Publication Data Touretzky, David S. Common LISP : a gentle introduction to symbolic computation / David S. Touretzky p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0­8053­0492­4 1. COMMON LISP

  9. Common cutaneous parasites.

    PubMed

    Markova, Alina; Kam, Sarah A; Miller, Daniel D; Lichtman, Michael K

    2014-09-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of Common Cutaneous Parasites focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, practice improvement, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult http://smartmedicine.acponline.org, http://mksap.acponline.org, and other resources referenced in each issue of In the Clinic. PMID:25178582

  10. National PTA Common Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

  11. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B against Opportunistic Moniliaceous and Dematiaceous Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

    2001-01-01

    The NCCLS proposed standard M38-P describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds); however, standard conditions are not available for testing their fungicidal activities (minimum fungicidal or lethal concentrations (MFCs)). This study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against 260 common and emerging

  12. Risk assessment of the schmutzdecke of biosand filters: identification of an opportunistic pathogen in schmutzdecke developed by an unsafe water source.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Min Seo; Shin, Soo Min; Hwang, Cher Won

    2014-02-01

    The biosand filter (BSF) is widely applied in developing counties as an appropriate technology-based product for supplying "safe" water. Biosand filters exhibit relatively high purifying efficiency because of the schmutzdecke (biofilm) embedded in them. However, schmutzdecke should be cleaned or discarded on a regular basis to maintain the purifying efficiency of the BSF. Due to its role in BSFs, the purifying function of schmutzdecke, rather than its potential risk when not properly discarded, has so far been the primary focus of research. This study aims to provide a risk assessment of schmutzdecke in an attempt to draw attention to a wholly new angle of schmutzdecke usage. We conducted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to identify opportunistic pathogens in schmutzdecke developed using water from the Hyung-San River. The results reveal that the schmutzdecke derived from this water source contains diverse and relatively high portions of opportunistic pathogen strains; 55% of all isolates collected from schmutzdecke were identified as opportunistic pathogens. Moreover, the diversity of microorganisms is increased in the schmutzdecke compared to its water source in terms of diversity of genus, phylum and opportunistic pathogen strain. As a whole, our study indicates a potential risk associated with schmutzdecke and the necessity of a solid guideline for the after-treatment of discarded schmutzdecke. PMID:24534769

  13. AUTOMATED TARGET SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC ROVER SCIENCE R. Castano, T. Estlin, D. Gaines, A. Castano, B. Bornstein, C. Chouinard, R. C. Anderson, and M. Judd,

    E-print Network

    AUTOMATED TARGET SELECTION FOR OPPORTUNISTIC ROVER SCIENCE R. Castano, T. Estlin, D. Gaines, A 91109, rebecca.castano@jpl.nasa.gov. Introduction: A number of remote sensing instruments on rovers have that targets can only be selected based on the rover site at the beginning of an upload command sequence (for

  14. InProc.oftheTheFullyNetworkedCarWorkshop,GenevaInternationalMotorShow,Geneva,Switzerland,March34,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links

    E-print Network

    applications, based on satellite communication links (i.e., LEO/MEO satellite constellations). In such scenario,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links for Safety Applications A.M. Vegni1 , C. Vegni2 , and T, Boston, MA tdcl@ bu.edu Satellite radio is one of a complementary set of network connectivity

  15. ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for Wireless Networks The paper proposes a new protocol ExOR providing MAC and routing functionality for over

    E-print Network

    Akella, Aditya

    ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for Wireless Networks The paper proposes a new protocol Ex network utilization over multi-hop wireless networks. The basic technique proposed in the paper is to use hop-by-hop routing selection for packets. The sender broadcasts a batch of packets to the nodes

  16. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  17. Dual roles of an algal farming damselfish as a cultivator and opportunistic browser of an invasive seaweed.

    PubMed

    Peyton, Kimberly A; Valentino, Lauren M; Maruska, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process determining reef resilience, and while algal farming damselfishes can help shape benthic assemblages, an understanding of their contribution to areas outside of defended territories is relatively unexplored. Here, we demonstrate how the farming damselfish Stegastes marginatus plays a dual role in benthic structuring by 1) contributing to persistence of the invasive macroalga Acanthophora spicifera within a Hawaiian marine protected area, where the macroalga occurred exclusively inside Stegastes territories, and 2) behaving as an opportunistic browser of the exotic alga outside their territorial borders. Greater than 50% of the biomass of tethered A. spicifera was consumed within one-hour when placed outside Stegastes territories, compared to <5% lost from tethers within territories or herbivore exclusion cages. In situ remote video revealed that tethered A. spicifera located outside territories was grazed primarily by the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus (?68% of total bites) and, surprisingly, by S. marginatus (?27% of total bites) that left their territories to feed on this resource on 107 occasions during 400 min of filming. Further, for over half of those occurrences where S. marginatus grazed on the tethered macroalga outside of territories, they fed alongside conspecifics and other species, displaying little of the aggressiveness that characterizes this damselfish. These results show that S. marginatus plays a wider role in determining benthic assemblages than previously recognized, acting both as cultivators of a canopy-forming invasive macroalga within their territories, and as opportunistic browsers in neighboring sites. Consequently, S. marginatus can affect benthic species composition across their territory borders. These results provide a rare example of interspecific facilitation of an exotic alga by an indigenous marine fish. Accounting for fish behaviors more broadly is important to further our understanding of ecological processes that shape reef ecosystems to improve management of MPAs that often support extensive farming damselfish populations. PMID:25329385

  18. Dual Roles of an Algal Farming Damselfish as a Cultivator and Opportunistic Browser of an Invasive Seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Kimberly A.; Valentino, Lauren M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process determining reef resilience, and while algal farming damselfishes can help shape benthic assemblages, an understanding of their contribution to areas outside of defended territories is relatively unexplored. Here, we demonstrate how the farming damselfish Stegastes marginatus plays a dual role in benthic structuring by 1) contributing to persistence of the invasive macroalga Acanthophora spicifera within a Hawaiian marine protected area, where the macroalga occurred exclusively inside Stegastes territories, and 2) behaving as an opportunistic browser of the exotic alga outside their territorial borders. Greater than 50% of the biomass of tethered A. spicifera was consumed within one-hour when placed outside Stegastes territories, compared to <5% lost from tethers within territories or herbivore exclusion cages. In situ remote video revealed that tethered A. spicifera located outside territories was grazed primarily by the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus (?68% of total bites) and, surprisingly, by S. marginatus (?27% of total bites) that left their territories to feed on this resource on 107 occasions during 400 min of filming. Further, for over half of those occurrences where S. marginatus grazed on the tethered macroalga outside of territories, they fed alongside conspecifics and other species, displaying little of the aggressiveness that characterizes this damselfish. These results show that S. marginatus plays a wider role in determining benthic assemblages than previously recognized, acting both as cultivators of a canopy-forming invasive macroalga within their territories, and as opportunistic browsers in neighboring sites. Consequently, S. marginatus can affect benthic species composition across their territory borders. These results provide a rare example of interspecific facilitation of an exotic alga by an indigenous marine fish. Accounting for fish behaviors more broadly is important to further our understanding of ecological processes that shape reef ecosystems to improve management of MPAs that often support extensive farming damselfish populations. PMID:25329385

  19. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  20. Common childhood viral infections.

    PubMed

    Alter, Sherman J; Bennett, Jeffrey S; Koranyi, Katylin; Kreppel, Andrew; Simon, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Infections caused by viruses are universal during childhood and adolescence. Clinicians will regularly care for children and adolescents who present with infections caused by a wide number of viral pathogens. These infections have varied presentations. Many infections may have clinical presentations that are specific to the infecting virus but present differently, based on the age and immunocompetence of the patient. Some children are directly impacted early in their lives when maternal disease results in an in utero infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, or parvovirus B19). Other viruses may infect children in a predictable pattern as they grow older (rhinovirus or influenza virus). Fortunately, many viral infections frequently encountered in the past are no longer extant due to widespread immunization efforts. Recognition of these vaccine-preventable infections is important because outbreaks of some of these diseases (mumps or measles) continue to occur in the United States. Vigilance in vaccine programs against these viral agents can prevent their re-emergence. In addition, an increasing number of viral infections (herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, varicella zoster virus, or cytomegalovirus) can now be successfully treated with antiviral medications. Most viral infections in children result in self-limited illness and are treated symptomatically and infected children experience full recovery. This review will address the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections commonly encountered by the clinician. PMID:25703483

  1. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

  2. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  3. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. Common Knowledge Revisited Ronald Fagin

    E-print Network

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    Science Rice University Houston, TX 77005-1892 vardi@cs.rice.edu Abstract: We consider the common was at the IBM Almaden Research Center. Author's URL: http://www.cs.rice.edu/¨ vardi #12;convention that green means "go" and red means "stop" is presumably common knowledge among the drivers in our society.) Common

  5. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  6. Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xie, Zhenxing; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of the Peyer’s patches play a key role in the development of the mucosal immune, but their population composition has been ignored. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the changes in the composition of indigenous opportunistic bacteria in the Peyer’s patches are associated with obesity. C57BL/6J-male mice had been fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet. After 25 weeks, mice in high-fat diet exhibit either an obesity-prone (OP) or an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. Control diet group (CT) and OR group had a significant larger bacteria diversity than that in the OP group. Allobaculum and Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in high-fat diet induced OP mice compared with CT and OR mice, whereas Rhizobium and Lactococcus was significantly increased. The result of quantitative real-time PCR was consistent with that of 454 pyrosequencing. Significant correlations between mRNA expression of inflammation marks and the top 5 abundance genera bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches were observed by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Taken together, the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches plays a major role in the development of inflammation for an occurrence of obesity. PMID:25320459

  7. Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) and Preliminary Mode of Action Studies of 3-Substituted Benzylthioquinolinium Iodide as Anti-opportunistic Infection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bolden, Sidney; Zhu, Xue Y.; Etukala, Jagan R; Boateng, Comfort; Mazu, Tryphon; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are devastating to immunocompromised patients. And in especially sub-Saharan Africa where the AIDS epidemic is still raging, the mortality rate was recently as high as 70%. The paucity of anti-opportunistic drugs, the decreasing efficacy and the development of resistance against the azoles and even amphotericin B have stimulated the search for new drugs with new mechanisms of action. In a previous work, we showed that a new chemotype derived from the natural product cryptolepine displayed selective toxicity against opportunistic pathogens with minimal cytotoxicity to normal cells. In this manuscript, we report the design and synthesis of substituted benzylthioquinolinium iodides, evaluated their anti-infective properties and formulated some initial structure-activity relationships around phenyl ring A from the original natural product. The sensitivity of the most potent analog 10l, to selected strains of C. cerevisiae was also evaluated leading to the observation that this scaffold may have a different mode of action from its predecessor, cryptolepine. PMID:24141203

  8. A Five-Year Survey of Dematiaceous Fungi in a Tropical Hospital Reveals Potential Opportunistic Species

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-01-01

    Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi) are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%), voriconazole (90.7%), ketoconazole (86.7%) and itraconazole (85.3%) showed in vitro activity (MIC ?1 µg/mL) to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%), caspofungin (74.7%) and amphotericin B (70.7%). Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3%) of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL) to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae) showed potential multidrug resistance. PMID:25098697

  9. Exploring the Unique N-Glycome of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Acanthamoeba*

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Birgit; Makrypidi, Georgia; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Paschinger, Katharina; Walochnik, Julia; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Glycans play key roles in host-pathogen interactions; thus, knowing the N-glycomic repertoire of a pathogen can be helpful in deciphering its methods of establishing and sustaining a disease. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the glycomic potential of the facultative amoebal parasite Acanthamoeba. This is the first study of its asparagine-linked glycans, for which we applied biochemical tools and various approaches of mass spectrometry. An initial glycomic screen of eight strains from five genotypes of this human pathogen suggested, in addition to the common eukaryotic oligomannose structures, the presence of pentose and deoxyhexose residues on their N-glycans. A more detailed analysis was performed on the N-glycans of a genotype T11 strain (4RE); fractionation by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometric analyses indicated the presence of a novel mannosylfucosyl modification of the reducing terminal core as well as phosphorylation of mannose residues, methylation of hexose and various forms of pentosylation. The largest N-glycan in the 4RE strain contained two N-acetylhexosamine, thirteen hexose, one fucose, one methyl, and two pentose residues; however, in this and most other strains analyzed, glycans with compositions of Hex8–9HexNAc2Pnt0–1 tended to dominate in terms of abundance. Although no correlation between pathogenicity and N-glycan structure can be proposed, highly unusual structures in this facultative parasite can be found which are potential virulence factors or therapeutic targets. PMID:23139421

  10. Clinical Significance of Filamentous Basidiomycetes Illustrated by Isolates of the Novel Opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the Human Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P.; Gaur, S. N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

  11. Cyclists' red-light running behaviours: an examination of risk-taking, opportunistic, and law-obeying behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chih-Wei; Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Literature has suggested that bicyclists' red-light violations (RLVs) tend not to cause accidents although RLV is a frequent and typical bicyclist's behaviour. High association between bicyclist RLVs and accidents were, however, revealed in Taiwan. The current research explores bicyclists' RLVs by classifying crossing behaviours into three distinct manners: risk-taking, opportunistic, and law-obeying. Other variables, as well as bicyclists' crossing behaviours, were captured through the use of video cameras that were installed at selected intersections in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. Considering the unobserved heterogeneity, this research develops a mixed logit model of bicyclists' three distinct crossing behaviours. Several variables (pupils in uniform, speed limit with 60km/h) appear to have heterogeneous effects, lending support to the use of mixed logit models in bicyclist RLV research. Several factors were found to significantly increase the likelihood of bicyclists' risky behaviours, most notably: intersections with short red-light duration, T/Y intersections, when riders were pupils in uniform, when riders were riding electric bicycles, when riders were unhelmeted. Implications of the research findings, and the concluding remarks, are finally provided. PMID:24172086

  12. Network analysis suggests a potentially ‘evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A.; Forney, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only ‘non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially ‘evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the ‘confrontation' between the ‘evil' alliance and ‘benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  13. Network analysis suggests a potentially 'evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sam Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A; Forney, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only 'non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially 'evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the 'confrontation' between the 'evil' alliance and 'benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  14. Mechanistic Insights into Elastin Degradation by Pseudolysin, the Major Virulence Factor of the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Ran, Li-Yuan; Li, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Su, Hai-Nan; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Pseudolysin is the most abundant protease secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the major extracellular virulence factor of this opportunistic human pathogen. Pseudolysin destroys human tissues by solubilizing elastin. However, the mechanisms by which pseudolysin binds to and degrades elastin remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of pseudolysin on elastin binding and degradation by biochemical assay, microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. Pseudolysin bound to bovine elastin fibers and preferred to attack peptide bonds with hydrophobic residues at the P1 and P1' positions in the hydrophobic domains of elastin. The time-course degradation processes of both bovine elastin fibers and cross-linked human tropoelastin by pseudolysin were further investigated by microscopy. Altogether, the results indicate that elastin degradation by pseudolysin began with the hydrophobic domains on the fiber surface, followed by the progressive disassembly of macroscopic elastin fibers into primary structural elements. Moreover, our site-directed mutational results indicate that five hydrophobic residues in the S1-S1' sub-sites played key roles in the binding of pseudolysin to elastin. This study sheds lights on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:25905792

  15. Benzothieno[3,2-b]quinolinium and 3-(Phenylthio)quinolinium Compounds: Synthesis and Evaluation against Opportunistic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Boateng, Comfort A.; Eyunni, Suresh V. K.; Zhu, Xue Y.; Etukala, Jagan R.; Bricker, Barbara A.; Ashfaq, M. K.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Walker, Larry A.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2010-01-01

    Substitution around 5-methyl benzothieno[3,2-b]quinolinium (2) ring system was explored in order to identify positions of substitution that could improve its antifungal profile. The 3-methoxy (10b) was active against C. albicans, C. neoformans and A. fumigatus and the 4-chloro (10f) analog showed moderate increases in anti-cryptococcal and anti-aspergillus activities. The effectiveness of 10b and 10f were validated in murine models of candidiasis and cryptococcosis respectively. The efficacy of 10f in reducing brain cryptococcal infection and its observation in the brain of mice injected with this quaternary compound confirm the capacity of these compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier of mice. Overall, several of the chloro and methoxy substituted compounds showed significant improvements in activity against A. fumigatus, the fungal pathogen prevalent in patients receiving organ transplant. Opening the benzothiophene ring of 2 to form 1-(5-cyclohexylpentyl)-3-(phenylthio)quinolinium compound (3) resulted in the identification of several novel compounds with over 50-fold increases in potency (cf 2) while retaining low cytotoxicities. Thus, compound 3 constitutes a new scaffold for development of drugs against opportunistic infections. PMID:21134759

  16. Seasonal changes in brain GnRH immunoreactivity and song-control nuclei volumes in an opportunistically breeding songbird.

    PubMed

    MacDougall-Shackleton, S A; Deviche, P J; Crain, R D; Ball, G F; Hahn, T P

    2001-01-01

    White-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera) are opportunistic breeders that can nest at almost any time of year if there is sufficient food. Other cardueline finches that have been shown to breed on a strictly seasonal schedule become absolutely refractory to the stimulatory effects of long-day photoperiod, dramatically down-regulate hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and reduce the volume of several song-control nuclei in autumn. This study examined whether changes in photoperiod modify the GnRH and song-control systems in white-winged crossbills. Adult male and female crossbills were captured and held on a naturally changing photoperiod. Brains of male and female birds were collected in May, October, and January. GnRH content was assessed by immunocytochemistry and the volumes of Nissl-defined song-control nuclei (HVc, Area X, and the robust nucleus of the archistriatum) were reconstructed. In contrast to other cardueline finches, GnRH immunoreactivity was relatively stable across the year, exhibiting only modest seasonal variation. The song control system, on the other hand, exhibited large seasonal changes as well as sex differences. Thus, crossbills appear to maintain hypothalamic GnRH content year round, perhaps to facilitate a rapid response to favorable breeding conditions, even on short days. However, song control nuclei are dramatically affected by photoperiod. Future work should examine these systems in crossbills breeding on short days to compare photoperiod-dependent and -independent effects on neural plasticity. PMID:11799277

  17. Network-assisted genetic dissection of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanhae; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Maeng, Shinae; Chen, Ying-Lien; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Sohyun; Janbon, Guilhem; Kim, Taeyup; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus that causes meningoencephalitis. Due to the increasing global risk of cryptococcosis and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, the development of predictive genetics platforms for the rapid identification of novel genes governing pathogenicity and drug resistance of C. neoformans is imperative. The analysis of functional genomics data and genome-scale mutant libraries may facilitate the genetic dissection of such complex phenotypes but with limited efficiency. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network for C. neoformans, CryptoNet, which covers ~81% of the coding genome and provides an efficient intermediary between functional genomics data and reverse-genetics resources for the genetic dissection of C. neoformans phenotypes. CryptoNet is the first genome-scale co-functional network for any fungal pathogen. CryptoNet effectively identified novel genes for pathogenicity and drug resistance using guilt-by-association and context-associated hub algorithms. CryptoNet is also the first genome-scale co-functional network for fungi in the basidiomycota phylum, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the ascomycota phylum. CryptoNet may therefore provide insights into pathway evolution between two distinct phyla of the fungal kingdom. The CryptoNet web server (www.inetbio.org/cryptonet) is a public resource that provides an interactive environment of network-assisted predictive genetics for C. neoformans. PMID:25739925

  18. Lectins from opportunistic bacteria interact with acquired variable-region glycans of surface immunoglobulin in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Dunja; Dühren-von Minden, Marcus; Alkhatib, Alabbas; Setz, Corinna; van Bergen, Cornelis A. M.; Benkißer-Petersen, Marco; Wilhelm, Isabel; Villringer, Sarah; Krysov, Sergey; Packham, Graham; Zirlik, Katja; Römer, Winfried; Buske, Christian; Stevenson, Freda K.; Veelken, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is a key feature of most B-cell lymphomas, but the mechanisms of BCR signal induction and the involvement of autoantigen recognition remain unclear. In follicular lymphoma (FL) B cells, BCR expression is retained despite a chromosomal translocation that links the antiapoptotic gene BCL2 to the regulatory elements of immunoglobulin genes, thereby disrupting 1 heavy-chain allele. A remarkable feature of FL-BCRs is the acquisition of potential N-glycosylation sites during somatic hypermutation. The introduced glycans carry mannose termini, which create potential novel binding sites for mannose-specific lectins. Here, we investigated the effect of N-linked variable-region glycosylation for BCR interaction with cognate antigen and with lectins of different origins. N-glycans were found to severely impair BCR specificity and affinity to the initial cognate antigen. In addition, we found that lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia bind and stimulate FL cells. Human exposure to these bacteria can occur by contact with soil and water. In addition, they represent opportunistic pathogens in susceptible hosts. Understanding the role of bacterial lectins might elucidate the pathogenesis of FL and establish novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25784678

  19. Network-assisted genetic dissection of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanhae; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Maeng, Shinae; Chen, Ying-Lien; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Sohyun; Janbon, Guilhem; Kim, Taeyup; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus that causes meningoencephalitis. Due to the increasing global risk of cryptococcosis and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, the development of predictive genetics platforms for the rapid identification of novel genes governing pathogenicity and drug resistance of C. neoformans is imperative. The analysis of functional genomics data and genome-scale mutant libraries may facilitate the genetic dissection of such complex phenotypes but with limited efficiency. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network for C. neoformans, CryptoNet, which covers ~81% of the coding genome and provides an efficient intermediary between functional genomics data and reverse-genetics resources for the genetic dissection of C. neoformans phenotypes. CryptoNet is the first genome-scale co-functional network for any fungal pathogen. CryptoNet effectively identified novel genes for pathogenicity and drug resistance using guilt-by-association and context-associated hub algorithms. CryptoNet is also the first genome-scale co-functional network for fungi in the basidiomycota phylum, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the ascomycota phylum. CryptoNet may therefore provide insights into pathway evolution between two distinct phyla of the fungal kingdom. The CryptoNet web server (www.inetbio.org/cryptonet) is a public resource that provides an interactive environment of network-assisted predictive genetics for C. neoformans. PMID:25739925

  20. Strategies for the identification and tracking of cronobacter species: an opportunistic pathogen of concern to neonatal health.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter species are emerging opportunistic food-borne pathogens, which consists of seven species, including C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis, C. dublinensis, C. universalis, and C. condimenti. The organism can cause severe clinical infections, including necrotizing enterocolitis, septicemia, and meningitis, predominately among neonates <4?weeks of age. Cronobacter species can be isolated from various foods and their surrounding environments; however, powdered infant formula (PIF) is the most frequently implicated food source linked with Cronobacter infection. This review aims to provide a summary of laboratory-based strategies that can be used to identify and trace Cronobacter species. The identification of Cronobacter species using conventional culture method and immuno-based detection protocols were first presented. The molecular detection and identification at genus-, and species-level along with molecular-based serogroup approaches are also described, followed by the molecular sub-typing methods, in particular pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing. Next generation sequence approaches, including whole genome sequencing, DNA microarray, and high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing, are also highlighted. Appropriate application of these strategies would contribute to reduce the risk of Cronobacter contamination in PIF and production environments, thereby improving food safety and protecting public health. PMID:26000266

  1. Commonalities in the order book

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Beltran-Lopez; Pierre Giot; Joachim Grammig

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data from one of the most important European stock markets and shows that, in line with predictions from theoretical market microstructure, a small number of latent factors captures most of the variation in stock specific order books. We show that these order book commonalities are much stronger than liquidity commonality across stocks. The result that bid and

  2. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  3. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  4. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources and luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 2 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use on the job? SLIDE 14

  5. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    SECTION 3 LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources & luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 3SECTION 3 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use

  6. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  7. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  8. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Oxley Creek. The gate is always open. Amenities The main development at Oxley Creek Common is the Red Shed, which is beside the car park (plenty of space). The Red Shed has toilets (composting), water dogs, which scare a few species, often arrive at the Common very early. After heavy rain there can

  9. Oxley Creek Common Brisbane, Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    development at Oxley Creek Common is the Red Shed, which is beside the car park (plenty of space). The Red) and 9am in the winter. On most weekends, The Mound near the Red Shed is used by model aircraft enthusiasts. People walking dogs, which scare a few species, often arrive at the Common very early. Path near

  10. Teaching the common emitter amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Ellse

    1984-01-01

    If one wishes to teach some device electronics in schools it will have to be very limited. It is not productive to measure all the common emitter and common base characteristics of the bipolar transistor as required by at least one A-level syllabus. To do so wastes pupil time and leads to considerable confusion. Nor should the study be extended

  11. 2 COMMON COIL MAGNET SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Gupta

    This paper introduces the common coil magnet system for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC) (1). In this system, the high energy booster (HEB), the injector to VLHC, is integrated as the iron dominated low field aperture within the coldmass of the common coil magnet design introduced earlier (2). This 4-in-1 magnet concept for a 2-in-1 machine should provide

  12. Diet composition of common ravens across the urban-wildland interface of the West Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kristan, W. B., III; Boarman, W.I.; Crayon, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Common ravens (Corvus corax) are human-subsidized scavengers and predators in the Mojave Desert. They have increased dramatically in number and have been implicated as contributors to the decline in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations. Known patterns of increased fledging success near human developments suggested that food was the most likely resource subsidy received by ravens. Because ravens are opportunistic foragers with a generalist diet, we predicted that the types of resource subsidy provided by different kinds of human developments should be reflected in measures of diet composition of breeding ravens. We estimated diet composition from contents of raven pellets collected at nests and related diet composition to distance of the nests from roads and point sources of resource subsidies, such as towns or landfills. Ravens that nested close to point subsidies far from major roads had the greatest incidence of trash in their diets. Ravens that nested close to roads but far from point subsidies had a low incidence of trash and a higher incidence of presumably road-killed mammals and reptiles. Ravens far from both roads and point subsidies had more plant material and arthropods, and ravens close to both roads and point subsidies had more birds and amphibians. Diet diversity was not related to distance from roads or developments. Fledging success was correlated with diet composition, such that birds with diets consistent with trash or road-kill subsidies fledged the greatest number of chicks. Our results suggest that ravens forage opportunistically on foods available near their nests, and different kinds of human developments contribute different foods. Improved management of landfills and highway fencing to reduce road-kills may help slow the growth of raven populations in the Mojave.

  13. Entomology CSIRO Australia: Common names

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    With almost 5000 entries this compendium of common names of Australian insects is one of the most thorough identification tools available online. Most of the pages include images and ranges as well as descriptions of the taxon.

  14. CROWN/MERRILL DINING COMMONS

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    - 2nd floor Senior Commons - 3rd floor SCALE IN FEET 0 6030 Disabled parking space Disabled access Campus shuttle stop Santa Cruz Metro bus stop Stairs Elevator Restrooms CROWN COLLEGE PARKING LOT 111 #12;

  15. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  16. Sinusitis in the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

  17. [Common obstetric practices in Niger].

    PubMed

    Vangeenderhuysen, C; Olivier de Sardan, J P; Moumouni, A; Souley, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe common practices and representations concerning pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care in Niger. We interviewed everyone involved in antenatal care and delivery in 12 villages. We describe here common practices for diagnosis of pregnancy, antenatal care, normal and problem deliveries and postnatal care. Our findings raise questions about maternal health policies in developing countries, which do not always fully take into account the requirements of the population. PMID:9794036

  18. Antibiotic use for common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Kenealy; Bruce Arroll

    Antibiotics do not help patients with an uncomplicated common cold. Antibiotics can have side effects for the individual taking\\u000a them that range from unpleasant to serious, even lethal. Antibiotic use also contributes to communal harm by encouraging antibiotic\\u000a resistance. If there can be no benefit, but there can be harm, why is the common cold the commonest reason for doctors

  19. Differential involvement of histidine kinase receptors in pseudohyphal development, stress adaptation, and drug sensitivity of the opportunistic yeast Candida lusitaniae.

    PubMed

    Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Paccallet, Paméla; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Reboutier, David; Chastin, Christiane; Papon, Nicolas

    2007-10-01

    Fungal histidine kinase receptors (HKRs) sense and transduce many extracellular signals. We investigated the role of HKRs in morphogenetic transition, osmotolerance, oxidative stress response, and mating ability in the opportunistic yeast Candida lusitaniae. We isolated three genes, SLN1, NIK1, and CHK1, potentially encoding HKRs of classes VI, III, and X, respectively. These genes were disrupted by a transformation system based upon the "URA3 blaster" strategy. Functional analysis of disruptants was undertaken, except for the sln1 nik1 double mutant and the sln1 nik1 chk1 triple mutant, which are not viable in C. lusitaniae. The sln1 mutant revealed a high sensitivity to oxidative stress, whereas both the nik1 and chk1 mutants exhibited a more moderate sensitivity to peroxide. We also showed that the NIK1 gene was implicated in phenylpyrrole and dicarboximide compound susceptibility while HKRs seem not to be involved in resistance toward antifungals of clinical relevance. Concerning mating ability, all disruptants were still able to reproduce sexually in vitro in unilateral or bilateral crosses. The most important result of this study was that the sln1 mutant displayed a global defect of pseudohyphal differentiation, especially in high-osmolarity and oxidative-stress conditions. Thus, the SLN1 gene could be crucial for the C. lusitaniae yeast-to-pseudohypha morphogenetic transition. This implication is strengthened by a high level of SLN1 mRNAs revealed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR when the yeast develops pseudohyphae. Our findings highlight a differential contribution of the three HKRs in osmotic and oxidant adaptation during the morphological transition in C. lusitaniae. PMID:17660361

  20. Evolving Strategies, Opportunistic Implementation: HIV Risk Reduction in Tanzania in the Context of an Incentive-Based HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Packel, Laura; Keller, Ann; Dow, William H.; de Walque, Damien; Nathan, Rose; Mtenga, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic. The shortcomings of BCC interventions are partly due to barriers arising from structural or economic constraints. Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex set of risk factors that may lead to HIV infection. Methods In 2009/2010 we conducted 216 in-depth interviews with a subset of study participants enrolled in the RESPECT study - an HIV prevention trial in Tanzania that used cash awards to incentivize safer sexual behaviors. We analyzed community diaries to understand how the study was perceived in the community. We drew on these data to enhance our understanding of how the intervention influenced strategies for risk reduction. Results We found that certain situations provide increased leverage for sexual negotiation, and these situations facilitated opportunistic implementation of risk reduction strategies. Opportunities enabled by the RESPECT intervention included leveraging conditional cash awards, but participants also emphasized the importance of exploiting new health status knowledge from regular STI testing. Risk reduction strategies included condom use within partnerships and/or with other partners, and an unexpected emphasis on temporary abstinence. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of increasing opportunities for implementing risk reduction strategies. We found that an incentive-based intervention could be effective in part by creating such opportunities, particularly among groups such as women with limited sexual agency. The results provide new evidence that expanding regular testing of STIs is another important mechanism for providing opportunities for negotiating behavior change, beyond the direct benefits of testing. Exploiting the latent demand for STI testing should receive renewed attention as part of innovative new combination interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:22952872

  1. Free Light Chains and the Risk of AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Landgren, Ola; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Goedert, James J.; Engels, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?The relevance of B-cell dysfunction for progression to AIDS among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals has not been clearly defined. We evaluated the association between circulating ? and ? free light chains (FLCs), which are markers of B-cell dysfunction, and risk of developing an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected men. Methods.?The study included 252 case patients with clinical AIDS and 252 HIV-infected controls from the Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study I. Case patients were matched to controls on birth date, specimen type, blood sample collection date, and CD4 cell count. Levels of ? and ? FLCs were measured in serum or plasma collected 0–2.5 years before selection. Elevated FLC levels (? or ?, above the upper limit of normal) were classified as polyclonal (normal ?-? ratio) or monoclonal (abnormally skewed ?-? ratio). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for AIDS. Results.?FLC levels were higher in case patients than in controls, for ? (median, 4.03 vs 2.98 mg/dL) and ? (3.77 vs 2.42 mg/dL) FLCs. Compared with normal levels, above-normal FLC levels were associated with AIDS (OR, 3.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78–5.49] for ? and 3.47 [2.31–5.20] for ? FLCs), and the association with AIDS was strengthened with increasing ? and ? FLC levels (P trends < .0001). Polyclonal FLC elevation was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of AIDS (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.97–7.54), but monoclonal FLC elevation was not associated with AIDS. Conclusions.?Circulating FLCs are associated with elevated risk of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. Polyclonal B-cell dysfunction may contribute to HIV-related immune suppression and predispose to clinical AIDS events. PMID:22893577

  2. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts. PMID:25361833

  3. HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is it worse and why?

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison; George, M Patricia; Crothers, Kristina; Huang, Laurence; Lucht, Lorrie; Kessinger, Cathy; Kleerup, Eric C

    2011-06-01

    Smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are of particular concern in the HIV-infected population. Smoking rates are high in this population, and long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in the setting of HIV infection may increase the number of complications seen. Before the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons were noted to have an accelerated form of COPD, with significant emphysematous disease seen in individuals less than 40 years old. Unlike many of the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, HIV-associated COPD may be more common in the current era of HIV because it is frequently reported in patients without a history of AIDS-related pulmonary complications and because many aging HIV-infected individuals have had a longer exposure to smoking and HIV. In this review, we document the epidemiology of HIV-associated COPD before and after the institution of combination antiretroviral therapy, review data suggesting that COPD is accelerated in those with HIV, and discuss possible mechanisms of HIV-associated COPD, including an increased susceptibility to chronic, latent infections; an aberrant inflammatory response; altered oxidant-antioxidant balance; increased apoptosis associated with HIV; and the effects of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21653535

  4. HIV and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Alison; George, M. Patricia; Crothers, Kristina; Huang, Laurence; Lucht, Lorrie; Kessinger, Cathy; Kleerup, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are of particular concern in the HIV-infected population. Smoking rates are high in this population, and long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in the setting of HIV infection may increase the number of complications seen. Before the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons were noted to have an accelerated form of COPD, with significant emphysematous disease seen in individuals less than 40 years old. Unlike many of the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, HIV-associated COPD may be more common in the current era of HIV because it is frequently reported in patients without a history of AIDS-related pulmonary complications and because many aging HIV-infected individuals have had a longer exposure to smoking and HIV. In this review, we document the epidemiology of HIV-associated COPD before and after the institution of combination antiretroviral therapy, review data suggesting that COPD is accelerated in those with HIV, and discuss possible mechanisms of HIV-associated COPD, including an increased susceptibility to chronic, latent infections; an aberrant inflammatory response; altered oxidant-antioxidant balance; increased apoptosis associated with HIV; and the effects of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21653535

  5. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  6. Common Emotional Problems of Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Froese, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    Common emotional problems of adolescence are discussed under three headings: those specific to adolescence; common psychiatric problems of adolescence, and those complicating physical illness in adolescence. Adolescence is a phase of emotional sensitivity and self-centeredness. The whole family is affected and may require professional support. As the adolescent moves towards greater independence, some turbulence and acting out is normal. Some make an impulsive break from their family by running away, others gradually gain their independence and some remain overly dependent. The latter group often become dependent on and demanding of their physician. PMID:20469172

  7. Role of FAP48 in HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Manente, Lucrezia; Lucariello, Angela; Perna, Angelica; Viglietti, Rosaria; Gargiulo, Miriam; Parrella, Roberto; Parrella, Giovanni; Baldi, Alfonso; De Luca, Antonio; Chirianni, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause a metabolic syndrome consisting of lipodystropy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increased cardiovascular risk. The pathogenetic bases of HAART-associated lipodystrophy are poorly known. A genetic screen was used to evaluate proteins that are modulated in HIV-1-infected patients with or without lipodystrophy syndrome, that are routinely treated with HAART regimens. The most significant modulation was represented by FAP48 expression. Stable over-expression of FAP48 was able to alter, in vitro, adipogenesis, acting both on calcineurin and glucocorticoid pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that FAP48 over-expression was able to influence the capacity of some HIV drugs, Saquinavir and Efavirenz, but not Stavudine, Amprenavir, and Indinavir to inhibit adipocyte formation. In conclusion, this molecule could be a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches to the HAART related lipodystrophy in HIV patients. PMID:22678819

  8. HIV-associated dementia, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Valcour; Bruce Shiramizu

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have made large advances in unraveling the pathogenesis of HIV-related neurological disease leading to substantial benefits for affected individuals. Concomitant advances in HIV-treatment have changed the landscape of HIV care, resulting in alterations in HIV neuroepidemiolgy and potentially the neuropathogenesis of cognitive disorders. Specifically, widespread ARV medications use has heightened our awareness of mitochondrial

  9. Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    severity and progression of HIV disease. Background: SN affects 30% of individuals with AIDS, and treatment in a substudy examining epidermal nerve fibers. IENF density was compared with neuropathic pain intensity (measured with the Gracely Pain Scale), patient and physician global pain assessments, quantitative sensory

  10. Cognitive Neuropsychology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    E-print Network

    Woods, Steven Paul; Moore, David J.; Weber, Erica; Grant, Igor

    2009-01-01

    definitions for neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-definitions and causes of neuro- cognitive impairment in HIV-HIV+ persons, authors have argued that a clearer definition

  11. Mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis: 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N W Cummins; A D Badley

    2010-01-01

    The inevitable decline of CD4T cells in untreated infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is due in large part to apoptosis, one type of programmed cell death. There is accumulating evidence that the accelerated apoptosis of CD4T cells in HIV infection is multifactorial, with direct viral cytotoxicity, signaling events triggered by viral proteins and aberrant immune activation adding to

  12. Studies of HIV-associated immune responses in lymphoid compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Grundström; Jan Andersson

    2006-01-01

    Acute HIV-1 infection results in profound depletion of CD4+ memory T cells in lymphoid tissue (LT) and subsequent persistent\\u000a replication in activated CD4+ T cells despite induction of an HIV-specific cell-mediated immune response. Interferon-?, proinflammatory\\u000a cytokines, and ?-chemokine production is present in LT. However, impaired expression of co-stimulatory molecules including\\u000a CD80, CD86, and CD40L may contribute to low polyfunctional CD4+

  13. HIV-Associated Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)Opens in a New Tab is a complex and devastating disease caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Opens in a New Tab. The advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has considerably slowed disease progression from HIV to full-blown AIDS, thereby increasing the number of people living with HIV. Despite this success in survivorship, certain types of cancers are becoming more prevalent in the expanding pool of HIV-infected individuals.

  14. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  15. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  16. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  17. Does Common Mean "the Same"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards and the attendant assessments being developed by state consortia create a tremendous opportunity and simultaneous challenge for state boards of education. Many of the issues apply to all boards, even those in states that have not adopted the standards or assessments. Boards will need to think carefully about the…

  18. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  19. House of Commons Defence Committee

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    weather 10 The probability 11 Potential impact on electronic infrastructure 11 High Altitude Nuclear EMP Weapons (HEMP) 13 The EMP components 14 Practical experience 15 Potential impact on electronicHC 1552 House of Commons Defence Committee Developing Threats: Electro-Magnetic Pulses (EMP) Tenth

  20. Plant Allergies Common Allergy Plants

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Gardening and Your Health: Plant Allergies Common Allergy Plants Trees and shrubs ash (male taken as a precaution before gardening activities - and allergy symptoms - begin. For gardeners or inhaled form, to treat your condition. Allergy shots or vaccinations can desensitize allergies

  1. NIH Roadmap & the Common Fund

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research is a series of high impact, trans-NIH programs supported by the NIH Common Fund. These programs address challenges that are priorities for the NIH and medical research but are issues that require the cooperation of more than one NIH institute to address.

  2. The Common Pattern Specification Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Appelt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the Common Pattern Specification Language (CPSL) that was developed during the TIPSTER program by a committee of researchers from the TIPSTER research sites. Many information extraction systems work by matching regular expressions over the lexical features of input symbols. CPSL was designed as a language for specifying such finite-state grammars for the purpose of specifying information extraction

  3. MAXIMAL LENGTH COMMON NONINTERSECTING PATHS

    E-print Network

    Urrutia, Jorge

    @scs.carleton.ca) Jorge Urrutia zy (jorge@csi.uottawa.ca) Abstract Given a set P n of n points on the plane la­ beled and Souvaine [1] and Kranakis and Urrutia [5] studied the problem of finding common tri­ angulations of point

  4. MCS Common ICD Steve Ellingson

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    MCS Common ICD Ver. 1.0 Steve Ellingson April 4, 2009 Contents 1 Introduction and Scope 2 2 Summary;1 Introduction and Scope MCS stands for "monitoring and control system". As described in the LWA station architecture document [1], MCS monitors and controls ASP ("analog signal processing"), DP ("digital process

  5. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  6. A Common LISP Hypermedia Server

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Mallery

    1994-01-01

    A World-Wide Web (WWW) server was implemented in Common LISP in order to facilitate exploratory programming in the global hypermedia domain and to provide access to complex research programs, particularly artificial intelligence systems. The server was initially used to provide interfaces for document retrieval and for email servers. More advanced applications include interfaces to systems for inductive rule learning and

  7. An overview of COMMON LISP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy L. Steele Jr.; Alan Bawden; Rodney A. Brooks; Richard L. Bryan; Glenn S. Burke; I. Cannon; George J. Carrette; David Dill; Scott E. Fahlman; Richard J. Fateman; Neal Feinberg; John Foderaro; Richard P. Gabriel; Joseph Ginder; Richard Greenblatt; Martin L. Griss; Earl A. Killian; John L. Kulp; Larry M. Masinter; John McCarthy; David A. Moon; William L. Scherlis; Richard M. Stallman; Walter van Roggen; Allan C. Wechsler; Daniel L. Weinreb; Jon L White; Richard Zippel; Leonard Zubkoff

    1982-01-01

    A dialect of LISP called “COMMON LISP” is being cooperatively developed and implemented at several sites. It is a descendant of the MACLISP family of LISP dialects, and is intended to unify the several divergent efforts of the last five years. We first give an extensive history of LISP, particularly of the MACLISP branch, in order to explain in context

  8. S-1 Common Lisp implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney A. Brooks; Richard P. Gabriel; Guy L. Steele Jr.

    1982-01-01

    We are developing a Lisp implementation for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory S-1 Mark IIA computer. The dialect of Lisp is an extension of COMMON Lisp [Steele;1982], a descendant of MacLisp [Moon;1974] and Lisp Machine Lisp [Weinreb;1981]).

  9. Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters

    E-print Network

    Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters Chenopodium album L. Life cycle Erect summer weeds. #12;Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Stems Erect, moderately branched central stem up to 6 feet, somewhat flattened, black to brown, shiny seeds are enclosed by a star- shaped, papery covering

  10. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  11. Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture

    E-print Network

    van der Hoek, André

    Common Misconceptions about Software Architecture by Philippe Kruchten Rational Fellow Rational Software Canada References to architecture are everywhere: in every article, in every ad. And we take definition of software architecture. Are we all understanding the same thing? We gladly accept that software

  12. Using online adverts to increase the uptake of cervical screening amongst “real Eastenders”: an opportunistic controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical screening uptake has increased as a result of occurrences of cervical cancer in TV ‘soap operas’ and in real life celebrities such as Jade Goody. Media analysis at the time of Jade Goody’s death suggested the NHS did not take sufficient advantage of this opportunity to improve cervical screening rates. Google AdWords has been used to recruit and raise awareness of health but we were not aware of its use to supplement media events. Methods This was an opportunistic service evaluation to accompany a cervical cancer storyline in Eastenders (a TV ‘soap opera’). We ran an AdWords campaign based on keywords such as ‘Eastenders’, and ‘cervical cancer’ in a one mile radius in East London, linked to one webpage giving details of 10 practices and other links on cervical cancer. We recorded costs of adverts and setting up the webpage. We used routine statistics from Tower Hamlets, City and Hackney, and Newham Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) of the number of smears, eligible populations, and coverage by practice by month from September 2010 to January 2012 to compare the ten intervention practices with controls. Results Eight people per day in the target area viewed the project webpage. The cost of setting up the website and running Google AdWords was £1320 or £1.88 per person viewing the webpage. Unlike Jade Goody’s death, there was no major impact from the Eastenders’ storyline on Google searches for cervical cancer. There was considerable monthly variation in the number of smear tests in the 3 PCTs. The AdWords campaign may have had some effect on smear rates but this showed, at best, a marginal statistical difference. Assuming a ‘real’ effect, the intervention may have resulted in 110 ‘extra’ women being screened but there was no change in coverage. Conclusions Although the Eastenders storyline seemed to have no effect on interest in cervical cancer or screening, the AdWords campaign may have had some effect. Given the small scale exploratory nature of the study this was not statistically significant but the relatively modest cost of advertising suggests a larger study may be worthwhile. An outline of a possible study is described. PMID:23531167

  13. Magnitude of opportunistic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mitiku, Habtamu; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs) and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in 358 HIV-infected adult patients on ART from April to June 2014. Data were collected through review of clinical records. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of each independent variable with occurrence of OIs. A 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant association. Results A total of 358 patients were included in the study, in which majority (68.4%) were females. The mean age of patients was 34 (standard deviation [SD] ±9.8) years. The overall of prevalence of OIs among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was 48%. The highest prevalent rates of OIs observed were tuberculosis (TB) (21.23%), followed by Herpes zoster (11.2%) and oral candidiasis (9.5%). Baseline CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.645, 95% CI =2.187, 3.983), baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III (AOR =2.801, 95% CI =1.958, 7.165) and IV (AOR =3.856; 95% CI =2.691, 10.390), and not using prophylaxis (AOR =1.912, 95% CI =1.444, 3.824) were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of OIs observed in this study. Baselines CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3, advanced WHO clinical stages, and not using prophylaxis were found to be predictors of OIs. Interventions were aimed at promoting early HIV testing and enrollment of HIV-infected individuals into ART services needed before CD4 count decreased severely. PMID:25999763

  14. Reasoning about opportunistic schedules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fox; K. Kempf

    1987-01-01

    The scheduling of jobs and resources In a manufacturing environment is important because o f its basic impact on production costs, but is difficult because of the problems of combinatorial complexity and executwnal uncertainty. Scheduling suffers from combinatorial complexity because there are a very large number of schedules which can be generated f o r a set of jobs and

  15. Simultaneous detection of four common oral Candida species from blood samples by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    He, Yuhong; Geng, Wei; Wang, Peihuan; Xi, Lanlan; Wang, Zhaoling; Wu, Gaoyi; Wang, Chunling

    2015-03-01

    The genus Candida is both the commensal microbe and the opportunistic pathogen, containing approximately 200 species inhabiting in oral cavity of 53 % of the general population. Candida species can cause the diseases from local mucosal infections to systemic mycoses, even life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. The timely differentiation of Candida species is important for the guidance of clinical medication. Four common Candida species in Chinese population (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei) were chosen as the targets to develop the rapid screening method in this work. Combined with amplification by asymmetric PCR, this parallel fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay is carried out in homogeneous solution phase. The limit of detection of the assay was shown to be 50 copies/mL in blood samples. The evaluation in multicenter manner showed excellent reproducibility and stability. The comparison between DNA sequencing and the FP immunoassay indicated that there was no significant difference between these methods. This molecular strategy-based method is simple, rapid, and feasible for identifying common Candida species and thereby holding great potential in the application of clinical laboratories. PMID:25308858

  16. Winter distribution and oiling of common terns in Trinidad: A further look

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Smith, G.J.; Clapp, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Common Terns were studied during January and March 1985 in Trinidad as part of wintering terns in Latin America. Eighty-nine birds were captured, 33 in January, 56 in March. Terns averaged 102 .+-. 0.9 g, with March birds weighing more than those caught in January. This weight is similar to that reported earlier by Blokpoel et al. (1982, 1984) and is considerably less than weights of either premigratory immature or adult Common Terns. Terns in Trinidad appear to be opportunistic, using human fishing for their food source and roosting on boats, oil platforms and other man-made structures. One-half of the captured sample of birds had at least detectable amounts of oil on the plumage. This represents the highest frequency of oiling reported yet for any seabird living under 'baseline' (non-spill) conditions in North or Central America. Oiling had no apparent major effect on the condition of birds since oiled birds had similar weights and blood parameters when compared to unoiled birds.

  17. Common sense and sociological explanations.

    PubMed

    Watts, Duncan J

    2014-09-01

    Sociologists have long advocated a sociological approach to explanation by contrasting it with common sense. The argument of this article, however, is that sociologists rely on common sense more than they realize. Moreover, this unacknowledged reliance causes serious problems for their explanations of social action, that is, for why people do what they do. Many such explanations, it is argued, conflate understandability with causality in ways that are not valid by the standards of scientific explanation. It follows that if sociologists want their explanations to be scientifically valid, they must evaluate them specifically on those grounds--in particular, by forcing them to make predictions. In becoming more scientific, however, it is predicted that sociologists' explanations will also become less satisfying from an intuitive, sense-making perspective. Even as novel sources of data and improved methods open exciting new directions for sociological research, therefore, sociologists will increasingly have to choose between unsatisfying scientific explanations and satisfying but unscientific stories. PMID:25811066

  18. Assessment of Duration of Staying Free from Acquiring Rehappening Opportunistic Infections among Pre-ART People Living with HIV/AIDS between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Abyu, Direslgne Misker; Aweke, Amlaku Mulat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In regional state of the study area, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) prevalence is 2.2% and opportunistic infections (OIs) occurred in 88.9% of pre-ART (Antiretroviral Therapy) people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Even though OIs are prevalent in the study area, duration of staying free from acquiring rehappening opportunistic infections and its determinant factors are not studied. Method. The study was conducted in randomly selected 341 adult Pre-ART PLWHA who are included in chronic HIV care. OI free duration was estimated using the actuarial life table and Kaplan Meier survival. Cox proportional-hazard model was used to calculate hazard rate. Result. OIs were rediagnosed in three quarters (75.37%) participants. In each week the probability of getting new recurrence OI was about 15.04 per 1000 person weeks. The median duration of not acquiring OI recurrence was 54 weeks. After adjustment, variables associated with recurrence were employment status, marital status, exposure for prophylaxis and adherence to it, CD4 count, and hemoglobin value. Conclusion. Giving prophylaxis and counseling to adhere it, rise in CD4 and hemoglobin level, and enhancing job opportunities should be given for PLWHA who are on chronic HIV care while continuing the care. PMID:25685772

  19. A calendar with common sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik T. Mueller

    2000-01-01

    Digital devices today have little understanding of their real-world context, and as a result they often make stupid mistakes. To improve this situation we are developing a database of world knowledge called ThoughtTreasure at the same time that we develop intelligent applications. In this paper we present one such application, SensiCal, a calendar with a degree of common sense. We

  20. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  2. Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Darius J; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes. PMID:25836705

  3. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  4. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  5. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  6. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Geoffray, Patrick [ORNL; Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Squyres, Jeffrey M [ORNL; Minnich, Ronald [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  7. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.V.; Watts, A.J.; Rice, D.A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

  8. Learning Commons Project Team Report Abridged Version

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    Learning Commons Project Team Report Abridged Version September 14, 2007 #12;2 Learning Commons Scan 5 Conversation with the Community 7 Planning and Development 8 Learning Commons Statement established to foster the learning of all. The university library is an example of a common space where each

  9. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  10. Flux of amino acids and energy substrates across the leg in weight-stable HIV-infected patients with acute opportunistic infections: indication of a slow protein wasting process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raoul Breitkreutz; Jens Wagner; Mehmet Tokus; Axel Benner; Siegbert Rossol; Nicole Pittack; Jürgen Stein; Wulf Dröge; Eggert Holm

    2001-01-01

    Increased whole-body proteolysis with muscle protein net degradation has been suggested as one of the causes of weight loss in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the exchange rates of amino acids and energy substrates across the lower extremity in 16 HIV patients and 16 age-matched controls with similar body cell mass. The patients had either opportunistic

  11. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  12. Avoiding common pitfalls and pratfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chiles, J.H. III; Stewart, G.D.

    1990-03-01

    Success in bringing a project to completion is not always assured. Over the years, the authors have seen many cases where lack of knowledge of what it takes to see a project through to a successful conclusion has left a stream of wasted capital, unfulfilled expectations and genuine voids in electric generating supplies. Ensuring that a project makes its way through the regulatory, legal, financial and construction maze to a successful and money-making operation is a step-by-step process. Not paying sufficient attention to these steps often leads to pitfalls in a non-utility generation (NUG) project. The paper discusses the steps to take from obtaining approvals and permits, negotiating for firm bids on cost items, and obtaining financial assistance. Eight common pitfalls are described.

  13. Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation in subjects aged 65 years or older in primare care: a randomised clinical trial of efficacy. DOFA-AP study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend using peripheral blood pulse measuring as a screening test for Atrial Fibrillation. However, there is no adequate evidence supporting the efficacy of such procedure in primary care clinical practice. This paper describes a study protocol designed to verify whether early opportunistic screening for Atrial Fibrillation by measuring blood pulse is more effective than regular practice in subjects aged 65 years attending primary care centers. Methods/design An cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Primary Care Centers of the Spanish National Health Service. A total of 269 physicians and nurses will be allocated to one of the two arms of the trial by stratified randomization with a 3:2 ratio (three practitioners will be assigned to the Control Group for every two practitioners assigned to the Experimental Group). As many as 12 870 patients aged 65 years or older and meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited (8 580 will be allocated to the Experimental Group and 4 290 to the Control Group). Randomization and allocation to trial groups will be carried out by a central computer system. The Experimental Group practitioners will conduct an opportunistic case finding for patients with Atrial Fibrillation, while the Control Group practitioners will follow the regular guidelines. The first step will be finding new Atrial Fibrillation cases. A descriptive inferential analysis will be performed (bivariate and multivariate by multilevel logistic regression analysis). Discussion If our hypothesis is confirmed, we expect Primary Care professionals to take a more proactive approach and adopt a new protocol when a patient meeting the established screening criteria is identified. Finally, we expect this measure to be incorporated into Clinical Practice Guidelines. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT01291953 (ClinicalTrials.gob) PMID:23130754

  14. Area utilization of gulls in a coastal farmland landscape: habitat mosaic supports niche segregation of opportunistic species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Schwemmer; Stefan Garthe; Roger Mundry

    2008-01-01

    The intensively farmed coastal lowland landscape of Germany, adjacent to the North Sea, provides important foraging opportunities\\u000a for Black-headed, Common, Herring and Lesser Black-backed gull (Larus ridibundus, L. canus, L. argentatus and L. fuscus). We expected that spatial and temporal utilization of the landscape mosaic as well as behavioural traits and utilization\\u000a of food resources would differ between these closely

  15. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  16. Common mistakes in luminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Townsend, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Luminescence techniques are powerful and sensitive probes to study imperfections, impurities and modifications of insulating materials. They are used in a wide range of disciplines from condensed matter physics to archaeology and mineralogy and the methods have developed over nearly a century. Early equipment was often not quantitative and data were collected in formats that were difficult to process and manipulate, and so signals were frequently presented in terms of the initial signals without corrections for equipment spectral sensitivity. Unfortunately not only did this distort the information but often it resulted in incorrect interpretations. Further, the incorrect data handling has persisted into modern usage both by physicists and those in other fields who merely use luminescence as a sensitive technique. Several main types of problem are considered. These include temperature errors in thermoluminescence dosimetry; subtleties in the signal intensity corrections for the responses of both the spectrometer and detectors; grating polarization effects; sample anisotropy; and common errors in spectral deconvolution, especially failure to transform from wavelength to energy plots.

  17. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations. PMID:2569162

  18. Coordinating towards a Common Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2010-09-01

    Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem inescapable, globally there is an emergent new dilemma in which cooperation often prevails, illustrating how collective cooperative action may emerge from myopic individual selfishness.

  19. Isavuconazole, micafungin, and 8 comparator antifungal agents' susceptibility profiles for common and uncommon opportunistic fungi collected in 2013: temporal analysis of antifungal drug resistance using CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and proposed epidemiological cutoff values.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Rhomberg, P R; Messer, S A; Jones, R N; Castanheira, M

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activities of isavuconazole, micafungin, and 8 comparator antifungal agents were determined for 1613 clinical isolates of fungi (1320 isolates of Candida spp., 155 of Aspergillus spp., 103 of non-Candida yeasts, and 35 non-Aspergillus molds) collected during a global survey conducted in 2013. The vast majority of the isolates of the 21 different species of Candida, with the exception of Candida glabrata (MIC90, 2?g/mL), Candida krusei (MIC90, 1?g/mL), and Candida guilliermondii (MIC90, 8?g/mL), were inhibited by ?0.25?g/mL of isavuconazole. C. glabrata and C. krusei were largely inhibited by ?1?g/mL of isavuconazole. Resistance to fluconazole was seen in 0.5% of Candida albicans isolates, 11.1% of C. glabrata isolates, 2.5% of Candida parapsilosis isolates, 4.5% of Candida tropicalis isolates, and 20.0% of C. guilliermondii isolates. Resistance to the echinocandins was restricted to C. glabrata (1.3-2.1%) and C. tropicalis (0.9-1.8%). All agents except for the echinocandins were active against 69 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, and the triazoles, including isavuconazole, were active against the other yeasts. Both the mold active triazoles as well as the echinocandins were active against 155 Aspergillus spp. isolates belonging to 10 species/species complex. In general, there was low resistance levels to the available systemically active antifungal agents in a large, contemporary (2013), global collection of molecularly characterized yeasts and molds. Resistance to azoles and echinocandins was most prominent among isolates of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. guilliermondii. PMID:25986029

  20. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter What are some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Although many medications can be abused, the following ...