Note: This page contains sample records for the topic common hiv-associated opportunistic from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Complications of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Hospitalised Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated tuberculosis is a common coinfection in Sub-Saharan Africa, which causes high morbidity and mortality. A sub-set of HIV-associated tuberculosis patients require prolonged hospital admission, during which antiretroviral therapy initiation may be required. The aim of this study was to document the causes of clinical deterioration of hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in order to inform healthcare practice in low- to middle-income countries. Methods Prospective, observational cohort study of adult inpatients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in a dedicated tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Causes of clinical deterioration and outcome were recorded in the first 12 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis were excluded. Results Between May 2009 and November 2010, 112 patients (60% female), with a median age of 32 years were enrolled. At baseline the median CD4 count was 55 cells/mm3 (IQR 31–106) and HIV viral load 5.6 log copies/mL. All patients had significant comorbidity: 82% were bed-bound, 65% had disseminated tuberculosis and 27% had central nervous system tuberculosis. Seventy six patients (68%) developed 144 clinical events after starting antiretroviral therapy. TB-IRIS, hospital-acquired infections and significant drug toxicities occurred in 42%, 20.5% and 15% of patients respectively. A new opportunistic disease occurred in 15% of patients and a thromboembolic event in 8%. Mortality during the 12 week period was 10.6%. Conclusions High rates of TB-IRIS, hospital-acquired infections and drug toxicities complicate the course of patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in hospital. Despite the high morbidity, mortality was relatively low. Careful clinical management and adequate resources are needed in hospitalised HIV-TB patients in the 1st three months following ART initiation.

van der Plas, Helen; Meintjes, Graeme; Schutz, Charlotte; Goliath, Rene; Myer, Landon; Baatjie, Dorothea; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Maartens, Gary; Mendelson, Marc

2013-01-01

2

Treating Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Exposed and Infected Children  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2001, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America convened a working group to develop guidelines for therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infections to serve as a companion to...

C. Wilfert J. Oleske L. Serchuck L. M. Mofenson R. Van Dyke

2008-01-01

3

A common opportunistic foraminiferal species as an indicator of rapidly changing conditions in a range of environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term biological and environmental time-series (several decades to centuries) are essential for distinguishing between anthropogenically and naturally induced environmental change as well as for monitoring environmental change over time, irrespective of the causes. Since such long time-series are virtually non-existent for most areas, other methods have to be explored which can provide the best possible analogues. Numerous investigations have shown that benthic foraminifera (meiofaunal protists), which leave a fossil record in most marine sediments, are well suited for this purpose. A prerequisite for performing sound interpretations is an optimal understanding of their biology and ecology. Stainforthia fusiformis (Williamson) is one of the most common benthic foraminiferal species in NW European waters and living (stained) populations have been recorded in all clastic, soft bottom intertidal to outer shelf and slope areas with sediments consisting of at least some fines (>4% <63 ?m) as long as the salinity is >28. Its predominance in ephemerally dysoxic/anoxic areas has caused it to be used as a proxy for severe oxygen depletion. A strong dominance (even >90%) of this species is, however, also reported from well-oxygenated coastal and shelf settings and, consequently, high abundance of this species occurs in habitats with very different environmental characteristics. A closer examination of these areas suggests that they can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) beneath hydrographic frontal areas, (2) physically disturbed areas of sediment, and (3) ephemerally dysoxic/anoxic basins. The main characteristic feature that these highly different environments have in common is that they experience rapidly changing conditions. It is concluded that the opportunistic life-strategy of S. fusiformis makes it highly adapted to cope with environmental stress and that this, rather than tolerance to a particular environmental parameter, causes it to predominate in areas subject to rapidly changing environmental conditions.

Alve, Elisabeth

2003-06-01

4

HIV- Associated Nephropathy: Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized histologically by a collapsing form of FSGS, microcystic tubular dilation, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. In this review, we provide a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HIVAN. Recent Findings Two variants in the ApoL1 gene have been identified as the susceptibility alleles that account for a majority of the increased risk of FSGS and non-diabetic ESRD in Blacks. HIVAN1 and HIVAN 2 are the other host susceptibility genes that have been identified in animal models for HIVAN. HIV infects renal tubular epithelial cells likely through direct cell-cell transmission. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that nef and vpr are the key viral genes mediating HIVAN. Nef induces podocyte dysfunction whereas Vpr induces RTEC apoptosis. Summary HIVAN results from direct infection by HIV-1 and expression of viral genes, especially nef and vpr, in renal epithelial cells in a genetically susceptible host. The infected renal epithelium acts as a separate viral compartment from the blood and facilitates evolution of strains distant from blood. Dysregulation of several host cellular pathways, including those involved in cell cycle and apoptosis, ultimately results in the unique histopathological syndrome of HIVAN.

Medapalli, Raj Kiran; He, John Cijiang; Klotman, Paul E

2011-01-01

5

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... mm 3 OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS Pnuemocystis Jirovecii ( Carinii ) Pneumonia (PCP) PCP is a fungal infection and is the OI ... available for patients who are at risk for PCP, but who are not ready to start antiretroviral ...

6

HIV-associated anal cancer.  

PubMed

HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiquimod. The development of cost-effective national screening programs for HIV-associated anal cancer remains a challenge. PMID:21283597

Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

2010-12-08

7

[HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders].  

PubMed

HIV infection is an important medical and social problem. In Poland, similarly to other countries, patients with HIV infections are mostly young people. Apart from typical immunologic pathologies, the HIV infection leads to some neurocognitive, motoric and behavioral disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the up-to-date knowledge of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). PMID:23885539

Kalinowska, Sylwia; Trze?niowska-Druka?a, Beata; Samochowiec, Jerzy

8

Other HIV-associated pneumonias.  

PubMed

The incidence, mortality, and epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary infections have changed as a result of effective antiretroviral and prophylaxis antimicrobial therapy. The clinical presentation, radiographic abnormalities, and treatment of pneumonia from various uncommon pathogens in patients with AIDS can be different from those in immunocompetent patients. Advances in invasive and noninvasive testing and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary infections in patients infected with HIV. This review focuses on pulmonary infections from nontuberculosis mycobacteria, cytomegalovirus, fungi (aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, endemic fungi), and parasites (toxoplasmosis), and uncommon bacterial pneumonia (nocardiosis, rhodococcosis) in these patients. PMID:23702174

Pupaibool, Jakrapun; Limper, Andrew H

2013-04-08

9

Immunogenetics of HIV and HIV associated tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is the frequent major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, and is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. Genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV negative subjects is well documented. Since coinfections can influence the way in which immune system respond to different pathogens, genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV patients might also change. Studies from India and other parts of the world have shown that genetic susceptibility to TB is influenced by HIV infection. In the present review, we emphasize the role of genetic factors in determining susceptibility to HIV infection, disease progression and development of TB in HIV-infected patients. Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA), MBL2, CD209, vitamin D receptor, cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor genes have been shown to be associated with development of TB in HIV patients. However, the results are inconclusive and larger well-defined studies with precise clinical data are required to validate these associations. Apart from candidate gene approach, genome-wide association studies are also needed to unravel the unknown or to establish the previously reported genetic associations with HIV associated TB. Despite the preliminary status of the reported associations, it is becoming clear that susceptibility to development of TB in HIV patients is influenced by both environmental and genetic components. Understanding the genetic and immunologic factors that influence susceptibility to TB in HIV patients could lead to novel insights for vaccine development as well as diagnostic advances to target treatment to those who are at risk for developing active disease. PMID:21943869

Raghavan, S; Alagarasu, K; Selvaraj, P

2011-09-22

10

Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases  

PubMed Central

The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have important limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all aspects of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis

Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Nelson, Peter J.

2009-01-01

11

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.  

PubMed

Neurological involvement in HIV is often associated with cognitive impairment. Although severe and progressive neurocognitive impairment has become rare in HIV clinics in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy, most patients with HIV worldwide have poor outcomes on formal neurocognitive tests. In this Review, we describe the manifestations of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the era of effective HIV therapy, outline diagnosis and treatment recommendations, and explore the research questions that remain. Although comorbid disorders, such as hepatitis C infection or epilepsy, might cause some impairment, their prevalence is insufficient to explain the frequency with which it is encountered. HIV disease markers, such as viral load and CD4 cell counts, are not strongly associated with ongoing impairment on treatment, whereas cardiovascular disease markers and inflammatory markers are. New cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarkers are needed to detect and follow impairment. Ongoing research efforts to optimise HIV therapy within the CNS, and potentially to intervene in downstream mechanisms of neurotoxicity, remain important avenues for future investigation. Ultimately, the full control of virus in the brain is a necessary step in the goal of HIV eradication. PMID:24156898

Clifford, David B; Ances, Beau M

2013-11-01

12

Oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma.  

PubMed

Kaposi sarcoma (KS), an AIDS defining condition, remains one of the most commonly HIV-associated neoplasms. While the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has brought about a dramatic decrease in the prevalence and incidence of AIDS-KS worldwide, this has not been the case in resource-poor sub-Saharan African countries, where HIV has reached epidemic proportions and human herpesvirus-8 infection is endemic. Oral involvement is a common manifestation of AIDS-associated KS and may be an early presenting finding of HIV infection. The clinical manifestation of oral KS can vary and may have an unpredictable course ranging from mild to fulminant. Rapidly progressive facial lymphoedema associated with extensive advanced oral KS portends a poor prognosis. Oral KS may regress with antiretroviral therapy or may flare up as part of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The oral lesions of AIDS-KS are best managed with HAART together with systemic chemotherapy. This article provides a review of contemporary knowledge of the biology, pathology, clinical features and management of oral AIDS-KS. PMID:22672182

Pantanowitz, L; Khammissa, R A G; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

2012-06-05

13

Tryptophan, Neurodegeneration and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder  

PubMed Central

This review presents an up-to-date assessment of the role of the tryptophan metabolic and catabolic pathways in neurodegenerative disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. The kynurenine pathway and the effects of each of its enzymes and products are reviewed. The differential expression of the kynurenine pathway in cells within the brain, including inflammatory cells, is explored given the increasing recognition of the importance of inflammation in neurodegenerative disease. An overview of common mechanisms of neurodegeneration is presented before a review and discussion of the evidence for a pathogenetic role of the kynurenine pathway in Alzheimer’s disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, Huntington’s disease, motor neurone disease, and Parkinson’s disease.

Davies, Nicholas W.S.; Guillemin, Gilles; Brew, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

14

Drugs of Abuse, Dopamine, and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders\\/HIV-Associated Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the incidence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) has declined, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain\\u000a a significant health problem despite use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In addition, the incidence and\\/or severity\\u000a of HAND\\/HAD are increased with concomitant use of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Furthermore,\\u000a exposure to most drugs of abuse increases brain levels of dopamine,

Vishnudutt Purohit; Rao Rapaka; David Shurtleff

2011-01-01

15

Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER. CHARTER is a U.S. based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ?1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.27 [0.11-0.65]; p = 0.004) and T489C (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.41 [0.21-0.80]; p = 0.009). These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups are associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.29 [0.12-0.71]; p = 0.007 and odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.42 [0.18-1.0]; p = 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

Holzinger, Emily R.; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J.; Samuels, David C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haas, David W.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin C.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Franklin, Donald R.; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

2013-01-01

16

HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The problems of diagnosis, treatment and management of tuberculosis associated with HIV infection in Africa are placed in perspective by the former director of the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Tuberculosis (TB) has increased as much as 3-fold in many African countries due to heightened susceptibility of HIV patients. HIV infection may both re-activate latent TB, which virtually all Africans harbor, or increase the likelihood of exogenous infection or re-infection by TB. In most of Africa diagnosis by stained sputum smear is standard: in late AIDS, this method may yield false negatives due to non-pulmonary TB, or pulmonary TB with a negative smear. Chest x-rays are also atypical, since cavitation of the upper zones is not as common, but lobar consolidation and lower zone involvement, and various unusual findings are likely. There is no evidence that mycobacterium avium intracellular has occurred in Africa. Treatment in Africa often centers on long-term thiazina (thiacetazone and isoniazid combined). HIV+ patients are more prone to skin rashes or even lethal epidermal neurolysis as a complication of treatment. Treated patients should be monitored for other symptoms such as diarrhea, recurrent fevers, other chest infections, cerebral space occupying lesions, urinary infections. Many can be treated with broad spectrum antibiotics such as chloramphenicol. Nursing HIV-infected young adults is an expensive and burdensome prospect for overworked and underpaid staff, but curing TB in AIDS patients is possible and worthwhile because of the public health advantages. PMID:12343452

Nunn, P

1991-11-01

17

[New spectrum of HIV-associated cognitive disorders in the HAART era].  

PubMed

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has almost abolished HIV-related mortality and serious opportunistic diseases; among them, AIDS-related dementia. However, minor forms of cognitive dysfunction, have not disappeared, and even increased in frequency. Ageing of HIV+ patients, insufficient penetration of anti-viral drugs into the brain with continuous low-grade viral production and inflammation may play a role. Minor cognitive dysfunction in HIV infection shares some clinical and pathophysiological features with neuro-degenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimers disease. It can thus be postulated that, such in Alzheimer disease, anti-cholinesterase drugs might also be efficacious in AIDS-related minor cognitive dysfunction. This hypothesis has not been tested yet however A clinical trial using ravistigmine is starting this spring in patients with HIV-associated cognitive dysfunction in Geneva and Lausanne. PMID:19476058

Du Pasquier, R; Cavassini, M; Simioni, S; Annoni, J M; Giacobini, E; Hirschel, B

2009-04-29

18

Heart and HAART: Two sides of the coin for HIV-associated cardiology issues  

PubMed Central

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has generated a contrast in the cardiac manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In developed countries, we have observed an approximately 30% reduction in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cardiomyopathy, possibly related to a reduction of opportunistic infections and myocarditis. In developing countries, however, where the availablity of HAART is limited and the pathogenic impact of nutritional factors is significant, we have observed an approximately 32% increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and a related high mortality rate from congestive heart failure. Also, some HAART regimens in developed countries, especially those including protease inhibitors, have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, an iatrogenic metabolic syndrome (HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome) that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events related to a process of accelerated atherosclerosis, even in young HIV-infected people. Careful cardiac screening is warranted for patients who are being evaluated for, or who are receiving, HAART regimens, particularly for those with known underlying cardiovascular risk factors. A close collaboration between cardiologists and infectious disease specialists is needed for decisions regarding the use of antiretrovirals, for a careful stratification of cardiovascular risk factors, and for cardiovascular monitoring of HIV-infected patients receiving HAART, according the most recent clinical guidelines.

Barbaro, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

19

Trichoderma species — opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma spp. are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. Recent discoveries show that they are opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts, as well as being parasites of other fungi. At least some strains establish robust and long-lasting colonizations of root surfaces and penetrate into the epidermis and a few cells below this level. They produce or release a

Charles R. Howell; Ada Viterbo; Ilan Chet; Matteo Lorito; Gary E. Harman

2004-01-01

20

Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Resource-Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Lymphoma was a common complication of HIV infection in the pre-antiretroviral era, and the incidence of HIV-associated lymphoma has dropped dramatically since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-rich regions. Conversely, lymphoma is an increasingly common complication of HIV infection in resource-limited settings where the prevalence of HIV infection is high. Relatively little is known, however, about the true incidence and optimal treatment regimens for HIV-associated lymphoma in resource-poor regions. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in developing nations and highlight areas for further research that may benefit care in both settings. Examples include risk modification and dose modification of chemotherapy based on HIV risk factors, improving our understanding of the current burden of disease through national cancer registries, and developing cost-effective hematopathological diagnostic strategies to optimize care delivery and maximize use of available chemotherapy.

Ulrickson, Matthew; Press, Oliver W.; Casper, Corey

2012-01-01

21

Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction.  

PubMed

How can species be exploited economically to extinction? Past single-species hypotheses examining the economic plausibility of exploiting rare species have argued that the escalating value of rarity allows extinction to be profitable. We describe an alternative pathway toward extinction in multispecies exploitation systems, termed 'opportunistic exploitation'. In this mode, highly valued species that are targeted first by fishing, hunting, and logging become rare, but their populations can decline further through opportunistic exploitation while more common but less desirable species are targeted. Effectively, expanding exploitation to more species subsidizes the eventual extinction of valuable species at low densities. Managers need to recognize conditions that permit opportunistic depletion and pass regulations to protect highly desirable species when exploitation can expand to other species. PMID:23562732

Branch, Trevor A; Lobo, Aaron S; Purcell, Steven W

2013-04-05

22

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This is a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the frequency and associated features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a large, diverse sample of infected individuals in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). Methods: A total of 1,555 HIV-infected adults were recruited from 6 university clinics across the United States, with minimal exclusions. We used standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neuropsychological (NP) examinations, and recently published criteria for diagnosing HAND and classifying 3 levels of comorbidity (minimal to severe non-HIV risks for NP impairment). Results: Fifty-two percent of the total sample had NP impairment, with higher rates in groups with greater comorbidity burden (40%, 59%, and 83%). Prevalence estimates for specific HAND diagnoses (excluding severely confounded cases) were 33% for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 12% for mild neurocognitive disorder, and only 2% for HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Among participants with minimal comorbidities (n = 843), history of low nadir CD4 was a strong predictor of impairment, and the lowest impairment rate on CART occurred in the subset with suppressed plasma viral loads and nadir CD4 ?200 cells/mm3 (30% vs 47% in remaining subgroups). Conclusions: The most severe HAND diagnosis (HAD) was rare, but milder forms of impairment remained common, even among those receiving CART who had minimal comorbidities. Future studies should clarify whether early disease events (e.g., profound CD4 decline) may trigger chronic CNS changes, and whether early CART prevents or reverses these changes. GLOSSARY ANI = asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; CART = combination antiretroviral therapy; CHARTER = CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research; CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview; CLIA = Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments; CPE = CNS penetration effectiveness; HAD = HIV-associated dementia; HAND = HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder; IADL = instrumental activities of daily living; LP = lumbar puncture; MND = mild neurocognitive disorder; NP = neuropsychological; PAOFI = Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory.

Heaton, R.K.; Clifford, D.B.; Franklin, D.R.; Woods, S.P.; Ake, C.; Vaida, F.; Ellis, R.J.; Letendre, S.L.; Marcotte, T.D.; Atkinson, J.H.; Rivera-Mindt, M.; Vigil, O.R.; Taylor, M.J.; Collier, A.C.; Marra, C.M.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Abramson, I.; Gamst, A.; Fennema-Notestine, C.; Jernigan, T.L.; Wong, J.; Grant, I.

2010-01-01

23

Opportunistic Infections and Other Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... toxo) Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Tuberculosis (TB) Vaginal yeast infections Treatments for HIV/AIDS Research and clinical ... fact sheet Urinary tract infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet More information on opportunistic infections ...

24

Phase II trial of 13-cis-retinoic acid for poor risk HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.  

PubMed

Fifteen men with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and poor risk disease according to the TIS staging were enrolled in a phase II trial of oral 13-cis-retinoic acid. The median CD4 cell count was 95 cells/microl (range 7-260) and 6 had prior AIDS-defining opportunistic infections. One patient was withdrawn on account of cutaneous toxicity. Evaluation was by AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)1 defined assessment. One patient achieved a partial response and remains on treatment in partial remission. Thus the overall response rate is 7% (95% confidence interval 0-23%). A further 5 patients had stable disease (38%: 95% confidence interval 7-64%). The overall low activity, considerable toxicity and limited cosmetic benefit even in responding patients limits the value of this approach in KS. However, this treatment strategy may be more rewarding in early good risk KS. PMID:9259501

Bower, M; Fife, K; Landau, D; Gracie, F; Phillips, R H; Gazzard, B G

1997-08-01

25

HIV associated renal disease: A pilot study from north India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: HIV/AIDS patients may have renal involvement also, however, Indian data are sparse. The present study was done to find the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, HIV positive patients aged >18 yr were screened for renal involvement [serum creatinine >1.5 mg% and/or significant proteinuria (>500 mg /day)]. Patients who were positive on screening were followed up prospectively and underwent kidney biopsy if indicated. Results: A total of 526 patients were screened, of these, 91 (17.3%) were found to have renal involvement. Group A (Treatment naïve) comprised 392 patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and group B (patients on ART) comprised 134 patients. More patients (74/392, 18.9%) in group A had renal involvement as compared to patients in group B (17/134, 12.7%). Of the 91 patients with renal involvement, 26 were followed up and underwent kidney biopsy. Thirteen patients had only proteinuria and another 13 had renal dysfunction with or without proteinuria. Most common histological diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (mes PGN) (10/26). Two patients had collapsing FSGS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and three patients had immune complex glomerulonephritis. Seven patients had acute kidney injury, whom six totally recovered from their renal function. All patients with mesPGN tolerated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors well. There was mixed response of collapsing FSGS to steroids. Both patients with MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) did well on low dose of steroid and ART. Interpretation & conclusions: Renal involvement was found to be common in HIV positive patients (17.3%). A low occurrence of renal involvement found in patients already on ART suggests some renoprotective effect of ART. Our preliminary results showed that collapsing FSGS was not rare in Indian HIV positive population, but classical HIV associated nephropathy was not seen. Longitudinal studies with robust study design and large sample size need to be done to confirm the findings.

Gupta, Vijay; Gupta, Sanjay; Sinha, Sanjeev; Sharma, S.K.; Dinda, A.K.; Agarwal, S.K.; Tiwari, S.C.; Ekka, Meera

2013-01-01

26

Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms  

PubMed Central

The environments we humans encounter daily are sources of exposure to diverse microbial communities, some of potential concern to human health. In this study, we used culture-independent technology to investigate the microbial composition of biofilms inside showerheads as ecological assemblages in the human indoor environment. Showers are an important interface for human interaction with microbes through inhalation of aerosols, and showerhead waters have been implicated in disease. Although opportunistic pathogens commonly are cultured from shower facilities, there is little knowledge of either their prevalence or the nature of other microorganisms that may be delivered during shower usage. To determine the composition of showerhead biofilms and waters, we analyzed rRNA gene sequences from 45 showerhead sites around the United States. We find that variable and complex, but specific, microbial assemblages occur inside showerheads. Particularly striking was the finding that sequences representative of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other opportunistic human pathogens are enriched to high levels in many showerhead biofilms, >100-fold above background water contents. We conclude that showerheads may present a significant potential exposure to aerosolized microbes, including documented opportunistic pathogens. The health risk associated with showerhead microbiota needs investigation in persons with compromised immune or pulmonary systems.

Feazel, Leah M.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Peterson, Kristen L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Harris, J. Kirk; Pace, Norman R.

2009-01-01

27

Genetic susceptibility to HIV-associated nephropathy  

PubMed Central

HIV-1–associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a common complication of HIV-1 infection, and its skewed incidence in certain ethnic groups suggests that there is a genetic basis to HIVAN susceptibility. In their study reported in this issue of the JCI, Papeta and colleagues used a combination of gene expression profiling and linkage analysis to identify three genomic loci that regulate a network of genes expressed by podocytes — cells that are crucial to the filtration of fluid and waste by the kidney (see the related article beginning on page 1178). Surprisingly, two of these loci confer disease susceptibility in a transgenic mouse model of HIVAN. This report confirms the central role of podocytes in the pathogenesis of HIVAN and demonstrates the power of this combination of genomic analysis techniques in elucidating the pathogenesis of glomerular disease.

Quaggin, Susan E.

2009-01-01

28

The Functional Impact of HIV-Associated Neuropsychological Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly, HIV infection is associated with neuropsychological deficits in attention\\/working memory, motor abilities, memory,\\u000a and executive functioning (1–5), which are often attributed to disruptions in frontal-striatal circuitry (3, 6). These HIV-associated deficits generally worsen with infection staging (3) , and decline in psychomotor speed appears to be the most robust (5,7) . Although dementia occurs in a relatively small number

Matthew J. Wright; Ellen Woo; Terry R. Barclay; Charles H. Hinkin

29

Strategies for Managing Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... C policy Health care reform CONTRIBUTORS Search for: Twitter Feed Project Inform ProjectInform ProjectInform @HAL5T3D Thanks for ... 18, 2011 Strategies for managing opportunistic infections Facebook Twitter Google + Email Print January 2011Â Â Â View ...

30

A Survey of Opportunistic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define an opportunistic network as one type of challenged networks where network contacts are intermittent or where link performance is highly variable or extreme. In such a network, there does not exist a complete path from source to destination for most of the time. In addition, the path can be highly unstable and may change or break quickly. Therefore,

Chung-ming Huang; Kun-chan Lan; Chang-zhou Tsai

2008-01-01

31

Urban Sensing: Opportunistic or Participatory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing systems for urban deployments are still in their infancy. An interesting unresolved issue is the precise role assumed by people within such systems. This issue has significant implications on where the complexity and main challenges in building urban sensing system reside. We discuss the two end- points of the spectrum of conscious human involvement, namely participatory sensing and opportunistic

Shane B. Eisenman; Emiliano Miluzzo; Mirco Musolesi; Andrew T. Campbell

32

Implementation of Opportunistic Scheduling for Robotic Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this thesis is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making a schedule based on current opportunities. A...

A. W. Butler

1990-01-01

33

Antiretroviral medications disrupt microglial phagocytosis of ?-amyloid and increase its production by neurons: Implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 50% of long-term HIV infected patients, including those with systemically well-controlled infection, commonly experience\\u000a memory problems and slowness, difficulties in concentration, planning, and multitasking. Deposition of A? plaques is also\\u000a a common pathological feature of HIV infection. However, it is not clear whether this accumulation is due to AD-like processes,\\u000a HIV-associated immunosuppression, Tat protein-induced A? elevations, and\\/or the

Brian Giunta; Jared Ehrhart; Demian F Obregon; Lucy Lam; Lisa Le; JingJi Jin; Francisco Fernandez; Jun Tan; R Douglas Shytle

2011-01-01

34

HIV-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Patients Admitted at the Douala General Hospital between 2004 and 2009: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies on HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases in Cameroon are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, identify aetiological factors, and determine predictors of mortality in HIV patients with CNS disease. Methods. From January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009, we did at the Douala General Hospital a clinical case note review of 672 admitted adult (age ? 18 years) HIV-1 patients, and 44.6% (300/672) of whom were diagnosed and treated for HIV-associated CNS disease. Results. The mean age of the study population was 38.1 ± 13.5 years, and median CD4 count was 49 cells/mm3 (interquartile range (QR): 17–90). The most common clinical presentations were headache (83%), focal signs (40.6%), and fever (37.7%). Toxoplasma encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis were the leading aetiologies of HIV-associated CNS disease in 32.3% and 25% of patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 49%. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and bacterial meningitis had the highest case fatality rates of 100% followed by tuberculous meningitis (79.8%). Low CD4 count was an independent predictor of fatality (AOR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0–5.2). Conclusions. HIV-associated CNS disease is common in Douala. CNS symptoms in HIV patients need urgent investigation because of their association with diseases of high case fatality.

Luma, Henry Namme; Tchaleu, Benjamin Clet Nguenkam; Temfack, Elvis; Doualla, Marie Solange; Ndenga, Daniela Pamela Ntchankam; Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Njamnshi, Alfred Kinyuy; Djientcheu, Vincent-de-Paul

2013-01-01

35

Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections  

SciTech Connect

Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

2009-01-01

36

The kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid: pivotal roles in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

This brief review will first consider HIV associated neurocognitive disorder followed by the current understanding of its neuropathogenesis. Against this background the role of the kynurenine pathway will be detailed. Evidence both direct and indirect will be discussed for involvement of the kynurenine pathway at each step in the neuropathogenesis of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder. PMID:22260426

Kandanearatchi, Apsara; Brew, Bruce J

2012-03-27

37

Rodent models for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) reflect the spectrum of neural impairments seen during chronic viral infection. Current research efforts focus on improving antiretroviral and adjunctive therapies, defining disease onset and progression, facilitating drug delivery, and halting neurodegeneration and viral resistance. As HIV is species-specific, generating disease in small animal models has proved challenging. After two decades of research, rodent HAND models now include those containing a human immune system. Antiviral responses, neuroinflammation and immunocyte blood-brain barrier (BBB) trafficking follow HIV infection in these rodent models. Here, we review these and other rodent models of HAND and discuss their unmet potential in reflecting human pathobiology and in facilitating disease monitoring and therapeutic discoveries.

Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa; Gendelman, Howard E.

2012-01-01

38

HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Clinical Presentation, Pathology, and Epidemiology in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The classic kidney disease of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, HIV-associated nephropathy, is characterized by progressive acute renal failure, often accompanied by proteinuria and ultrasound findings of enlarged, echogenic kidneys. Definitive diagnosis requires kidney biopsy, which demonstrates collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with associated microcystic tubular dilatation and interstitial inflammation. Podocyte proliferation is a hallmark of HIV-associated nephropathy, although this classic pathology is observed less frequently in antiretroviral-treated patients. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy involves direct HIV infection of renal epithelial cells, and the widespread introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has had a significant impact on the natural history and epidemiology of this unique disease. These observations have established antiretroviral therapy as the cornerstone of treatment for HIV-associated nephropathy, in the absence of prospective clinical trials. Adjunctive therapy for HIV-associated nephropathy includes ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as corticosteroids in selected patients with significant interstitial inflammation or rapid progression.

Wyatt, Christina M.; Klotman, Paul E.; D'Agati, Vivette D.

2008-01-01

39

The dysregulated podocyte phenotype: a novel concept in the pathogenesis of collapsing idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-associated nephropathy.  

PubMed

Podocytes are highly differentiated, postmitotic cells, whose function is largely based on their complex cytoarchitecture. The differentiation of podocytes coincides with progressive expression of maturity markers, including WT-1, CALLA, C3b receptor, GLEPP-1, podocalyxin, and synaptopodin. In collapsing forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), including idiopathic FSGS and HIV-associated nephropathy, podocytes undergo characteristic, irreversible ultrastructural changes. This study analyzes the expression pattern of the above differentiation markers and of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in collapsing idiopathic FSGS and HIV-associated nephropathy compared with minimal change disease, membranous glomerulopathy, as well as normal adult and fetal human kidney. In minimal change disease and membranous glomerulopathy, all mature podocyte markers were retained at normal levels despite severe proteinuria and foot process fusion; no cell proliferation was observed. In contrast, in collapsing idiopathic FSGS and HIV-associated nephropathy, there was disappearance of all markers from all collapsed glomeruli and of synaptopodin from 16% of noncollapsed glomeruli. This phenotypic dysregulation of podocytes was associated with cell proliferation in both diseases. It is concluded that the loss of specific podocyte markers defines a novel dysregulated podocyte phenotype and suggests a common pathomechanism in collapsing FSGS, whether idiopathic or HIV-associated. PMID:9890309

Barisoni, L; Kriz, W; Mundel, P; D'Agati, V

1999-01-01

40

REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

41

REMOTE DETECTION OF INVASSIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

42

Migration and Opportunistic Feeding Increase PCB Accumulation in Arctic Seabirds.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

2013-10-04

43

Opportunistic scheduling using cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cognitive approaches based on interference scanning discard a certain communication band once interference is detected, irrespective of the temporal characteristics of the interference. The aim of this article is to alert the community that interference exhibits temporal fluctuations, which can be exploited by a cognitive radio in an opportunistic manner. To this end, we present some mathematical approaches that describe the temporal behaviour of interference signals obeying a lognormal shadowing distribution. We derive some key quantities, such as throughput, for an example hierarchical cell structure configuration of a microcell hotspot being operated within a macrocell using the same frequency band. To cite this article: M. Dohler et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

Dohler, Mischa; Ghorashi, Seyed A.; Ghozzi, Mohamed; Arndt, Marylin; Said, Fatin; Aghvami, A. Hamid

2006-09-01

44

Impact of altruism on opportunistic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic networking largely relies on human-carried devices as relays to move data across the network. Human altruistic behavior is an important factor in the feasibility and performance of such a system. In this paper, we study the impact of different altruism distributions on the system throughput and delay of opportunistic communications. We evaluate the system performance by utilizing social network

Kuang Xu; Pan Hui; Victor O. K. Li; J. Crowcroft; Vito Latora; Pietro Lio

2009-01-01

45

HIV-associated Nephropathy : Role of AT2R  

PubMed Central

AT1R has been reported to play an important role in the progression of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN); however, the effect of AT2R has not been studied. Age and sex matched control (FVB/N) and Tg26 mice aged 4, 8, and 16 weeks were studied for renal tissue expression of AT1R and AT2R (Protocol A). Renal tissue mRNA expression of AT2R was lower in Tg26 mice when compared with control mice. In protocol B, Tg26 mice were treated with either saline, telmisartan (TEL, AT1 blocker), PD123319 (PD, AT2R blocker), or TEL + PD for two weeks. TEL-receiving Tg26 (TRTg) displayed less advanced glomerular and tubular lesions when compared with saline-receiving Tg26 (SRTg). TRTgs displayed enhanced renal tissue AT2R expression when compared to SRTgs. Diminution of renal tissue AT2R expression was associated with advanced renal lesions in SRTgs; whereas, upregulation of AT2R expression in TRTgs was associated with attenuated renal lesions. PD-receiving Tg 26 mice (PDRTg) did not show any alteration in the course of HIVAN; whereas, PD + TEL-receiving Tg26 (PD-TRTg) showed worsening of renal lesions when compared to TRTgs. Interestingly, plasma as well as renal tissues of Tg26 mice displayed several fold higher concentration of Ang III, a ligand of AT2R.

Salhan, Divya; Sagar, Ankita; Kumar, Dileep; Rattanavich, Rungwasee; Rai, Partab; Maheshwari, Subani; Adabala, Madhuri; Husain, Mohammad; Ding, Guohua; Malhotra, Ashwani; Chander, Praveen N.; Singhal, Pravin C.

2011-01-01

46

Prepulse inhibition in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Thirty-seven HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, although the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated. PMID:23552464

Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L; Woods, Steven Paul; Vaida, Florin; Grant, Igor; Geyer, Mark A; Perry, William

2013-04-03

47

Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.  

PubMed

Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

48

Performance Analysis of an Opportunistic Transmission Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the performance of an opportunistic transmission strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We consider a transmission strategy called Binary Decision-Based Transmission (BDT), which is a common form of opportunistic transmission. The BDT scheme initiates transmission only when the channel quality exceeds the optimum threshold to avoid unsuccessful transmissions that waste energy. We formulate the Markov Decision Process (MDP) to identify an optimum threshold for transmission decisions in the BDT scheme.

Kim, Jeong Geun; Phan, Ca Van; Kim, Wonha

49

Nutrition and the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.  

PubMed

HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), comprising metabolic and morphological alterations, is a known side effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence for the role of nutrition in the management of the systemic parameters of HALS is currently limited. In the present paper we review the current knowledge base surrounding HALS, focusing particularly on the role of nutrition in mitigating the systemic parameters of the syndrome. Reported prevalence of HALS was found to vary from 9 to 83 % due to lack of a standardised definition, as well as variations in assessment methods and in the study population used. HALS is associated with both morphological (lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy) and metabolic (dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) alterations, which may occur singly or in combination, and are associated with an increased risk of CVD. HAART-induced adipocyte inflammation, oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration, as well as altered adipocyte function and mitochondrial toxicity, have been shown to be central to the development of HALS. The adipocyte, therefore, represents a plausible target for treatment. Pharmacological and surgical treatment interventions have shown effect. However, their use is associated with numerous adverse effects and complications. Targeted lifestyle interventions may provide a useful alternative for managing HALS owing to their safety and tolerability. A Mediterranean-style diet has been found to be effective in improving the systemic parameters of HALS. Furthermore, the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation are encouraging and future randomised controlled trials investigating the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA in HALS are justified. PMID:23174511

Loonam, Cathríona Rosemary; Mullen, Anne

2012-12-01

50

Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of the probiotic bacteria.

Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

2011-01-01

51

Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation.

Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

2013-01-01

52

Opportunistic customer claiming during service recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a potentially significant issue to managers and academics alike, opportunistic customer behavior in the service recovery\\u000a context has been largely ignored. A multi-stage research program, comprising actual customer claims (Study 1), in depth customer\\u000a interviews (Study 2) and three experimental studies (Studies 3, 4, 5), explored opportunistic customer claiming behavior during\\u000a service recovery and yielded robust findings across methods,

Jochen Wirtz; Janet R. McColl-Kennedy

2010-01-01

53

Opportunistic infections--coming to the limits of immunosuppression?  

PubMed

Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients' recent and distant epidemiological exposures and all factors that contribute to the patient's net state of immune suppression. This risk is altered by antimicrobial prophylaxis and changes in immunosuppressive therapies. In addition to the direct effects of infection, opportunistic infections, and the microbiome may adversely shape the host immune responses with diminished graft and patient survivals. Antimicrobial therapies are more complex than in the normal host with a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific microbiologic diagnosis is essential. Newer microbiologic assays have improved the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. These tools coupled with assays that assess immune responses to infection and to graft antigens may allow optimization of management for graft recipients in the future. PMID:24086067

Fishman, Jay A

2013-10-01

54

Drug Abuse and Hepatitis C Infection as Comorbid Features of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Features  

PubMed Central

Substance abuse and co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) are two highly relevant determinants of neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with HIV. Substance abuse and HCV are common in the HIV population and there is increasing evidence that the CNS is directly compromised by these comorbid conditions via additive or synergistic processes. In this article we review the current literature regarding mechanisms of neuronal injury as well as the neuropsychological and neuroimaging signatures associated with substance abuse and HCV status among HIV patients. We discuss specific methodological challenges and threats to validity associated with studies of HIV and comorbid substance use disorders or HCV and review potential strategies for minimizing their confounding effects. Efforts to understand the interactions between HIV, substance abuse and HCV co-infection will lead to more complete models of neuropathogenesis of HIV and a greater understanding of the variability in neuropsychological expression of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

Paul, Robert H.

2013-01-01

55

Screening for HIV-associated dementia in South Africa: potentials and pitfalls of task-shifting.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for valid, reliable, and simple-to-use screening tools for HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in South Africa, as little is known about its impact on South Africa's 5.5 million people living with HIV (PLWH). Screening for HAD in South Africa involves several challenges, including few culturally appropriate and validated screening tools, and a shortage of trained personnel to conduct screening. This study examined rates of positive HAD screens as determined by the cutoff score on the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) administered by nonspecialist community health workers (CHWs) in South Africa and examined associations between positive HAD screens and common risk factors for HAD. Sixty-five Xhosa-speaking HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with low CD4 counts and documented ART adherence problems were administered a battery of demographic, psychiatric and neurocognitive screening measures. Positive HAD screens were present in 80% of the sample. Presence of a current alcohol dependence disorder and CD4 counts of 200 or lower were significantly associated with positive HAD screens. HIV-positive South Africans on ART with low CD4 counts and ART adherence problems may be at a very high risk for HAD, highlighting the need for more routine screening and monitoring of neurocognitive functions among South Africa's millions of PLWH on ART. Future research is needed to: (1) validate IHDS performance against a gold standard neurocognitive battery for the detection of HAD among larger samples of Xhosa-speaking South Africans with ART adherence difficulties and (2) compare performance of CHW to expert health care personnel in administering the IHDS. PMID:21919734

Robbins, Reuben N; Remien, Robert H; Mellins, Claude A; Joska, John A; Stein, Dan J

2011-09-15

56

Screening for HIV-Associated Dementia in South Africa: Potentials and Pitfalls of Task-Shifting  

PubMed Central

Abstract There is an urgent need for valid, reliable, and simple-to-use screening tools for HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in South Africa, as little is known about its impact on South Africa's 5.5 million people living with HIV (PLWH). Screening for HAD in South Africa involves several challenges, including few culturally appropriate and validated screening tools, and a shortage of trained personnel to conduct screening. This study examined rates of positive HAD screens as determined by the cutoff score on the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) administered by nonspecialist community health workers (CHWs) in South Africa and examined associations between positive HAD screens and common risk factors for HAD. Sixty-five Xhosa-speaking HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with low CD4 counts and documented ART adherence problems were administered a battery of demographic, psychiatric and neurocognitive screening measures. Positive HAD screens were present in 80% of the sample. Presence of a current alcohol dependence disorder and CD4 counts of 200 or lower were significantly associated with positive HAD screens. HIV-positive South Africans on ART with low CD4 counts and ART adherence problems may be at a very high risk for HAD, highlighting the need for more routine screening and monitoring of neurocognitive functions among South Africa's millions of PLWH on ART. Future research is needed to: (1) validate IHDS performance against a gold standard neurocognitive battery for the detection of HAD among larger samples of Xhosa-speaking South Africans with ART adherence difficulties and (2) compare performance of CHW to expert health care personnel in administering the IHDS.

Remien, Robert H.; Mellins, Claude A.; Joska, John A.; Stein, Dan J.

2011-01-01

57

Opportunistic transmission scheduling for multiuser MIMO systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunistic transmission scheduling scheme is proposed to make better use of the multiuser diversity gain in a MIMO system. The performance of a MIMO link is quantified by its information-theoretic capacity. Even though the base station has no knowledge of the transmission channel, the proposed algorithm generates a transmission randomizing matrix according to the distribution of the channel, so

Liang Dong; Teng Li; Yih-Fang Huang

2003-01-01

58

Adaptive user anonymity for mobile opportunistic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mobile opportunistic networks often use social routing protocols to transfer messages among users and to the services. In the face of changing underlying topology, mobility patterns and density of users and their queries, fixed algorithms for user anonymisation cannot provide sufficient level of user anonymity, and adaptive mechanisms for achieving user anonymity are needed. This paper describes a novel

Milena Radenkovic; Ivan Vaghi

2012-01-01

59

Trustworthy opportunistic sensing: A Social Computing Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, technological advances have lead to a society with communication platforms like iPhone and Kinect Xbox that are able to inject sensing presence into online social networks (OSNs). Thus, it is possible to create large- scale opportunistic networks by integrating sensors, applications and social networks and this development could also promote innovative collaborative cyber security models. In this

Henric Johnson; Niklas Lavesson; Daniela Oliveira; S. Felix Wu

2011-01-01

60

Psychiatric Manifestations in a Patient with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Symptoms and Cryptococcal Meningitis  

PubMed Central

We report here a case that presented as mania followed by depression and mild cognitive impairment, which was misinterpreted and treated as a depressive episode of bipolar disorder and planned for electroconvulsive therapy, but was ultimately found to have cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive symptoms.

Holikatti, Prabhakar C.; Kar, Nilamadhab

2012-01-01

61

Psychiatric Manifestations in a Patient with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Symptoms and Cryptococcal Meningitis.  

PubMed

We report here a case that presented as mania followed by depression and mild cognitive impairment, which was misinterpreted and treated as a depressive episode of bipolar disorder and planned for electroconvulsive therapy, but was ultimately found to have cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive symptoms. PMID:23723549

Holikatti, Prabhakar C; Kar, Nilamadhab

2012-10-01

62

Retrograde Amnesia in Dementia: Comparison of HIV-Associated Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote memory was assessed in persons with HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Huntington's disease (HD) and in healthy controls. The clinical groups were similar in overall dementia severity. Each clinical group exhibited impairments on remote memory tests relative to controls; however, temporally graded memory loss with selective preservation of older information was observed in the AD group

Joseph R. Sadek; Shannon A. Johnson; Desirée A. White; David P. Salmon; Kirsten I. Taylor; Jody H. DeLaPena; Jane S. Paulsen; Robert K. Heaton; Igor Grant

2004-01-01

63

ORAS: Opportunistic routing with asynchronous sleep in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic routing and asynchronous sleep are both recent techniques those change the traditional way of routing and MAC layer implementation. The existing opportunistic routing schemes, designed for increasing throughput of connection rather than saving energy, are not appropriate for Wireless Sensor Networks due to low energy efficiency caused by overhearing and scheduling. In this paper, we propose opportunistic routing with

Shucheng Liu; Mo Sha; Liusheng Huang

2010-01-01

64

Finding Self-Similarities in Opportunistic People Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic network is a type of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) where network communication opportunities appear opportunistic. In this study, we investigate opportunistic network scenarios based on public network traces, and our contributions are the following: First, we identify the censorship issue in network traces that usually leads to strongly skewed distribution of the measurements. Based on this knowledge, we then

Ling-jyh Chen; Yung-chih Chen; Tony Sun; Paruvelli Sreedevi; Kuan-ta Chen; Chen-hung Yu; Hao-hua Chu

2007-01-01

65

BBS-ONE: Bulletin board and forum system for mobile opportunistic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic bulletin boards and forum systems are commonly used to exchange opinions, news, event notifications, documents and other media on the Internet. However, such systems usually require a central server hosting the content. Such servers cannot be installed in ad-hoc opportunistic wireless networks, which are created when mobile devices congregate to form a localized and short-lived network without Internet connectivity.

Kiwoon Sung; Suman Srinivasan; Henning Schulzrinne

2010-01-01

66

Lymphocyte proliferation to mycobacterial antigens is detectable across a spectrum of HIV-associated tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying novel TB diagnostics is a major public health priority. We explored the diagnostic characteristics of antimycobacterial lymphocyte proliferation assays (LPA) in HIV-infected subjects with latent or active TB. Methods HIV-infected subjects with bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) scars and CD4 counts ? 200 cells/mm3 entering a TB booster vaccine trial in Tanzania had baseline in vivo and in vitro immune tests performed: tuberculin skin tests (TST), LPA and five day assays of interferon gamma (IFN-?) release. Assay antigens were early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), antigen 85 (Ag85), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate (WCL). Subjects were screened for active TB at enrollment by history, exam, sputum smear and culture. We compared antimycobacterial immune responses between subjects with and without latent or active TB at enrollment. Results Among 1885 subjects screened, 635 had latent TB and 13 had active TB. Subjects with latent TB were more likely than subjects without TB to have LPA responses to ESAT-6 (13.2% vs. 5.5%, P < 0.0001), Ag85 (18.7% vs. 3.1%, P < 0.0001), and WCL (45.7% vs. 17.1%, P < 0.0001). Subjects with active TB also were more likely than those without active TB to have detectable LPA responses to ESAT-6 (38.5% vs. 8.1%, P = 0.0001), Ag85 (46.2% vs. 8.5%, P < 0.0001), and WCL (61.5% vs. 27.0%, P = 0.0053). In subjects with a positive TST, LPA responses to ESAT-6, Ag85 and WCL were more common during active TB (p < 0.0001 for all tests). In diagnosing active TB, in vivo and in vitro tests of mycobacterial immune responses had sensitivity and specificity as follows: TST 84.6% and 65.5%, ESAT-6 LPA 38.5% and 92.0%, Ag85 LPA 46.2% and 91.5%, and WCL LPA 61.5% and 73.0%. Detectable LPA responses were more common in patients with higher CD4 counts, and higher HIV viral loads. Conclusion Lymphoproliferative responses to mycobacteria are detectable during HIV-associated active TB, and are less sensitive but more specific than TST. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00052195.

2009-01-01

67

Opportunistic developmental surveillance in general practice.  

PubMed Central

The importance of the developmental surveillance of children is generally accepted. One method which could be used in general practice is opportunistic surveillance, where the doctor makes use of contacts with children in the surgery to assess their development, and offer advice and health education to parents where appropriate. This study describes an audit of opportunistic developmental surveillance in one general practice. It was found that 95% of a cohort of 78 children had been assessed at least once by the time they were one year old. In addition, at two points in the study, after one and two years, it was found that 81% of children aged two years or less in the practice had had a recent assessment. This level of surveillance compares favourably with reported attendance rates in clinics.

Houston, H L; Santos, K; Davis, R H

1990-01-01

68

Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

2013-10-01

69

Exploiting Opportunistic Scheduling in Cellular Data Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third Generation (3G) cellular networks utilize time- varying and location-dependent channel conditions to provide broadband services. They employ opportunis- tic scheduling to efficiently utilize spectrum under fair- ness or QoS constraints. Opportunistic scheduling al- gorithms rely on collaboration among all mobile users to achieve their design objectives. However, we demon- strate that rogue cellular devices can exploit vulnera- bilities in

Radmilo Racic; Denys Ma; Hao Chen; Xin Liu

2008-01-01

70

Diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of HIV-associated lymph node tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is recommended for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary tuberculosis but not extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We assessed the performance of Xpert for HIV-associated lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB), the most common type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Among HIV-infected adults suspected of LNTB presenting for fine needle aspirate (FNA) at a South African hospital, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert using either FNA culture or a composite of microscopy, culture, and cytology as the reference standard, and evaluated the impact of different diagnostics on patient management. Among 344 adults with valid FNA culture and Xpert results, 84 (24 %) were positive on microscopy, 149 (43 %) on culture, 152 (53 %) on Xpert, and 181 (57 %) had a cytology result suggestive of tuberculosis. Using liquid culture as the reference standard, the specificity of a single Xpert was suboptimal (88.2 %) but the sensitivity was high [93.3 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 87.6-96.6] and increased with decreasing CD4 count (from 87.0 % for CD4 >250 to 98.6 % for CD4 <100 cells/mm(3)). Using a composite reference standard reduced the sensitivity to 79.2 % but increased the specificity to 98.6 %. All Xpert-positive patients initiated treatment within one day, compared to 70 % of culture-positive but Xpert-negative and 13 % of culture- and Xpert-negative but cytology-positive patients. Xpert is accurate and effective and could be endorsed as the initial diagnostic for HIV-associated LNTB. PMID:23660698

Van Rie, A; Page-Shipp, L; Mellet, K; Scott, L; Mkhwnazi, M; Jong, E; Omar, T; Beylis, N; Stevens, W; Sanne, I; Menezes, C N

2013-05-10

71

Greater Preexisting Interferon ? Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens and Lower Bacillary Load During HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The role of preexisting interferon (IFN) ? responses in controlling bacillary burden in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is not known. Among BCG-immunized HIV-infected adults who developed tuberculosis in a phase III trial of an investigational tuberculosis vaccine, greater baseline IFN-? responses to early secretory antigenic target 6 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate were associated with reduced bacillary burden on sputum smear grade, days to culture positivity on agar, and sputum culture grade during subsequent tuberculosis. This association was most consistent among recipients of the investigational vaccine. When HIV-associated tuberculosis develops, greater preexisting IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens are associated with reduced tuberculosis bacillary burden. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.?NCT0052195. PMID:23908490

Lahey, Timothy; Czechura, Tom; Crabtree, Scott; Arbeit, Robert D; Matee, Mecky; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mackenzie, Todd; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

2013-08-01

72

Proteomic and metabolomic strategies to investigate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases, monitoring their progression and assessing responses to treatments will all be aided\\u000a by the identification of molecular markers of different stages of pathology. Protein biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive\\u000a disorders that have been discovered using proteomics include complement C3, soluble superoxide dismutase and a prostaglandin\\u000a synthase. Metabolomics has not yet been widely used for biomarker discovery, but early

Gurudutt Pendyala; Howard S Fox

2010-01-01

73

Long-term chemotherapy of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with liposomal doxorubicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the outcome, adverse events and clinical complications of long-term chemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PegLiposomal DOX) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the pre-highly active antirectroval therapy (HAART) era. A phase II study over a 4-year period in a tertiary care university hospital was carried out. 52 acquired immunodeficiency

U. R Hengge; S Esser; H.-P Rudel; M Goos

2001-01-01

74

HIV-associated nephropathy and end-stage renal disease in children in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data

Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo

2004-01-01

75

Hyaluronic Acid New Formulation: Experience in HIV-Associated Facial Lipoatrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is a stigmatizing complication of antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of facial volume restoration in patients with HIV-associated FLA, using a novel long-lasting, hyaluronic acid high-density formulation. Methods: Twenty-one males with FLA were enrolled in this prospective, open-label, monocenter pilot study. Each patient received

Falk G. Bechara; Thilo Gambichler; Norbert H. Brockmeyer; Michael Sand; Peter Altmeyer; Klaus Hoffmann

2008-01-01

76

Memory for verbal information in individuals with HIV-associated dementia complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of memory performance were examined for 9 participants with HIV-associated dementia (HAD), 15 HIV-seropositive participants without dementia, and 15 HIV-seronegative controls. Episodic and semantic memory were assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, and Verbal Fluency tests. The HAD group showed deficits in episodic memory, with relative sparing of semantic memory. In addition, results suggest

DesirÉE A. White; Michael J. Taylor; Nelson Butters; Carol Mack; David P. Salmon; Guerry Peavy; Lee Ryan; Robert K. Heaton; J. Hampton Atkinson; James L. Chandler; Igor Grant

1997-01-01

77

APOL1 variants in HIV-associated nephropathy: just one piece of the puzzle.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has been focused on how the APOL1/MYH9 locus determines susceptibility to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Atta and colleagues found that homozygosity for APOL1 risk alleles was associated with many, but not all, HIVAN cases, and that APOL1 variation failed to predict characteristics of disease. Their work gives important impetus to identify other genetic and environmental factors that may provide a 'second hit' linking HIV infection to HIVAN. PMID:22791322

Hays, Thomas; Wyatt, Christina M

2012-08-01

78

The homophilic adhesion molecule sidekick-1 contributes to augmented podocyte aggregation in HIV-associated nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapsing glomerulopathy of HIV- associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized by podocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation. In af- fected glomeruli, proliferating podocytes adhere in aggregates to form glomerular pseudocrescents and fill an enlarged Bowman's space. Previously, we reported that sidekick-1 (sdk-1), an adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, was highly up-regulated in HIV-1 transgenic podocytes. In the current work, we explore

Lewis Kaufman; Guozhe Yang; Kayo Hayashi; James R. Ashby; Li Huang; Michael J. Ross; Mary E. Klotman; Paul E. Klotman

2007-01-01

79

Cerebrospinal fluid HIV viral load in different phases of HIV–associated brain disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared CSF HIV viral load in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients, 11 patients with incipient minor motor deficits\\u000a (MMD), 11 patients with sustained MMD, and 16 patients with HIV–associated dementia. Patients with incipient MMD showed significantly\\u000a higher CSF viral load than asymptomatic patients. Demented patients also had higher CSF viral loads than asymptomatic patients.\\u000a This phenomenon is independent of

Hans-Jürgen von Giesen; Ortwin Adams; Hubertus Köller; Gabriele Arendt

2005-01-01

80

Role of Metabolic Syndrome Components in HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Sensory neuropathy (SN) is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerosis and microvascular disease, is associated with SN in HIV-uninfected (HIV?) persons. We examined if MetS or its components predispose individuals to HIV-SN. Design From a prospective multicenter cohort of 1,556 HIV+ subjects, a subgroup (n=130) with fasting laboratory tests and SN assessment was selected. Methods SN was defined by symmetrically decreased reflexes or sensation loss in the legs. MetS was defined by presence of ?3 risk factors: mean arterial pressure (MAP) ?100 mm Hg; triglycerides (TRG) ?150 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL for males, <50 mg/dL for females; body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2; plasma glucose (GLU) ?100 mg/dl and self-reported diabetes (DM II). Multivariate logistic regression examined the association between HIV-SN and MetS. Results After controlling for HIV-SN risk factors- age, CD4 current, length of HIV infection, use of dideoxynucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors; MetS was not associated with HIV-SN (p=0.72). However, when each MetS component was assessed, elevated TRG was a significant risk factor for HIV-SN. From the larger cohort, both DM II (OR=1.4, p<0.01) and elevated TRG (OR=1.4, p=0.01) were risk factors for HIV-SN. Conclusion The risk of HIV-SN was increased for DM II and elevated TRG, but not other MetS components. Both increase the risk of SN in HIV- populations, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear.

Ances, Beau M.; Vaida, Florin; Rosario, Debralee; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Ellis, Ronald J.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Grant, Igor; McCutchan, J. Allen

2010-01-01

81

Cognitive Mechanisms of Switching in HIV-Associated Category Fluency Deficits  

PubMed Central

HIV infection is associated with deficits in category fluency, but the underlying cognitive mechanisms of such impairments have not been determined. Considering the preferential disruption of the structure and function of frontostriatal circuits in HIV disease, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that HIV-associated category fluency deficits are driven by impaired switching. Study participants were 96 HIV-infected individuals and 43 demographically comparable healthy comparison volunteers who were administered a standard measure of animal fluency and an alternating category fluency task (i.e., fruits and furniture) in a randomized order. Consistent with prior research on letter fluency, HIV infection was associated with greater impairments in switching, but not semantic clustering within the animal fluency task. Moreover, a significant interaction was observed whereby the HIV-associated deficits in switching were exacerbated by the explicit demands of the alternating fluency task. Across both fluency tasks, switching demonstrated generally small correlations with standard clinical measures of executive functions, working memory and semantic memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that HIV-associated category fluency deficits are driven by switching impairments and related cognitive abilities (e.g., mental flexibility), perhaps reflecting underlying neuropathology within prefrontostriatal networks.

Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Scott, J. Cobb; Carey, Catherine L.; Grant, Igor

2008-01-01

82

Opportunistic pathology-based screening for diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the potential of opportunistic glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) testing of pathology samples to detect previously unknown diabetes. Design Pathology samples from participants collected for other reasons and suitable for HbA1c testing were utilised for opportunistic diabetes screening. HbA1c was measured with a Biorad Variant II turbo analyser and HbA1c levels of ?6.5% (48?mmol/mol) were considered diagnostic for diabetes. Confirmation of previously unknown diabetes status was obtained by a review of hospital medical records and phone calls to general practitioners. Setting Hospital pathology laboratory receiving samples from hospital-based and community-based (CB) settings. Participants Participants were identified based on the blood sample collection location in the CB, emergency department (ED) and inpatient (IP) groups. Exclusions pretesting were made based on the electronic patient history of: age <18?years, previous diabetes diagnosis, query for diabetes status in the past 12?months, evidence of pregnancy and sample collected postsurgery or transfusion. Only one sample per individual participant was tested. Results Of the 22?396 blood samples collected, 4505 (1142 CB, 1113 ED, 2250 IP) were tested of which 327 (7.3%) had HbA1c levels ?6.5% (48?mmol/mol). Of these 120 (2.7%) were determined to have previously unknown diabetes (11 (1%) CB, 21 (1.9%) ED, 88 (3.9%) IP). The prevalence of previously unknown diabetes was substantially higher (5.4%) in hospital-based (ED and IP) participants aged over 54?years. Conclusions Opportunistic testing of referred pathology samples can be an effective method of screening for diabetes, especially in hospital-based and older persons.

Simpson, Aaron J; Krowka, Renata; Kerrigan, Jennifer L; Southcott, Emma K; Wilson, J Dennis; Potter, Julia M; Nolan, Christopher J; Hickman, Peter E

2013-01-01

83

Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections.  

PubMed

Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. PMID:2833918

Hartelius, H

84

Risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Yaoundé-Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), especially HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is influenced by several risk factors. The prevalence as well as risk factors for HAD are not well known in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We have shown that the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) is a useful screening tool for HAND in Yaoundé [Njamnshi AK, Djientcheu VdP, Fonsah JY, Yepnjio

A. K. Njamnshi; A. C. Zoung-Kanyi Bissek; P. Ongolo-Zogo; E. N. Tabah; A. Z. Lekoubou; F. N. Yepnjio; J. Y. Fonsah; C. T. Kuate; S. A. Angwafor; F. Dema; D. M. Njamnshi; C. Kouanfack; V. de P. Djientcheu; W. F. T. Muna; G. D. Kanmogne

2009-01-01

85

Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative

South Africans; Dinesh Singh; John A Joska; Karl Goodkin; Enrique Lopez; Landon Myer; Robert H Paul; Sally John; Henry Sunpath

2010-01-01

86

Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative

Dinesh Singh; John A Joska; Karl Goodkin; Enrique Lopez; Landon Myer; Robert H Paul; Sally John; Henry Sunpath

2010-01-01

87

Uncommon opportunistic fungi: new nosocomial threats.  

PubMed

During the past two decades opportunistic fungal infections have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe underlying illnesses and compromised host defenses. While Aspergillus and Candida spp. collectively account for the majority of these infections, recent epidemiological trends indicate a shift towards infections by Aspergillus spp., nonalbicans Candida spp., as well as previously uncommon opportunistic fungi. Apart from an expanding number of different Zygomycetes, previously uncommon hyaline filamentous fungi (such as Fusarium species, Acremonium species, Paecilomyces species, Pseudallescheria boydii, and Scedosporium prolificans), dematiaceous filamentous fungi (such as Bipolaris species, Cladophialophora bantiana, Dactylaria gallopava, Exophiala species, and Alternaria species) and yeast-like pathogens (such as Trichosporon species, Blastoschizomyces capitatus, Malassezia species, Rhodotorula rubra and others) are increasingly encountered as causing life threatening invasive infections that are often refractory to conventional therapies. On the basis of past and current trends, the spectrum of fungal pathogens will continue to evolve in the settings of an expanding population of immunocompromised hosts, selective antifungal pressures, and shifting conditions in hospitals and the environment. An expanded and refined drug arsenal, further elucidation of pathogenesis and resistance mechanisms, establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlations, incorporation of pharmacodynamics, combination- and immunotherapies offer hope for substantial progress in prevention and treatment. PMID:11525222

Groll, A H; Walsh, T J

2001-01-01

88

Molecular epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: strain predominance, clustering, and polyclonal disease.  

PubMed

Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be used to elucidate the epidemiology of tuberculosis, including the rates of clustering, the frequency of polyclonal disease, and the distribution of genotypic families. We performed IS6110 typing and spoligotyping on M. tuberculosis strains isolated from HIV-infected subjects at baseline or during follow-up in the DarDar Trial in Tanzania and on selected community isolates. Clustering occurred in 203 (74%) of 275 subjects: 124 (80%) of 155 HIV-infected subjects with baseline isolates, 56 (69%) of 81 HIV-infected subjects with endpoint isolates, and 23 (59%) of 39 community controls. Overall, 113 (41%) subjects had an isolate representing the East Indian "GD" family. The rate of clustering was similar among vaccine and placebo recipients and among subjects with or without cellular immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Polyclonal disease was detected in 6 (43%) of 14 patients with multiple specimens typed. Most cases of HIV-associated tuberculosis among subjects from this study in Dar es Salaam resulted from recently acquired infection. Polyclonal infection was detected and isolates representing the East Indian GD strain family were the most common. PMID:22649022

Adams, Lisa V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Arbeit, Robert D; Soini, Hanna; Mtei, Lillian; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Lahey, Timothy; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Shashkina, Elena; Kurepina, Natalia; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Pallangyo, Kisali; Horsburgh, C Robert; von Reyn, C Fordham

2012-05-30

89

Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Strain Predominance, Clustering, and Polyclonal Disease  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be used to elucidate the epidemiology of tuberculosis, including the rates of clustering, the frequency of polyclonal disease, and the distribution of genotypic families. We performed IS6110 typing and spoligotyping on M. tuberculosis strains isolated from HIV-infected subjects at baseline or during follow-up in the DarDar Trial in Tanzania and on selected community isolates. Clustering occurred in 203 (74%) of 275 subjects: 124 (80%) of 155 HIV-infected subjects with baseline isolates, 56 (69%) of 81 HIV-infected subjects with endpoint isolates, and 23 (59%) of 39 community controls. Overall, 113 (41%) subjects had an isolate representing the East Indian “GD” family. The rate of clustering was similar among vaccine and placebo recipients and among subjects with or without cellular immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Polyclonal disease was detected in 6 (43%) of 14 patients with multiple specimens typed. Most cases of HIV-associated tuberculosis among subjects from this study in Dar es Salaam resulted from recently acquired infection. Polyclonal infection was detected and isolates representing the East Indian GD strain family were the most common.

Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Arbeit, Robert D.; Soini, Hanna; Mtei, Lillian; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Lahey, Timothy; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Shashkina, Elena; Kurepina, Natalia; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; Pallangyo, Kisali; Horsburgh, C. Robert; von Reyn, C. Fordham

2012-01-01

90

Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/?l, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections.

De, Anuradha

2013-01-01

91

Sputum microscopy for the diagnosis of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background In many resource poor settings only sputum microscopy is employed for the diagnosis of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis; sputum culture may not be available. Methods We determined the diagnostic accuracy of sputum microscopy for active case finding of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis using TB culture as the reference standard. Results 2216 potential subjects screened for a TB vaccine trial submitted 9454 expectorated sputum specimens: 212 (2.2%) were sputum culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 31 (0.3%) for non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and 79 (0.8%) were contaminated. The overall sensitivity of sputum microscopy was 61.8% (131/212) and specificity 99.7% (9108/9132). Sputum microscopy sensitivity varied from 22.6% in specimens with < 20 colony forming units (CFU)/specimen to 94.2% in patients with > 100 CFU/specimen plus confluent growth. The incremental diagnostic value for sputum microscopy was 92.1%, 1.8% and 7.1% for the first, second and third specimens, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values for sputum microscopy were 84.5% and 99.1%, respectively. The likelihood ratio (LR) of a positive sputum microscopy was 235.1 (95% CI 155.8 – 354.8), while the LR of a negative test was 0.38 (95CI 0.32 – 0.45). The 212 positive sputum cultures for MTB represented 103 patients; sputum microscopy was positive for 57 (55.3%) of 103 patients. Conclusion Sputum microscopy on 3 expectorated sputum specimens will only detect 55% of culture positive HIV-infected patients in active screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity is higher in patients with greater numbers of CFUs in the sputum. Culture is required for active case finding of HIV- associated pulmonary tuberculosis.

Matee, Mecky; Mtei, Lillian; Lounasvaara, Tarja; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Waddell, Richard; Lyimo, Johnson; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

2008-01-01

92

Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of Rosiglitazone in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS) as a long-term side effect of HAART is becoming increasingly important and negatively\\u000a affects adherence to medication. Currently, an effective therapy is not available. There is some evidence that the drug class\\u000a of thiazolidindiones might be effective in the treatment of LDS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  Prospective open-label study with 20 HIV-infected patients suffering from severe LDS. Patients

T. Feldt; M. Oette; A. Kroidl; K. Goebels; R. Fritzen; J. Kambergs; G. Kappert; C. Vogt; M. Wettstein; D. Häussinger

2006-01-01

93

A Decision-Theoretic Framework for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built on a hierarchical access structure with primary and secondary users, opportunistic spectrum access improves spectrum efficiency while maintaining compatibility with legacy wireless systems. The basic idea is to allow secondary users to exploit instantaneous spectrum availability while limiting the interference to primary users. In this article, we identify basic components, fundamental trade-offs, and practical constraints in opportunistic spectrum access.

Qing Zhao; Ananthram Swami

2007-01-01

94

[Effect of heavy metal salts on the growth and pathogenicity factors of opportunistic bacteria].  

PubMed

The paper presents experimental data on the effect of different concentrations of the salts of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the adaptive potentialities of the most common opportunistic microflora in the Volga-Caspian region. The findings suggest that natural microorganisms (Aeromonas and Citrobacter) show a high metal resistance that seems to be associated with steadily increased background levels of these metals in the waters of the Volga-Caspian basin. PMID:21510046

Obukhova, O V

95

HIV-associated Prospective Memory Impairment Increases Risk of Dependence in Everyday Functioning  

PubMed Central

HIV infection is associated with impairments in prospective memory (ProM), an aspect of episodic memory that refers to the ability to execute a future intention, such as remembering to take a medication at a specific time. The current study sought to examine the relationship between HIV-associated ProM impairment and the successful management of independent activities of daily living (IADLs). In a cohort of 66 HIV-infected individuals, ProM accounted for a significant proportion of variance in self-reported IADL dependence over and above that which was explained by retrospective memory and current affective distress. Analysis of component cognitive processes revealed that the relationship between HIV-associated ProM deficits and IADL dependence was driven by impaired cue detection and self-initiated intention retrieval. Results were not better explained by demographic factors, HIV disease severity, psychiatric comorbidity, or substance use. Collectively, these data support the potential incremental ecological validity of ProM as a predictor of dependence in IADLs among persons living with HIV infection.

Woods, Steven Paul; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Moran, Lisa M.; Carey, Catherine L.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2007-01-01

96

HIV-Associated Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Prognosis and Therapy in the Era of cART  

PubMed Central

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are at increased risk for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a risk that has not decreased despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the modern era. HIV-associated HL (HIV-HL) differs from HL in non-HIV-infected patients in that it is nearly always associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and more often presents with high-risk features of advanced disease, systemic “B” symptoms, and extranodal involvement. Before the introduction of cART, patients with HIV-HL had lower response rates and worse outcomes than non-HIV-infected HL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. The introduction of cART, however, has allowed for the delivery of full-dose and dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens with improved outcomes that approach those seen in non-HIV infected patients. Despite these significant advances, HIV-HL patients remain at increased risk for treatment-related toxicities and drug-drug interactions which require careful attention and supportive care to insure the safe administration of therapy. This paper will address the modern diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapy of HIV-associated HL.

Jacobson, Caron A.; Abramson, Jeremy S.

2012-01-01

97

Moxifloxacin for the treatment of HIV-associated tuberculosis in patients with contraindications or intolerance to rifamycins.  

PubMed

Administration of rifampicin or rifabutin in the treatment of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) is made rather complex by the risk of drug-drug interactions with most antiretrovirals and/or for reasons of toxicity. While in selecting the appropriate concomitant regimens the priority usually goes to rifamycins with exclusion of interacting antiretrovirals, in some circumstances the former cannot be used and anti-TB rifamycin-free regimens must be administered. We describe here the clinical course of two patients with HIV-associated TB in whom the last generation fluorquinolone moxifloxacin (found to exert significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis) successfully replaced rifamycins. PMID:18550175

Bonora, S; Mondo, A; Trentini, L; Calcagno, A; Lucchini, A; Di Perri, G

2008-06-11

98

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors  

PubMed Central

Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported. Because large HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV?) groups have not been studied with similar methods in the pre-CART and CART eras, it is unclear whether CART has changed the prevalence, nature, and clinical correlates of HAND. We used comparable methods of subject screening and assessments to classify neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in large groups of HIV + and HIV ? participants from the pre-CART era (1988–1995; N?=?857) and CART era (2000–2007; N?=?937). Impairment rate increased with successive disease stages (CDC stages A, B, and C) in both eras: 25%, 42%, and 52% in pre-CART era and 36%, 40%, and 45% in CART era. In the medically asymptomatic stage (CDC-A), NCI was significantly more common in the CART era. Low nadir CD4 predicted NCI in both eras, whereas degree of current immunosuppression, estimated duration of infection, and viral suppression in CSF (on treatment) were related to impairment only pre-CART. Pattern of NCI also differed: pre-CART had more impairment in motor skills, cognitive speed, and verbal fluency, whereas CART era involved more memory (learning) and executive function impairment. High rates of mild NCI persist at all stages of HIV infection, despite improved viral suppression and immune reconstitution with CART. The consistent association of NCI with nadir CD4 across eras suggests that earlier treatment to prevent severe immunosuppression may also help prevent HAND. Clinical trials targeting HAND prevention should specifically examine timing of ART initiation.

Franklin, Donald R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Letendre, Scott L.; LeBlanc, Shannon; Corkran, Stephanie H.; Duarte, Nichole A.; Clifford, David B.; Woods, Steven P.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Taylor, Michael J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Wolfson, Tanya; Gelman, Benjamin B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Abramson, Ian; Gamst, Anthony; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Jernigan, Terry L.; Wong, Joseph; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

99

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors.  

PubMed

Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported. Because large HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) groups have not been studied with similar methods in the pre-CART and CART eras, it is unclear whether CART has changed the prevalence, nature, and clinical correlates of HAND. We used comparable methods of subject screening and assessments to classify neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in large groups of HIV + and HIV - participants from the pre-CART era (1988-1995; N?=?857) and CART era (2000-2007; N?=?937). Impairment rate increased with successive disease stages (CDC stages A, B, and C) in both eras: 25%, 42%, and 52% in pre-CART era and 36%, 40%, and 45% in CART era. In the medically asymptomatic stage (CDC-A), NCI was significantly more common in the CART era. Low nadir CD4 predicted NCI in both eras, whereas degree of current immunosuppression, estimated duration of infection, and viral suppression in CSF (on treatment) were related to impairment only pre-CART. Pattern of NCI also differed: pre-CART had more impairment in motor skills, cognitive speed, and verbal fluency, whereas CART era involved more memory (learning) and executive function impairment. High rates of mild NCI persist at all stages of HIV infection, despite improved viral suppression and immune reconstitution with CART. The consistent association of NCI with nadir CD4 across eras suggests that earlier treatment to prevent severe immunosuppression may also help prevent HAND. Clinical trials targeting HAND prevention should specifically examine timing of ART initiation. PMID:21174240

Heaton, Robert K; Franklin, Donald R; Ellis, Ronald J; McCutchan, J Allen; Letendre, Scott L; Leblanc, Shannon; Corkran, Stephanie H; Duarte, Nichole A; Clifford, David B; Woods, Steven P; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina M; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Taylor, Michael J; Marcotte, Thomas D; Atkinson, J Hampton; Wolfson, Tanya; Gelman, Benjamin B; McArthur, Justin C; Simpson, David M; Abramson, Ian; Gamst, Anthony; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Jernigan, Terry L; Wong, Joseph; Grant, Igor

2010-12-21

100

Crofelemer, a novel antisecretory agent approved for the treatment of HIV-associated diarrhea.  

PubMed

Secretory diarrhea has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide and may be a predominant or minor component of pathogenesis in diarrhea of various etiologies. Crofelemer is a first-in-class antidiarrheal medication with unique inhibitory mechanisms at both the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and the calcium-activated chloride channels which are responsible for chloride secretion and subsequent luminal hydration. The efficacy of crofelemer has been investigated in patients with HIV-associated diarrhea, diarrhea of various infectious etiologies, as well as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Crofelemer was approved by the FDA in December 2012 to treat diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy. Crofelemer is not absorbed in the body and well-tolerated in small trials performed to date although long-term safety data is lacking. Crofelemer may be an important addition to the currently available drugs for the management of secretory diarrhea. PMID:23616951

Yeo, Q M; Crutchley, R; Cottreau, J; Tucker, A; Garey, K W

2013-04-01

101

Retrograde amnesia in dementia: comparison of HIV-associated dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Remote memory was assessed in persons with HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Huntington's disease (HD) and in healthy controls. The clinical groups were similar in overall dementia severity. Each clinical group exhibited impairments on remote memory tests relative to controls; however, temporally graded memory loss with selective preservation of older information was observed in the AD group but not the HD or HIV-D group. Analysis of cued retrieval indicated a preferential cuing benefit for the HIV-D and HD groups relative to the AD group. The similar pattern of remote memory performance demonstrated by the HIV-D and HD groups is a novel finding and suggests a subcortically mediated retrograde amnesia in HIV-D. The temporally graded pattern and the abnormal cued retrieval performance in the AD group are consistent with a consolidation deficit associated with extrahippocampal (cortical) and hippocampal damage. PMID:15506837

Sadek, Joseph R; Johnson, Shannon A; White, Desirée A; Salmon, David P; Taylor, Kirsten I; Delapena, Jody H; Paulsen, Jane S; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

2004-10-01

102

Can Humanized Mice Reflect the Complex Pathobiology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders?  

PubMed Central

There is a rebirth of humanized mouse models in reflecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathobiology. This has allowed new investigations of viral diversity, immunity and developmental therapeutics. In the past, HIV infection and disease were, in part, mirrored in immune deficient mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells. What remained from early studies reflected the ability to mirror central nervous system (CNS) disease. As the wide spread use of combination antiretroviral therapies has changed the severity, but not prevalence, of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), mimicking such virus-induced CNS morbidities in humanized animals is essential for HIV/AIDS research activities. To this end, we now review the evidence for how and under what circumstances humanized mice may be utilized for studies of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.

Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

2013-01-01

103

High prevalence of suspected HIV-associated dementia in adult Malawian HIV patients.  

PubMed

HIV-associated dementia (HAD) has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are no data available from Malawi. We used the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a cross-cultural, simple and validated screening tool to study the prevalence of suspected HAD, defined as an IHDS score

Patel, V N; Mungwira, R G; Tarumbiswa, T F; Heikinheimo, T; van Oosterhout, J J

2010-05-01

104

Apolipoprotein E4 genotype does not increase risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

This is a cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-seropositive (HIV+) apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers are at increased risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) compared to APOE4 noncarriers with HIV in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group sample. APOE genotype was determined in 466 CHARTER participants with varying disease stages and histories of antiretroviral treatment who did not have severe psychiatric or medical comorbid conditions that preclude diagnosis of HAND. HAND diagnoses were based on results of comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation and use of current neuroAIDS diagnostic criteria. HAND status consists of two levels: neuropsychologically normal status (i.e., no HAND) and any HAND diagnosis (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, minor neurocognitive disorder, HIV-associated dementia). Logistic regression analyses revealed no association between APOE4 carrier status and HAND, and there were no interactions between APOE4 carrier status and ethnicity, age, substance use disorders, duration of infection, or nadir CD4. Results did not differ when analysis was restricted to symptomatic HAND, and no APOE4 gene dose-dependent relationship to HAND emerged. APOE4 status was not associated with concurrent HAND in this large, well-characterized sample. This does not preclude emergence of an association between APOE4 status and HAND as this population ages. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to examine APOE4 as a risk factor for neurocognitive decline, incident HAND at older ages, and potential associations with cerebrospinal fluid amyloid. PMID:23408335

Morgan, E E; Woods, S P; Letendre, S L; Franklin, D R; Bloss, C; Goate, A; Heaton, R K; Collier, A C; Marra, C M; Gelman, B B; McArthur, J C; Morgello, S; Simpson, D M; McCutchan, J A; Ellis, R J; Abramson, I; Gamst, A; Fennema-Notestine, C; Smith, D M; Grant, I; Vaida, F; Clifford, D B

2013-02-14

105

Low BMI and falling BMI predict HIV-associated tuberculosis: a prospective study in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BACKGROUND Low body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) in people without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but there are no prospective studies linking BMI to the risk of HIV-associated TB. DESIGN In HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ? 200 cells/µl receiving placebo in a TB booster vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, we measured BMI at baseline and Year 1, and related baseline BMI and change in BMI to the risk of developing TB. RESULTS We documented 92 cases of TB among 979 subjects followed for a mean of 3.2 years. Compared to subjects who did not develop TB, subjects who developed TB had a lower baseline BMI (23.2 vs. 24.6 kg/m2, P = 0.006), and a greater BMI decline from baseline to Year 1 (?0.4 vs. 0.6 kg/m2, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, baseline BMI was associated with the risk of developing TB (hazard ratio [HR] per kg/m2 0.94, 95%CI 0.90–0.99, P = 0.028), as was the change in BMI from baseline to Year 1 (HR per kg/m2 0.79, 95%CI 0.71–0.87, P < 0.001). Subjects with a baseline BMI < 17 kg/m2 were more likely to develop TB (HR 3.72, 95%CI 1.16–12.0, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION Low BMI and falling BMI predict HIV-associated TB.

Maro, I.; Lahey, T.; MacKenzie, T.; Mtei, L.; Bakari, M.; Matee, M.; Pallangyo, K.; von Reyn, C. F.

2011-01-01

106

The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning.  

PubMed

HIV-1 infection can be associated with neuropsychological (NP) deficits ranging from subtle to severe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional, or "real-world" impact of HIV-associated NP impairment in a group of 267 HIV-infected participants. All participants received comprehensive NP, neuromedical, and standardized functional evaluations that included laboratory measures of shopping, cooking, financial management, medication management and vocational abilities. Compared to NP-normal participants, those with NP impairment performed significantly worse on all laboratory measures of everyday functioning. Multivariate analyses revealed that the NP ability domains of Abstraction/Executive Function, Learning, Attention/Working Memory and Verbal abilities most strongly and consistently predicted failures on the functional battery. Both NP impairment and impairment on the functional battery were significantly associated with subjective experiences of cognitive difficulties, as well as unemployment and increased dependence in activities of daily living; multivariate prediction models that also considered depressed mood and biological measures of disease progression revealed that impairment on the functional battery and depression were the only unique predictors of all three indicators of "real-world" functioning. The current results add to growing evidence concerning the clinical significance of HIV-associated NP impairment. Objective, laboratory based functional measures, such as those used here, may compliment NP testing in future studies directed at understanding the impact on life quality of central nervous system disorders and their treatments. Finally, there is a need for additional research investigating the apparently independent effect of depression on level of everyday functioning in HIV infected persons. PMID:15147590

Heaton, Robert K; Marcotte, Thomas D; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Sadek, Joseph; Moore, David J; Bentley, Heather; McCutchan, J Allen; Reicks, Carla; Grant, Igor

2004-05-01

107

Use of a chinese herbal medicine for treatment of hiv-associated pathogen-negative diarrhea.  

PubMed

Background: Diarrhea is a frequent problem among persons with advanced HIV disease. In the absence of treatable pathogens, symptomatic relief is all that is available for current therapy. As a result, many patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea have turned to herbal formulas for treatment. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formulation (Source Qi) in reducing the number of stools per day related to HIV-associated, pathogen-negative diarrhea. Methods: Sixteen male patients received treatment with Source Qi in an 8-week, open-label study. Patients tested negative for cryptosporidium and other gastrointestinal pathogens, and had chronic diarrhea, defined as having three or more loose stools/day for >/=14 days (and no other treatable causes for diarrhea). Measurements of diarrhea included numbers of bowel movements/day, abnormal bowel movements/day, and liquid bowel movements/day. Subjects completed daily stool diaries an average of 2 weeks before and up to 8 weeks after starting Source Qi. Paired Wilcoxon tests compared the last week before treatment with each week of treatment. Results: There was a reduction in average number of stools/day in each week of treatment (-0.2 to -0.8), except week 1 (+0.1), with improvements in weeks 2-6 approaching or reaching statistical significance. Conclusions: A modest but sustained decrease in average number of stools/day was observed in patients with HIV-associated, pathogen-negative diarrhea. The entry criteria, 2-week run-in period, lack of benefit in week 1, and sustained benefit thereafter all suggest that the improvement was not due to bias. PMID:10882880

Cohen; Mitchell; Bacchetti; Child; Crawford; Gaeddert; Abrams

2000-03-21

108

Pathology of HIV-associated nephropathy: a detailed morphologic and comparative study.  

PubMed

Clinical and pathologic findings in the kidneys of 30 consecutive acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) autopsies and in 34 consecutive renal biopsies performed on HIV infected patients at our institution between 1983 and 1987 were studied. To determine if the lesions of HIV-associated nephropathy have morphologic specificity, a subgroup of 13 biopsies with a diagnosis of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVN) were compared to 13 biopsies each of heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) and of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (IFSGS) matched for patient age, proteinuria and serum creatinine. A diagnosis of HIVN was made in 1 of 30 (3.3%) AIDS autopsies and 26 of 34 (76.5%) renal biopsies. When compared to HAN and IFSGS, HIVN had more globally "collapsed" glomeruli (P less than 0.001), less glomerular hyalinosis (P less than 0.02), more severe visceral epithelial cell swelling (P less than 0.05), more numerous visceral epithelial cell droplets (P less than 0.002), more prevalent and severe tubular microcystic dilatation (P less than 0.02), and tubular cell degenerative changes (P less than 0.001). Focal glomerular electron-dense deposits were present in 14 of 26 cases. Tubuloreticular inclusions were extremely numerous in glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelial cells as well as in interstitial leukocytes (P less than 0.001). Granular degeneration of nuclear chromatin was present in 10 of 26 cases. Nuclear bodies were more numerous in tubular and interstitial cells of HIVN (P less than 0.01), particularly type 3 (P less than 0.001). Reversal of tissue T4/T8 ratio was observed. We conclude that while no single morphologic feature of HIVN is specific, the combination of clinical and pathologic findings is quite distinctive and permits a presumptive diagnosis of HIVN in otherwise asymptomatic carriers. PMID:2770114

D'Agati, V; Suh, J I; Carbone, L; Cheng, J T; Appel, G

1989-06-01

109

Antiretroviral treatment interruptions and risk of non-opportunistic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured treatment interruptions have been studied as a strategy to reduce antiretroviral toxicities and expenditures in\\u000a the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. Paradoxically, in addition to the increased incidence of death and opportunistic\\u000a infections, these interruptions in therapy have resulted in the development of a number of non-opportunistic diseases, including\\u000a cardiovascular events, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hypotheses regarding

Kenneth A. Lichtenstein

2009-01-01

110

Exploiting and Defending Opportunistic Scheduling in Cellular Data Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third Generation (3G) cellular networks take advantage of time-varying and location-dependent channel conditions of mobile users to provide broadband services. Under fairness and QoS constraints, they use opportunistic scheduling to efficiently utilize the available spectrum. Opportunistic scheduling algorithms rely on the collaboration among all mobile users to achieve their design objectives. However, we demonstrate that rogue cellular devices can exploit

Radmilo Racic; Denys Ma; Hao Chen; Xin Liu

2010-01-01

111

HIV-associated cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa--the potential effect of clade diversity.  

PubMed

In the US, HIV dementia occurs in 10-15% of HIV-positive individuals with advanced infection. The prevalence of HIV dementia in sub-Saharan countries, where the vast majority of individuals with HIV reside, is largely unknown. This Review will summarize our current understanding of HIV-associated cognitive impairment in resource-limited settings, focusing specifically on the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We will describe the frequency of HIV dementia and HIV-associated cognitive impairment from several case series in the sub-Saharan region. We will then summarize recent studies from Uganda and Ethiopia that included detailed neuropsychological assessments. The potential influence of clade diversity on HIV-associated cognitive impairment will be discussed. Differences between the results of the studies in Uganda and in Ethiopia raise the possibility that HIV subtypes might have different biological properties with respect to their capacity to cause HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Further studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of HIV dementia in sub-Saharan Africa and to establish whether specific clade subtypes might influence the presentation of neurological complications. PMID:17671521

Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Clifford, David B

2007-08-01

112

Prevalence of HIV-associated ophthalmic disease among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in India: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ocular manifestations of HIV may lead to visual impairment or blindness. In India, patients typically initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) with low CD4 cell counts when the risk of ocular complications may be high. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of HIV-associated ocular conditions in patients referred for ART in India. METHODS: This

Sophia Pathai; Alaka Deshpande; Clare Gilbert; Stephen D Lawn

2009-01-01

113

HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral, cervical and anal epithelial cells, and oral tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration in to the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia. PMID:24074602

Tugizov, Sharof M; Herrera, Rossana; Chin-Hong, Peter; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Michael Berry, J; Pilcher, Christopher D; Shiboski, Caroline H; Jay, Naomi; Rubin, Mary; Chein, Aung; Palefsky, Joel M

2013-09-17

114

Plasma HHV8 DNA predicts relapse in individuals with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease.  

PubMed

HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (HIV-MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder caused by infection with human herpesvirus-8. The disease follows a relapsing and remitting clinical course, with marked systemic symptoms during an active attack, which can prove fatal. Its incidence is rising, and new data indicate the utility of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab at inducing remissions in both first- and second-line settings, although biomarkers associated with relapse have not been previously identified. In 52 individuals with a histologic diagnosis of HIV-MCD, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to predict factors associated with an HIV-MCD attack. Although a younger age (< 50 years) was associated with an attack, the strongest association was observed with plasma levels of human herpesvirus-8 DNA. Rising levels predicted an attack (hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.7), and maintenance therapy with rituximab should be considered in these individuals. PMID:21511959

Stebbing, Justin; Adams, Caroline; Sanitt, Adam; Mletzko, Salvinia; Nelson, Mark; Gazzard, Brian; Newsom-Davis, Tom; Bower, Mark

2011-04-21

115

A comparison of performance-based measures of function in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to compare the results of newer performance-based functional assessments in the study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and to correlate these functional assessments with specific levels of severity of HAND. One hundred fourteen HIV+ subjects in an existing cohort were evaluated with a medical history, neurological exam, neuropsychological test battery as well as subjective and novel objective measures of functional abilities. Self-reported measures of functional performance included the Karnofsky Performance Scale, a questionnaire for instrumental activities of daily living, and a questionnaire for physical quality of life measures. The newer objective functional performance assessments included the Columbia Medication Management and the San Diego Finances tests. These newer performance-based measures of function were assessed for their ability to predict level of HAND. The two objective measures of functional performance, The Columbia Medication Management Scale and the San Diego Finances Test, were both associated with levels of severity of HAND. The Karnofsky Performance Scale and the questionnaires for role and physical quality of life were subjective measures that were also associated with specific levels of HAND. Newer measures of functional performance can be used to objectively evaluate functional impairment in HAND and validate different levels of HAND. PMID:21437751

Gandhi, Nishiena S; Skolasky, Richard L; Peters, Katherine B; Moxley, Richard T; Creighton, Jason; Roosa, Heidi Vornbrock; Selnes, Ola A; McArthur, Justin; Sacktor, Ned

2011-03-25

116

APOL1 Genetic Variants in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and HIV-Associated Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Trypanolytic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with kidney disease in African Americans, but whether APOL1-associated glomerular disease has a distinct clinical phenotype is unknown. Here we determined APOL1 genotypes for 271 African American cases, 168 European American cases, and 939 control subjects. In a recessive model, APOL1 variants conferred seventeenfold higher odds (95% CI 11 to 26) for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and twenty-nine-fold higher odds (95% CI 13 to 68) for HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). FSGS associated with two APOL1 risk alleles associated with earlier age of onset (P = 0.01) and faster progression to ESRD (P < 0.01) but similar sensitivity to steroids compared with other subjects. Individuals with two APOL1 risk alleles have an estimated 4% lifetime risk for developing FSGS, and untreated HIV-infected individuals have a 50% risk for developing HIVAN. The effect of carrying two APOL1 risk alleles explains 18% of FSGS and 35% of HIVAN; alternatively, eliminating this effect would reduce FSGS and HIVAN by 67%. A survey of world populations indicated that the APOL1 kidney risk alleles are present only on African chromosomes. In summary, African Americans carrying two APOL1 risk alleles have a greatly increased risk for glomerular disease, and APOL1-associated FSGS occurs earlier and progresses to ESRD more rapidly. These data add to the evidence base required to determine whether genetic testing for APOL1 has a use in clinical practice.

Nelson, George W.; Sampath, Karmini; Johnson, Randall C.; Genovese, Giulio; An, Ping; Friedman, David; Briggs, William; Dart, Richard; Korbet, Stephen; Mokrzycki, Michele H.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Limou, Sophie; Ahuja, Tejinder S.; Berns, Jeffrey S.; Fryc, Justyna; Simon, Eric E.; Smith, Michael C.; Trachtman, Howard; Michel, Donna M.; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Vlahov, David; Pollak, Martin; Winkler, Cheryl A.

2011-01-01

117

Role of the retinoic acid receptor-? in HIV-associated nephropathy  

PubMed Central

All-trans retinoic acid protects against the development of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26). In vitro, all-trans retinoic acid inhibits HIV-induced podocyte proliferation and restores podocyte differentiation markers by activating its receptor-? (RAR?). Here, we report that Am580, a water-soluble RAR?-specific agonist, attenuated proteinuria, glomerosclerosis, and podocyte proliferation, and restored podocyte differentiation markers in kidneys of Tg26 mice. Furthermore, RAR??/? Tg26 mice developed more severe kidney and podocyte injury than did RAR?+/? Tg26 mice. Am580 failed to ameliorate kidney injury in RAR??/? Tg26 mice, confirming our hypothesis that Am580 acts through RAR?. Although the expression of RAR?-target genes was suppressed in the kidneys of Tg26 mice and of patients with HIVAN, the expression of RAR? in the kidney was not different between patients with HIVAN and minimal change disease. However, the tissue levels of retinoic acid were reduced in the kidney cortex and isolated glomeruli of Tg26 mice. Consistent with this, the expression of two key enzymes in the retinoic acid synthetic pathway, retinol dehydrogenase type 1 and 9, and the overall enzymatic activity for retinoic acid synthesis were significantly reduced in the glomeruli of Tg26 mice. Thus, a defect in the endogenous synthesis of retinoic acid contributes to loss of the protection by retinoic acid in HIVAN. Hence, RAR? agonists may be potential agents for the treatment of HIVAN.

Ratnam, Krishna K.; Feng, Xiaobei; Chuang, Peter Y.; Verma, Vikram; Lu, Ting-Chi; Wang, Jinshan; Jin, Yuanmeng; Farias, Eduardo F.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Chen, Nan; Kaufman, Lewis; Takano, Tomoko; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Klotman, Paul E.; He, John C.

2011-01-01

118

Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology

Irina S. Druzhinina; Verena Seidl-Seiboth; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella; Benjamin A. Horwitz; Charles M. Kenerley; Enrique Monte; Prasun K. Mukherjee; Susanne Zeilinger; Igor V. Grigoriev; Christian P. Kubicek

2011-01-01

119

Implant infections: a haven for opportunistic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insertion of implants and medical devices has emerged as a common and often life-saving procedure. A current estimate of the rate of total hip replacement in the world is approximately one million a year, and knee replacements more than 250000. More than 30% of hospitalized patients have one or more vascular catheters in place. More than 10% of hospitalized

J. M. Schierholz; J. Beuth

2001-01-01

120

The role of protease inhibitors in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated insulin resistance: Cellular mechanisms and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-associated insulin resistance frequently presents as relative lack of peripheral adipose tissue storage associated with\\u000a dyslipidemia. This review discusses explanations for the links between acute and subacute abnormalities in glucose metabolism\\u000a and chronic changes in adipose tissue distribution. Specifically, the molecular mechanisms by which the HIV protease inhibitor\\u000a class of drugs may affect the normal stimulatory effect of insulin on

Mustafa A. Noor

2007-01-01

121

Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive MIMO Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio has been recently proposed as a promising technology to improve the spectrum utilization. In this paper, we consider the spectrum sharing between a large number of cognitive radio users and a licensed user in order to enhance the spectrum efficiency. With the deployment of M antennas at the cognitive base station, an opportunistic spectrum sharing approach is proposed

Karama Hamdi; Wei Zhang; Khaled Ben Letaief

2009-01-01

122

MOON: MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

MapReduce offers a flexible programming model for processing and generating large data sets on dedicated resources, where only a small fraction of such resources are every unavailable at any given time. In contrast, when MapReduce is run on volunteer comput- ing systems, which opportunistically harness idle desktop computers via frameworks like Condor, it results in poor performance due to the

Heshan Lin; Xiaosong Ma; Jeremy S. Archuleta; Wu-chun Feng; Mark K. Gardner; Zhe Zhang

2010-01-01

123

Opportunistic media access for multirate ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 wireless media access standard supports multiple data rates at the physical layer. Moreover, various auto rate adaptation mechanisms at the medium access layer have been proposed to utilize this multi-rate capability by automatically adapting the transmission rate to best match the channel conditions. In this paper, we introduce the Opportunistic Auto Rate (OAR) protocol to better exploit

Bahareh Sadeghi; Vikram Kanodia; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Edward W. Knightly

2002-01-01

124

Opportunistic Media Access for Multirate Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 wireless media access standard supports multiple data rates at the physical layer. Moreover, vari- ous auto rate adaptation mechanisms at the medium access layer have been proposed to utilize this multi-rate capabil- ity by automatically adapting the transmission rate to best match the channel conditions. In this paper, we introduce the Opportunistic Auto Rate (OAR) protocol to

B. Sadeghi; V. Kanodia; A. Sabharwal; E. Knightly

125

Viewing scheduling as an opportunistic problem-solving process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for more efficient yet effective ways of solving combinatorially complex problems such as jobshop scheduling, we move towards opportunistic approaches that attempt to exploit the structure of a given problem. Rather than adhere to a single problem-solving plan, such approaches are characterized by almost continual surveillance of the current problem-solving state to possibly modify plans so that

Peng Si OW; Stephen F. Smith

1988-01-01

126

Opportunistic spectral access through suppression of impulsive interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radios are slated to be the next generation of smart transceivers that can opportunistically access spectrum through dynamic sensing of their immediate radio frequency (RF) environment. Such spectral sharing will be limited primarily by the interference that a cognitive user may potentially cause to the licensed primary user of the band. In particular, all cognitive transmitters located within a

Jeebak Mitra; Lutz Lampe

2009-01-01

127

Opportunistic medium access for wireless networking adapted to decentralized CSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to a centralized operation, opportunistic medium access capitalizing on decentralized multiuser diversity in a channel-aware homogeneous slotted Aloha system with analog-amplitude channels has been shown to incur only partial loss in throughput due to contention. In this context, we provide sufficient conditions for stability as well as upper bounds on average queue sizes, and address three equally important ques-

Yingqun Yu; Georgios B. Giannakis

2006-01-01

128

Arcanobacterium pyogenes : molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen of economically important livestock, causing diseases as diverse as mastitis, liver abscessation and pneumonia. This organism possesses a number of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential. A. pyogenes expresses a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which is a haemolysin and is cytolytic for immune cells, including macrophages. Expression of pyolysin is

B. Helen Jost; Stephen J. Billington

2005-01-01

129

Cannabinoid-mediated exacerbation of brain infection by opportunistic amebae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate a higher frequency of brain infections with opportunistic amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba among immune compromised individuals, including AIDS patients. We have demonstrated, using a murine model of Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE), that the major psychoactive and immune suppressive component in marijuana delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exacerbates infection by these amebae. Mice administered THC and infected with Acanthamoeba exhibited

Guy A. Cabral; Francine Marciano-Cabral

2004-01-01

130

Social Relationship Enhanced Predicable Routing in Opportunistic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routing is one of the most challenging problems in the opportunistic network owing to the occasion-connected mobile wireless environment. To overcome this weakness, many routing protocols have been put forward to solve it by exploiting the nodes' mobility history. Meanwhile, to parallel the current trend of the social network, some of them design the solution by utilizing the social relationship

Xingguang Xie; Yong Zhang; Chao Dai; Mei Song

2011-01-01

131

The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper

C. J. Rhodes; M. Nekovee

2008-01-01

132

OPPORTUNITY: Towards opportunistic activity and context recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic sensing allows to efficiently collect infor- mation about the physical world and the persons behav- ing in it. This may mainstream human context and activ- ity recognition in wearable and pervasive computing by re- moving requirements for a specific deployed infrastructure. In this paper we introduce the newly started European re- search project OPPORTUNITY within which we develop mobile

Daniel Roggen; Kilian Förster; Alberto Calatroni; Thomas Holleczek; Yu Fang; Gerhard Tröster; Alois Ferscha; Clemens Holzmann; Andreas Riener; Paul Lukowicz; Gerald Pirkl; David Bannach; Kai S. Kunze; Ricardo Chavarriaga; José del R. Millán

2009-01-01

133

Joint Design and Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops optimal strategy for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) by integrating the design of spectrum sensor at the physical layer with that of spectrum sensing and access policies at the medium access control (MAC) layer. The design objective is to maximize the throughput of secondary users while limiting their probability of colliding with primary users. By exploiting the rich

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; Ananthram Swami

2006-01-01

134

Distributed Cognitive MAC for Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the design of distributed cognitive medium access control (MAC) protocols for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) under an energy constraint on the secondary users. The objective is to maximize the expected number of information bits that can be delivered by a secondary user during its battery lifetime without causing interference to primary users. By absorbing the residual energy level

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; A. Swami

2006-01-01

135

CCL3 genotype and current depression increase risk of HIV-associated dementia  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) has continued to rise even as incidence has fallen. Several host genetic variants have been identified that modify risk for HAD. However, the findings have not been replicated consistently and most studies did not consider the multitude of factors that might themselves confer risk for HAD. In the current study, we sought to replicate the findings of previous studies in a neurologically and behaviorally well-characterized cohort. Methods The sample consisted of 143 HIV+ individuals enrolled in the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC). Based on consensus diagnosis, 117 were considered neurologically normal upon study entry, and 26 had HAD. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within seven genes (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, interleukin-1? [IL-1?], IL-10, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and tumor necrosis factor-?). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict group membership (normal vs HAD), with predictor variables including length of infection, age, current drug dependence, current depression, and genotype. Results The two groups were statistically similar with regards to demographic characteristics, current drug use, and disease factors. The HAD group had significantly greater number of individuals with current depression. Only one SNP, rs1130371 within the gene for CCL3, was entered into the analysis as the others showed symmetric distribution between groups. Logistic regression indicated that current depression and CCL3 genotype were significant predictors of HAD. Depression conferred a fivefold greater risk of HAD, while the TT genotype for CCL3 SNP (rs1130371) was associated with twofold risk for HAD. Conclusion Depression and CCL3 genotype predicted HAD. The fact that SNPs previously found to be associated with HAD were not in our analysis, and that rs1130371 is in high linkage disequilibrium with neighboring genes indicates that more dense genotyping in significantly larger cohorts is required to further characterize the relationship between genotype and risk for HAD.

Levine, Andrew J; Singer, Elyse J; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hinkin, Charles H; Papp, Jeanette; Dandekar, Sugandha; Giovanelli, Allison; Shapshak, Paul

2010-01-01

136

Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Patients With HIV-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Alternatives to cytotoxic agents are desirable for patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) contributes to KS pathogenesis. We evaluated the humanized anti–VEGF-A monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in patients with HIV-KS. Patients and Methods Patients with HIV-KS who either experienced progression while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 1 month or did not regress despite HAART for at least 4 months were administered bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 8 and then every 3 weeks. The primary objective was assessment of antitumor activity using modified AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) criteria for HIV-KS. HIV-uninfected patients were also eligible and observed separately. Results Seventeen HIV-infected patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients had been receiving effective HAART for at least 6 months (median, 1 year). Thirteen patients had advanced disease (ACTG T1), 13 patients had received prior chemotherapy for KS, and seven patients had CD4 count less than 200 cells/?L. Median number of cycles was 10 (range, 1 to 37 cycles); median follow-up was 8.3 months (range, 3 to 36 months). Of 16 assessable patients, best tumor responses observed were complete response (CR) in three patients (19%), partial response (PR) in two patients (12%), stable disease in nine patients (56%), and progressive disease in two patients (12%). Overall response rate (CR + PR) was 31% (95% CI, 11% to 58.7%). Four of five responders had received prior chemotherapy for KS. Over 202 cycles, grade 3 to 4 adverse events at least possibly attributed to therapy included hypertension (n = 7), neutropenia (n = 5), cellulitis (n = 3), and headache (n = 2). Conclusion Bevacizumab is tolerated in patients with HIV-KS and has activity in a subset of patients.

Uldrick, Thomas S.; Wyvill, Kathleen M.; Kumar, Pallavi; O'Mahony, Deirdre; Bernstein, Wendy; Aleman, Karen; Polizzotto, Mark N.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Little, Richard F.; Yarchoan, Robert

2012-01-01

137

Role of obesity, metabolic variables, and diabetes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate relationships between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and metabolic variables in a subgroup of HIV+ participants examined in a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study. Methods: In a cross-sectional substudy of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort, 130 HIV+ participants provided fasting blood samples. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was defined by performance on neuropsychological tests adjusting for age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity. Global ratings and global deficit scores were determined. Demographics, biomarkers of HIV disease, metabolic variables, combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) history, other drug exposures, and self-reported diabetes were examined in multivariate models predicting NCI. Separate models were used for body mass index (BMI) alone (n = 90) and BMI and waist circumference (WC) together (n = 55). Results: NCI (global impairment rating ?5) was diagnosed in 40%. In univariate analyses, age, longer duration of HIV infection, obesity, and WC, but not BMI, were associated with NCI. Self-reported diabetes was associated with NCI in the substudy and in those >55 in the entire CHARTER cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that central obesity (as measured by WC) increased the risk of NCI and that greater body mass may be protective if the deleterious effect of central obesity is accounted for. Conclusions: As in HIV-uninfected persons, central obesity, but not more generalized increases in body mass (BMI), was associated with a higher prevalence of NCI in HIV+ persons. Diabetes appeared to be associated with NCI only in older patients. Avoidance of antiretroviral drugs that induce central obesity might protect from or help to reverse neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons.

Marquie-Beck, J.A.; FitzSimons, C.A.; Letendre, S.L.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, R.K.; Wolfson, T.; Rosario, D.; Alexander, T.J.; Marra, C.; Ances, B.M.; Grant, I.

2012-01-01

138

Association of early HIV viremia with mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between early HIV viremia and mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma. Design Multicenter observational cohort study. Setting Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort. Subjects HIV-infected patients with lymphoma diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, who were alive 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis and with ?2 HIV RNA values during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis. Exposure Cumulative HIV viremia during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, expressed as viremia copy-6-months. Main outcome measure All-cause mortality between 6 months and 5 years after lymphoma diagnosis. Results Of 224 included patients, 183 (82%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 41 (18%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). At lymphoma diagnosis, 105 (47%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median CD4 count was 148 cells/µlL (IQR 54– 322), and 33% had suppressed HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL). In adjusted analyses, mortality was associated with older age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.37 per decade increase, 95% CI 1.03–1.83], lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02– 2.63), lower CD4 count (AHR 0.75 per 100 cell/µL increase, 95% CI 0.64–0.89), and higher early cumulative viremia (AHR 1.35 per log10copies × 6-months/mL, 95% CI 1.11–1.65). The detrimental effect of early cumulative viremia was consistent across patient groups defined by ART status, CD4 count, and histology. Conclusions Exposure to each additional 1-unit log10 in HIV RNA throughout the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, was associated with a 35% increase in subsequent mortality. These results suggest that early and effective ART during chemotherapy may improve survival.

Gopal, Satish; Patel, Monita R.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Cole, Stephen R.; Achenbach, Chad J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Burkholder, Greer A.; Reid, Erin G.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Deeks, Steven G.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Richards, Kristy L.; Eron, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

139

Opportunistic Intestinal Parasite Infection and Mode of Sexual Intercourse of HIV-Infected Patients in the Era of HAART  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major health problems among HIV-infected patients is the intestinal parasite infestations. At present, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection is very common in patients with HIV\\/AIDS and remains a treat to public health. Association of HIV infection with gut parasites is likely to be related to sexual modes of contact that favour both HIV and the parasite. A cross-sectional

Viroj Wiwanitkit; Mayuna Srisuphanunt

2006-01-01

140

HIV-associated Prospective Memory Impairment in the Laboratory Predicts Failures on a Semi-naturalistic Measure of Health Care Compliance  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of prospective memory (ProM), increases the risk of poor everyday functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence. However, whether ProM plays a role in health care compliance outside of the realm of medication adherence remains to be determined. This study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM is an independent predictor of failure to comply with non-medication related instructions akin to those commonly given by health care providers. Participants were 139 HIV-infected adults who underwent medical, psychiatric, and neuropsychological assessments, including a laboratory-based measure of ProM. To assess real-world compliance, participants were instructed to call the examiner 24 hours after the evaluation and report how many hours they had slept. Individuals who failed to correctly comply with these instructions (n=104) demonstrated significantly lower performance on both time- and event-based ProM at baseline than the compliant group (n=35), an effect that was primarily driven by errors of omission. ProM remained a significant predictor of noncompliance after controlling for potential confounders, including demographics (e.g., education), traditional cognitive measures of retrospective memory and executive functions, and psychiatric factors (e.g., depression). Results support the hypothesis that ProM plays a unique role in compliance with health care instructions for HIV disease management and may inform interventions designed to improve treatment outcomes.

Zogg, Jennifer B.; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2012-01-01

141

Performance analysis of the cooperative communications based on opportunistic relaying from MAC layer perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic relaying is an important relay selection scheme for cooperative communication, which can dynamically select relay depending on instantaneous channel condition. A great deal of research has been conducted to study opportunistic relaying from the viewpoint of PHY layer and information theory. However, owing to the impact resulting from opportunistic relaying, there is no guarantee to enhance the network throughput

Nan Lil; Naiping Chengl; Xiaotie Xu; Yueming Cai

2010-01-01

142

The Influence of HLA on HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in Anhui, China  

PubMed Central

Background HLA-DR*04 was identified as a predictor of HIV-Associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), low CD4 T-cell responses to HIV, and low plasma HIV RNA levels in a U.S. cohort. We hypothesized that low CD4 T-cell activation leads to poor immune control of HIV in the CNS, predisposing to HAND, but also provided fewer target (activated CD4 T-cells) for HIV replication. To assess the consistency of these HLA Class II associations in a new cohort and extend analysis to HLA Class I, HLA types, neurocognitive, and virologic status were examined in a cohort of former plasma donors in China. Methods 178 HIV infected individuals in Anhui China, were HLA typed and underwent neurocognitive evaluations (using locally standardized norms), neuromedical, treatment and virologic assessments at baseline and at 12 months. Results HLA DR*04 was associated with a higher rate of baseline neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.04), neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.04), and lower levels of HIV RNA in plasma (p?=?0.05). HLA Class I alleles (B*27,57,58,A*03,33) that specify a CD8 T-cell response to conserved HIV sequences were neuroprotective, associated with less impairment at baseline (p?=?0.037), at month 012 (p?=?0.013) and less neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.023) in the interval. Consistent with the theory that effective CD8 T-cell responses require CD4 T-cell support, the HLA DR*04 allele reduced the neuroprotective effect of the Class I alleles. The presence of HLA-DR*04 and the Alzheimer associated allele ApoE4 in the same individual had a synergistic negative effect on cognition (p?=?0.003). Conclusions Despite major background differences between U.S. and Anhui China cohorts, HLA DR*04 predicted neurocognitive impairment and lower plasma HIV RNA levels in both populations. HLA Class I alleles associated with CD8 T-cell control of HIV were associated with protection from HAND, but protection was reduced in the presence of HLA-DR*04.

Schrier, Rachel D.; Gupta, Saurabh; Riggs, Patricia; Cysique, Lucette A.; Letendre, Scott; Jin, Hua; Spector, Stephen A.; Singh, Kumud K.; Wolfson, Tanya; Wu, Zunyou; Hong, Kun Xue; Yu, Xin; Shi, Chuan; Heaton, Robert K.

2012-01-01

143

Opportunistic Interaction in P2P Ubiquitous Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present the design and implementation of an ubiquitous system that supports the opportunistic collaborative\\u000a edition of shared documents. Our system is based on the instant messaging metaphor in the sense that it uses concepts and\\u000a interfaces similar to those used in instant messaging systems. We employ the concept of group to define a cluster of users

Rolando Menchaca-Mendez; E. Gutierrez-arias; Jesús Favela

2004-01-01

144

Opportunistic cooperative diversity with feedback and cheap radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical cooperative diversity protocols often rely on low-cost radios that treat multiple in-band signals as noise and thus require strictly orthogonal transmissions. We analyze the performance of a class of opportunistic relaying protocols that employ simple packet level feedback and strictly orthogonal transmissions. It is shown that the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of the proposed protocols either matches or outperforms the multi-input-single-output

Aggelos Bletsas; Ashish Khisti; Moe Z. Win

2008-01-01

145

Efficient Opportunistic Broadcasting over Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of supporting multihop broadcast over adaptively duty-cycled wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We present hybrid-cast, a broadcast protocol which adopts opportunistic data delivery in order to shorten broadcast latency. Hybrid-cast achieves less number of transmission times or redundant transmissions via delivery deferring and online forwarder selection. The preliminary simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our

Shouwen Lai; Binoy Ravindran

2010-01-01

146

OPAG: Opportunistic Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose Opportunistic Data Aggregation (OPAG) that incurs no computation error and tolerates moderate message losses in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). OPAG performs in-network data aggregation in two layers: (1) at the data-aggregation layer, aggregation results are computed accurately; and (2) at the data-routing layer,a WSN node may send intermediate\\/partial results to its aggregation node using multi-path routing in order

Zhigang Chen; Kang G. Shin

2008-01-01

147

Heterogeneous context-aware routing protocol for opportunistic network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic networking-forwarding messages in a disconnected mobile ad hoc network via any encountered nodes-offers a new mechanism for exploiting the mobile devices that many users already carry. However, forwarding messages in such a network is trapped by many particular challenges, and some protocols have contributed to solve them partly. In this paper, we propose heterogeneous content-aware routing protocol (HCR) for

Xingguang Xie; Yong Zhang; Chao Dai; Mei Song

2010-01-01

148

Outage rates and outage durations of opportunistic relaying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic relaying is a simple yet efficient cooperation scheme that\\u000aachieves full diversity and preserves the spectral efficiency among the\\u000aspatially distributed stations. However, the stations' mobility causes temporal\\u000acorrelation of the system's capacity outage events, which gives rise to its\\u000aimportant second-order outage statistical parameters, such as the average\\u000aoutage rate (AOR) and the average outage duration (AOD). This

Zoran Hadzi-Velkov; Nikola Zlatanov

2010-01-01

149

Risk Assessment of Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study was undertaken to examine quantitatively the risks to human health posed by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria\\u000a found naturally in ambient and potable waters. There is no clear-cut evidence that the HPC bacteria as a whole pose a public\\u000a health risk. Only certain members are opportunistic pathogens. Using the four-tiered approach for risk assessment from the\\u000a National Academy

Patricia A. Rusin; Joan B. Rose; Charles N. Haas; Charles P. Gerba

150

Practice of opportunistic PSA screening in the Florence District.  

PubMed

The widespread use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test had a great impact on the rise of incidence of prostate cancer. The magnitude of opportunistic screening by PSA varies across countries, being highest in the US, and considerably lower in Europe. To estimate the opportunistic use of PSA over the period of one year (2000) in the District of Florence, we analysed the Regional Database of diagnostic exams. According to the Regional Database, subjects having at least one PSA test during the year 2000 ranged from 5.8 to 6.7%, 8.8-10.8%, 11.7-15.0%, 16.5-22.3%, 18.0-24.3%, 17.0-23.8% and 14.1-18.3% in the 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and >79 years age groups, respectively. Minimum and maximum values are reported according to exclusion or inclusion of PSA determinations with incomplete subject identification data. Such a high use of PSA should deserve special attention from both the medical and health care provider community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of opportunistic screening by PSA in the District of Florence in the general population. PMID:12771558

Zappa, M; Visioli, C; Crocetti, E; Buonamici, C; Baccini, A; Taddei, S; Ciatto, S

2003-06-01

151

Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are associated with opportunistic infection in patients with thymic neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Patients with thymic malignancy have high rates of autoimmunity leading to a variety of autoimmune diseases, most commonly myasthenia gravis caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. High rates of autoantibodies to cytokines have also been described, although prevalence, spectrum, and functionality of these anti-cytokine autoantibodies are poorly defined. To better understand the presence and function of anti-cytokine autoantibodies, we created a luciferase immunoprecipitation system panel to search for autoantibodies against 39 different cytokines and examined plasma from controls (n = 30) and patients with thymic neoplasia (n = 17). In this screen, our patients showed statistically elevated, but highly heterogeneous immunoreactivity against 16 of the 39 cytokines. Some patients showed autoantibodies to multiple cytokines. Functional testing proved that autoantibodies directed against interferon-?, interferon-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-17A had biologic blocking activity in vitro. All patients with opportunistic infection showed multiple anti-cytokine autoantibodies (range 3-11), suggesting that anti-cytokine autoantibodies may be important in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections in patients with thymic malignancy. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00001355.

Burbelo, Peter D.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Zaman, Rifat; Kristosturyan, Ervand; Rajan, Arun; Ding, Li; Ching, Kathryn H.; Berman, Arlene; Oliveira, Joao B.; Hsu, Amy P.; Klimavicz, Caitlin M.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Holland, Steven M.

2010-01-01

152

Relevance of lipopolysaccharide levels in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment: the Neuradapt study.  

PubMed

Contributory factors to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have been shown to include age, co-morbid infections, medication toxicity, virological, genetic and vascular mechanisms, as well as microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is suspected to trigger monocyte activation and increase trafficking of infected cells into the brain. In this study, our aim was to assess the degree of neurocognitive impairment in a group of randomly selected HIV-infected patients and investigate potential risk factors, including LPS plasma levels. Furthermore, we evaluated the relevance of LPS as a potential marker for screening patients with mild neurocognitive impairment. LPS plasma levels were compared among patients with HAND and those with no HAND. As LPS has also been shown to be elevated in hepatitis C co-infection, the analysis was stratified according to the presence or not of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. Differences between groups were evaluated using chi-square tests and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for HAND in the subgroups of HCV-positive and negative patients. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Analyses were conducted using SPSS® software. From December 2007 to July 2009, 179 patients were tested (mean age 44, 73 % male, 87 % on treatment, 30 % HCV co-infected, median CD4 504/ml and 67 % with viral load below 40 copies/ml). HAND was identified in 40/179 patients (22 %), the majority displaying asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment or mild neurocognitive disorder. Univariate analysis showed that age, illicit drug use, hepatitis C co-infection, prior AIDS-defining events, CD4/CD8 ratio and LPS plasma levels were significantly associated with HAND. The median LPS level was 98.2 pg/ml in the non-HAND group versus 116.1 pg/ml in the HAND group (p?

Vassallo, Matteo; Dunais, Brigitte; Durant, Jacques; Carsenti-Dellamonica, Helene; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Ticchioni, Michel; Laffon, Muriel; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradier, Christian

2013-07-12

153

WBRONC: Efficient Wireless Broadcast Retransmission Based on Opportunistic Network Coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is significant to develop a method to realize efficient broadcast retransmission in wireless networks. Network coding is a promising technique for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a novel Wireless Broadcast Retransmission scheme based on Opportunistic Network Coding (WBRONC) aiming at reducing the number of transmissions, as well as improving the transmission efficiency. This scheme employs a new packet scheduling algorithm which uses Packet Distribution Matrix (PDM) directly to select coded packets. Thus, low computational complexity is obtained by it. It is denoted from the analysis and simulation results that the WBRONC scheme provides a substantial improvement both in transmission efficiency and computational overhead.

Gou, Liang; Zhang, Gengxin; Sun, Wei; Bian, Dongming

2013-03-01

154

Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents.

Brodeur, Jacques

2012-01-01

155

Opportunistic relaying for Cognitive Radio enhanced cellular networks: Infrastructure and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the application of CR-based spectrum sharing concepts to enable opportunistic relaying operations in cellular networks. In particular, i) we build on recent FCC rules and CEPT plans (SE43) that regulate the opportunistic spectrum usage in TV white spaces at 470–790 MHz; and ii) we show that opportunistic relaying can lead to higher spectral efficiencies and\\/or

Markus Dominik Mueck; Marco Di Renzo; Merouane Debbah

2010-01-01

156

Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH): a short protocol and a pictorial review  

PubMed Central

Background Ultrasound can rapidly identify abnormal signs, which in high prevalence settings, are highly suggestive of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Unfortunately experienced sonographers are often scarce in these settings. Methods A protocol for focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH) which can be used by physicians who are relatively inexperienced in ultrasound was developed. Results The technique as well as normal and pathological findings are described and the diagnostic and possible therapeutic reasoning explained. The protocol is intended for settings where the prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected patients is high. Conclusion FASH is suitable for more rapid identification of EPTB even at the peripheral hospital level where other imaging modalities are scarce and most of the HIV and TB care will be delivered in the future.

2012-01-01

157

Diagnosis of silent myocardial ischemia during the staging of HIV-associated lymphoma with FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

Fasting 18F fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography examinations are routinely performed for the staging of HIV-associated lymphomas. In addition to possible comorbidity factors, the chronic inflammation that occurs in HIV-infected patients together with the metabolic side effects of antiretroviral therapy increases the risk for coronary artery disease. Moreover, HIV-infected patients are likely to develop polyneuropathies due to the viral infection or to the side effects of long-term protease or nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor treatments.We report a case that illustrates the need to suspect the diagnosis of silent myocardial ischemia among HIV-positive patients with myocardial F-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake involving a coronary artery territory. PMID:19893417

Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Ilonca, Diana; Bourdon, Aurélie

2009-10-01

158

Activation status of integrated stress response pathways in neurones and astrocytes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) cortex  

PubMed Central

Aims Combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has led to a reduction in the incidence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe motor/cognitive disorder afflicting HIV(+) patients. However, the prevalence of subtler forms of neurocognitive dysfunction, which together with HAD are termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), continues to escalate in the post-cART era. The microgliosis, astrogliosis, dendritic damage, and synaptic and neuronal loss observed in autopsy cases suggest an underlying neuroinflammatory process, due to the neurotoxic factors released by HIV-infected/activated macrophages/ microglia in the brain, might underlie the pathogenesis of HAND in the post-cART era. These factors are known to induce the integrated stress response (ISR) in several neurodegenerative diseases; we have previously shown that BiP, an indicator of general ISR activation, is upregulated in cortical autopsy tissue from HIV-infected patients. The ISR is composed of three pathways, each with its own initiator protein: PERK, IRE1? and ATF6. Methods To further elucidate the specific ISR pathways activated in the central nervous system of HAND patients, we examined the protein levels of several ISR proteins, including ATF6, peIF2? and ATF4, in cortical tissue from HIV-infected patients. Results The ISR does not respond in an all-or-none fashion in HAND, but rather demonstrates a nuanced activation pattern. Specifically, our studies implicate the ATF6 pathway of the ISR as a more likely candidate than the PERK pathway for increases in BiP levels in astrocytes. Conclusion These findings begin to characterize the nature of the ISR response in HAND and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

Akay, C.; Lindl, K. A.; Shyam, N.; Nabet, B.; Goenaga-Vazquez, Y.; Ruzbarsky, J.; Wang, Y.; Kolson, D. L.; Jordan-Sciutto, K. L.

2013-01-01

159

An opportunistic theory of cellular and systems consolidation  

PubMed Central

Memories are often classified as hippocampus-dependent or –independent, and sleep has been found to facilitate both, but in different ways. In this Opinion article, we explore the optimal neural state for cellular and systems consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories that benefit from sleep. We suggest that these two kinds of consolidation, which are ordinarily treated separately, may overlap in time and jointly benefit from a period of reduced interference (during which no new memories are formed). Conditions that result in reduced interference include slow wave sleep (SWS), NMDA receptor antagonists, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and acetylcholine antagonists. We hypothesize that the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories may not depend on SWS per se. Instead, the brain opportunistically consolidates previously encoded memories whenever the hippocampus is not otherwise occupied by the task of encoding new memories.

Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Shuman, Tristan; Anagnostaras, Stephan; Wixted, John

2011-01-01

160

Opportunistic metastatic porocarcinoma after saphenous venectomy for coronary bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Immunocompromised areas of the skin, caused by chronic lymphoedema, paraplegia, infections or traumas, represent a site of regional neuroimmunocutaneous destabilization, termed the immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD), in which malignancies and other opportunistic disorders are more likely to occur. We report the case of a metastatic porocarcinoma (PC) occurring on a lymphoedematous limb in a 72-year-old man. We reviewed the literature to better understand the potential pathogenetic mechanisms behind this condition. It has been reported that removal of the leg vein destroys the medial group of the superficial lymphatic vessels and alters the normal lymph drainage of the leg, predisposing to recurrent cellulitis. Our observations suggest that saphenous venectomy can induce development of an ICD. We suggest that PC, a rare cutaneous tumour, should be included in the growing list of tumours arising in the ICD. PMID:23777492

Baroni, A; Russo, T; Piccolo, V; Siano, M; Russo, D; Nacca, L; Ruocco, E

2013-07-01

161

Emerging opportunistic fungal infections: where are we heading?  

PubMed Central

Medical mycology involves the study of pathogenic fungi and their identification in the laboratory. Mycology has developed into a field that demands the attention of all clinicians treating patients in hospitals. Interest in medical mycology has grown in recent years due to a dramatic rise in the rates of fungal infections. An overview of well-known medically significant opportunistic fungi, such as Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and Zygomycetes, as well as emerging fungal pathogens, are discussed. Antifungal failures in these individuals are high; consequently, mortality rates are also high, despite standard therapy with amphotericin-B, lipid-associated formulation of amphotericin-B and the azoles. This underscores the need for new approaches and therapies to improve outcomes in high-risk individuals.

Idemyor, Vincent

2003-01-01

162

Comparative analysis of glutaredoxin domains from bacterial opportunistic pathogens  

PubMed Central

Glutaredoxin proteins (GLXRs) are essential components of the glutathione system that reductively detoxify substances such as arsenic and peroxides and are important in the synthesis of DNA via ribonucleotide reductases. NMR solution structures of glutaredoxin domains from two Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, Brucella melitensis and Bartonella henselae, are presented. These domains lack the N-terminal helix that is frequently present in eukaryotic GLXRs. The conserved active-site cysteines adopt canonical proline/tyrosine-stabilized geometries. A difference in the angle of ?-helix 2 relative to the ?-­sheet surface and the presence of an extended loop in the human sequence suggests potential regulatory regions and/or protein–protein interaction motifs. This observation is consistent with mutations in this region that suppress defects in GLXR–ribonucleotide reductase interactions. These differences between the human and bacterial forms are adjacent to the dithiol active site and may permit species-selective drug design.

Leeper, Thomas; Zhang, Suxin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.; Varani, Gabriele

2011-01-01

163

Opportunistic sightings of small cetaceans off the leeward shore of the Commonwealth of Dominica  

Microsoft Academic Search

While large scale surveys would provide more accurate data on distribution and abundance, the pooling of opportunistic sightings data from a multitude of projects provides a relatively economical way of achieving a large data set over a multinational area such as the Caribbean Sea. Here, we provide details of the opportunistic small cetacean sightings made in the national waters of

SHANE GERO; HAL WHITEHEAD

164

Discouraging opportunistic behavior in collaborative R & D: A new role for government  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional role attributed to government in collaborative R & D has been one of funding. This paper explores a new role for government in facilitating collaborative R & D, one of discouraging opportunistic behavior. Given the nature of R & D, concerns about opportunistic behavior can serve as a major barrier to the formation and effective operation of collaborative

Mary Tripsas; Stephan Schrader; Maurizio Sobrero

1995-01-01

165

On the optimal trade-off between SRPT and opportunistic scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider service systems where new jobs not only increase the load but also improve the service ability of such a system, cf. opportunistic scheduling gain in wireless systems. We study the optimal trade-off between the SRPT (Shortest Remaining Processing Time) discipline and opportunistic scheduling in the systems characterized by compact and symmetric capacity regions. The objective is to minimize

Samuli Aalto; Aleksi Penttinen; Pasi Lassila; Prajwal Osti

2011-01-01

166

Hyaluronic acid for the correction of HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Facial lipoatrophy is a common sequelae of HIV anti-retroviral therapy for which patients seek options for correction. Many types of injectable agents have been utilized. This study presents our results with the use of Perlane, an injectable form of hyaluronic acid.Methods: This was a prospective observational study in a consecutive series of 15 HIV-positive males whose mean age was

Yotis Tsaparas; Andrew Denton

2004-01-01

167

Antifungal activity of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. and Gasteria bicolor Haw. against opportunistic fungi associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antifungal activities of the medicinal plant extracts against 10 opportunistic fungi. Results: All the hexane and acetone extracts were active against at least one of the fungi with zones of inhibition varying from 8 to 32 mm, while none of the aqueous extracts was active against any of the fungi. The inhibitory activity of the active extracts, based on the overall mean inhibition diameters, was in the order: A. arctotoides (hexane) > A. arctotoides (acetone) > G. bicolor (hexane) > G. bicolor (acetone). The most susceptible fungi, based on the overall mean diameter of growth inhibition, were Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and Microsporum canis, while Cyptococcus neoformans, Trycophyton tonsurans, and Microsporum gypseum were not susceptible to any of the extracts even at 5 mg/ml which was the highest concentration used. Conclusion: This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine in the treatment of secondary fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients.

Otang, Wilfred M.; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.

2012-01-01

168

HIV-Associated Nephropathy (HIVAN): A Short Review of Different Authors.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is clinically and morphologically a distinctive type of renal parenchymal disorder. It is presented in an HIV-seropositive individual by proteinuria and progressive renal insufficiency, usually without oedema or hypertension. Renal biopsy most commonly reveals a collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with marked proliferation of glomerular podocytes and tubular microcystic dilatation. These characteristic changes are attributed to incorporation of DNA and mRNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 into the renal parenchymal cells. Newly introduced highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the incidence of HIVAN in the recent years. The HAART has been found to retard and revert the progression of renal insufficiency towards end-stage renal disease, and to increase survival of the patient. Therefore a renal biopsy should be performed in all suspected patients for definitive diagnosis of HIVAN and better patient management. PMID:23982561

Banu, S G; Banu, S S; Saleh, F M

2013-07-01

169

Diagnosing symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: self-report versus performance-based assessment of everyday functioning.  

PubMed

Three types of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exist that are distinguished by presence and severity of impairment in cognitive and everyday functioning. Although well-validated neurocognitive measures exist, determining impairment in everyday functioning remains a challenge. We aim to determine whether Self-Report measures of everyday functioning are as effective in characterizing HAND as Performance-Based measures. We assessed 674 HIV-infected participants with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. HAND diagnoses were determined according to published criteria using three approaches to assess functional decline: (1) Self-Report measures only, (2) Performance-Based measures only, and (3) Dual-method combining Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. The Dual-method classified the most symptomatic HAND, compared to either singular method. Singular method classifications were 76% concordant with each other. Participants classified as Performance-Based functionally impaired were more likely to be unemployed and more immunosuppressed, whereas those classified as Self-Report functionally impaired had more depressive symptoms. Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. Singular Performance-Based classifications were associated with objective functional and disease-related factors; reliance on Self-Report classifications may be biased by depressive symptoms. PMID:22114912

Blackstone, K; Moore, D J; Heaton, R K; Franklin, D R; Woods, S P; Clifford, D B; Collier, A C; Marra, C M; Gelman, B B; McArthur, J C; Morgello, S; Simpson, D M; Rivera-Mindt, M; Deutsch, R; Ellis, R J; Hampton Atkinson, J; Grant, I

2011-11-24

170

Modeling HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in mice: new approaches in the changing face of HIV neuropathogenesis  

PubMed Central

It is well established that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to immune suppression. Less well known is the fact that long-term, progressive HIV disease is associated with the development of cognitive deficits. Since the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the clinical presentation of HIV infection has evolved into a chronic illness with very low levels of viral replication and chronic immune activation, with compliant affected individuals surviving for decades with a high quality of life. Despite these advances, many HIV-infected individuals develop some degree of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood, and there are no effective treatments. Thus, there is an unmet need for animal models that enable the study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and the testing of new therapeutic approaches to combat them. Here, we review the pros and cons of existing mouse models of HIV infection for addressing these aims and propose a detailed strategy for developing a new mouse model of HIV infection.

Jaeger, Laura B.; Nath, Avindra

2012-01-01

171

Down-regulation of NF-?B transcriptional activity in HIV-associated kidney disease by BRD4 inhibition.  

PubMed

NF-?B-mediated inflammation is the major pathology in chronic kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) that ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. HIV infection in the kidney induces NF-?B activation, leading to the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. In this study, we explored selective inhibition of NF-?B transcriptional activity by small molecule blocking NF-?B binding to the transcriptional cofactor BRD4, which is required for the assembly of the productive transcriptional complex comprising positive transcription elongation factor b and RNA polymerase II. We showed that our BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain)-specific bromodomain inhibitor MS417, designed to block BRD4 binding to the acetylated NF-?B, effectively attenuates NF-?B transcriptional activation of proinflammatory genes in kidney cells treated with TNF? or infected by HIV. MS417 ameliorates inflammation and kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, an animal model for HIVAN. Our study suggests that BET bromodomain inhibition, targeting at the proinflammatory activity of NF-?B, represents a new therapeutic approach for treating NF-?B-mediated inflammation and kidney injury in HIVAN. PMID:22645123

Zhang, Guangtao; Liu, Ruijie; Zhong, Yifei; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Zhang, Weijia; Zeng, Lei; Rusinova, Elena; Gerona-Nevarro, Guillermo; Moshkina, Natasha; Joshua, Jennifer; Chuang, Peter Y; Ohlmeyer, Michael; He, John Cijiang; Zhou, Ming-Ming

2012-05-29

172

HIV-associated nephropathy patients with and without apolipoprotein L1 gene variants have similar clinical and pathologic characteristics  

PubMed Central

Recently, an association was found between non-diabetic kidney disease in African Americans and two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene, encoding apolipoprotein L1. In this study we determined the frequency of APOL1 risk variants in patients with biopsy-proven HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and distinctive pathological characteristics potentially driven by those risk variants. Among 76 patients with HIVAN, 60 were successfully genotyped for APOL1 G1 and G2 polymorphisms. In this cohort, 37 had two risk alleles, 18 were heterozygous and 5 had neither risk variant. There were no differences in the pathological findings of HIVAN and the number of APOL1 risk alleles. Further, the progression to end stage kidney disease or death did not differ by the number of risk alleles. Median renal survival was 9.3 months in patients with none or one risk allele compared to 11.7 months in patients with two APOL1 risk alleles. Thus, our study suggests that although the majority of African American patients with HIVAN have two APOL1 risk alleles, other as yet unknown factors in the host including genetic risk variants and environmental or viral factors may influence the development of this disorder in those with none or one APOL1 risk allele.

Atta, Mohamed G.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Kuperman, Michael; Foy, Matthew; Fine, Derek M.; Racusen, Lorraine; Lucas, Gregory M.; Nelson, George W.; Warner, Andrew; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

2012-01-01

173

Down-regulation of NF-?B Transcriptional Activity in HIV-associated Kidney Disease by BRD4 Inhibition*  

PubMed Central

NF-?B-mediated inflammation is the major pathology in chronic kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) that ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. HIV infection in the kidney induces NF-?B activation, leading to the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. In this study, we explored selective inhibition of NF-?B transcriptional activity by small molecule blocking NF-?B binding to the transcriptional cofactor BRD4, which is required for the assembly of the productive transcriptional complex comprising positive transcription elongation factor b and RNA polymerase II. We showed that our BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain)-specific bromodomain inhibitor MS417, designed to block BRD4 binding to the acetylated NF-?B, effectively attenuates NF-?B transcriptional activation of proinflammatory genes in kidney cells treated with TNF? or infected by HIV. MS417 ameliorates inflammation and kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, an animal model for HIVAN. Our study suggests that BET bromodomain inhibition, targeting at the proinflammatory activity of NF-?B, represents a new therapeutic approach for treating NF-?B-mediated inflammation and kidney injury in HIVAN.

Zhang, Guangtao; Liu, Ruijie; Zhong, Yifei; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Zhang, Weijia; Zeng, Lei; Rusinova, Elena; Gerona-Nevarro, Guillermo; Moshkina, Natasha; Joshua, Jennifer; Chuang, Peter Y.; Ohlmeyer, Michael; He, John Cijiang; Zhou, Ming-Ming

2012-01-01

174

HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder.  

PubMed

HIV infection affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is characterized by depression, behavioral and motor dysfunctions. The HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp120 is known to induce the release of neurotoxic factors which lead to apoptotic cell death. Although the exact mechanisms involved in HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, oxidative stress is suggested to play a vital role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Astrocytes represent major population of the non-neuronal cell type in the brain and play a critical role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Increased oxidative stress is known to induce nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor which is known to regulate the antioxidant defensive mechanism. However, the role of Nrf2 in HAND has not been elucidated. We report that gp120 significantly upregulates Nrf2 in human astrocytes and is associated with stimulation of key antioxidant defensive enzymes Hemoxygenase (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone1 (Nqo1). Pretreatment of the astrocytes with antioxidants or a specific calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, significantly blocked the upregulation of Nrf2, HO-1 and Nqo1. These results suggest a possible role of the intracellular calcium and oxidative stress in Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense mechanism, which may have protective role in promoting cell survival. PMID:21756955

Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Gandhi, Nimisha; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Agudelo, Marisela; Yndart, Adriana; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Nair, Madhavan P N

2011-07-03

175

NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy: integrated analysis of two phase III, randomized, controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP) is the most frequently reported neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. NGX-4010 is a capsaicin 8% dermal patch with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of HIV-DSP. Data from two phase III, double-blind studies were integrated to further analyze the efficacy and safety of NGX-4010 and explore the effect of demographic and baseline factors on NGX-4010 treatment in HIV-DSP. Methods Data from two similarly designed studies in which patients with HIV-DSP received NGX-4010 or a low-concentration control patch (capsaicin 0.04% w/w) for 30 or 60 minutes were integrated. Efficacy assessments included the mean percent change from baseline in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores to Weeks 2–12. Safety and tolerability assessments included adverse events (AEs) and pain during and after treatment. Results Patients (n = 239) treated with NGX-4010 for 30 minutes demonstrated significantly (p = 0.0026) greater pain relief compared with controls (n = 100); the mean percent change in NPRS scores from baseline to Weeks 2–12 was ?27.0% versus ?15.7%, respectively. Patients who received a 60-minute application of NGX-4010 (n = 243) showed comparable pain reductions (?27.5%) to patients treated for 30 minutes, but this was not statistically superior to controls (n = 115). NGX-4010 was effective regardless of gender, baseline pain score, duration of HIV-DSP, or use of concomitant neuropathic pain medication, although NGX-4010 efficacy was greater in patients not receiving concomitant neuropathic pain medications. NGX-4010 was well tolerated; the most common AEs were application-site pain and erythema, and most AEs were mild to moderate. The transient increase in pain associated with NGX-4010 treatment decreased the day after treatment and returned to baseline by Day 2. Conclusions A single 30-minute application of NGX-4010 provides significant pain relief for at least 12 weeks in patients with HIV-DSP and is well tolerated. Trial registration C107 = NCT00064623; C119 = NCT00321672

2013-01-01

176

Two rare cases of central nervous system opportunistic mycoses.  

PubMed

This article presents two cases of opportunistic mycoses (OMs) of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. The patients were hospitalised in local hospitals between 2009 and 2011 because of unspecific symptoms (fever, headache, and/or weight lost). Duration of symptoms varied from 4 days to over 2 weeks. The patients were treated with antibiotics and symptomatically. OM was not suspected in any of them. The patients became critically ill with symptoms of CNS involvement and were transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University Hospital for Infectious diseases (UHID) in Zagreb. None of the patients belonged to the high-risk population for developing OMs. They were not HIV-infected, had no transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ, and were not on severe immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Fungi were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and, in one patient, from aspirate of cerebral abscess. Isolation and mycological identification of all fungal isolates and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of these isolates were done at the Reference Centre for Mycological Diagnostics of Systemic and Disseminated Infections (RCMDSDI) in Zagreb. The patient with cryptococcal meningitis was treated with amphotericin B and fluconazole and the patient with cerebral aspergilloma with voriconazole. PMID:23334046

Mlinari? Missoni, Emilija; Barši?, Bruno

2012-12-01

177

Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system. Methods: A decision tree was constructed and parameterised using empirical data from a chlamydia screening pilot study and other sources. The model was run using baseline data from the pilot, and univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: The total estimated cost for offering screening over 12 months to 33 215 females aged 16–24 was £493 412. The average cost (with partner management) was £14.88 per screening offer (90% credibility interval (CI) 10.34 to 18.56), £21.83 per testing episode (90% CI 18.16 to 24.20), and £38.36 per positive episode (90% CI 33.97 to 42.25). The proportion of individuals accepting screening, the clinician (general practitioner/nurse) time and their relative involvement in discussing screening, the test cost, the time to notify patients of their results, and the receptionist time recruiting patients had the greatest impact on the outcomes in both the univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Results from this costing study may be used to inform resource allocation for current and future chlamydia screening programme implementation.

Adams, E; LaMontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W

2004-01-01

178

Endophytic occupation of peanut root nodules by opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria.  

PubMed

Several bacterial isolates were recovered from surface-sterilized root nodules of Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) plants growing in soils from Córdoba, Argentina. The 16S rDNA sequences of seven fast-growing strains were obtained and the phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates belonged to the Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, and included Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. After storage, these strains became unable to induce nodule formation in Arachis hypogaea L. plants, but they enhanced plant yield. When the isolates were co-inoculated with an infective Bradyrhizobium strain, they were even found colonizing pre-formed nodules. Analysis of symbiotic genes showed that the nifH gene was only detected for the Klebsiella-like isolates and the nodC gene could not be amplified by PCR or be detected by Southern blotting in any of the isolates. The results obtained support the idea that these isolates are opportunistic bacteria able to colonize nodules induced by rhizobia. PMID:19054642

Ibáñez, Fernando; Angelini, Jorge; Taurian, Tania; Tonelli, María Laura; Fabra, Adriana

2008-12-02

179

Homelessness and HIV-Associated Risk Behavior Among African American Men Who Inject Drugs and Reside in the Urban South of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether homeless injection drug users (IDUs) were more likely than stably housed IDUs to engage in HIV-associated\\u000a risk behaviors. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit 343 African American male IDUs. About 69% of men had been homeless\\u000a in the past year and 13% were HIV positive. Controlling for age and income, homeless men as compared to

Laura F. Salazar; Richard A. Crosby; David R. Holtgrave; Sara Head; Benjamin Hadsock; Jeffrey Todd; R. Luke Shouse

2007-01-01

180

HIV-Associated Prospective Memory Impairment in the Laboratory Predicts Failures on a Semi-Naturalistic Measure of Health Care Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of prospective memory (ProM), increases the risk of poor everyday functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence. However, whether ProM plays a role in health care compliance outside of the realm of medication adherence remains to be determined. This study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM is an independent predictor of failure to comply with non-medication-related

Jennifer B. Zogg; Steven Paul Woods; Erica Weber; Jennifer E. Iudicello; Matthew S. Dawson; Igor Grant

2010-01-01

181

A Degenerative Retinal Process in HIV-Associated Non-Infectious Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

HIV retinopathy is the most common non-infectious complication in the eyes of HIV-positive individuals. Oncotic lesions in the retinal nerve fiber layer, referred to as cotton wool spots (CWS), and intraretinal (IR) hemorrhages are frequently observed but are not unique to this pathology. HIV-positive patients have impaired color vision and contrast sensitivity, which worsens with age. Evidence of inner–retinal lesions and damage have been documented ophthalmoscopically, however their long term structural effect has not been investigated. It has been hypothesized that they may be partially responsible for loss of visual function and visual field. In this study we utilized clinical data, retinal imaging and transcriptomics approaches to comprehensively interrogate non-infectious HIV retinopathy. The methods employed encompassed clinical examinations, fundus photography, indirect ophthalmoscopy, Farmsworth-Munsell 100 hue discrimination testing and Illumina BeadChip analyses. Here we show that changes in the outer retina, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to vision changes in non-infectious HIV retinopathy. We find that in HIV-positive retinae there is an induction of rhodopsin and other transcripts (including PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRX, NRL) involved in visual transduction, as well as structural components of the rod photoreceptors (ABCA4 and ROM1). This is consistent with an increased rate of renewal of rod outer segments induced via increased phagocytosis by HIV-infected RPE previously reported in culture. Cone-specific transcripts (OPN1SW, OPN1LW, PDE6C, PDE6H and GRK7) are uniformly downregulated in HIV positive retina, likely due to a partial loss of cone photoreceptors. Active cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages (IRH) may not affect photoreceptors directly and the interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients.

Freeman, William R.; Sprague, L. James; Gomez, Maria Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; El-Emam, Sharif; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Bosten, Jenny; Ayyagari, Radha; Hardiman, Gary

2013-01-01

182

A Degenerative Retinal Process in HIV-Associated Non-Infectious Retinopathy.  

PubMed

HIV retinopathy is the most common non-infectious complication in the eyes of HIV-positive individuals. Oncotic lesions in the retinal nerve fiber layer, referred to as cotton wool spots (CWS), and intraretinal (IR) hemorrhages are frequently observed but are not unique to this pathology. HIV-positive patients have impaired color vision and contrast sensitivity, which worsens with age. Evidence of inner-retinal lesions and damage have been documented ophthalmoscopically, however their long term structural effect has not been investigated. It has been hypothesized that they may be partially responsible for loss of visual function and visual field. In this study we utilized clinical data, retinal imaging and transcriptomics approaches to comprehensively interrogate non-infectious HIV retinopathy. The methods employed encompassed clinical examinations, fundus photography, indirect ophthalmoscopy, Farmsworth-Munsell 100 hue discrimination testing and Illumina BeadChip analyses. Here we show that changes in the outer retina, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to vision changes in non-infectious HIV retinopathy. We find that in HIV-positive retinae there is an induction of rhodopsin and other transcripts (including PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRX, NRL) involved in visual transduction, as well as structural components of the rod photoreceptors (ABCA4 and ROM1). This is consistent with an increased rate of renewal of rod outer segments induced via increased phagocytosis by HIV-infected RPE previously reported in culture. Cone-specific transcripts (OPN1SW, OPN1LW, PDE6C, PDE6H and GRK7) are uniformly downregulated in HIV positive retina, likely due to a partial loss of cone photoreceptors. Active cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages (IRH) may not affect photoreceptors directly and the interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients. PMID:24069333

Kozak, Igor; Sasik, Roman; Freeman, William R; Sprague, L James; Gomez, Maria Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; El-Emam, Sharif; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Bosten, Jenny; Ayyagari, Radha; Hardiman, Gary

2013-09-17

183

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

184

Dishwashers are a major source of human opportunistic yeast-like fungi in indoor environments in Mersin, Turkey.  

PubMed

The natural habitat of opportunistic fungal pathogens is outside of the host; therefore, it is crucial to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of black and filamentous fungi in moist indoor environments in the city of Mersin in subtropical Turkey. In total, 177 private dwellings were screened and 893 samples obtained using cotton swabs and moistened with physiological saline from dishwashers, washing machines, refrigerators, bath-tubs, bathroom walls, and shower heads. These were then inoculated onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, followed by incubation at 37°C. Thirty samples (3.4%) were positive for fungi, which were then identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. Exophiala dermatitidis was the most common species (23), followed by E. phaeomuriformis (three), Magnusiomyces capitatus (two), and Candida parapsilosis (two). Genotype A of E. dermatitidis (14) was more prevalent than genotypes B (eight) and C (one) and E. phaeomuriformis was also represented by two genotypes. Our findings suggest that dishwashers are a major indoor niche for thermophilic black yeasts. The occurrence of the opportunistic filamentous fungus M. capitatus in dishwashers is consistent with a recent report. PMID:23167707

Dö?en, Aylin; Kaplan, Engin; Oksüz, Zehra; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

2012-11-21

185

Genome-Scale Metabolic Network Analysis of the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1? †  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major life-threatening opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects immunocompromised patients. This bacterium owes its success as a pathogen largely to its metabolic versatility and flexibility. A thorough understanding of P. aeruginosa's metabolism is thus pivotal for the design of effective intervention strategies. Here we aim to provide, through systems analysis, a basis for the characterization of the genome-scale properties of this pathogen's versatile metabolic network. To this end, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This reconstruction accounts for 1,056 genes (19% of the genome), 1,030 proteins, and 883 reactions. Flux balance analysis was used to identify key features of P. aeruginosa metabolism, such as growth yield, under defined conditions and with defined knowledge gaps within the network. BIOLOG substrate oxidation data were used in model expansion, and a genome-scale transposon knockout set was compared against in silico knockout predictions to validate the model. Ultimately, this genome-scale model provides a basic modeling framework with which to explore the metabolism of P. aeruginosa in the context of its environmental and genetic constraints, thereby contributing to a more thorough understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationships in this resourceful and dangerous pathogen.

Oberhardt, Matthew A.; Puchalka, Jacek; Fryer, Kimberly E.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Papin, Jason A.

2008-01-01

186

Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Infected Persons 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were ...

H. Masur J. E. Kaplan K. K. Holmes

2002-01-01

187

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

188

ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS OF AIRBORNE HYSPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR MAPPING OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN FRESHWATER COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

189

AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL DATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

190

Opportunistic Fungal Infection of the Burn Wound with Phycomycetes and Aspergillus. A Clinical-Pathologic Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty cases of invasive infection of the burn wound with opportunistic fungi of the Phycomycetes and Aspergillus species occurred. Mycotic invasion of the burn wound has a wide clinical spectrum including focal and multifocal infection, deep invasion wit...

B. A. Pruitt G. Nash H. M. Bruck

1970-01-01

191

Opportunistic breast cancer early detection in Tyrol, Austria 1996–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Evaluate the need for a mammography-screening program for Tyrol, as recently proposed in an ÖBIG feasibility study commissioned by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Women, in view of the already existing organized opportunistic screening.

Thomas E. Frede

2005-01-01

192

Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.  

PubMed

Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment. PMID:23420204

Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

2013-02-19

193

Metal toxicity and opportunistic binding of Pb(2+) in proteins.  

PubMed

Lead toxicity is associated with various human diseases. While Ca(2+) binding proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) are often reported to be molecular targets for Pb(2+)-binding and lead toxicity, the effect of Pb(2+) on the Ca(2+)/CaM regulated biological activities cannot be described by the primary mechanism of ionic displacement (e.g., ionic mimicry). The focus of this study was to investigate the mechanism of lead toxicity through binding differences between Ca(2+) and Pb(2+) for CaM, an essential intracellular trigger protein with two EF-Hand Ca(2+)-binding sites in each of its two domains that regulates many molecular targets via Ca(2+)-induced conformational change. Fluorescence changes in phenylalanine indicated that Pb(2+) binds with 8-fold higher affinity than Ca(2+) in the N-terminal domain. Additionally, NMR chemical shift changes and an unusual biphasic response observed in tyrosine fluorescence associated with C-terminal domain sites EF-III and EF-IV suggest a single higher affinity Pb(2+)-binding site with a 3-fold higher affinity than Ca(2+), coupled with a second site exhibiting affinity nearly equivalent to that of the N-terminal domain sites. Our results further indicate that Pb(2+) displaces Ca(2+) only in the N-terminal domain, with minimal perturbation of the C-terminal domain, however significant structural/dynamic changes are observed in the trans-domain linker region which appear to be due to Pb(2+)-binding outside of the known calcium-binding sites. These data suggest that opportunistic Pb(2+)-binding in Ca(2+)/CaM has a profound impact on the conformation and dynamics of the essential molecular recognition sites of the central helix, and provides insight into the molecular toxicity of non-essential metal ions. PMID:23692958

Kirberger, Michael; Wong, Hing C; Jiang, Jie; Yang, Jenny J

2013-04-19

194

Excess Soluble CD40L Contributes to Blood Brain Barrier Permeability In Vivo: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L) are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1) positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking.

Davidson, Donna C.; Hirschman, Michael P.; Sun, Anita; Singh, Meera V.; Kasischke, Karl; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

2012-01-01

195

Gender and HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation and outcome at one year after beginning antituberculosis treatment in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is responsible for more female deaths around the earth than any other infectious disease. Reports have suggested that responses to tuberculosis may differ between men and women. We investigated gender related differences in the presentation and one year outcomes of HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda. Methods We enrolled and followed up a cohort of 105 male and 109 female HIV-infected adults on treatment for initial episodes of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis between March 1993 and March 1995. A favorable outcome was defined as being cured and alive at one year while an unfavorable outcome was not being cured or dead. Subjects were followed-up by serial medical examinations, complete blood counts, serum ?2 microglobulin, CD4+ cell counts, sputum examinations, and chest x-rays. Results Male patients were older, had higher body mass indices, and lower serum ?2 microglobulin levels than female patients at presentation. At one year, there was no difference between male and female patients in the likelihood of experiencing a favorable outcome (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.89–1.17). This effect persisted after controlling for symptoms, serum ?2 microglobulin, CD4+ cell count, and severity of disease on chest x-ray (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.54–2.13) with a repeated measures model. Conclusions While differences existed between males and females with HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis at presentation, the outcomes at one year after the initiation of tuberculosis treatment were similar in Uganda. Women in areas with a high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence should be encouraged to present for screening at the first sign of tuberculosis symptoms.

Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, John L; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D; Ellner, Jerrold J; Whalen, Christopher C

2002-01-01

196

Genetics of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-associated collapsing glomerulopathy: the role of MYH9 genetic variation  

PubMed Central

Until recently knowledge of genetic causes of glomerular disease was limited to certain rare or uncommon inherited diseases, and to a genes, either rare or with small effect, identified in candidate gene studies. These genetic factors accounted for only a very small fraction of kidney disease. However, the striking differences in frequency of many forms of kidney disease between African Americans and European Americans, which could not be completely explained by cultural or economic factors, pointed to a large unidentified genetic influence. Since FSGS and HIV-associated collapsing glomerulopathy (HVAN) have striking racial disparities, we performed an admixture mapping study to identify contributing genetic factors. Admixture mapping identified genetic variants in the non-muscle myosin gene MYH9 as having an extreme influence on both FSGS and HIVAN, with odds ratios from 4 to 8 and attributable fractions of 70–100%. Previously identified, rare inherited MYH9 disorders point to a mechanism by which MYH9 variation disrupts the actin-myosin filaments responsible for maintaining the structure of podocytes, the cells that provide one of three filtration barriers in the glomeruli. MYH9 variation has a smaller but still highly significant effect on non-diabetic kidney disease, and a weaker but significant effect on diabetic kidney disease; it is unclear whether underlying cryptic FSGS is responsible for the MYH9 association with these diseases. The strong predicted power of MYH9 variation for disease indicates a clear role for genetic testing for these variants in personalized medicine, for assessment of genetic risk, and potentially for diagnosis.

Winkler, Cheryl A.; Nelson, George; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Nava, M. Berenice; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

2010-01-01

197

Leptin replacement therapy does not improve the abnormal lipid kinetics of hypoleptinemic patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of (13)C(1)-palmitate and (2)H(5)-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P<.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P<.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptin's effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL. PMID:22542724

Sekhar, Rajagopal V; Jahoor, Farook; Iyer, Dinakar; Guthikonda, Anuradha; Paranilam, Jaya; Elhaj, Fareed; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

2012-04-28

198

From “tragedy” to “disaster”: Welfare effects of commons and anticommons dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the alleged symmetry between commons and anticommons dilemmas. Our experimental results reveal an interesting asymmetry. Anticommons situations generate greater opportunistic behavior than an equivalent commons dilemma (Study 1), and anticommons dilemmas yield a greater risk for ineffective use compared to commons dilemmas (Study 2).The results of the present study bring to light important deviations from

Sven Vanneste; Alain Van Hiel; Francesco Parisi; Ben Depoorter

2006-01-01

199

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. ... M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. ...

200

Common Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Common warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Common warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

201

HIV-Associated Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is recognized as an important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Myocarditis and myocardial infection with HIV-1 are the best-studied causes of cardiomyopathy in HIV disease. HIV-1 virions appear to infect myocardial cells in a patchy distribution with no direct association between the presence of the virus and myocyte dysfunction. Myocardial dendritic cells seem to play a

Giuseppe Barbaro

2005-01-01

202

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6.

Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2011-01-01

203

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2010-09-13

204

Post-Transplant Opportunistic Infection: Case of Mycobacterium Haemophilum Masquerading as Leprosy in a Renal Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation (SOT) predisposes patients to the development of opportunistic infections that manifest in many ways including cutaneous infection. Skin lesions in immunosuppressed patients have a broad differential including both infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Skin infections by mycobacteria are relatively rare and most are due to nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). One such NTM, Mycobacterium haemophilum, is generally reported in opportunistic skin infections often associated with water exposure. Very rarely, M. leprae also has been reported as a cause of opportunistic skin infections in SOT recipients. Both pathogens may be difficult to distinguish both clinically and pathologically, but culture can distinguish between the two because M. haemophilum will grow and M. leprae will not. We present a case of M. haemophilum cutaneous infection in a renal transplant recipient that was initially felt to be due to M. leprae based on biopsy appearance. Case Report A 67-year-old Asian man with a history of renal transplant in 2006 presented to an outside facility with a 4 month history of swelling and rash over his right lower extremity. Examination revealed multiple non-pruritic, painless, erythematous plaques and edema over the right residual limb. Treatment with anti-fungal cream was unsuccessful and steroid cream resulted in worsening of rash. Biopsy showed tuberculoid granulomatous dermatitis with no visualized acid fast bacilli (AFB) but neuronal invasion that was concerning for leprosy. He was referred to the Infectious Disease service. The patient's history was also significant for DM, PVD status post right below the knee amputation, and travel or residence in Thailand, Vietnam, and Panama. Patient had been on immunosuppression since 2006 with cyclosporine, mycophenolate, and low dose prednisone. Due to the concern for leprosy, a tissue sample was obtained at our facility for pathology and AFB culture. Biopsy was notable for granulomatous dermatitis and presence of AFB consistent with borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Culture, however, was positive for AFB and final identification revealed M. haemophilum by PCR. Patient was treated initially with clarithromycin then ciprofloxacin was added based on results of susceptibility testing. The patient has had a good clinical response with significant improvement of the rash. Discussion NTM are known to cause skin infections in SOT patients. M. leprae is a very rare pathogen whereas other NTM such as M. haemophilum are more common. Nerve involvement is a common feature of M. leprae and is considered to be highly suggestive of leprosy in the appropriate clinical setting. This case was unique as the initial biopsy showed neuronal invasion, leading to the suspicion for leprosy, but the culture subsequently grew M. haemophilum. This is the first known case describing neuronal invasion caused by M. haemophilum.

Ferguson, Tomas; Denunzio, Troy; Arora, Navin

2013-01-01

205

Transplantation-associated long-term immunosuppression promotes oral colonization by potentially opportunistic pathogens without impacting other members of the salivary bacteriome.  

PubMed

Solid-organ transplant recipients rely on pharmacological immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. The effect of such chronic immunosuppression on the microflora at mucosal surfaces is not known. We evaluated the salivary bacterial microbiome of 20 transplant recipients and 19 nonimmunosuppressed controls via 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Alpha-diversity and global community structure did not differ between transplant and control subjects. However, principal coordinate analysis showed differences in community membership. Taxa more prevalent in transplant subjects included operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of potentially opportunistic Gammaproteobacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter species, Vibrio species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and the genera Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. Transplant subjects also had increased proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae species, and Enterococcus faecalis, among other OTUs, while genera with increased proportions included Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. Furthermore, in transplant subjects, the dose of the immunosuppressant prednisone positively correlated with bacterial richness, while prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil doses positively correlated with the prevalence and proportions of transplant-associated taxa. Correlation network analysis of OTU relative abundance revealed a cluster containing potentially opportunistic pathogens as transplant associated. This cluster positively correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein, suggesting a link between the resident flora at mucosal compartments and systemic inflammation. Network connectivity analysis revealed opportunistic pathogens as highly connected to each other and to common oral commensals, pointing to bacterial interactions that may influence colonization. This work demonstrates that immunosuppression aimed at limiting T-cell-mediated responses creates a more permissive oral environment for potentially opportunistic pathogens without affecting other members of the salivary bacteriome. PMID:23616410

Diaz, Patricia I; Hong, Bo-Young; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Dupuy, Amanda K; Angeloni, Mark; Abusleme, Loreto; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

2013-04-24

206

Feeding Habits And Natural Diet of the Intertidal Crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic Browser or Selective Feeder?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to identify the feeding habits of the European intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus . Since this species is widely distributed in southern Europe, four south-western European sites far apart from each other were selected: southern Portugal, central Portugal, central Tyrrhenian coast, Italy, and northern Adriatic coast, Istria. In summer, crabs were collected and the contents of their stomachs were assessed in the laboratory. In parallel, at each collection site the relative abundance of algae species and of sessile and slow-moving animals was assessed for comparison with the relative frequency of the same items in the P. marmoratus diet. The detailed analysis of its feeding habits showed that this species is omnivorous but that it cannot simply be considered an opportunistic feeder. In all populations, algal and animal diet components were almost equally abundant; thus these crabs actively regulate their feeding to cope with the dietary needs of their fast-moving, semi-terrestrial life-style. Descriptive and quantitative analyses showed that P. marmoratus has definite preferences for animal prey and algae. Limpets and mussels proved to be the commonest prey, followed by conspecific crabs. The highly preferred plant item was filamentous algae, although corticated macroalgae and articulated calcareous algae were also common in the diet. Cyanobacteria were preferred only at the Atlantic sites and crustose algae were represented only by Ralfsia sp., a species with high protein and lipid contents. Both univariate and multivariate statistical methods confirmed that the different populations of P. marmoratus were minimally influenced by the relative abundance of the food items within their environment and their diet composition was constant throughout the sampled area. In conclusion, the relative abundance of different ingested foods can best be explained by considering the diet of P. marmoratus to be related mainly to its population structure and, for some food items, to the feeding physiology of the crab itself.

Cannicci, S.; Gomei, M.; Boddi, B.; Vannini, M.

2002-06-01

207

Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI). However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.

Seddon, Jo; Bhagani, Sanjay

2011-01-01

208

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

209

Efficiency of organised and opportunistic cytological screening for cancer in situ of the cervix.  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced by removal of precursor lesions detected at cytological screening. Organised screening, i.e. regular invitation of defined target groups, is generally considered more effective than opportunistic screening. The latter method however, is predominant in most settings. There is no scientific basis for advocating one type of screening or the other. Our aim was to compare the two types and to analyse their efficiency. We analysed 466,275 smears taken in an open cohort of 118,890 women during 1969-88. A computerised database permitted standardised classification of all smears and complete ascertainment of cancer in situ through record linkage. The number of in situ cancers detected per 1000 smears, the detection ratio, was used as an outcome measure both in univariate analyses and in multivariate logistic regression models. Cancer in situ was detected in 1076 women in the study cohort, with a detection ratio of 3.0 at organised and 2.1 at opportunistic screening, yielding an unadjusted odds ratio of 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.79). After adjustment for age and time period, the probability of detecting cancer in situ was around 25% higher with opportunistic than with organised screening (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.09-1.46). This difference in favour of opportunistic screening was most pronounced in the first 10 year period and disappeared during the last decade. The difference in efficiency between organised and opportunistic screening in the detection of cancer in situ was slight, if any. The dogma that organised screening is significantly more efficient than the opportunistic type needs reconsideration.

Gustafsson, L.; Sparen, P.; Gustafsson, M.; Wilander, E.; Bergstrom, R.; Adami, H. O.

1995-01-01

210

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Fungi, and Opportunistic Pathogens in Unchlorinated Drinking Water in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

The multiplication of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies might pose a threat to public health. In this study, distributed unchlorinated drinking water from eight treatment plants in the Netherlands was sampled and analyzed for fungi, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and several opportunistic pathogens by using selective quantitative PCR methods. Fungi and NTM were detected in all drinking water samples, whereas Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were sporadically observed. Mycobacterium avium complex and Acanthamoeba spp. were not detected. Season had no influence on the occurrence of these organisms, except for NTM and S. maltophilia, which were present in higher numbers in the summer. Opportunistic pathogens were more often observed in premise plumbing water samples than in samples from the distribution system. The lowest number of these organisms was observed in the finished water at the plant. Thus, fungi, NTM, and some of the studied opportunistic pathogens can multiply in the distribution and premise plumbing systems. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and/or total organic carbon (TOC) had no clear effects on fungal and NTM numbers or on P. aeruginosa- and S. maltophilia-positive samples. However, L. pneumophila was detected more often in water with AOC concentrations above 10 ?g C liter?1 than in water with AOC levels below 5 ?g C liter?1. Finally, samples that contained L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, or S. maltophilia were more frequently positive for a second opportunistic pathogen, which shows that certain drinking water types and/or sampling locations promote the growth of multiple opportunistic pathogens.

van der Kooij, Dick

2013-01-01

211

Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in HIV-associated nephropathy: A focus on the MYH9 nephropathy susceptibility gene.  

PubMed

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a leading cause of ESRD in African Americans. The HIV-1 virus infects podocytes, cells integral to formation of the glomerular filtration barrier, often leading to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. HIVAN is typically a complication of late-stage HIV infection, associated with low CD4 cell counts and elevated serum HIV RNA levels. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is partially protective and has altered the natural history of HIV-associated kidney disease. Nonetheless, HIVAN remains an important public health concern among HIV-infected African Americans. Although polymorphisms in the MYH9 gene on chromosome 22 are strongly associated with HIVAN, as well as with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis (historically labeled "hypertensive nephrosclerosis"), the majority of HIV-infected patients who are genetically at risk from MYH9 do not appear to develop severe kidney disease. Therefore, we postulate that additional environmental exposures and/or inherited factors are necessary to initiate human HIVAN. Gene-environment interactions have also been proposed as necessary for the initiation of HIVAN in murine models. It is important that these novel risk factors be identified because prevention of environmental exposures and targeting of additional gene products may reduce the risk for HIVAN, even among those harboring 2 risk alleles in MYH9. PMID:20005488

Núñez, Marina; Saran, Anita M; Freedman, Barry I

2010-01-01

212

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold. The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

2007-12-12

213

Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Impact of HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. Methods and Findings 498 adults initiating ART in Durban, South Africa were followed prospectively for 24 weeks. IRIS diagnosis was based on consensus expert opinion, and classified by mode of presentation (paradoxical worsening of known opportunistic infection [OI] or unmasking of subclinical disease). 114 patients (22.9%) developed IRIS (36% paradoxical, 64% unmasking). Mucocutaneous conditions accounted for 68% of IRIS events, mainly folliculitis, warts, genital ulcers and herpes zoster. Tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 25% of IRIS events. 18/135 (13.3%) patients with major pre-ART OIs (e.g. TB, cryptococcosis) developed paradoxical IRIS related to the same OI. Risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline viral load >5.5 vs. <4.5 log10 (adjusted hazard ratio 7.23; 95% confidence interval 1.35–38.76) and ?30 vs. >30 days of OI treatment prior to ART (2.66; 1.16–6.09). Unmasking IRIS related to major OIs occurred in 25/498 patients (5.0%), and risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline C-reactive protein ?25 vs. <25 mg/L (2.77; 1.31–5.85), haemoglobin <10 vs. >12 g/dL (3.36; 1.32–8.52), ?10% vs. <10% weight loss prior to ART (2.31; 1.05–5.11) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on pre-ART chest x-ray (9.15; 4.10–20.42). IRIS accounted for 6/25 (24%) deaths, 13/65 (20%) hospitalizations and 10/35 (29%) ART interruptions or discontinuations. Conclusion IRIS occurred in almost one quarter of patients initiating ART, and accounted for one quarter of deaths in the first 6 months. Priority strategies to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity and mortality in ART programmes include earlier ART initiation before onset of advanced immunodeficiency, improved pre-ART screening for TB and cryptococcal infection, optimization of OI therapy prior to ART initiation, more intensive clinical monitoring in initial weeks of ART, and education of health care workers and patients about IRIS.

Haddow, Lewis John; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus Suleman; Mosam, Anisa; Moodley, Pravi; Parboosing, Raveen; Easterbrook, Philippa Jane

2012-01-01

214

The effect of a bacteriophage on diversification of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that colonizes the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF lungs often contain a diverse range of P. aeruginosa phenotypes, some of which are likely to contribute to the persistence of infection, yet the causes of diversity are unclear. While the ecological heterogeneity of the lung environment and therapeutic regimes are probable factors,

Michael A. Brockhurst; Angus Buckling; Paul B. Rainey

2009-01-01

215

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DISEASE VIRAL OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T : Despite the development of highly active a n t i re t roviral therapy (HAART), opportunistic infec- tions continue to be seen in HIV-infected patients t h roughout the world. The primary reason for this is the lack of access to HAART f o r most people living with HIV\\/AIDS. For

Constantine TSIGRELIS; Elie BERBARI; Zelalem TEMESGEN

216

Multi-robot, multi-rendezvous recharging paradigm: An opportunistic control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an opportunistic control ap- proach to address the multi-robot, multi-rendezvous recharging problem. The control strategy adapted attempts to take advan- tages of both centralized as well as distributed methodologies while addressing the problem. Every robotic agent of the group is equipped with a decision engine that scores available rendezvous locations that are obtained via communicating with mother

Soheil Keshmiri

2011-01-01

217

Scedosporium apiospermum : changing clinical spectrum of a therapy-refractory opportunist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge on the opportunist Scedosporium apiospermum (teleomorph: Pseudallescheria boydii), generated over a period of more than 120 years, is reviewed. The natural environmental habitat of the fungus is unknown; nutrient- rich, brackish waters like river estuaria have been suggested. The fungus is strongly promoted by agricultural and particularly by industrial pollution.

Josep Guarro; A. Serda Kantarcioglu; Regine Horré; Juan Luis Rodriguez-Tudela; Manuel Cuenca Estrella; Juan Berenguer; G. Sybren De Hoog

2006-01-01

218

An Opportunistic Spectrum Scheduling Scheme for MultiChannel Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop an opportunistic spectrum scheduling scheme for cognitive radio networks. In the proposed scheme, the channel status (i.e., whether being occupied by primary users) and the instantaneous channel quality (SNR at the secondary receiver) are assumed to vary fast within a frame which consists of a fixed number of slots. At each scheduling epoch, each secondary

Vamsi Krishna Tumuluru; Ping Wang; Dusit Niyato

2010-01-01

219

Opportunistic energy-efficient contact probing in delay-tolerant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many delay-tolerant applications, information is opportunistically exchanged between mobile devices that encounter each other. In order to affect such information exchange, mobile devices must have knowledge of other devices in their vicinity. We consider scenarios in which there is no infrastructure and devices must probe their environment to discover other devices. This can be an extremely energy-consuming process and

Wei Wang; Mehul Motani; Vikram Srinivasan

2009-01-01

220

Opportunistic Search with Semantic Fisheye Views EPFL Technical Report: IC\\/2004\\/42  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search goals are often too complex or poorly defined to be solved in a single query. While refining their search goals, users are likely to apply a variety of strategies, such as searching for more general or more specific concepts in reaction to the information and structures they encounter in the results. This is called opportunistic search. In this paper

Paul Janecek; Pearl Pu

221

Prevention of opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients in the tropical Top End of the Northern Territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the Top End of the Northern Territory has a high incidence of several infections of particular signifi cance in the immunosuppressed. The following protocol for evaluation and treatment of patients prior to immunosuppression was developed in order to reduce the incidence of serious opportunistic infections. The infections discussed are Strongyloides stercoralis, tuberculosis, scabies, chronic hepatitis B, melioidosis

Joshua S Davis; Bart J Currie; Dale A Fisher; Sarah E Huffam; Nicholas M Anstey; Richard N Price; Vicki L Krause; Nathan Zweck; Paul D Lawton; Paul L Snelling; Sid Selva-nayagam

2003-01-01

222

Performance Analysis of Amplify-and- Forward Opportunistic Relaying in Rician Fading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter analyzes the performance of single relay selection cooperative wireless networks using amplify-and forward relaying. The network channels are modeled as independent, nonidentical, Rician distributed coefficients. We derive approximate formulas for the symbol error rate (SER) of the opportunistic relaying cooperative network. We first derive the PDF of the approximate value of the total SNR. Then, assuming M-PSK or

Behrouz Maham; Are Hjorungnes

2009-01-01

223

Opportunistic Scheduling: Generalizations to Include Multiple Constraints, Multiple Interfaces, and Short Term Fairness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider several scheduling problems for packet based systems with time-varying channel conditions. Design- ing scheduling mechanisms that take advantage of time-varying channel conditions, which are different for different users, is necessary to improve system performance; however this has to be done in a way that provides some level of fairness among the users. Such scheduling mechanisms are termed opportunistic.

Sunil Suresh Kulkarni; Catherine Rosenberg

2005-01-01

224

Opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in men attending three different secondary healthcare settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of opportunistic Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of asymptomatic men attending three different secondary healthcare settings and to investigate CT positivity in these settings.Methods: Men attending fracture, fertility and family planning (FP) clinics were invited to be screened by first-void urine and complete a questionnaire which collected demographic, sexual and behavioural characteristics, and their

S Sripada; S Logan; S McGillivray; H Mckenzie; A Templeton; A Sutherland; S Bhattacharya

2007-01-01

225

The study of power control based cooperative opportunistic routing in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PC-CORP (power control based cooperative opportunistic routing protocol) for WSN (wireless sensor networks), providing robustness to the random variations in network connectivity while ensuring better data's forwarding efficiency in an energy efficient manner. Based on realistic radio model, we combine the region-based routing, rendezvous scheme, sleep discipline and cooperative communication to model data forwarding by cross layer

Haifeng Hu; Zhen Yang

2007-01-01

226

Chlamydial infection: an accurate model for opportunistic screening in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women in general practice and to assess risk factors associated with infection.Methods: The study was carried out in 2001–2 in different general practices in Antwerp, Belgium. Sexually active women, visiting their general practitioner for routine gynaecological care (mostly pill prescription or PAP smear), were offered opportunistic screening for chlamydia. 787 participants

V Verhoeven; D Avonts; A Meheus; H Goossens; M Ieven; S Chapelle; C Lammens; P Van Royen

2003-01-01

227

Genome Sequence of Aureobasidium pullulans AY4, an Emerging Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen with Diverse Biotechnological Potential  

PubMed Central

Aureobasidium pullulans AY4 is an opportunistic pathogen that was isolated from the skin of an immunocompromised patient. We present here the draft genome of strain AY4, which reveals an abundance of genes relevant to bioindustrial applications, including biocontrol and biodegradation. Putative genes responsible for the pathogenicity of strain AY4 were also identified.

Bamadhaj, Hasima Mustafa; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

2012-01-01

228

Rare and Emerging Opportunistic Fungal Pathogens: Concern for Resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of invasive mycoses due to opportunistic fun- gal pathogens has increased significantly over the past two decades (35, 74, 83, 88, 89, 101, 106). This increase in infec- tions is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality (33, 50, 108) and is directly related to increasing patient popula- tions at risk for the development of serious fungal infections, which

M. A. Pfaller; D. J. Diekema

2004-01-01

229

Gingival Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Responses to Commensal and Opportunistic Oral Microbial Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional profiling and ontology tools were utilized to define the biological pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by coculture with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii and the opportunistic commensal Fusobacterium nucleatum. Overall, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii perturbed the gingival epithelial cell transcriptome much less significantly than the oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans perturbed the transcriptome, indicating that

Yoshiaki Hasegawa; Jeffrey J. Mans; Song Mao; M. Cecilia Lopez; Henry V. Baker; Martin Handfield; Richard J. Lamont

2007-01-01

230

Joint Design and Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in the Presence of Sensing Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the design of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) strategies that allow secondary users to independently search for and exploit instantaneous spectrum availability. The design objective is to maximize the throughput of secondary users while limiting the probability of colliding with primary users. Integrated in the joint design are three basic compon ents: a spectrum sensor at the physical (PHY)

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; Ananthram Swami

2007-01-01

231

Joint Design and Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in the Presence of Sensing Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) that allows secondary users to independently search for and exploit instantaneous spectrum availability is considered. The design objective is to maximize the throughput of a secondary user while limiting the probability of colliding with primary users. Integrated in the joint design are three basic components: a spectrum sensor that identifies spectrum opportunities, a sensing strategy that

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; Ananthram Swami

2008-01-01

232

Effectiveness of opportunistic brief interventions for problem drinking in a general hospital setting : systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of opportunistic brief interventions for problem drinking in a general hospital setting. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PsychInfo, Cochrane Library, reference lists from identified studies and review articles, and contact with experts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Eight studies were retrieved. Most had methodological weaknesses. Only one study, with a relatively

Maria J Emmen; Gerard M Schippers; Gijs Bleijenberg; H. C. H. Wollersheim

2004-01-01

233

Opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in Minia District, Egypt.  

PubMed

A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children. PMID:22451735

Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Ali, Basma A; Moslam, Fadia A

2012-03-06

234

Common Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most widely cultivated legumes in the world, occupying over 27 million hectares of tropical and temperate\\u000a agricultural land in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (FAO, 2003). The genus Phaseolus is of American origin and comprises over 30 species (Debouck, 1999). P. vulgaris is the most widely grown legume, occupying

Francisco J. Morales

235

Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the International Space Station is a closed environment with rotations of astronauts and equipment that each introduce their own microbial flora, it is necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbia...

A. Singhal A. S. Johnston C. M. Ott C. M. Oubre D. X. Jett K. J. Venkateswaran K. U. Jones M. C. Roman M. N. Birmele M. S. Roberts P. A. Vaishampayan T. A. Ozbolt V. A. Castro

2013-01-01

236

First evidence of overlaps between HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases: proteomic analysis of the frontal cortex from HIV+ patients with and without dementia  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is poorly understood. To date, detailed proteomic fingerprinting directly from autopsied brain tissues of HAD and HIV non-dementia patients has not been performed. Result Here, we have analyzed total proteins from the frontal cortex of 9 HAD and 5 HIV non-dementia patients. Using 2-Dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) to analyze the brain tissue proteome, 76 differentially expressed proteins (p < 0.05; fold change>1.25) were identified between HAD and HIV non-dementia patients, of which 36 protein spots (based on 3D appearance of spots on the images) were chosen for the mass spectrometry analysis. The large majority of identified proteins were represented in the energy metabolic (mitochondria) and signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, over 90% of the protein candidates are common to both HAD and other non-viral neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease. The data was further validated using specific antibodies to 4 proteins (CA2, GS, CKMT and CRMP2) by western blot (WB) in the same samples used for 2D-DIGE, with additional confirmation by immunohistochemitsry (IHC) using frontal lobe tissue from different HAD and HIV+ non-dementia patients. The validation for all 4 antibodies by WB and IHC was in concordance with the DIGE results, lending further credence to the current findings. Conclusion These results suggest not only convergent pathogenetic pathways for the two diseases but also the possibility of increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility in HAD patients whose life expectancy has been significantly increased by highly active antiretroviral therapy.

2010-01-01

237

KCNS1, but not GCH1, is associated with pain intensity in a black southern African population with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a genetic association study.  

PubMed

KCNS1 and GCH1 were investigated for their association with pain intensity in black Southern Africans with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Previously associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were supplemented with population-specific tagSNPs. No SNPs in KCNS1 were individually associated with pain intensity. However, several haplotypes of population-specific tagSNPs correlated with pain intensity on univariate analysis and after correcting for age, gender, and CD4 T-cell count. This suggests that the haplotypes incorporate the causative SNP(s). No SNPs or haplotypes in GCH1 were associated with pain intensity. The study shows the importance of conducting association analyses in different ethnic groups, using population-based marker selection. PMID:23314412

Hendry, Liesl; Lombard, Zané; Wadley, Antonia; Kamerman, Peter

2013-05-01

238

Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth  

PubMed Central

The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach.

Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

2009-01-01

239

Translation of HLA-HIV associations to the cellular level: HIV adapts to inflate CD8 T cell responses against Nef and HLA adapted variant epitopes1  

PubMed Central

Strong statistical associations between polymorphisms in HIV-1 population sequences and carriage of HLA class I alleles have been widely used to identify possible sites of CD8 T cell immune selection in vivo. However, there have been few attempts to prospectively and systematically test these genetic “hypotheses” arising from population-based studies at a cellular, functional level. We assayed CD8 T cell epitope-specific IFN? responses in 290 individuals from the same cohort which gave rise to 874 HLA-HIV associations in genetic analyses, taking into account autologous viral sequences and individual HLA genotypes. We found immunological evidence for 58% of 374 associations tested as sites of primary immune selection and identified up to 50 novel HIV-1 epitopes using this “reverse genomics” approach. Many HLA adapted epitopes elicited equivalent or higher magnitude IFN? responses than the non-adapted epitopes, particularly in Nef. At a population level, inclusion of all the immunoreactive variant CD8 T cell epitopes in Gag, Pol, Nef and Env suggested that HIV adaptation leads to an inflation of Nef-directed immune responses relative to other proteins. We conclude that HLA-HIV associations do mark viral epitopes subject to CD8 T cell selection. These results can be used to guide functional studies of specific epitopes and escape mutations as well as test, train and evaluate analytical models of viral escape and fitness. The inflation of Nef and HLA adapted variant responses may have negative effects on natural and vaccine immunity against HIV, and therefore has implications for diversity coverage approaches in HIV vaccine design.

Almeida, Coral-Ann M; Bronke, Corine; Roberts, Steven G; McKinnon, Elizabeth; Keane, Niamh M; Chopra, Abha; Kadie, Carl; Carlson, Jonathan; Haas, David W; Riddler, Sharon A; Haubrich, Richard; Heckerman, David; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina

2011-01-01

240

Inhibition of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 exacerbates HIV-1 gp120-induced oxidative and inflammatory response: role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic continues to be the most severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe. In spite of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV infected subjects experience major neurological complications that range from HIV associated dementia to moderate neurocognitive and motor impairments collectively termed as HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Astrocytes play an important role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Further, in the recent years it has been shown that oxidative stress plays a major role in the neuropathogenesis of HAND. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a leucine zipper redox-sensitive transcription factor, is an important regulator of cell survival and adaptive mechanisms and has been shown to possess a protective role in a variety of neurological and inflammatory disorders. Earlier we have shown that Nrf2 is upregulated in response to HIV-1 gp120 and such upregulation of Nrf2 may be a protective mechanism against the HIV-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesize that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathways are important in regulating the HIV-induced oxidative stress and that the disruption of Nrf2 makes the cells more susceptible to HIV gp120-induced deleterious effects. Our results indicate that when astrocytes are exposed to gp120 there is an increase in the expression of NOX2, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, and also an upregulated expression of nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the degree of expression was significantly higher in those cells where Nrf2 was silenced by siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest a possible protective role of Nrf2 in regulating the levels of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory molecules in HAND. PMID:22528837

Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Agudelo, Marisela; Atluri, Venkata S R; Nair, Madhavan P

2012-04-25

241

Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both debilitating mucosal infections and potentially life-threatening systemic infections. Until recently, C. albicans was thought to be strictly asexual, existing only as an obligate diploid. A cryptic mating cycle has since been uncovered in which diploid a and alpha cells undergo efficient cell and nuclear fusion, resulting in tetraploid a/alpha mating products. Whereas mating between a and alpha cells has been established (heterothallism), we report here two pathways for same-sex mating (homothallism) in C. albicans. First, unisexual populations of a cells were found to undergo autocrine pheromone signalling and same-sex mating in the absence of the Bar1 protease. In both C. albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bar1 is produced by a cells and inactivates mating pheromone alpha, typically secreted by alpha cells. C. albicans Deltabar1 a cells were shown to secrete both a and alpha mating pheromones; alpha-pheromone activated self-mating in these cells in a process dependent on Ste2, the receptor for alpha-pheromone. In addition, pheromone production by alpha cells was found to promote same-sex mating between wild-type a cells. These results establish that homothallic mating can occur in C. albicans, revealing the potential for genetic exchange even within unisexual populations of the organism. Furthermore, Bar1 protease has an unexpected but pivotal role in determining whether sexual reproduction can potentially be homothallic or is exclusively heterothallic. These findings also have implications for the mode of sexual reproduction in related species that propagate unisexually, and indicate a role for specialized sexual cycles in the survival and adaptation of pathogenic fungi. PMID:19675652

Alby, Kevin; Schaefer, Dana; Bennett, Richard J

2009-08-13

242

Autonomous and distributed recruitment and data collection framework for opportunistic sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

People-centric sensing is a novel apporach that exploits the sensing capabilities offered by smartphones and the mobility of users to sense large scale areas without requiring the deployment of sensors in-situ. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, people-centric sensing is a viable and efficient solution for crowdsourcing data. In this work, we propose a fully distributed, opportunistic sensing framework that

Guliz Seray Tuncay; Giacomo Benincasa; Ahmed Helmy

2012-01-01

243

On rate improvements and power saving with opportunistic relaying in home power line networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we investigate the use of half duplex time division relay protocols to possibly provide achievable rate improvements, power saving, and coverage extension in home power line communication (PLC) networks. We consider a network where the communication between the source and the destination nodes follows an opportunistic protocol, namely, the relay is used whenever it allows with respect to the direct transmission: (a) for achievable rate improvements, under a power spectral density (PSD) mask constraint; or (b) for power saving, under a PSD mask and a rate target constraint. Opportunistic decode and forward (ODF), and opportunistic amplify and forward (OAF) are considered. At the physical layer, we assume the use of multi-carrier modulation. Under these assumptions, we find the optimal resource allocation, namely, the optimal power and time slot allocation, between the source and the relay nodes that maximizes the achievable rate, or minimizes the total transmitted power for both ODF and OAF. For the power minimization problem of ODF, we show that the joint problem of power and time slot allocation of DF is very hard to be solved and thus implemented. Therefore, to reduce complexity, we propose a simplified algorithm that considers two convex sub-problems. Through numerical results, we show that its performance is very close to the optimum. Finally, since over in-home PLC networks, the relay can only be placed in accessible points of the network, i.e., in outlets, or in the main panel, or in derivation boxes, for each opportunistic protocol, we also investigate the influence on performances from the relay position. Results are obtained using both measured channel responses and generated ones; thanks to the use of a statistically representative simulator. They show that significant rate improvements and power savings can be obtained as a function of the relay position and network size.

D'Alessandro, Salvatore; Tonello, Andrea M.

2012-12-01

244

Estimating human movement activities for opportunistic networking: A study of movement features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobility-assisted, opportunistic networks, data is disseminated in a store-and-forward manner by means of spontaneously connecting mobile devices. Therefore, mobility itself moves in the center of investigation. Knowledge about movement characteristics of single devices can be used to add realism to random mobility models and to understand the likelihood of communication options. This paper contributes to the field of observing

Karin Anna Hummel; Andrea Hess

2011-01-01

245

Biological Swarm Intelligence Based Opportunistic Resource Allocation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is one of the most important biological swarm intelligence paradigms. However, the standard\\u000a PSO algorithm can easily get trapped in the local optima when solving complex multimodal problems. In this paper, an improved\\u000a adaptive particle swarm optimization (IAPSO) is presented. Based on IAPSO, a joint opportunistic power and rate allocation\\u000a (JOPRA) algorithm is proposed to maximize

Defang Liu; Bochu Wang

246

[The quantitative evaluation of capacity of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms to form biofilms in experiment].  

PubMed

The article discusses the technique of quantitative evaluation of capacity of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms to form biofilm by means of measuring the contact angle of moistening of its surface. The specific rates of biofilm formation by hospital strains of microorganisms are determined. It is demonstrated that P. aeruginosa form biofilm on surface of glass plate better than S. aureus and C. albicans do. PMID:23265060

Leonov, V V

2012-10-01

247

Assessment of breast cancer opportunistic screening by clinical–pathological indicators: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although some clinical–pathological features of breast cancers, such as the incidence of ductal cancer in situ (DCIS) and the diameter of invasive tumours, are sensitive indicators of early detection, comprehensive population-based studies of opportunistic screening are needed.Methods:Cases of DCIS or invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 1996–2007 were identified from the Ticino Cancer Registry (south of Switzerland). Time trends of age-adjusted

A Bordoni; N M Probst-Hensch; L Mazzucchelli; A Spitale

2009-01-01

248

Effect of GAC pre-treatment and disinfectant on microbial community structure and opportunistic pathogen occurrence.  

PubMed

Opportunistic pathogens in potable water systems are an emerging health concern; however, the factors influencing their proliferation are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of prior granular activated carbon (GAC) biofiltration [GAC-filtered water, unfiltered water, and a blend (30% GAC filtered and 70% unfiltered water)] and disinfectant type (chlorine, chloramine) on opportunistic pathogen occurrence using five annular reactors (ARs) to simulate water distribution systems, particularly premise plumbing. GAC pre-treatment effectively reduced total organic carbon (TOC), resulting in three levels of influent TOC investigated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) provided molecular evidence of natural colonization of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella vermiformis and Mycobacterium avium on AR coupons. Cultivable mycobacteria and amoeba, including pathogenic species, were also found in bulk water and biofilm samples. While q-PCR tends to overestimate live cells, it provided a quantitative comparison of target organisms colonizing the AR biofilms in terms of gene copy numbers. In most cases, total bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were higher in the three undisinfected ARs, but the levels were not proportional to the level of GAC pre-treatment/TOC. Chlorine was more effective for controlling mycobacteria and Acanthamoeba, whereas chloramine was more effective for controlling Legionella. Both chlorine and chloramine effectively inhibited M. avium and H. vermiformis colonization. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in coupon biofilms revealed a significant effect of GAC pre-treatment and disinfectant type on the microbial community structure. Overall, this study provides insights into the potential of different disinfectants and GAC biofilters at the treatment plant and in buildings to control downstream opportunistic pathogens and broader drinking water microbial communities. PMID:23906775

Wang, Hong; Pryor, Marsha A; Edwards, Marc A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy

2013-07-16

249

Exploiting geographic opportunistic routing for soft QoS provisioning in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we exploit the geographic opportunistic routing (GOR) for QoS provisioning with both end-to-end reliability and delay constraints in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Recent work exploits multipath routing to guarantee both reliability and delay QoS constraints in WSNs. However, the multipath routing approach suffers from a significant energy cost. We also find that existing GOR protocol may not

Long Cheng; Jiannong Cao; Canfeng Chen; Jian Ma; Sajal K. Das

2010-01-01

250

Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black YeastLike Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spini- fera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligo- sperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and

G. S. de Hoog; V. Vicente; R. B. Caligiorne; S. Kantarcioglu; K. Tintelnot; A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende; G. Haase

2003-01-01

251

Adaptive Motion Model for a Smart Phone Based Opportunistic Localization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization systems will evolve towards autonomous system which will use any useful information provided by mobile devices\\u000a taking the hardware specification and environmental limitations into account. This paper demonstrates the concept of opportunistic\\u000a localization using a smart phone with the following sensor technologies: Wi-Fi, GSM, GPS and two embedded accelerometers.\\u000a A particle filter based estimator with an adaptive motion model

Maarten Weyn; Martin Klepal; Widyawan

2009-01-01

252

Low complexity resource allocation with opportunistic feedback over downlink OFDMA networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal tone allocation in downlink OFDMA networks is a non-convex NP-hard problem that requires extensive feedback for channel information. In this paper, two constant complexity limited-feedback algorithms are proposed to achieve near-optimal performance. First, using opportunistic feedback, the proposed schemes are shown to reduce feedback overhead by requiring only users likely to be allocated resources to feedback. There are differences

Rajiv Agarwal; Vinay R. Majjigi; Zhu Han; Rath Vannithamby; John M. Cioffi

2008-01-01

253

[Myasthenia gravis. Opportunistic cytomegalovirus infection after long-term azathioprine therapy].  

PubMed

Opportunistic infections after long-term treatment with azathioprine (AZA) have not been noted in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). We report on a 56-year-old woman with generalized MG who presented with cytomegalovirus infection after being treated with AZA for 17 years. The indication for immunosuppressive treatment in MG should be regularly reconfirmed, particularly since at least 50% of patients can discontinue AZA after two to four years without risk of exacerbation. PMID:10554786

Eisensehr, I; Büttner, U; Witt, T N; von Appen, K; Spuler, S

1999-10-01

254

GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

2012-09-01

255

Diet composition of common ravens across the urban-wildland interface of the West Mojave Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common ravens (Corvus corax) are human-subsidized scavengers and predators in the Mojave Desert. They have increased dramatically in number and have been implicated as contributors to the decline in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations. Known patterns of increased fledging success near human developments suggested that food was the most likely resource subsidy received by ravens. Because ravens are opportunistic foragers

William B. Kristan; William I. Boarman; John J. Crayon

2004-01-01

256

Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant–plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by

Champlain Djiéto-Lordon; Alain Dejean; Marc Gibernau; Martine Hossaert-McKey; Doyle McKey

2004-01-01

257

An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV\\/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV\\/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV\\/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic

Kazhila C Chinsembu; Marius Hedimbi

2010-01-01

258

Clinical efficacy of first- and second-line treatments for HIV-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a tri-centre cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives First-line therapy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Few data exist to guide the choice of second-line therapy for patients failing or developing toxicity to first-line therapy. Methods A case note review of 1122 patients with 1188 episodes of HIV-associated PCP from three observational cohorts in Copenhagen, London and Milan, between 1989 and 2004, was conducted. Results Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (962 PCP episodes, 81%) was the most frequently used first-line therapy, followed by intravenous pentamidine (87 episodes, 7%), clindamycin/primaquine (72 episodes, 6%) and ‘other’ (atovaquone, dapsone/pyrimethamine, trimetrexate or inhaled pentamidine; 67 episodes, 6%). Rates of unchanged therapy were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole?=?79%, clindamycin/primaquine?=?65% and pentamidine?=?60% (P?HIV-associated PCP, and was associated with more treatment changes. Clindamycin/primaquine appeared superior to pentamidine as second-line therapy for PCP in patients failing or developing toxicity with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. In patients failing first-line treatment with non-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole regimens, second-line therapy should be trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara; Miller, Robert F.

2009-01-01

259

Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Home Fact Sheet Categories Internet Bookmarks on AIDS Have Questions? Printing & Downloading Fact Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here . Site ...

260

Objective evidence for the use of polylactic acid implants in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy using three-dimensional surface laser scanning and psychological assessment.  

PubMed

The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although patients often have excellent disease control with these combinations of antiretrovirals, they are at risk for the multiple toxicities associated with these drugs. Facial lipoatrophy is a particularly distressing complication of some HAART regimes. This disfigurement can lead to significant psychosocial stress, resulting in decreased treatment compliance. Polylactic acid (PLA) facial implants provide a potential method of restoring a normal appearance. One hundred consecutive patients had a course of PLA facial implants. All patients were assessed clinically and had photographs, facial surface laser scans and completed psychological questionnaires throughout the course of treatment. After a mean of 4.85 treatments per patient, there were improvements in all measures. The mean clinical scores improved from a moderate-severe grade to none-mild grade after treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) laser surface scans showed a volume increase of 2.81 cc over the treated area of the cheek. There were significant improvements in all of the psychological measures. This study shows clear objective evidence of the psychological and physical benefit of PLA implants in HIV-associated facial lipodystrophy. PMID:19036657

Ong, J; Clarke, A; White, P; Johnson, M A; Withey, S; Butler, P E M

2008-11-25

261

Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in HIV-Associated Nephropathy: a Focus on the MYH9 Nephropathy Susceptibility Gene  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in African Americans. The HIV-1 virus infects podocytes, cells integral to formation of the glomerular filtration barrier, often leading to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. HIVAN is typically a complication of late-stage HIV infection, associated with low CD4 cell counts and elevated serum HIV RNA levels. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is partially protective and has altered the natural history of HIV-associated kidney disease. Nonetheless, HIVAN remains an important public health concern among HIV-infected African Americans. Although polymorphisms in the MYH9 gene on chromosome 22 are strongly associated with HIVAN, as well as with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis (historically labeled "hypertensive nephrosclerosis"), the majority of HIV-infected patients who are genetically at risk from MYH9 do not appear to develop severe kidney disease. Therefore, we postulate that additional environmental exposures and/or inherited factors are necessary to initiate human HIVAN. Gene-environment interactions have also been proposed as necessary for initiation of HIVAN in murine models. It is important that these novel risk factors be identified, as prevention of environmental exposures and targeting of additional gene products may reduce the risk for HIVAN, even among those harboring two risk alleles in MYH9.

Nunez, Marina; Saran, Anita M.; Freedman, Barry I.

2009-01-01

262

Up-Regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in Dendritic Cells in Response to HIV Type 1 and Coinfection with Opportunistic Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Abstract The ability to trigger an innate immune response against opportunistic pathogens associated with HIV-1 infection is an important aspect of AIDS pathogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immunity against pathogens, but in HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections, the regulation of TLR expression has not been studied. In this context, we have evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells of HIV-1 patients with or without opportunistic infections. Forty-nine HIV-1-infected individuals were classified according to viral load, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and the presence or absence of opportunistic infections, and 21 healthy subjects served as controls. Increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in myeloid dendritic cells of HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections (without HAART), while TLR4 increased in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, compared to both HIV-1 without opportunistic infections and healthy subjects. Moreover, TLR2 expression was higher in patients with opportunistic infections without HAART and up-regulation of TLR expression in HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections was more pronounced in dendritic cells derived from individuals coinfected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results indicate that TLR expression in innate immune cells is up-regulated in patients with a high HIV-1 load and coinfected with opportunistic pathogens. We suggest that modulation of TLRs expression represents a mechanism that promotes HIV-1 replication and AIDS pathogenesis in patients coinfected with opportunistic pathogens.

Arteaga, Jose; Paul, Stephane; Kumar, Ajit; Latz, Eicke; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio

2011-01-01

263

Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations.  

PubMed

Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectability means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered when extracting trend information from haphazard observations. We expect our method is widely applicable for global biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. PMID:20337672

Kéry, Marc; Royle, J Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, Michael; Volet, Bernard; Häfliger, Guido; Zbinden, Niklaus

2010-10-01

264

Anthropogenic Disturbance Can Determine the Magnitude of Opportunistic Species Responses on Marine Urban Infrastructures  

PubMed Central

Background Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Methodology/Principal Findings Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies that consider the ecological features of built infrastructures and the fundamental value of controlling biodiversity in marine urban systems.

Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

2011-01-01

265

Prevalence of the VNIc genotype of Cryptococcus neoformans in non-HIV associated cryptococcosis in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

PCR fingerprinting and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was applied to determine the major molecular types of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the Republic of Korea. Of the 78 strains isolated from patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis between 1990 and 2008, 96% were C. neoformans serotype A, mating type MAT?, and molecular type VNI. The remaining 4 % were C. gattii, serotype B, mating type MAT?, and being either molecular type VGIIb or VGIII. Of the 62 strains with known HIV status, only 14 (22.6 %) were isolated from HIV positive patients and belonged to molecular type VNI. Remarkably, 93% of the C. neoformans isolates had identical PCR fingerprint profiles with the VNIc genotype that has recently been identified as the major genotype among C. neoformans strains in China. Most strains (81.8%) of the VNIc genotype were associated with non-HIV patients comparing to strains of the non-VNIc genotype (20%) (p = 0.009). Unlike the Chinese strains, a majority (60%) of the non-HIV patients infected with strains of the VNIc genotype in the Republic of Korea had serious underlying conditions with cancer and liver disease being the most common. This study affirms VNIc to be the most prevalent genotype of C. neoformans isolated from non-HIV patients with cryptococcosis.

Choi, Young Hwa; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Varma, Ashok; Sionov, Edward; Hwang, Soo Myung; Carriconde, Fabian; Meyer, Wieland; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Lee, Wee Gyo; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Kyung Won; Choi, Tae Yeal; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

2010-01-01

266

Prevalence of the VNIc genotype of Cryptococcus neoformans in non-HIV-associated cryptococcosis in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

PCR fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing were applied to determine the major molecular types of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex in the Republic of Korea. Of the 78 strains isolated from patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis between 1990 and 2008, 96% were C. neoformans serotype A, mating type MATalpha and molecular type VNI. The remaining 4% were C. gattii, serotype B, mating type MATalpha and either molecular type VGIIb or VGIII. Of the 62 strains with known HIV status, only 14 (22.6%) were isolated from HIV-positive patients and belonged to molecular type VNI. Remarkably, 93% of the C. neoformans isolates had identical PCR fingerprint profiles with the VNIc genotype that has been identified recently as the major genotype among C. neoformans strains in China. Most strains (81.8%) of the VNIc genotype were associated with non-HIV patients compared with strains of the non-VNIc genotype (20%) (P=0.009). Unlike the Chinese strains, a majority (60%) of the non-HIV patients infected with strains of the VNIc genotype in the Republic of Korea had serious underlying conditions, with cancer and liver disease being the most common. This study affirms VNIc to be the most prevalent genotype of C. neoformans isolated from non-HIV patients with cryptococcosis. PMID:20561059

Choi, Young Hwa; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Varma, Ashok; Sionov, Edward; Hwang, Soo Myung; Carriconde, Fabian; Meyer, Wieland; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Lee, Wee Gyo; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Kyung Won; Choi, Tae Yeal; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

2010-05-19

267

Analogous Telesensing Pathways Regulate Mating and Virulence in Two Opportunistic Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Telesensing, or probing of the environment by the release of chemical messengers, plays a central role in the sexual programs of microbial organisms. Sex pheromones secreted by mating cells are sensed by potential partner cells and mediate cell-to-cell contact and the subsequent exchange of genetic material. Although the mechanisms used by bacterial and fungal species to promote genetic exchange are distinct, recent studies have uncovered surprising parallels between pheromone signaling in these species. In addition, it is now apparent that pheromone signaling not only controls sexual reproduction and genetic exchange but can also activate expression of potential virulence factors in diverse opportunistic pathogens.

Bennett, Richard J.; Dunny, Gary M.

2010-01-01

268

[Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

2005-09-01

269

Association of self-reported painful symptoms with clinical and neurophysiologic signs in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history.

Robinson-Papp, J.; Morgello, S.; Vaida, F.; Fitzsimons, C.; Simpson, D.M.; Elliott, K.J.; Al-Lozi, M.; Gelman, B.B.; Clifford, D.; Marra, C.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Atkinson, J.H.; Dworkin, R.H.; Grant, I.; Ellis, R.

2010-01-01

270

Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common neoplasms diagnosed in HIV-seropositive subjects. Oral involvement is frequent and is associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the features of oral HIV-KS in patients from Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. Methods. All cases with confirmed oral HIV-KS treated at the oral medicine clinic in Ga-Rankuwa from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Differences between males and females with oral HIV-KS in relation to HIV infection status, to oral KS presentation and to survival rates were statistically analysed. Results. Twenty (54%) of the 37 patients in the study were females and 17 (46%) were males. In 21 patients (57%), the initial presentation of HIV-KS was in the mouth. Other than the fact that females presented with larger (?10?mm) oral KS lesions (P = 0.0004), there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions (P = 0.0003). Nine patients (24%) developed concomitant facial lymphoedema, and these patients had a significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count (28?cells/mm3) compared to the rest of the group (130?cells/mm3) (P = 0.01). The average CD4+ T-cell count of the patients who died (64?cells/mm3) was significantly lower (P = 0.0004), there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions (P = 0.016) at the time of oral-KS presentation than of those who survived (166 ?cells/mm3). Conclusions: In Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa where HIV-KS is prevalent, oral KS affects similarly males and females. A low CD4+ T-cell count at the time of oral HIV-KS diagnosis and the development of facial lymphoedema during the course of HIV-KS disease portends a poor prognosis.

Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Feller, Liviu

2012-01-01

271

The combined and separate effects hypoxia and cadmium exposure on the energetics of an opportunistic  

SciTech Connect

Capitella sp. I, an enrichment opportunist (Pearson and Resenberg, 1978) is a dominant inhabitant of hypoxic organic-rich marine sediments. Forbes (1988; Forbes and Lopez, in press) has demonstrated that environmental oxygen tension and the interaction between oxygen and food availability have a profound influence on the growth of this infaunal deposit feeder. Capitella sp. I, feeding on natural sediment, exhibits more rapid growth rates at high (130 mm Hg) relative to low (20 mm Hg) oxygen tensions. As part of an ongoing investigation of environmental hypoxia and heavy metal toxicity on marine benthic organisms, we investigated the effect of environmental oxygen tension on volume-loss rates of Capitella sp. I. We also examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (200 [mu]g/L) and its interaction with pO[sub 2] on volume- and carbon-loss rates. In contrast to fed worms, Capitella sp. I lost volume more rapidly at high (156 mm Hg) compared to low (12 mm Hg) oxygen tensions. Exposure to cadmium increased volume-loss rate, and the negative effect to cadmium was independent of pO[sub 2]. These results suggest that enrichment opportunists, such as Capitella, have evolved under conditions in which the availability of oxygen, rather than food, limits growth.

Forbes, V.E.; Forbes, T.L. (Odense Univ. (Denmark))

1990-01-09

272

Globally panmictic population structure in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of new diseases in many ecosystems are caused by novel pathogens, impaired host immunity, or changing environmental conditions. Identifying the source of emergent pathogens is critical for mitigating the impacts of diseases, and understanding the cause of their recent appearances. One ecosystem suffering outbreaks of disease in the past decades is coral reefs, where pathogens such as the fungus Aspergillus sydowii have caused catastrophic population declines in their hosts. Aspergillosis is one of the best-characterized coral diseases, yet the origin of this typically terrestrial fungus in marine systems remains unknown. We examined the genetic structure of a global sample of A. sydowii, including isolates from diseased corals, diseased humans, and environmental sources. Twelve microsatellite markers reveal a pattern of global panmixia among the fungal isolates. A single origin of the pathogen into marine systems seems unlikely given the lack of isolation by distance and lack of evidence for a recent bottleneck. A neighbour-joining phylogeny shows that sea fan isolates are interspersed with environmental isolates, suggesting there have been multiple introductions from land into the ocean. Overall, our results underscore that A. sydowii is a true opportunist, with a diversity of nonrelated isolates able to cause disease in corals. This study highlights the challenge in distinguishing between the role of environment in allowing opportunistic pathogens to increase and actual introductions of new pathogenic microorganisms for coral diseases. PMID:18684135

Rypien, Krystal L; Andras, Jason P; Harvell, C Drew

2008-09-01

273

Gluconobacter as well as Asaia species, newly emerging opportunistic human pathogens among acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are broadly used in industrial food processing. Among them, members of the genera Asaia, Acetobacter, and Granulibacter were recently reported to be human opportunistic pathogens. We isolated AAB from clinical samples from three patients and describe here the clinical and bacteriological features of these cases. We report for the first time (i) the isolation of a Gluconobacter sp. from human clinical samples; (ii) the successive isolation of different AAB, i.e., an Asaia sp. and two unrelated Gluconobacter spp., from a cystic fibrosis patient; and (iii) persistent colonization of the respiratory tract by a Gluconobacter sp. in this patient. We reviewed the main clinical features associated with AAB isolation identified in the 10 documented reports currently available in the literature. Albeit rare, infections as well as colonization with AAB are increasingly reported in patients with underlying chronic diseases and/or indwelling devices. Clinicians as well as medical microbiologists should be aware of these unusual opportunistic pathogens, which are difficult to detect during standard medical microbiological investigations and which are multiresistant to antimicrobial agents. Molecular methods are required for identification of genera of AAB, but the results may remain inconclusive for identification to the species level. PMID:20826638

Alauzet, Corentine; Teyssier, Corinne; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Gouby, Anne; Chiron, Raphael; Rabaud, Christian; Counil, François; Lozniewski, Alain; Marchandin, Hélène

2010-09-08

274

Gluconobacter as Well as Asaia Species, Newly Emerging Opportunistic Human Pathogens among Acetic Acid Bacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are broadly used in industrial food processing. Among them, members of the genera Asaia, Acetobacter, and Granulibacter were recently reported to be human opportunistic pathogens. We isolated AAB from clinical samples from three patients and describe here the clinical and bacteriological features of these cases. We report for the first time (i) the isolation of a Gluconobacter sp. from human clinical samples; (ii) the successive isolation of different AAB, i.e., an Asaia sp. and two unrelated Gluconobacter spp., from a cystic fibrosis patient; and (iii) persistent colonization of the respiratory tract by a Gluconobacter sp. in this patient. We reviewed the main clinical features associated with AAB isolation identified in the 10 documented reports currently available in the literature. Albeit rare, infections as well as colonization with AAB are increasingly reported in patients with underlying chronic diseases and/or indwelling devices. Clinicians as well as medical microbiologists should be aware of these unusual opportunistic pathogens, which are difficult to detect during standard medical microbiological investigations and which are multiresistant to antimicrobial agents. Molecular methods are required for identification of genera of AAB, but the results may remain inconclusive for identification to the species level.

Alauzet, Corentine; Teyssier, Corinne; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Gouby, Anne; Chiron, Raphael; Rabaud, Christian; Counil, Francois; Lozniewski, Alain; Marchandin, Helene

2010-01-01

275

Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides  

PubMed Central

Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L?1 (p<0.05) in both semi-continuous co-culture assays and in co-culture assays without nutrient supplementation. In contrast, although U. prolifera had a density effect on G. lichvoides, the differences among treatments were not significant (p>0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community.

Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

276

Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth.

Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

2010-01-01

277

Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review.  

PubMed

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine 'dip-stick') format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. PMID:22536883

Lawn, Stephen D

2012-04-26

278

Human Synaptic Plasticity Gene Expression Profile and Dendritic Spine Density Changes in HIV-Infected Human CNS Cells: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occur in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. Our current understanding of HAND emanates mainly from HIV-1 subtype B (clade B), which is prevalent in USA and Western countries. However very little information is available on neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 subtype C (clade C) that exists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Therefore, studies to identify specific neuropathogenic mechanisms associated with HAND are worth pursuing to dissect the mechanisms underlying this modulation and to prevent HAND particularly in clade B infection. In this study, we have investigated 84 key human synaptic plasticity genes differential expression profile in clade B and clade C infected primary human astrocytes by using RT2 Profile PCR Array human Synaptic Plasticity kit. Among these, 31 and 21 synaptic genes were significantly (?3 fold) down-regulated and 5 genes were significantly (?3 fold) up-regulated in clade B and clade C infected cells, respectively compared to the uninfected control astrocytes. In flow-cytometry analysis, down-regulation of postsynaptic density and dendrite spine morphology regulatory proteins (ARC, NMDAR1 and GRM1) was confirmed in both clade B and C infected primary human astrocytes and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Further, spine density and dendrite morphology changes by confocal microscopic analysis indicates significantly decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells compared to uninfected and clade C infected cells. We have also observed that, in clade B infected astrocytes, induction of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the clade C infected astrocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that down-regulation of synaptic plasticity genes, decreased dendritic spine density and induction of apoptosis in astrocytes may contribute to the severe neuropathogenesis in clade B infection.

Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Kanthikeel, Sudheesh P.; Reddy, Pichili V. B.; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

2013-01-01

279

Clinical Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes Among 65 Patients with HIV-Associated Lymphoma Treated at the University of North Carolina, 2000-2010  

PubMed Central

Abstract HIV increases risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The effect of HIV on presentation, treatment, and outcomes of NHL and HL in routine care in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) merits further characterization. We performed a retrospective analysis of HIV-infected patients with NHL and HL receiving care at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2010. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc). Sixty-five HIV-infected patients with NHL and HL were identified. Patients with non-CNS NHL and HL presented with advanced disease (85% stage III or IV) and adverse prognostic features. Patients completed 87% of planned chemotherapy cycles, and 68% of patients completed stage-appropriate therapy. Dose reduction, interruption, and/or delay occurred during more than 25% of administered cycles in 64% of patients. Infectious complications, febrile neutropenia, and myelosuppression accounted for 78% of deviations from planned cumulative dose and dose intensity. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) was associated with poor prognosis, but 2-year overall survival was 66% for all non-CNS lymphoma. Among patients surviving at least 2 years, 75% had CD4 count >200 cells/?l and 79% had HIV viral load <400 copies/ml at last follow-up. Despite advanced disease and difficulty tolerating chemotherapy with optimal cumulative dose and dose intensity, most patients with non-CNS HIV-associated lymphoma survived more than 2 years after diagnosis, the majority with suppressed HIV RNA.

Martin, Kelly E.; Richards, Kristy L.; Eron, Joseph J.

2012-01-01

280

Identification of an Abbreviated Test Battery for Detection of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in an Early-Managed HIV-Infected Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART), and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool. Methods Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test), neuropsychological battery (?120 min); neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ?0.5). Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to

Moore, David J.; Roediger, Mollie J. P.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Hale, Braden; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Agan, Brian K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

2012-01-01

281

A parallel genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling of the frontal cortex of HIV patients with and without HIV-associated dementia shows the role of axon guidance and downstream pathways in HIV-mediated neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy. Results A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly occurs through the interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways. These data provide an excellent avenue for the development of new generation of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic intervention strategies for HIV-associated neurodegeneration.

2012-01-01

282

[The etiology of suppurative-inflammatory diseases caused by opportunistic microorganisms at the noninfectious disease clinic].  

PubMed

5,853 strains of opportunistic microorganisms have been isolated from hospitalized patients at a polyclinic. The following microorganisms have been found to cause purulent inflammatory diseases most frequently: Escherichia coli (21.6%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (15.93%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.54%), microorganisms of the genus Klebsiella (11.86%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.91%) and microorganisms of the genus Proteus (7.5%). In cases of mixed infections Gram-negative bacteria prevail. The analysis of microbial species contained in the pathological excreta of patients in different departments has shown the prevalence of staphylococci in general surgery patients, E. coli in peritonitis and gynecological diseases, P. aeruginosa in patients with burns, Klebsiella, Proteus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa in patients with multiple traumatic lesions. PMID:2741604

Minukhin, V V; Kravtsova, V I; Tsyganenko, A Ia

1989-03-01

283

A case of fatal idiopathic enteritis and multiple opportunistic infections associated with dendritic cell deficiencies.  

PubMed

We present a case of an adult patient with new-onset severe, idiopathic, protein-wasting enteropathy, in whom an extensive immunological workup was performed. We found a lack of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the blood and bowel, as well as elevated circulating TGF-beta levels and decreased numbers of circulating FOXP3+ regulatory T cells with diminished CTLA4 expression. She failed to respond to glucocorticoids and infliximab, and instead developed a constellation of opportunistic infections, including CMV ileitis, Mucormycosis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and ultimately passed away. While the cause of her lack of DCs is unknown, this data suggests a key role for these cells in both regulating mucosal immunity and promoting effective cell-mediated immunity against pathogens in humans. PMID:23539396

Lord, James D; Chen, Janice; Kozarek, Richard A

2013-03-01

284

A Restless Bandit Marginal Productivity Index for Opportunistic Spectrum Access with Sensing Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a tractable priority-index multichannel sensing policy in a discrete-time model of opportunistic spectrum access for cognitive radio networks, which aims to be close to optimal under a discounted or average throughput minus sensing cost performance objective. The policy dynamically allocates transmission opportunities arising in a collection of asymmetric channels licensed to primary users to a set of secondary unlicensed users. Channel availabilities follow independent binary-state Markov dynamics, and are partially observed via error-prone spectrum sensors. The paper formulates the model as a multiarmed restless bandit problem with real-state projects, and then deploys Whittle's (1988) marginal productivity (MP) index policy. The challenging issues of indexability (existence of the index) and efficient index evaluation are resolved by deploying recent results of the author for real-state restless bandit indexation. Preliminary computational results are reported showing that the MP policy can achieve substantial gains over the myopic and random policies.

Niño-Mora, José

285

Animal-associated opportunistic infections among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

A number of animal-associated infections occur in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those due to Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, Salmonella, Campylo-bacter, Giardia, Rhodococcus equi, Rochalimaea, and Listeria monocytogenes. Most of these infections, with the exception of those due to Rochalimaea, appear to be acquired by the immunosuppressed individual from sources other than exposure to animals. Drs. Glaser and colleagues review our current understanding of the role of exposure to animals, especially pets, in the natural history of these opportunistic infections. They suggest that the risk of zoonotic transmission is small and offer practical suggestions designed to reduce this low risk. They conclude that the benefits of animal companionship outweigh the risks to patients and that prohibition of pet ownership by individuals infected with HIV is not warranted. PMID:8054433

Glaser, C A; Angulo, F J; Rooney, J A

1994-01-01

286

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor ?B (NF?B). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated increased binding of NF?B to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) blocker). PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte activation by PDGF-BB exaggerates monocyte recruitment into the brain via MCP-1 and underscores the critical role astrocytes play in HAND.

2012-01-01

287

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor ?B (NF?B). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated increased binding of NF?B to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) blocker). PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte activation by PDGF-BB exaggerates monocyte recruitment into the brain via MCP-1 and underscores the critical role astrocytes play in HAND. PMID:23198981

Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Yao, Honghong; Hu, Guoku; Buch, Shilpa

2012-12-01

288

Opportunistic actinomycosis in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws in patients affected by head and neck cancer: incidence and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinomycosis is occasionally an opportunistic infection occurrence in patients with osteoradionecrosis (ORN). A retrospective study (1992–97) of 50 patients with ORN of the jaws was done to evaluate the incidence and its clinical significance in the management of ORN. Actinomycosis was diagnosed in 12% of ORN cases. In 36 of the 50 patients including five cases of actinomycosis, the ORN

M. M Curi; L. L Dib; L. P Kowalski; G Landman; C Mangini

2000-01-01

289

A novel fluorescence imaging technique combining deconvolution microscopy and spectral analysis for quantitative detection of opportunistic pathogens  

SciTech Connect

A novel fluorescence imaging technique based on deconvolution microscopy and spectral analysis is presented here as an alternative to confocal laser scanning microscopy. It allowed rapid, specific and simultaneous identification of five major opportunistic pathogens, relevant for public health, in suspension and provided quantitative results.

Le Puil, Michael [Florida Gulf Coast University; Biggerstaff, John P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weidow, B. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Naser, S. [University of Central Florida; White, D.C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alberte, R. [Florida Gulf Coast University

2006-01-01

290

Balamuthia mandrillaris, Free-Living Ameba and Opportunistic Agent of Encephalitis, Is a Potential Host for Legionella pneumophila Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba and an opportunistic agent of granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other mammalian species. Other free-living amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella, can provide a niche for intracellular survival of bacteria, including the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila. Infection of amebas by L. pneumophila enhances the bacterial infectivity for mamma- lian cells and

Winlet Sheba Shadrach; Kerstin Rydzewski; Ulrike Laube; Gudrun Holland; Muhsin Ozel; Albrecht F. Kiderlen; Antje Flieger

2005-01-01

291

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DISEASE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH HIV AND AIDS Fungal and Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T : Since the advent of highly active anti- re t roviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of specific fungal and parasitic opportunistic infections as observed in HIVdisease has been in decline. However, in many parts of the world, and in areas where access to HAART is limited, these specific opport u n i

Jeffrey MARTINEZ; Zelalem TEMESGEN

292

Opportunistic breast cancer early detection in Tyrol, Austria 1996-2004 Is a mammography-screening program necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Evaluate the need for a mammography-screening program for Tyrol, as recently proposed in an ¨ OBIG feasibility study commissioned by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Women, in view of the already existing organized opportunistic screening. Materials and methods: This author has examined the state of breast cancer early detection and diagnosis in Tyrol. A comprehensive review of all

Thomas E. Frede

2005-01-01

293

CD4+ T cell-independent DNA vaccination against opportunistic infections.  

PubMed

Depletion or dysfunction of CD4+ T lymphocytes profoundly perturbs host defenses and impairs immunogenicity of vaccines. Here, we show that plasmid DNA vaccination with a cassette encoding antigen (OVA) and a second cassette encoding full-length CD40 ligand (CD40L), a molecule expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and critical for T cell helper function, can elicit significant titers of antigen-specific immunoglobulins in serum and Tc1 CD8+ T cell responses in CD4-deficient mice. To investigate whether this approach leads to CD4+ T cell-independent vaccine protection against a prototypic AIDS-defining infection, Pneumocystis (PC) pneumonia, we used serum from mice vaccinated with PC-pulsed, CD40L-modified DCs to immunoprecipitate PC antigens. Kexin, a PC antigen identified by this approach, was used in a similar DNA vaccine strategy with or without CD40L. CD4-deficient mice receiving DNA vaccines encoding Kexin and CD40L showed significantly higher anti-PC IgG titers as well as opsonic killing of PC compared with those vaccinated with Kexin alone. Moreover, CD4-depleted, Kexin-vaccinated mice showed a 3-log greater protection in a PC challenge model. Adoptive transfer of CD19+ cells or IgG to SCID mice conferred protection against PC challenge, indicating a role of humoral immunity in the protection. The results of these studies show promise for CD4-independent vaccination against HIV-related or other opportunistic pathogens. PMID:16308571

Zheng, Mingquan; Ramsay, Alistair J; Robichaux, Myles B; Norris, Karen A; Kliment, Corrine; Crowe, Christopher; Rapaka, Rekha R; Steele, Chad; McAllister, Florencia; Shellito, Judd E; Marrero, Luis; Schwarzenberger, Paul; Zhong, Qiu; Kolls, Jay K

2005-11-23

294

Optimal Opportunistic Scheduling and Adaptive Modulation Policies in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks with Network Coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an opportunistic scheduling and adaptive modulation scheme for a wireless network with an XOR network coding scheme, which results in a cross-layer problem for MAC and physical layers. A similar problem was studied in [2] which considered an idealized system with the Shannon capacity. They showed that it may not be optimal for a relay node to encode all possible native packets and there exists the optimal subset of native packets that depends on the channel condition at the receiver node of each native packet. In this paper, we consider a more realistic model than that of [2] with a practical modulation scheme such as M-PSK. We show that the optimal policy is to encode native as many native packets as possible in the network coding group into a coded packet regardless of the channel condition at the receiver node for each native packet, which is a different conclusion from that of [2]. However, we show that adaptive modulation, in which the constellation size of a coded packet is adjusted based on the channel condition of each receiver node, provides a higher throughput than fixed modulation, in which its constellation size is always fixed regardless of the channel condition at each receiver node.

Gong, Seong-Lyong; Kim, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jang-Won

295

A multigene family related to chitin synthase genes of yeast in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Two approaches were used to isolate fragments of chitin synthase genes from the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Firstly, regions of amino acid conservation in chitin synthases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to design degenerate primers for amplification of portions of related genes, and secondly, a segment of the S. cerevisiae CSD2 gene was used to screen an A. fumigatus lambda genomic DNA library. the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach led to the identification of five different genes, designated chsA, chsB, chsC, chsD and chsE. chsA, chsB, and chsC fall into Classes I, II and III of the 'zymogen type' chitin synthases, respectively. The chsD fragment has approximately 35% amino acid sequence identity to both the zymogen type genes and the non-zymogen type CSD2 gene. chsF appears to be a homologue of CSD2, being 80% identical to CSD2 over 100 amino acids. An unexpected finding was the isolation by heterologous hybridization of another gene (chsE), which also has strong sequence similarity (54% identity at the amino acid level over the same region as chsF) to CSD2. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was used to show that each gene is expressed during hyphal growth in submerged cultures. PMID:7854320

Mellado, E; Aufauvre-Brown, A; Specht, C A; Robbins, P W; Holden, D W

1995-02-01

296

What factors allow opportunistic nocturnal activity in a primarily diurnal desert lizard (Ctenotus pantherinus)?  

PubMed

Most animals show strong 24-h patterns of activity, usually being diurnal or nocturnal. An Australian desert skink, Ctenotus pantherinus, is unusual in being active day and night when all other Ctenotus species are diurnal, making it an excellent model to explore factors that promote night-time activity. We tested whether C. pantherinus 1) selects cooler temperatures than diurnal skinks, 2) shows no difference in mean selected temperature between day and night, 3) has the same metabolic rate during the day and night, 4) selects termites over other prey types, 5) can detect prey using only auditory or olfactory senses, and 6) experiences lower predation risk at night than during the day. C.pantherinus shows many features of diurnal skink species, with a high mean selected temperature (36.1+/-1.6 degrees C) that is the same night and day, and a 32% lower metabolic rate at night than during the day. C.pantherinus selects termite prey over other insects and can detect prey using only auditory and olfactory senses; models of C. pantherinus experienced less predation at night than during the day. Preference for termites and reduced predation risk at night favour opportunistic nocturnal activity in this predominantly diurnal lizard and may contribute to its wide geographic distribution in arid Australia. PMID:20170741

Gordon, Chris E; Dickman, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

2010-02-17

297

Opportunistic Scheduling for Hybrid Network Coding and Cooperative Relaying Techniques in Wireless Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the performance of next generation wireless networks, cooperative relaying (CoR) and network cod- ing (NC) are promising techniques. The number of time slots required for NC in bidirectional transmission is less than that required for CoR, and hence, NC can achieve higher throughput performance than CoR. However, the disadvantage of NC is that asymmetric traffic ratio conditions might cause a significant decrease in the bidirectional throughput. In contrast, CoR is robust to asymmetric traffic ratio conditions. In this paper, in order to improve the throughput of NC even under asymmetric traffic ratio conditions, we propose an opportunistic scheduling scheme for hybrid NC and CoR. In the proposed scheduling scheme, the transmission protocol with best throughput performance can be adaptively selected based on instantaneous channel state information. Computer simulation results reveal that the proposed scheduling scheme not only achieve higher throughput than the conventional scheduling scheme but is also robust against asymmetric traffic ratio conditions. By adjusting the scheduler's parameter, the proposed scheduling scheme can provide a tradeoff between the throughput and the traffic ratio. Moreover, in certain cases, maximizing the throughput of NC and guaranteeing the offered traffic ratio can be achieved at the same time.

Shan, Lin; Murata, Hidekazu; Aïssa, Sonia; Yoshida, Susumu

298

Clinico-microbiological study of opportunistic infection in HIV seropositive patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other pathogens in 100 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive patients. Settings: This study was carried out on randomly selected 100 HIV seropositive patients from S. S. G. Hospital during the period from Jan 2006 to Jan 2007. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples, stool samples and oral swabs were collected from all the patients and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from symptomatic patients and processed as per the standard protocol. Sputum samples were examined by microscopy and cultured for bacterial respiratory pathogens. Stool samples were concentrated and examined by microscopy for enteric parasites. Oral swabs and CSF were also examined microscopically and cultured for fungal pathogens. CSF was also examined for bacterial pathogens. Results: A total of 101 pathogens were detected in 60 patients. More than one pathogen was observed in 30 patients. Candida was the commonest isolate (32.67%), followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (22.71%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (19.8%). Conclusions: Since opportunistic infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in HIV seropositive patients, an early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to tackle them. The type of pathogens infecting HIV patients varies from region to region, and therefore such patients should be constantly screened for these pathogens.

Patel, Sangeeta D.; Kinariwala, Dipa M.; Javadekar, Tanuja B.

2011-01-01

299

Gingival Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Responses to Commensal and Opportunistic Oral Microbial Species? †  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional profiling and ontology tools were utilized to define the biological pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by coculture with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii and the opportunistic commensal Fusobacterium nucleatum. Overall, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii perturbed the gingival epithelial cell transcriptome much less significantly than the oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans perturbed the transcriptome, indicating that there was a greater degree of host adaptation by the commensal species (M. Handfield, J. J. Mans, G. Zheng, M. C. Lopez, S. Mao, A. Progulske-Fox, G. Narasimhan, H. V. Baker, and R. J. Lamont, Cell. Microbiol. 7:811-823, 2005). The biological pathways significantly impacted by F. nucleatum and S. gordonii included the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Differential regulation of GADD45 and DUSP4, key components of the MAPK pathway, was confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting. Modulation of the MAPK pathway is likely to affect host cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, both the MAPK and Toll-like receptor pathways ultimately converge on cytokine gene expression. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 demonstrated that F. nucleatum induced production of these cytokines, whereas S. gordonii inhibited secretion from the epithelial cells. Stimulation of secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from epithelial cells may reflect the invasive phenotype of F. nucleatum and contribute to the greater pathogenic potential of F. nucleatum than of S. gordonii.

Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Mans, Jeffrey J.; Mao, Song; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Handfield, Martin; Lamont, Richard J.

2007-01-01

300

Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis.

Machouart, M.; Larche, J.; Burton, K.; Collomb, J.; Maurer, P.; Cintrat, A.; Biava, M. F.; Greciano, S.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gerard, A.; Fortier, B.

2006-01-01

301

Identification and characterization of type II toxin-antitoxin systems in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections. Due to the ability to persist in the clinical environment and rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones have spread in medical units in many countries in the last decade. The molecular basis of the emergence and spread of the successful multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones is not understood. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are abundant genetic loci harbored in low-copy-number plasmids and chromosomes and have been proposed to fulfill numerous functions, from plasmid stabilization to regulation of growth and death under stress conditions. In this study, we have performed a thorough bioinformatic search for type II TA systems in genomes of A. baumannii strains and estimated at least 15 possible TA gene pairs, 5 of which have been shown to be functional TA systems. Three of them were orthologs of bacterial and archaeal RelB/RelE, HicA/HicB, and HigB/HigA systems, and others were the unique SplT/SplA and CheT/CheA TA modules. The toxins of all five TA systems, when expressed in Escherichia coli, inhibited translation, causing RNA degradation. The HigB/HigA and SplT/SplA TA pairs of plasmid origin were highly prevalent in clinical multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates from Lithuanian hospitals belonging to the international clonal lineages known as European clone I (ECI) and ECII. PMID:23667234

Jurenaite, Milda; Markuckas, Arvydas; Suziedeliene, Edita

2013-05-10

302

Studies of Opinion Stability for Small Dynamic Networks with Opportunistic Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous examples of societies with extremely stable mix of contrasting opinions. We argue that this stability is a result of an interplay between society network topology adjustment and opinion changing processes. To support this position we present a computer model of opinion formation based on some novel assumptions, designed to bring the model closer to social reality. In our model, the agents, in addition to changing their opinions due to influence of the rest of society and external propaganda, have the ability to modify their social network, forming links with agents sharing the same opinions and cutting the links with those they disagree with. To improve the model further we divide the agents into "fanatics" and "opportunists," depending on how easy it is to change their opinions. The simulations show significant differences compared to traditional models, where network links are static. In particular, for the dynamical model where inter-agent links are adjustable, the final network structure and opinion distribution is shown to resemble real world observations, such as social structures and persistence of minority groups even when most of the society is against them and the propaganda is strong.

Sobkowicz, Pawel

303

Chlamydial infection: an accurate model for opportunistic screening in general practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women in general practice and to assess risk factors associated with infection. Methods: The study was carried out in 2001–2 in different general practices in Antwerp, Belgium. Sexually active women, visiting their general practitioner for routine gynaecological care (mostly pill prescription or PAP smear), were offered opportunistic screening for chlamydia. 787 participants aged 15–40 delivered a self taken vaginal sample and filled in a questionnaire which included questions on demographic variables, urogenital symptoms, sexual history, and sexual behaviour. Samples were tested for presence of chlamydial DNA by means of a ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay, and positives were confirmed by two other amplification assays (PCR and SDA). Results: Overall prevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.5 to 6.5). Determinants of infection in logistic regression analysis were age 18–27 years, >1 partner in the past year, no use of contraceptives, frequent postcoital bleeding, having a symptomatic partner, painful micturition, and living in the inner city. The area under the ROC curve in the full model was 0.88. Selective screening based on a combination of the five first determinants detects 92.3% of infections in this sample; 37.5% of the population would need to be screened. Conclusion: Targeted screening for chlamydial infection is possible, even in a heterogeneous group of general practice attendants. Implementing this model would require considerable communication skills from healthcare providers.

Verhoeven, V; Avonts, D; Meheus, A; Goossens, H; Ieven, M; Chapelle, S; Lammens, C; Van Royen, P

2003-01-01

304

Estimating spatial and temporal variability of juvenile North Sea plaice from opportunistic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys are often insufficient to accurately capture the distribution of a species in both space and time. Complementary to the use of research vessel data, platforms of opportunity can be a powerful strategy to monitor species distributions at high temporal and spatial resolution.In this study we use data from commercial fishing vessels, collecting - under the European Union data collection framework - biological data on all species that are caught and subsequently discarded. Using such discard data in combination with a systematic trawl survey, we model the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the central North Sea. There is a clear age-dependent difference between the commercial fishing vessel data and the research vessel data, with age 1 being the dominating age in the survey catches, while age 2 is the dominating age in the discards. The results show how immature plaice, slowly migrate from the nursery areas, westwards into the deeper regions of the North Sea. Also, the results show that during the study period, juvenile plaice gradually moved to deeper waters at an earlier age. Finally we discuss how the framework can be applied to similar opportunistic data to monitor seasonal and inter-annual migration of marine organisms, and to quantify how they may be influenced by biotic and abiotic gradients, such as temperature.

Poos, J. J.; Aarts, G.; Vandemaele, S.; Willems, W.; Bolle, L. J.; van Helmond, A. T. M.

2013-01-01

305

Insufficient recovery of thymopoiesis predicts for opportunistic infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery of thymopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered pivotal for full immune competence. However, it is still unclear to what extent insufficient recovery of thymopoiesis predicts for subsequent opportunistic infections and non-relapse mortality. Design and Methods A detailed survey of all post-engraftment infectious complications, non-relapse mortality and overall survival during long-term follow-up was performed in 83 recipients of allogeneic stem cell grafts after myeloablative conditioning. Recovery of thymopoiesis was assessed using analysis of signal joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles. The impact of recovery of thymopoiesis at 2, 6, 9 and 12 months post-transplantation on clinical outcome beyond those time points was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results The cumulative incidence of severe infections at 12 months after transplantation was 66% with a median number of 1.64 severe infectious episodes per patient. Patients in whom thymopoiesis did not recover were at significantly higher risk of severe infections according to multivariable analysis. Hazard ratios indicated 3- and 9-fold increases in severe infections at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Impaired recovery of thymopoiesis also translated into a higher risk of non-relapse mortality and outweighed pre-transplant risk factors including age, donor type, and disease risk-status. Conclusions These results indicate that patients who fail to recover thymopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at very high risk of severe infections and adverse clinical outcome.

Wils, Evert-Jan; van der Holt, Bronno; Broers, Annoek E.C.; Posthumus-van Sluijs, Sandra J.; Gratama, Jan-Willem; Braakman, Eric; Cornelissen, Jan J.

2011-01-01

306

Opportunistic out-crossing in Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae), a predominantly self-fertilizing native tobacco  

PubMed Central

Background Although Nicotiana attenuata is entirely self-compatible, chemical and other floral traits suggest selection for the maintenance of advertisement for moth pollinators. Results Experimental exclusions of pollinators from plants with emasculated flowers in natural populations in southern Utah during an outbreak of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata revealed that 24% of the seed set could be attributed to insect pollination, and eliminated wind pollination and apomixis as contributing to seed set. Hence these moths can mediate gene flow when self-pollen is unavailable. To quantify gene flow when self-pollen is available, plants were transformed with two marker genes: hygromycin-B resistance and ?-glucuronidase. The utility of these genetic markers to measure gene flow between plants was examined by mixing pollen from plants homozygous for both genes with self-pollen in different ratios and hand-pollinating emasculated flowers of plants growing in a natural population. The proportion of transformed seeds was positively correlated with the amount of transformed pollen applied to stigmas. In glasshouse experiments with the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and experimental arrays of transformed and wild-type plants, pollination mediated by moths accounted for 2.5% of the seed set. Conclusions Even though moth pollination is rare and highly variable for this largely selfing plant, N. attenuata opportunistically employs a mixed-mating system.

Sime, Karen R; Baldwin, Ian T

2003-01-01

307

Characterization of acyl-phosphatidylinositol from the opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium amycolatum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize a new lipid detected in the opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium amycolatum. It was identified as acyl-phosphatidylinositol (acyl-PI), and revealed as a mixture of homologues compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with pseudomolecular ions, (M-H)-, observed at 1099 (the major one) 1113, and 1127. Acyl-PI exclusively contained octadecenoyl on the inositol moiety (as 3-O-acyl), an unsaturated fatty acyl (mostly octadecenoyl) at sn-1 position of the glycerol and a saturated fatty acyl (mainly hexadecanoyl) at the sn-2 position. Acyl-PI constitutes a new natural substance and seems to be unique among the phospholipids of C. amycolatum. Other more complex molecules, previously undetected, and assigned in this work to several acyl forms of phosphatidylinositol trimannosides, lacked octadecenoyl in their polar heads. The present study reveals the existence of acyl-PI in C. amycolatum as rather unexpected finding and, additionally, gives evidence for the ability of this species to synthesize a great variety of inositol-containing phospholipids. PMID:15589223

Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Yagüe, Genoveva; Segovia, Manuel

2005-01-01

308

Global regulation of gene expression by OxyR in an important human opportunistic pathogen.  

PubMed

Most bacteria control oxidative stress through the H(2)O(2)-responsive transactivator OxyR, a member of the LTTR family (LysR Type Transcriptional Regulators), which activates the expression of defensive genes such as those encoding catalases, alkyl hydroperoxide reductases and superoxide dismutases. In the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, OxyR positively regulates expression of the oxidative stress response genes katA, katB, ahpB and ahpCF. To identify additional targets of OxyR in P. aeruginosa PAO1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with whole genome tiling array analyses (ChIP-chip). We detected 56 genes including all the previously identified defensive genes and a battery of novel direct targets of OxyR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) for selected newly identified targets indicated that ?70% of those were bound by purified oxidized OxyR and their regulation was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, a thioredoxin system was identified to enzymatically reduce OxyR under oxidative stress. Functional classification analysis showed that OxyR controls a core regulon of oxidative stress defensive genes, and other genes involved in regulation of iron homeostasis (pvdS), quorum-sensing (rsaL), protein synthesis (rpsL) and oxidative phosphorylation (cyoA and snr1). Collectively, our results indicate that OxyR is involved in oxidative stress defense and regulates other aspects of cellular metabolism as well. PMID:22275523

Wei, Qing; Minh, Phu Nguyen Le; Dötsch, Andreas; Hildebrand, Falk; Panmanee, Warunya; Elfarash, Ameer; Schulz, Sebastian; Plaisance, Stéphane; Charlier, Daniel; Hassett, Daniel; Häussler, Susanne; Cornelis, Pierre

2012-01-24

309

Functional Characterization of the RNA Chaperone Hfq in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia.

Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Forstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo

2012-01-01

310

Analysis of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides expressed by the opportunistic mycopathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic glycosphingolipid components were ex- tracted from the opportunistic mycopathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and identified as inositol phosphorylceramide and glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs). Using nuclear magnetic resonance sppectroscopy, mass spec- trometry, and other techniques, the structures of six major components were elucidated as Ins-P-Cer (Af-0), Manp (a1Y3)Manp(a1Y2)Ins-P-Cer (Af-2), Manp(a1Y2)Manp (a1Y3)Manp(a1Y2)Ins-P-Cer (Af-3a), Manp (a1Y3) (Galf(b1Y6))Manp(a1Y2)-Ins-P-Cer (Af-3b), Manp (a1Y2)-Manp(a1Y3)(Galf(b1Y6))Manp(a1Y2)Ins-P-Cer (Af-4), and Manp(a1Y3)Manp(a1Y6)GlcpN(a1Y2)Ins-P- Cer (Af-3c)

Marcos S. Toledo; Steven B. Levery; Beau Bennion; Luciana L. Guimaraes; Sherry A. Castle; Rebecca Lindsey; Michelle Momany; Anita H. Straus; Helio K. Takahashi

2007-01-01

311

Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia, Osteopetrosis, Lymphedema, and Immunodeficiency in an Infant with Multiple Opportunistic Infections.  

PubMed

Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He subsequently developed gram-negative sepsis and multiple opportunistic infections including high-level cytomegalovirus viremia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The infant was noted to have mildly xerotic skin, fine sparse hair, and periorbital wrinkling, all features suggestive of ectodermal dysplasia. Skeletal imaging showed findings consistent with osteopetrosis, and immunologic investigation revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and mixed T- and B-cell dysfunction. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB) essential modulator (NEMO) gene, confirming the diagnosis of OL-HED-ID. Mutations in the NEMO gene have been reported in association with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), OL-HED-ID, and incontinentia pigmenti. In this case, we report a novel mutation in the NEMO gene associated with OL-HED-ID. This article highlights the dermatologic manifestations of a rare disorder, OL-HED-ID, and underscores the importance of early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent life-threatening infections. PMID:23405946

Carlberg, Valerie M; Lofgren, Sabra M; Mann, Julianne A; Austin, Jared P; Nolt, Dawn; Shereck, Evan B; Davila-Saldana, Blachy; Zonana, Jonathan; Krol, Alfons L

2013-02-14

312

Nutritional limitation and resistance to opportunistic Aspergillus parasites in honey bee larvae.  

PubMed

Honey bees are threatened by land use changes which reduce the availability and diversity of pollen and nectar resources. There is concern that poor nutrition may be involved in recent population declines, either directly or due to indirect effects on immunocompetence. The larval stage is likely to be the most vulnerable to a poor diet, but the effects of larval nutrition on the disease susceptibility of bees are not well known. In this study we used laboratory-reared honey bee larvae to investigate the effects of diet quality on disease susceptibility to the opportunistic fungal parasites Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus phoenicis and A. fumigatus. Larvae fed on a nutritionally poor diet were found to be significantly more susceptible to A. fumigatus. Larval resistance to A. fumigatus was enhanced by feeding with a diet supplemented with either dandelion or polyfloral pollens. This indicates that dandelion and polyfloral pollens contain elements that enhance resistance to this fungal disease, illustrating an interaction between nutrition and parasitism and emphasising the benefit of diverse floral resources in the environment to maintain honey bee health. PMID:22750047

Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

2012-06-26

313

Multisource fusion for opportunistic detection and probabilistic assessment of homeland terrorist threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian Network Fragments (BNFrags) provide a practical, computational methodology to encode a distributed library of computer-usable knowledge patterns for automated reasoning about aspects of homeland defense against terrorism. Multi-Entity Bayesian Networks provide a means of encoding repeated patterns and relationships in the form of BNFrags having variables that range over entities of a given type. New evidence either is matched to existing entities or triggers new entities to be hypothesized. BNFrag instances are created by replacing the variables by the names of entities in the situation. These BNFrags are combined to form situation-specific Bayesian networks (SSNs). We propose the use of MEBNs as the inferential cornerstone of a cumulative national, distributed knowledge base (KB) for homeland defense. In this paper we illustrate the use of MEBNs for these purposes with an example concerning a multi-city coordinated biowarfare attack. We show how current trends in the use of on-line reporting by health care and related facilities has the potential to enable opportunistic detection of and response to low probability, high consequence events for which it would otherwise be a practical impossibility to set up specifically directed monitoring capabilities.

Laskey, Kathryn B.; Levitt, Tod S.

2002-08-01

314

[The sensitivity to antibiotics and disinfecting substances of opportunistic microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity of patients with orthodontic pathology].  

PubMed

Antibiotic and disinfectant sensitivities of opportunistic bacteria, isolated from the oral cavity of normal subjects and orthodontic patients, were under study. The findings evidence that oral microflora of patients with orthodontic conditions is more rich in microorganisms that can induce pyoinflammatory diseases than that in health. Among the isolated opportunistic bacteria strains were found that were resistant to both: antibiotics and disinfectants. Antibiotic sensitivities of the microorganisms isolated from normal subjects and patients were found virtually the same, whereas the strains isolated from the patients have shown a higher sensitivity to disinfectants. The authors emphasize that effective prevention of pyoseptic complications in the maxillofacial area involves not only bacteriologic monitoring and studies of the microorganism sensitivity to antibiotics, but analysis of the bacterial sensitivity to disinfectants as well. PMID:1803655

Balakliets, N I; Dnestranskaia, L I; Balakliets, T I; Tsyganenko, A Ia; Dnestranski?, I P; Napadov, M A

315

Sugar preferences and digestive efficiency in an opportunistic avian nectarivore, the Dark-capped Bulbul Pycnonotus tricolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been recognized that flowers pollinated by generalist opportunistic nectarivores tend to have different nectar\\u000a properties to those pollinated by specialist nectarivores (including both hummingbirds and specialist passerines). While renewed\\u000a interest in specialist avian nectarivore sugar preferences and digestive physiology has helped explain the concentrated sucrose-dominated\\u000a nectar of plants they feed on, there has been little progress in

Mark Brown; Colleen T. Downs; Steven D. Johnson

2010-01-01

316

Potential roles for GNIH and GNRH-II in reproductive axis regulation of an opportunistically breeding songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production

Nicole Perfito; Richard Zann; Takayoshi Ubuka; George Bentley; Michaela Hau

2011-01-01

317

ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

318

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts.  

PubMed

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances. PMID:22665442

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J; Frank, Daniel N; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Knight, Rob

2012-06-04

319

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts  

PubMed Central

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances.

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

2012-01-01

320

An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia  

PubMed Central

Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action.

2010-01-01

321

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

322

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

323

Effectiveness of gastric cancer screening programs in South Korea: Organized vs opportunistic models  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the outcome and effectiveness of two screening programs, National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opportunistic screening (OS), for the detection of gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 45??654 subjects underwent upper endoscopy as part of the NCSP or OS at the Chung-Ang University Healthcare System in Korea between January 2007 and December 2010. The study population was comprised of subjects over the age of 40 years. More specifically, subjects who took part in the NCSP were Medicaid recipients and beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Corporation. Still photographs from the endoscopies diagnosed as gastric cancer were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists. RESULTS: The mean age of the screened subjects was 55 years for men and 54 years for women. A total of 126 cases (0.28%) of gastric cancer were detected from both screening programs; 100 cases (0.3%) from NCSP and in 26 cases (0.2%) from OS. The proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) detected in NCSP was higher than that in OS (74.0% vs 53.8%, P = 0.046). Among the 34??416 screenees in NCSP, 6585 (19.1%) underwent upper endoscopy every other year as scheduled. Among the 11??238 screenees in OS, 3050 (27.1%) underwent upper endoscopy at least once every two years during the study period. The detection rate of gastric cancer was found to be significantly higher during irregular follow-up than during regular follow-up in both screening programs (0.3% vs 0.2%, P = 0.036). A higher incidence of EGC than advanced gastric cancer was observed during regular follow-up compared with irregular follow-up. CONCLUSION: Compliance to the screening program is more important than the type of screening system used.

Kim, Beom Jin; Heo, Chae; Kim, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Jae Yeol; Kim, Jae Gyu

2013-01-01

324

Using opportunistic green macroalgae as indicators of nitrogen supply and sources to estuaries.  

PubMed

Nutrient inputs to estuaries are increasing worldwide, and anthropogenic contributions are increasingly complex and difficult to distinguish. Measurement of integrated effects of salinity and nutrient changes simultaneously can help ascertain whether N sources of similar magnitude and stable isotope (sigma15N) signatures are river dominated. We used Enteromorpha spp., an opportunistic macroalga, to obtain integrated measures of salinity, nutrient supply, and nutrient source in estuaries. We outplanted cultured algae in the field along spatial gradients within three southern California estuaries for 24 hours in wet and dry seasons. Tissue was analyzed for potassium (K+) to measure osmoregulatory changes, total nitrogen to examine changes in nutrient supply, and sigma15N to assess nutrient sources. Discrete measures of water salinity correlated with tissue K+ content; however, there was significant variability in the relationship, suggesting that the algae were subject to considerable variation in salinity over a tidal cycle. Tissue total N was not always related to snapshot measures of water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), suggesting that integrated measures may be better at capturing the temporal and spatial complexity of nutrient availability. The combination of tissue K+, total N, and sigma15N measures revealed that inflowing rivers delivered N from watershed sources to Mugu Lagoon and Carpinteria Salt Marsh, while both the inflowing river and a mid estuary source were important sources of high sigma15N N in Upper Newport Bay. These experiments revealed complex patterns of supply and sources of N and demonstrate the usefulness of macroalgal indicators over water sampling to detect these patterns. PMID:16937807

Cohen, Risa A; Fong, Peggy

2006-08-01

325

Symptoms of Fern Distortion Syndrome Resulting from Inoculation with Opportunistic Endophytic Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed Central

Background Fern Distortion Syndrome (FDS) is a serious disease of Leatherleaf fern (Rumohra adiantiformis). The main symptom of FDS is distortion of fronds, making them unmarketable. Additional symptoms include stunting, irregular sporulation, decreased rhizome diameter, and internal discoloration of rhizomes. We previously reported an association of symptoms with increased endophytic rhizome populations of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs). The aim of the current study was to determine if FPs from ferns in Costa Rica with typical FDS symptoms would recreate symptoms of FDS. Methodology and Findings Greenhouse tests were conducted over a 29-month period. Micro-propagated ferns derived from tissue culture were first grown one year to produce rhizomes. Then, using an 8×9 randomized complete block experimental design, 8 replicate rhizomes were inoculated by dipping into 9 different treatments before planting. Treatments included water without bacteria (control), and four different groups of FPs, each at a two concentrations. The four groups of FPs included one group from healthy ferns without symptoms (another control treatment), two groups isolated from inside rhizomes of symptomatic ferns, and one group isolated from inside roots of symptomatic ferns. Symptoms were assessed 12 and 17 months later, and populations of FPs inside newly formed rhizomes were determined after 17 months. Results showed that inoculation with mixtures of FPs from ferns with FDS symptoms, but not from healthy ferns, recreated the primary symptom of frond deformities and also the secondary symptoms of irregular sporulation, decreased rhizome diameter, and internal discoloration of rhizomes. Conclusions These results suggest a model of causation of FDS in which symptoms result from latent infections by multiple species of opportunistic endophytic bacteria containing virulence genes that are expressed when populations inside the plant reach a minimum level.

Kloepper, Joseph W.; McInroy, John A.; Liu, Ke; Hu, Chia-Hui

2013-01-01

326

Weighted Sum Rate Maximization for Downlink OFDMA With Subcarrier-Pair Based Opportunistic DF Relaying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a weighted sum rate (WSR) maximization problem for downlink OFDMA aided by a decode-and-forward (DF) relay under a total power constraint. A novel subcarrier-pair based opportunistic DF relaying protocol is proposed. Specifically, user message bits are transmitted in two time slots. A subcarrier in the first slot can be paired with a subcarrier in the second slot for the DF relay-aided transmission to a user. In particular, the source and the relay can transmit simultaneously to implement beamforming at the subcarrier in the second slot. Each unpaired subcarrier in either the first or second slot is used for the source's direct transmission to a user. A benchmark protocol, same as the proposed one except that the transmit beamforming is not used for the relay-aided transmission, is also considered. For each protocol, a polynomial-complexity algorithm is developed to find at least an approximately optimum resource allocation (RA), by using continuous relaxation, the dual method, and Hungarian algorithm. Instrumental to the algorithm design is an elegant definition of optimization variables, motivated by the idea of regarding the unpaired subcarriers as virtual subcarrier pairs in the direct transmission mode. The effectiveness of the RA algorithm and the impact of relay position and total power on the protocols' performance are illustrated by numerical experiments. The proposed protocol always leads to a maximum WSR equal to or greater than that for the benchmark one, and the performance gain of using the proposed one is significant especially when the relay is in close proximity to the source and the total power is low. Theoretical analysis is presented to interpret these observations.

Wang, Tao; Glineur, Francois; Louveaux, Jerome; Vandendorpe, Luc

2013-05-01

327

Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions of this research, namely, OLA with transmission threshold (OLA-T) and alternating OLA-T (A-OLA-T), offer an signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) advantage (i.e., benefits of diversity and array (power) gains) in a multi-path fading environment, thereby reducing transmit powers or extending range. Because these protocols do not address nodes individually, the network overhead remains constant for high density networks or nodes with mobility. During broadcasting across energy-constrained networks, while OLA-T saves energy by limiting node participation within a single broadcast, A-OLA-T optimizes over multiple broadcasts and drains the nodes in an equitable fashion. A major bottleneck for network sustainability is the ability of a rechargeable battery (RB) to store energy, which is limited by the number of charge-discharge cycles. Energy harvesting using a HESS that comprises a RB and a supercapacitor (SC) will minimize the RB usage, thereby preserving the charge-discharge cycles. Studying the HESS is important, rather than the SC-alone because while an SC with harvested energy may be sufficient for routine monitoring, if there is an alert, the RB could be used as necessary to support the heavier reporting requirements. Therefore, another key contribution of this research is the design and analysis of a novel routing metric called communications using HESS (CHESS), which extends the RB-life by relaying exclusively with SC energy.

Kailas, Aravind

328

Association of methotrexate and tumour necrosis factor antagonists with risk of infectious outcomes including opportunistic infections in the CORRONA registry  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of methotrexate (MTX) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists with the risk of infectious outcomes including opportunistic infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry prescribed MTX, TNF antagonists or other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were included. The primary outcomes were incident overall and opportunistic infections. Incident rate ratios were calculated using generalised estimating equation Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and RA disease activity measures. Results A total of 7971 patients with RA were followed. The adjusted rate of infections per 100 person-years was increased among users of MTX (30.9, 95% CI 29.2 to 32.7), TNF antagonists (40.1, 95% CI 37.0 to 43.4) and a combination of MTX and TNF antagonists (37.1, 95% CI 34.9 to 39.3) compared with users of other non-biological DMARDs (24.5, 95% CI 21.8 to 27.5). The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was increased in patients treated with MTX (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.50) and TNF antagonists (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.78) compared with those treated with other DMARDs. TNF antagonist use was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections (IRR 1.67, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.94). Prednisone use was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections (IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.21) and an increased risk of overall infection at doses >10 mg daily (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53). Conclusions MTX, TNF antagonists and prednisone at doses >10 mg daily were associated with increased risks of overall infections. Low-dose prednisone and TNF antagonists (but not MTX) increased the risk of opportunistic infections.

Greenberg, J D; Reed, G; Kremer, J M; Tindall, E; Kavanaugh, A; Zheng, C; Bishai, W; Hochberg, M C

2010-01-01

329

Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV\\/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV\\/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV\\/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV\\/AIDS opportunistic

Daniel P Kisangau; Herbert VM Lyaruu; Ken M Hosea; Cosam C Joseph

2007-01-01

330

Substance Abuse, Hepatitis C, and Aging in HIV: Common Cofactors that Contribute to Neurobehavioral Disturbances  

PubMed Central

Although the prevalence of neurocognitive disturbances among individuals with HIV has decreased in recent years, rates of impairment still remain high. This review presents findings from comorbid conditions that may contribute to further neurocognitive impairments in this already vulnerable population. We will focus on three co-factors that have received substantial attention in the neuroAIDS literature: drug use, hepatitis C co-infection (HCV), and aging. All three conditions commonly co-occur with HIV and likely interact with HIV in complex ways. Collectively, the extant literature suggests that drug use, HCV, and aging serve to worsen the neurocognitive profile of HIV through several overlapping mechanisms. A better understanding of how specific comorbidities interact with HIV may reveal specific phenotypes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder that may aid in the development of more targeted behavioral and pharmacological treatment efforts.

Schuster, Randi Melissa; Gonzalez, Raul

2013-01-01

331

Rituximab does not improve clinical outcome in a randomized phase 3 trial of CHOP with or without rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: AIDS-Malignancies Consortium Trial 010  

PubMed Central

The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy results in significant improvement in clinical outcome for individuals with non–HIV-associated aggressive B-cell lymphoma. To assess the potential risks and benefits of the addition of rituximab to CHOP for HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV-NHL) 150 patients receiving CHOP for HIV-NHL were randomized (2:1) to receive 375 mg/m2 rituximab with each chemotherapy cycle (n = 99) or no immunotherapy (n = 50) in a multicenter phase 3 trial. The complete response rate (CR + CRu) was 57.6% for R-CHOP and 47% for CHOP (P = .147). With a median follow-up of 137 weeks, time to progression, progression-free survival, and overall survival times were 125, 45, and 139 weeks, respectively, for R-CHOP and 85, 38, and 110 weeks, respectively, for CHOP (P = not significant, all comparisons). Treatment-related infectious deaths occurred in 14% of patients receiving R-CHOP compared with 2% in the chemotherapy-alone group (P = .035). Of these deaths, 60% occurred in patients with CD4 counts less than 50/mm3. Progression-free survival was significantly influenced by CD4+ count (P < .001) and International Prognostic Index score (P = .022), but not bcl-2 status. The addition of rituximab to CHOP in patients with HIV-NHL may be associated with improved tumor responses. However, these benefits may be offset by an increase in infectious deaths, particularly in those individuals with CD4+ lymphocyte counts less than 50/mm3.

Kaplan, Lawrence D.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Cesarman, Ethel; Chadburn, Amy; Levine, Alexandra M.; Scadden, David T.

2005-01-01

332

In Vitro Activity of the New Triazole Voriconazole (UK109,496) against Opportunistic Filamentous and Dimorphic Fungi and Common and Emerging Yeast Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 67 isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bipolaris spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pseudallescheria boydii, Rhizopus arrhizus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, His- toplasma capsulatum, and Sporothrix schenckii. The in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin B,

ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

1998-01-01

333

Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman

1992-01-01

334

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

335

Hypercapnic hypoxia compromises bactericidal activity of fish anterior kidney cells against opportunistic environmental pathogens.  

PubMed

Acute hypoxia can cause massive fish and shellfish mortality. Less clear is the role that chronic sublethal hypoxia might play in aquatic animal health. This study tested whether production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bactericidal activity of fish phagocytic cells are suppressed under the conditions of decreased oxygen and pH and increased carbon dioxide which occur in the blood and tissue of animals exposed to sublethal hypoxia. Anterior head kidney (AHK) cells of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed in parallel to normoxic (pO2=45 torr, pCO2=3.8 torr, pH=7.6) or hypoxic (pO2=15 torr, pCO2=8.0 torr, pH=7.0) conditions and stimulated with a yeast cell wall extract, zymosan. or live Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Hypercapnic hypoxia suppressed zymosan-stimulated ROS production by 76.0% as measured in the chemiluminescence assay and by 58.5% in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The low O2, high CO2 and low pH conditions also suppressed superoxide production by 75.0 and 47.3% as measured by the NBT assay at two different challenge ratios of cells:bacteria (1:1 and 1:10, respectively). In addition to its effects on ROS production, hypercapnic hypoxia also reduced bactericidal activity by 23.6 and 72.5% at the 1:1 and 1:10 challenge ratios, respectively. Low oxygen levels alone (pO2=15 torr, pCO2=0.76 torr, pH=7.6) did not significantly compromise the killing activity of cells challenged with equal numbers of V. parahaemolyticus. At the higher 1:10 AHK:bacteria challenge ratio, low oxygen caused a small (26.3%) but significant suppression of bactericidal activity as compared to aerial conditions (pO2=155 torr, pCO2=0.76 torr, pH=7.6). This study demonstrates that while hypoxia alone has detrimental effects on immune function, suppression of phagocytic cell activity is compounded by naturally occurring conditions of hypercapnia and low pH, creating conditions that might be exploited by opportunistic pathogens. These results indicate that the adverse health effects of chronic hypercapnic hypoxia might greatly exceed the effects of low oxygen alone. PMID:11592587

Boleza, K A; Burnett, L E; Burnett, K G

2001-10-01

336

Common Bayesian models for common cognitive issues.  

PubMed

How can an incomplete and uncertain model of the environment be used to perceive, infer, decide and act efficiently? This is the challenge that both living and artificial cognitive systems have to face. Symbolic logic is, by its nature, unable to deal with this question. The subjectivist approach to probability is an extension to logic that is designed specifically to face this challenge. In this paper, we review a number of frequently encountered cognitive issues and cast them into a common Bayesian formalism. The concepts we review are ambiguities, fusion, multimodality, conflicts, modularity, hierarchies and loops. First, each of these concepts is introduced briefly using some examples from the neuroscience, psychophysics or robotics literature. Then, the concept is formalized using a template Bayesian model. The assumptions and common features of these models, as well as their major differences, are outlined and discussed. PMID:20658175

Colas, Francis; Diard, Julien; Bessière, Pierre

2010-07-24

337

Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant-plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by different ants. In addition to these correlative data, protection conferred by different ant species was compared by herbivore-placement experiments. Identity of ant associate changed predictably over plant ontogeny. Pheidole megacephala was restricted to very small plants; saplings were occupied by either Oecophylla longinoda or Crematogaster sp., and the latter species was the sole occupant of larger trees. Damage by caterpillars of the nymphalid butterfly Acraea zetes accounted for much of the herbivory to leaves. Ant species differed in the protection provided to hosts. While P. megacephala provided no significant protection, plants occupied by O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. suffered less damage than did unoccupied plants or those occupied by P. megacephala. Furthermore, O. longinoda provided more effective protection than did Crematogaster sp. Herbivore-placement experiments confirmed these results. Workers of O. longinoda killed or removed all larval instars of A. zetes. Crematogaster preyed on only the two first larval instars, and P. megacephala preyed mainly on eggs, only rarely attacking the two first larval instars. Opportunistic ants provided significant protection to this relatively unspecialised myrmecophyte. The usual associate of mature trees was not the species that provided most protection.

Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dejean, Alain; Gibernau, Marc; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; McKey, Doyle

2004-10-01

338

Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen.  

PubMed

The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ?8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10-100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health. PMID:23254513

Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

2012-12-20

339

Cost-Effectiveness of Opportunistic Screening and Minimal Contact Psychotherapy to Prevent Depression in Primary Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Depression causes a large burden of disease worldwide. Effective prevention has the potential to reduce that burden considerably. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of minimal contact psychotherapy, based on Lewinsohn's ‘Coping with depression’ course, targeted at opportunistically screened individuals with sub-threshold depression. Methods and Results Using a Markov model, future health effects and costs of an intervention scenario and a current practice scenario were estimated. The time horizon was five years. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were expressed in euro per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was employed to study the effect of uncertainty in the model parameters. From the health care perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was € 1,400 per DALY, and from the societal perspective the intervention was cost-saving. Although the estimated incremental costs and effects were surrounded with large uncertainty, given a willingness to pay of € 20,000 per DALY, the probability that the intervention is cost-effective was around 80%. Conclusion This modelling study showed that opportunistic screening in primary care for sub-threshold depression in combination with minimal contact psychotherapy may be cost-effective in the prevention of major depression.

van den Berg, Matthijs; Smit, Filip; Vos, Theo; van Baal, Pieter H. M.

2011-01-01

340

Anorectal opportunistic diseases in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: spectrum of cross-sectional imaging findings.  

PubMed

Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly male homosexuals, are prone to develop disorders involving the anorectal and perineal structures. Cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reformations and magnetic resonance imaging performed with phased-array coils, are increasingly adopted to detect and stage infectious and neoplastic diseases, and to assess posttreatment modifications. Pyogenic perianal sepsis may be usefully investigated with imaging, particularly to assess the presence and topography of abscess collections to allow a correct surgical choice. Rectal inflammatory involvement is frequently detected during intestinal opportunistic infections, such as cytomegalovirus, pseudomembranous, and amebic colitides, including primary and secondary imaging signs consistent with proctocolitis. Anal carcinoma and intestinal lymphoma are increasingly diagnosed; therefore, special attention should be paid to the identification of solid tissue consistent with tumor; furthermore, MRI provides optimal staging and posttreatment follow-up of neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of this varied spectrum of anorectal and perineal opportunistic abnormalities and their imaging appearances should help radiologists to propose appropriate differential diagnoses, suggest correlation with laboratory and microbiological assays or biopsy, and reliably assess therapeutic response. PMID:23009772

Tonolini, Massimo; Matacena, Giovanni; Bianco, Roberto

341

Convention et Common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Convention and common knowledge. . « Rationality cannot feed on itself only » (Aumann). Unless it feeds also on collective entities, such as conventions, that are not amenable to individual rationality, it fails to determine social reality. The concept of Common knowledge is examined in this Hght, as well as its ambition to render the collectivity totally transparent to

Jean-Pierre Dupuy

1989-01-01

342

Justified common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the justified knowledge operator J with the intended meaning of J? as ‘there is a justification for ?.’ Though justified knowledge appears here in a case study of common knowledge systems, a similar approach is applicable in more general situations. First we consider evidence-based common knowledge systems obtained by augmenting a multi-agent logic of knowledge

Sergei N. Artëmov

2006-01-01

343

Conceptualizing an information commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment.

Donald Beagle

1999-01-01

344

Conceptualizing an Information Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

Beagle, Donald

1999-01-01

345

Space Station Commonality Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems a...

1988-01-01

346

USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

347

In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B against Opportunistic Moniliaceous and Dematiaceous Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NCCLS proposed standard M38-P describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds); however, standard conditions are not available for testing their fungicidal activities (minimum fungicidal or lethal concentrations (MFCs)). This study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against 260 common and emerging

ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

2001-01-01

348

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

349

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

350

Common Reactions After Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... trauma? All kinds of trauma survivors commonly experience stress reactions. This is true for veterans, children, and disaster rescue or relief workers. If you understand what is happening when ...

351

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

352

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

353

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... period. Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

354

Common peroneal nerve dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord). This condition can affect people ... people: Who are very thin (for example, from anorexia nervosa ) ... damage the common peroneal nerve Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is ...

355

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Momsen, Jennifer; Long, Tammy M.; Speth, Elena B.

356

Phylogeny and Ecophysiology of Opportunistic “Snow Molds” from a Subalpine Forest Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mats of coenocytic “snow molds” are commonly observed covering the soil and litter of alpine and subalpine areas immediately\\u000a following snow melt. Here, we describe the phylogenetic placement, growth rates, and metabolic potential of cold-adapted fungi\\u000a from under-snow mats in the subalpine forests of Colorado. SSU rDNA sequencing revealed that these fungi belong to the zygomycete\\u000a orders Mucorales and Mortierellales.

S. K. Schmidt; K. L. Wilson; A. F. Meyer; M. M. Gebauer; A. J. King

2008-01-01

357

New common fragile sites.  

PubMed

We report the finding of a large number of new common fragile sites. Thirty-one (56%) of 55 common fragile sites found in a sample of human lymphocytes were ones not described at the Eighth International Workshop on Human Gene Mapping (HGM 8). The sample consisted of 3023 lymphocytes from nine unrelated individuals with a history of genitourinary malignancy. The lymphocytes were challenged in culture with aphidicolin (Apc), fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), 5-azacytidine (Aza), and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Thirteen of the new common fragile sites were induced by Apc and FUdR, nine by Aza, five by BrdU, and four by combined means. The sites induced by Apc and FUdR were cross-induced by BrdU. The fragile sites induced by a diminished concentration of Aza were largely located in heterochromatic regions and were cross-induced by BrdU and FUdR. Exposure to BrdU for 24 hours, a technique hitherto restricted to rare fragile sites, induced several common fragile sites. Control lymphocytes had far fewer gaps and breaks, but these were clustered predominantly at high-expression fragile sites. Because more than half of the common fragile sites in this study were new, it is clear that much remains to be learned. Because the classes of fragile sites reveal cross-induction, we propose that fragile sites share structures in DNA. PMID:2454726

Hecht, F; Tajara, E H; Lockwood, D; Sandberg, A A; Hecht, B K

1988-07-01

358

Unusual suspects: pulmonary opportunistic infections masquerading as tumor metastasis in a patient with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms but with increasing incidence. The atypical complications that arise in the setting of functional endocrine tumors are underreported and therefore have not received sufficient attention and the necessary mention in the oncology literature. The clinical implications of these complications pose management challenges starting with the difficulty in establishing diagnosis, accurate staging and optimal treatment of the primary process. We present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing carcinoma arising from the pancreas whose case was complicated by excessive uncontrolled hypercortisolism and reactivation of pulmonary opportunistic infections that confounded her management. We believe that this case illustration will be of value to practicing oncologists and other groups of physicians who are called upon to participate in the multidisciplinary treatment of these relatively rare but highly challenging cases. PMID:23118805

Chowdry, Rajasree P; Bhimani, Chandar; Delgado, Maria A; Lee, Daniel J; Dayamani, Priya; Sica, Gabriel L; Owonikoko, Taofeek K

2012-11-01

359

Unusual suspects: pulmonary opportunistic infections masquerading as tumor metastasis in a patient with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms but with increasing incidence. The atypical complications that arise in the setting of functional endocrine tumors are underreported and therefore have not received sufficient attention and the necessary mention in the oncology literature. The clinical implications of these complications pose management challenges starting with the difficulty in establishing diagnosis, accurate staging and optimal treatment of the primary process. We present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing carcinoma arising from the pancreas whose case was complicated by excessive uncontrolled hypercortisolism and reactivation of pulmonary opportunistic infections that confounded her management. We believe that this case illustration will be of value to practicing oncologists and other groups of physicians who are called upon to participate in the multidisciplinary treatment of these relatively rare but highly challenging cases.

Chowdry, Rajasree P.; Bhimani, Chandar; Delgado, Maria A.; Lee, Daniel J.; Dayamani, Priya; Sica, Gabriel L.

2012-01-01

360

Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).  

PubMed

Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Lud?k; Haberová, Tamara

2013-01-09

361

Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)  

PubMed Central

Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

Brandlova, Karolina; Bartos, Ludek; Haberova, Tamara

2013-01-01

362

Cryptic regulation of vasotocin neuronal activity but not anatomy by sex steroids and social stimuli in opportunistic desert finches.  

PubMed

In most vertebrate species, the production of vasotocin (VT; non-mammals) and vasopressin (VP; mammals) in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) waxes and wanes with seasonal reproductive state; however, opportunistically breeding species might need to maintain high levels of this behaviorally relevant neuropeptide year-round in anticipation of unpredictable breeding opportunities. We here provide support for this hypothesis and demonstrate that these neurons are instead regulated 'cryptically' via hormonal regulation of their activity levels, which may be rapidly modified to adjust VT signaling. First, we show that combined treatment of male and female zebra finches (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione does not alter the expression of VT immunoreactivity within the BSTm; however, both hormonal treatment and social housing environment (same-sex versus mixed-sex) alter VT colocalization with the immediate early gene product Fos (a proxy marker of neural activation) in the BSTm. In a second experiment, manipulations of estradiol (E2) levels with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) or subcutaneous E2 implants failed to alter colocalization, suggesting that the colocalization effects in experiment 1 were solely androgenic. LET treatment also did not affect VT immunoreactivity in a manner reversible by E2 treatment. Finally, comparisons of VT immunoreactivity in breeding and nonbreeding individuals of several estrildid species demonstrate that year-round stability of VT immunoreactivity is found only in highly opportunistic species, and is therefore not essential to the maintenance of long-term pair bonds, which are ubiquitous in the Estrildidae. PMID:20332615

Kabelik, David; Morrison, Jenilee A; Goodson, James L

2010-03-19

363

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

364

Optimisation and common sense.  

PubMed

This note builds on recent articles about the development of new ICRP recommendations by supporting the use of common sense in optimisation; use of an additional criterion relating to technology-based principles is suggested to support utility- and equity-based criteria. This is taken forward by use of authoritative good practice safety precautions and a need to consider safety in an integrated manner. It is noted that use of common sense in ALARP or ALARA decisions is liable to rely on access to information and training. PMID:11929114

Robinson, Ian F

2002-03-01

365

Common-place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

366

Subtraction with Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of subtracting fractions with common denominators by linking visual models to procedures. The page includes a video demonstration of the tool. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access curriculum materials and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

367

The Common Command Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common command language has been proposed for use by systems designers and those developing new user interfaces. There is controversy over the appropriateness of a standard command language, and those who are working in artificial intelligence believe that natural language interfaces will make it unnecessary for users to learn such a language,…

Fayen, Emily Gallup

368

The Common Denominator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

Grimes, Nikki

2005-01-01

369

Common Dermatoses of Infancy  

PubMed Central

Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

Gora, Irv

1986-01-01

370

Common File System Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Common File System (CFS) is a mass storage system for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Integrated Computer Network. The function of the CFS is to allow users of computers in the network to store and retrieve large amounts of data. The CFS will h...

P. M. Blood R. D. Christman M. W. Collins E. W. Willbanks

1977-01-01

371

Common File System specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common File System (CFS) is a mass storage system for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Integrated Computer Network. The function of the CFS is to allow users of computers in the network to store and retrieve large amounts of data. The CFS will have an on-line storage capacity of more than a trillion bits and an archival storage capacity

P. M. Blood; R. D. Christman; M. W. Collins; E. W. Willbanks

1977-01-01

372

Common racial stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observes racial stereotypes and explains the way human beings “see” one another because of this. Adumbrates that even as far back as 1798, the media stereotyped people into various groups, and subsequent surveys only seem to emphasize this. Lists out the more common racial stereotypes using (US) surveys to collect peoples’ thoughts and feelings. Shows how to overcome racial stereotypes.

Szu-Hsien Chang; Brian H. Kleiner

2003-01-01

373

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

374

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

375

The Common Land Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment

Yongjiu Dai; Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson; Ian Baker; Gordon B. Bonan; Michael G. Bosilovich; A. Scott Denning; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Guoyue Niu; Keith W. Oleson; C. Adam Schlosser; Zong-Liang Yang

2003-01-01

376

Developing an indicator of nutrient enrichment in coastal estuaries and lagoons using tissue nitrogen content of the opportunistic alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Link)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the use of an opportunistic green alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Link), as an indicator of N enrichment in a southern California salt marsh. In conjunction with N additions to cordgrass (Spartina foliosa, Trin) in April, June and August 1995, mesh bags containing N-starved algal tissue were placed within cordgrass patches, at their edges along islands, and in adjacent

Peggy Fong; Katharyn E. Boyer; Joy B. Zedler

1998-01-01

377

Does the diet of an opportunistic raptor, the tawny owl Strix aluco, reflect long-term changes in bat abundance? A test in central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis tested concerned whether the diet of the tawny owl Strix aluco, as an opportunistic predator, does reflect increases in the density of bat populations in the owl's hunting areas. In our study area, there was a mass use of toxic pesticides during which numbers of bats declined drastically, after which recoveries in the populations of most European species

Jakub GRYZ; Marek KOWALSKI

378

Evaluation of the current management protocols for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients living with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients living with HIV\\/AIDS. Data on the proper administration of prophylactic regimes for the prevention of OIs in such patients are scarce. A total of 205 confirmed HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study from the inpatient wards and outpatient services. The treatment given to them for the

Sheel Bhadra Jain; Naveet Wig; Sajan Jiv Singh Nagpal; Nitin Mishra; Madhu Vajpayee; Randeep Guleria; Ravindra Mohan Pandey; Surendra K. Sharma

2011-01-01

379

Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investment made by a reproducing organism in its offspring can be affected by both extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (female condition) factors. The purpose of this study, conducted between December 1990 and June 1992, was to examine the influence of organic additions to sediment, and female age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in the opportunistic polychaete

T. S. Bridges

1996-01-01

380

Controlled study of human herpesvirus 6 detection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The French Study Group for HIV-Associated Tumors.  

PubMed

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a recently identified lymphotropic herpesvirus, which has been isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or lymphoproliferative diseases. Two variants A and B of HHV-6 have been described, variant B being more common in children with exanthema subitum. HHV-6 infection was studied in cases of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and in three control populations in order to evaluate the possible etiological role of HHV-6 in this lymphoproliferative disease. Tumor specimens from various organs were obtained from 27 patients with AIDS-associated NHL and 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative patients with NHL. Lymph node specimens were obtained from four HIV-seropositive and nine HIV-seronegative patients with lymph node follicular hyperplasia. A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HHV-6 DNA. Subsequently HHV-6 variant was identified by using variant-specific PCR. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was detected in parallel by means of specific PCR. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 12 of 27 tumor tissues (44%), including 8 of 15 lymph node specimens (53%) from patients with AIDS-associated NHL. The corresponding values in HIV-seronegative patients with NHL were 35% (7/20) and 36% (5/14), respectively. Lymph node specimens were positive for HHV-6 in two of four (50%) HIV-seropositive and five of nine (55%) HIV-seronegative patients with follicular hyperplasia. Variant A was detected in two cases of AIDS-associated NHL, variant B in one case, and both variants in six cases. The distribution of HHV-6 variants exhibited a similar pattern in the three control groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7714485

Fillet, A M; Raphael, M; Visse, B; Audouin, J; Poirel, L; Agut, H

1995-01-01

381

Common tester platform concept.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

Hurst, Michael James

2008-05-01

382

Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I discuss a ``misconception'' in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of common magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.

Olson, Mark

2013-11-01

383

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Senese, Frederick A.

384

Finding Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of common denominators by relating visual models to numbers. Students learn the value of multiplying a fraction by a fraction with a value of 1. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

385

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

386

Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.

1992-01-01

387

Digital Resource Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".

388

'Historicising common sense'.  

PubMed

This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

Millstone, Noah

2012-12-01

389

Internalised homonegativity predicts HIV-associated risk behavior in European men who have sex with men in a 38-country cross-sectional study: some public health implications of homophobia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Internalised homonegativity (IH) is hypothesised to be associated with HIV risk behaviour and HIV testing in men who have sex with men (MSM). We sought to determine the social and individual variables associated with IH and the associations between IH and HIV-related behaviours. Design and setting We examined IH and its predictors as part of a larger Internet-delivered, cross-sectional study on HIV and health in MSM in 38 European countries. Participants 181?495 MSM, IH data analysis subsample 144?177. All participants were male, over the age of consent for homosexual activity in their country of domicile, and have had at least one homosexual contact in the past 6?months. Methodology An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was disseminated in 25 languages through MSM social media, websites and organisations and responses saved to a UK-based server. IH was measured using a standardised, cross-culturally appropriate scale. Results Three clusters of European countries based on the level of experienced discrimination emerged. IH was predicted by country LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) legal climate, Gini coefficient and size of place of settlement. Lower IH was associated with degree the respondent was ‘out’ as gay to others and older age. ‘Outness’ was associated with ever having an HIV test and age, education and number of gay friends, while IH (controlling for the number of non-steady unprotected sex partners and perceived lack of control over safe sex) was associated with condom use for anal intercourse. Conclusions IH is associated with LGB legal climate, economic development indices and urbanisation. It is also associated with ‘outness’ and with HIV risk and preventive behaviours including HIV testing, perceived control over sexual risk and condom use. Homonegative climate is associated with IH and higher levels of HIV-associated risk in MSM. Reducing IH through attention to LGB human rights may be appropriate HIV reduction intervention for MSM.

Ross, Michael W; Berg, Rigmor C; Schmidt, Axel J; Hospers, Harm J; Breveglieri, Michele; Furegato, Martina; Weatherburn, Peter

2013-01-01

390

Changes in hospitalizations due to opportunistic infections, chronic conditions and other causes among HIV patients (1989-2011). A study in a HIV unit  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in mortality and morbidity in HIV patients due to the introduction of HAART have resulted in changes in patterns of hospital admissions. Objective To examine trends of HIV patients hospital admissions. Design and method Serial cross-sectional analysis of HIV-hospitalized patients from 1989 to 2011 in an HIV Care Unit. Each hospitalization was classified as major categories: opportunistic infections, other infections, drug-related admissions, chronic hepatopathy, AIDS and non-AIDS-related tumours and chronic medical conditions (COPD, diabetes) and as specific diagnosis: tuberculosis, PCP, CMV, bacterial pneumonia and others. We considered 4 periods of time: pre-HAART, 1989–1996; early HAART, 1997–2001; intermediate HAART, 2002–2006; and present HAART, 2007–2011. Results We evaluated 2588 admissions. 20.7% of patients were unaware of HIV infection before first admission; this proportion did not change along the time (p=0.27). No previous outpatient follow-up was seen in 34.9% of patients. There were differences in diagnosis, mortality, age and mean inpatient stay time (Table 1) between the analyzed periods of time.OIHIV tumoursNon-HIV tumoursChronic diseasesMortalityMean ageMean hospital stayPneumoniaResp infectTBCCMVPCPPMLPre-HAART 682 adm.51.7%* 5.1%* 0.8%* 3.2%* 10.1%* 36.1* 23.9* 12.1%* 14.1%* 14.1%15%* 9.5%* 5.1%Early HAART 632 adm.34.5%4%2.2%9%4.6%38.417.2* 21.1%19.9%11.7%5%8.2%4.1%Intermediate HAART 613 adm.31.4%* 2.4%2.8%7.7%4.4%39.615.725.6%* 23.2%11.4%1.7%* 3.4%* 3%Present HAART 661 adm.21.8%* 0.8%* 4.1%* 15.9%* 3.8%* 42.9* 14.229.8%* 29.2%* 10.9%1.9%* 4.2%* 2.2%*p<0.05 Conclusions (i) HAART and older age have changed the pattern of hospital admissions with a decrease of OI-related admissions and an increase of chronic diseases and non-AIDS-related tumours and with a decrease in mortality and length of inpatient stay. (ii) Proportion of patients with unknown HIV serostatus before admission has not changed along the time. (iii) Pneumonia, respiratory tract infection and tuberculosis were the more common causes of admission.

Redondo Sanchez, C; Poza Cisneros, G; Galera Penaranda, C; Ruiz, C; Hernandez, A; Cascales, A; Rodriguez, F; Oliva, J

2012-01-01

391

Common Congenital Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies account for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. They have become proportionately larger because of the decline of such other categories as infections or birth trauma. Approximately 3% of newborns have a serious handicapping or potentially lethal condition; in longterm studies the frequency is much higher. There is no good evidence to suggest that the rates of congenital anomalies are increasing, although this is a common perception. This article discusses diagnosis and management (especially genetic implications) of heart defects, neural tube defects, orofacial clefting, dislocated hip, clubfoot, and hypospadias.

Lowry, R. B.

1985-01-01

392

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

393

Common breast problems.  

PubMed

A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea. PMID:22963023

Salzman, Brooke; Fleegle, Stephenie; Tully, Amber S

2012-08-15

394

Global transcriptome changes underlying colony growth in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common and deadly pulmonary fungal infection worldwide. In the lung, the fungus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix. To identify candidate genes involved in this biofilm (BF) growth, we used RNA-Seq to compare the transcriptomes of BF and liquid plankton (PL) growth. Sequencing and mapping of tens of millions sequence reads against the A. fumigatus transcriptome identified 3,728 differentially regulated genes in the two conditions. Although many of these genes, including the ones coding for transcription factors, stress response, the ribosome, and the translation machinery, likely reflect the different growth demands in the two conditions, our experiment also identified hundreds of candidate genes for the observed differences in morphology and pathobiology between BF and PL. We found an overrepresentation of upregulated genes in transport, secondary metabolism, and cell wall and surface functions. Furthermore, upregulated genes showed significant spatial structure across the A. fumigatus genome; they were more likely to occur in subtelomeric regions and colocalized in 27 genomic neighborhoods, many of which overlapped with known or candidate secondary metabolism gene clusters. We also identified 1,164 genes that were downregulated. This gene set was not spatially structured across the genome and was overrepresented in genes participating in primary metabolic functions, including carbon and amino acid metabolism. These results add valuable insight into the genetics of biofilm formation in A. fumigatus and other filamentous fungi and identify many relevant, in the context of biofilm biology, candidate genes for downstream functional experiments. PMID:21724936

Gibbons, John G; Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; McGary, Kriston L; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Rokas, Antonis

2011-07-01

395

Global Transcriptome Changes Underlying Colony Growth in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common and deadly pulmonary fungal infection worldwide. In the lung, the fungus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix. To identify candidate genes involved in this biofilm (BF) growth, we used RNA-Seq to compare the transcriptomes of BF and liquid plankton (PL) growth. Sequencing and mapping of tens of millions sequence reads against the A. fumigatus transcriptome identified 3,728 differentially regulated genes in the two conditions. Although many of these genes, including the ones coding for transcription factors, stress response, the ribosome, and the translation machinery, likely reflect the different growth demands in the two conditions, our experiment also identified hundreds of candidate genes for the observed differences in morphology and pathobiology between BF and PL. We found an overrepresentation of upregulated genes in transport, secondary metabolism, and cell wall and surface functions. Furthermore, upregulated genes showed significant spatial structure across the A. fumigatus genome; they were more likely to occur in subtelomeric regions and colocalized in 27 genomic neighborhoods, many of which overlapped with known or candidate secondary metabolism gene clusters. We also identified 1,164 genes that were downregulated. This gene set was not spatially structured across the genome and was overrepresented in genes participating in primary metabolic functions, including carbon and amino acid metabolism. These results add valuable insight into the genetics of biofilm formation in A. fumigatus and other filamentous fungi and identify many relevant, in the context of biofilm biology, candidate genes for downstream functional experiments.

Gibbons, John G.; Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; McGary, Kriston L.

2012-01-01

396

Cost-Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Screening Programme and Brief Intervention for Excessive Alcohol Use in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background Effective prevention of excessive alcohol use has the potential to reduce the public burden of disease considerably. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for excessive alcohol use in primary care in the Netherlands, which is targeted at early detection and treatment of ‘at-risk’ drinkers. Methodology and Results We compared a SBI scenario (opportunistic screening and brief intervention for ‘at-risk’ drinkers) in general practices with the current practice scenario (no SBI) in the Netherlands. We used the RIVM Chronic Disease Model (CDM) to extrapolate from decreased alcohol consumption to effects on health care costs and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was employed to study the effect of uncertainty in the model parameters. In total, 56,000 QALYs were gained at an additional cost of €298,000,000 due to providing alcohol SBI in the target population, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of €5,400 per QALY gained. Conclusion Prevention of excessive alcohol use by implementing SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care settings appears to be cost-effective.

Tariq, Luqman; van den Berg, Matthijs; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; van Baal, Pieter H. M.

2009-01-01

397

Primary care assessment instruments for patients at risk of, or with, persistent pain: opportunistic findings from a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification in primary care settings of individuals with, or at-risk of, developing persistent pain, is important to limit development of disability. There is little information to assist primary care providers to choose or deliver relevant, efficient, and soundly constructed assessment instruments for this purpose. Objective We recently published the findings of a literature review, which produced a compendium of assessment instruments to identify adults with, or at-risk of developing, persistent pain of noncancer origin. This paper reports on instruments opportunistically identified during this review which may be appropriate to primary health care settings for early identification of such patients. Results One hundred sixteen potentially useful instruments were initially identified in the review, measuring pain severity, psychological distress, functional capacity, quality of life or multidimensional constructs of persistent pain. Following a series of steps, 45 instruments were shortlisted, with sound clinical utility and strong psychometric properties. Of these, 16 instruments were appropriate to primary health care settings because of simple wording, brief items, short administration time, and ease of scoring. Conclusion No one assessment instrument captured all constructs of persistent pain. The 16 instruments provide a broad choice for primary care clinicians to assist with early identification of adults at risk of, or with persistent pain.

Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Kumar, Saravana; Vipond, Nic; Hall, Gillian

2009-01-01

398

Clinical significance of filamentous basidiomycetes illustrated by isolates of the novel opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the human respiratory tract.  

PubMed

The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

Chowdhary, Anuradha; Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P; Gaur, S N; de Hoog, G S; Meis, Jacques F

2012-12-12

399

Enzymatic and toxigenic ability of opportunistic fungi contaminating intensive care units and operation rooms at Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt.  

PubMed

Total of 110 isolates belonging to 8 fungal species collected from intensive care units (ICUs) and operation rooms (ORs) at Assiut University hospitals were examined for their ability to produce some extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins which are considered as important factors involved in for fungal pathogenicity. The results revealed that 73, 92 and 78 out of the 110 tested isolates produced protease, lipase and urease respectively; meanwhile, 77 of the tested isolates exhibited some hemolytic activities. Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of the crude extract of the fungal isolates tested revealed that 79 isolates of them had the ability to produce at least one of these mycotoxic compounds (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, gliotoxin, fumigillin, T-2, zearalenone, roridin A & E, verrucarin A & J, trichoveroids, satratoxin H & E). These results demonstrate that the opportunistic fungal species isolated from (ICUs) and (ORs) and tested exhibited some enzymatic and mycotoxic ability which are the most effective virulence factors contributing to fungal pathogenicity indicating that the management of infection control unit at Assiut University hospitals must be aware of not only bacterial but also fungal contamination. PMID:23961411

Aboul-Nasr, Mohamed Bassam; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; Amer, Enas Mahmoud

2013-07-29

400

[Halitosis. A common problem].  

PubMed

Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis. PMID:22292352

Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

2011-12-01

401

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

402

Common hair loss disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause. PMID:12887115

Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

2003-07-01

403

Learning Commons to Communicative Commons: Transforming the Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from information to learning commons is an important step in the transformation of the academic library; yet, it is important that the commons movement not lose its momentum. The learning commons may be considered as a stage in the transformation of the academic library as a whole to a communicative commons whose objective is to insure that all

William F. Birdsall

2010-01-01

404

HIV-associated myocarditis. Pathology and immunopathology.  

PubMed Central

Autopsy studies of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) patients showed a high incidence of myocarditis. To attain a better understanding of the pathogenesis, the pathology and immunopathology of nine endomyocardial biopsies with active myocarditis from 18 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were systematically characterized. These were compared with 17 biopsies with active myocarditis from patients without AIDS risk factors. In both groups, the myocarditis consisted of either multifocal or interstitial infiltrates of small lymphocytes and isolated myocyte necrosis. The lymphocytes consisted of T cells (CD2+, CD3+) and cells not identified by the usual markers. B cells, monocytes, CD4+ cells, and natural killer (NK) cells were only rarely observed. All of the HIV-positive patients but only 7 of 17 non-HIV patients had CD8+ lymphocytes in the infiltrates (P less than 0.01). The arteriolar endothelium demonstrated induced class I (HLA-A, B, C) and II (HLA-DR) antigens in both groups. In situ hybridization for HIV-1 failed to identify the virus in the specimens. The immunopathology is consistent with a cell-mediated injury to the myocytes in HIV-positive patients and is similar to a subgroup of myocarditis in the non-HIV group. Images Figure 1

Beschorner, W. E.; Baughman, K.; Turnicky, R. P.; Hutchins, G. M.; Rowe, S. A.; Kavanaugh-McHugh, A. L.; Suresch, D. L.; Herskowitz, A.

1990-01-01

405

HIV-associated chronic immune activation.  

PubMed

Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4(+) T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by anti-retroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4(+) T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4(+) T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to 'show AIDS the door', and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives. PMID:23772616

Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

2013-07-01

406

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

407

Cross-Layer MAC Protocol and Holistic Opportunistic Scheduling with Adaptive Power Control for QoS in WiMAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing quality of service (QoS) to different service classes with integrated real-time and non-real-time traffic is an\\u000a important issue in broadband wireless access networks. Opportunistic MAC (OMAC) is a novel view of communication over spatiotemporally\\u000a varying wireless link whereby the multi-user diversity is exploited rather than combated to maximize bandwidth efficiency\\u000a or system throughput. It combines cross-layer design features and

Jinchang Lu; Maode Ma

408

Characterization of the mrgRS locus of the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei: temperature regulates the expression of a two-component signal transduction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte in tropical environments and an opportunistic human pathogen. This versatility requires a sensing mechanism that allows the bacterium to respond rapidly to altered environmental conditions. We characterized a two-component signal transduction locus from B. pseudomallei 204, mrgR and mrgS, encoding products with extensive homology with response regulators and histidine protein kinases of Escherichia coli,

Magdy E Mahfouz; T Hilton Grayson; David AB Dance; Martyn L Gilpin

2006-01-01

409

Drug-specific risk of non-tuberculosis opportunistic infections in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy reported to the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy may be associated with opportunistic infections (OIs).ObjectiveTo describe the spectrum of non-tuberculosis OIs associated with anti-TNF therapy and identify their risk factors.MethodsA 3-year national French registry (RATIO) collected all cases of OI in patients receiving anti-TNF treatment for any indication in France. A case–control study was performed with three controls treated with anti-TNF agents per

D Salmon-Ceron; F Tubach; O Lortholary; O Chosidow; S Bretagne; N Nicolas; E Cuillerier; B Fautrel; C Michelet; J Morel; X Puéchal; D Wendling; M Lemann; P Ravaud; X Mariette

2011-01-01

410

Safety and Activity of the Immune Modulator HE2000 on the Incidence of Tuberculosis and Other Opportunistic Infections in AIDS Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five AIDS patients were treated with HE2000, a synthetic adrenal hormone. The drug was well tolerated and safe and reduced both the incidence of tuberculosis coinfection by 42.2% (P < 0.05) and the cumulative incidence of opportunistic infections (P < 0.05). These results warrant further clinical investigation of HE2000. AIDS remains a major health problem worldwide, and op- portunistic infections

Dwight R. Stickney; Zoja Noveljic; Armando Garsd; Daniel A. Destiche; James M. Frincke

2007-01-01

411

COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

Ivanova, N. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E7 (Canada); Chaichenets, S. [Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, CAB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G1 (Canada)

2011-04-20

412

Common gastrointestinal symptoms: Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Swallowing occurs in 3 phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Oropharyngeal dysphagia typically is a result of neuromuscular disorders, such as stroke and parkinsonism, or of mucosal dryness caused by drugs or radiation therapy. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly caused by anatomic defects of the esophagus, such as reflux disease; motility disorders, such as achalasia; or eosinophilic esophagitis. If oropharyngeal dysphagia is suspected, the patient should undergo initial testing with a water or semisolid bolus swallow test. If results are positive, the diagnosis can be confirmed with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. If esophageal dysphagia is suspected, patients typically undergo endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Management of confirmed oropharyngeal dysphagia involves short-term compensation strategies, such as postural changes or food thickening, to minimize the risk of aspiration. This is followed by rehabilitation that may involve swallowing exercises with biofeedback or electrical stimulation of the swallowing muscles. Some patients may need enteral feeding. For esophageal dysphagia, choice of management depends on the etiology; it may include endoscopic dilation, myotomy, injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (formerly called botulinum toxin type A) for structural abnormalities, or topical steroid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24124702

Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

2013-10-01

413

Common knowledge in update logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We present some methods that yield so-called reduction axioms for common knowledge. We investigate the expressive power of public announcement logic with relativized common knowledge, and present reduction axioms that

Johan van Benthem; Jan van Eijck; Barteld P. Kooi

2005-01-01

414

Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Amoung HIV-Infected Persons, 2002. Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were ...

H. Masur J. E. Kaplan K. K. Holmes

2002-01-01

415

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells.  

PubMed

Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing ?H2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in ?H2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. PMID:23760206

Elsen, Sylvie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Gidrol, Xavier; Lemercier, Claudie

2013-06-13

416

Spectrum of AIDS Defining Opportunistic Infections in a Series of 77 Hospitalised HIV-infected Omani Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Most of the morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) result from opportunistic infections (OIs). Although the spectrum of OIs in HIV infected patients from developing countries has been reported, there is a paucity of data on the natural history, pattern of disease, and survival of hospitalised patients with HIV/AIDS, particularly in Arab countries. The aim of this study was to study retrospectively the spectrum and frequency of various OIs in a cohort of hospitalised HIV-infected Omani patients. Methods: Included in the study were 77 HIV-infected Omani patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Muscat, Oman, between January 1999 and December 2008. They were diagnosed on their first admission and hence were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at presentation. The frequency of various clinical and laboratory findings and individual OIs were analysed. Results: In total, 45 patients (58%) had one or more AIDS-defining OIs. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) was commonest (25%), followed by cryptococcal meningitis (22%), cytomegalovirus (CMV), retinitis (17%), disseminated tuberculosis (15%), and cerebral toxoplasmosis (12.5%). Only one patient with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) was identified and one patient had disseminated visceral leishmaniasis. The majority of patients (77%) had CD4+ counts <200 cells/?L. Ten patients (22%) died during hospital stays, with five deaths (50%) being caused by disseminated CMV infection. Conclusion: A wide spectrum of OIs is seen in hospitalised HIV-infected patients in Oman. P. jiroveci pneumonia and cryptococcal meningitis were the commonest OIs, while disseminated CMV was the commonest cause of death. We hope these results will advance the knowledge of specialists treating HIV in Oman and the Gulf region.

Balkhair, Abdullah A.; Al-Muharrmi, Zakariya K.; Ganguly, Shyam; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

2012-01-01

417

Potential roles for GNIH and GNRH-II in reproductive axis regulation of an opportunistically breeding songbird.  

PubMed

The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production during unfavorable conditions. GnIH could inhibit GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus and/or inhibit GnRH action on the anterior pituitary gland. We studied neuroendocrine patterns in wild Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) sampled during a breeding period in Southern Australia, a non-breeding period in central Australia, and in juvenile males in the latter location. We asked whether patterns in immunoreactivity of three neuropeptides important for reproductive axis regulation, GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH, during periods of breeding and non-breeding reflect this flexibility. We found that the numbers and sizes of immunoreactive (-ir) GnRH-I cells did not vary between breeding stages and ages. Contrary to our predictions, irGnIH cell number and size, as well as the synthesis of GnIH mRNA were similar in breeding and non-breeding conditions. However, breeding males had more and larger irGnRH-II cells in the midbrain compared to non-breeding males. Hence, while changes in irGnIH cells are not associated with fluctuations in gonadotropin secretion or gonad volume, the regulation of irGnRH-II cells might represent a previously-unidentified mechanism by which reproductive flexibility can be achieved; namely via behavioral neurotransmitter actions of GnRH-II rather than through the typical sensory-CNS integration-GnRH-I route. PMID:21536042

Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George; Hau, Michaela

2011-04-23

418

On the logic of common belief and common knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys the currently available axiomatizations of common belief (CB) and common knowledge (CK) by means of modal propositional logics. (Throughout, knowledge — whether individual or common — is defined as true belief.) Section 1 introduces the formal method of axiomatization followed by epistemic logicians, especially the syntax-semantics distinction, and the notion of a soundness and completeness theorem. Section

Luc Lismont; Philippe Mongin

1994-01-01

419

Opportunistic Enterprises in Invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies goal handling processes that begin to ac- count for the kind of processes involved in invention. We identify new goal properties and mechanisms for processing goals, as well as means of integrating opportunism, delibera- tion, and social interaction into goal\\/plan processes. We f ocus on enterprise goals, which extend traditional design goals and knowledge goals to address

Marin Simina; Janet Kolodner; Ashwin Ram; Michael Gorman

1998-01-01

420

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... are no antiviral medications available for treating the common cold. Antibiotics are not useful for treating a cold, ...

421

Using online adverts to increase the uptake of cervical screening amongst "real Eastenders": an opportunistic controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical screening uptake has increased as a result of occurrences of cervical cancer in TV ‘soap operas’ and in real life celebrities such as Jade Goody. Media analysis at the time of Jade Goody’s death suggested the NHS did not take sufficient advantage of this opportunity to improve cervical screening rates. Google AdWords has been used to recruit and raise awareness of health but we were not aware of its use to supplement media events. Methods This was an opportunistic service evaluation to accompany a cervical cancer storyline in Eastenders (a TV ‘soap opera’). We ran an AdWords campaign based on keywords such as ‘Eastenders’, and ‘cervical cancer’ in a one mile radius in East London, linked to one webpage giving details of 10 practices and other links on cervical cancer. We recorded costs of adverts and setting up the webpage. We used routine statistics from Tower Hamlets, City and Hackney, and Newham Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) of the number of smears, eligible populations, and coverage by practice by month from September 2010 to January 2012 to compare the ten intervention practices with controls. Results Eight people per day in the target area viewed the project webpage. The cost of setting up the website and running Google AdWords was £1320 or £1.88 per person viewing the webpage. Unlike Jade Goody’s death, there was no major impact from the Eastenders’ storyline on Google searches for cervical cancer. There was considerable monthly variation in the number of smear tests in the 3 PCTs. The AdWords campaign may have had some effect on smear rates but this showed, at best, a marginal statistical difference. Assuming a ‘real’ effect, the intervention may have resulted in 110 ‘extra’ women being screened but there was no change in coverage. Conclusions Although the Eastenders storyline seemed to have no effect on interest in cervical cancer or screening, the AdWords campaign may have had some effect. Given the small scale exploratory nature of the study this was not statistically significant but the relatively modest cost of advertising suggests a larger study may be worthwhile. An outline of a possible study is described.

2013-01-01

422

Common liability to addiction and "gateway hypothesis": Theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Two competing concepts address the development of involvement with psychoactive substances: the “gateway hypothesis” (GH) and common liability to addiction (CLA). Method The literature on theoretical foundations and empirical findings related to both concepts is reviewed. Results The data suggest that drug use initiation sequencing, the core GH element, is variable and opportunistic rather than uniform and developmentally deterministic. The association between risks for use of different substances, if any, can be more readily explained by common underpinnings than by specific staging. In contrast, the CLA concept is grounded in genetic theory and supported by data identifying common sources of variation in the risk for specific addictions. This commonality has identifiable neurobiological substrate and plausible evolutionary explanations. Conclusions Whereas the “gateway” hypothesis does not specify mechanistic connections between “stages”, and does not extend to the risks for addictions, the concept of common liability to addictions incorporates sequencing of drug use initiation as well as extends to related addictions and their severity, provides a parsimonious explanation of substance use and addiction co-occurrence, and establishes a theoretical and empirical foundation to research in etiology, quantitative risk and severity measurement, as well as targeted non-drug-specific prevention and early intervention.

Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirillova, Galina P.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Conway, Kevin P.; Maher, Brion S.; Iacono, William G.; Bierut, Laura; Neale, Michael C.; Clark, Duncan B.; Ridenour, Ty A.

2013-01-01

423

Chains and the Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a description of how the iterated specific use of an indefinite NP can lead to the establishment of referential chains across dialogues and dialogue participants. We describe how they introduce discourse referents, how they are related to the common ground, and how this common ground can be represented by the dialogue participants. Of central concern

Anton Benz

424

Evolution of a Common Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific dat...

D. Barbour D. Powell G. Gilbreath

2012-01-01

425

Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms.

Miller, Penny F.

1991-01-01

426

Teachers' Domain Common Core Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides a selection of 300 resources from Teachers' Domain, selected because they support the represent approaches to using digital media to support the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, or the approaches to science education detailed in the Framework for K-12 Science Education.

2012-08-28

427

Building on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Common Core State Standards, released in June 2010, offer an opportunity to shift education away from shallow, test-prep instruction and toward a focus on key cognitive skills, writes Conley. Two consortia of states are now developing common assessments to measure these standards--assessments that will be designed to capture deeper, more…

Conley, David T.

2011-01-01

428

Objectification in Common Sense Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking ‘objectification’ characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person, and to disengagement or alienation. Formation of concepts refers to the attainment of common features

Ivana Marková

2012-01-01

429

Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

430

Mathematics Common Core Unpacked: Kindergarten  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides descriptions and examples of what each Mathematics Common Core standard means a Kindergarten student will know, understand and be able to do. This "unpacking" of the standards provides instructional guidelines and was developed to assist North Carolina educators teach the Mathematics Common Core (Standard Course of Study).

Uncc, Ew P.

2012-08-01

431

Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons--2002. Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

PubMed

In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were updated in 1997 and 1999. This fourth edition of the guidelines, made available on the Internet in 2001, is intended for clinicians and other health-care providers who care for HIV-infected persons. The goal of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based guidelines for preventing OIs among HIV-infected adults and adolescents, including pregnant women, and HIV-exposed or infected children. Nineteen OIs, or groups of OIs, are addressed, and recommendations are included for preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens, preventing first episodes of disease by chemoprophylaxis or vaccination (primary prophylaxis), and preventing disease recurrence (secondary prophylaxis). Major changes since the last edition of the guidelines include 1) updated recommendations for discontinuing primary and secondary OI prophylaxis among persons whose CD4+ T lymphocyte counts have increased in response to antiretroviral therapy; 2) emphasis on screening all HIV-infected persons for infection with hepatitis C virus; 3) new information regarding transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection; 4) new information regarding drug interactions, chiefly related to rifamycins and antiretroviral drugs; and 5) revised recommendations for immunizing HIV-infected adults and adolescents and HIV-exposed or infected children. PMID:12081007

Kaplan, Jonathan E; Masur, Henry; Holmes, King K

2002-06-14

432

Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons--2002. Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

PubMed

In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were updated in 1997 and 1999. This fourth edition of the guidelines, made available on the Internet in 2001, is intended for clinicians and other health-care providers who care for HIV-infected persons. The goal of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based guidelines for preventing OIs among HIV-infected adults and adolescents, including pregnant women, and HIV-exposed or infected children. Nineteen OIs, or groups of OIs, are addressed, and recommendations are included for preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens, preventing first episodes of disease by chemoprophylaxis or vaccination (primary prophylaxis), and preventing disease recurrence (secondary prophylaxis). Major changes since the last edition of the guidelines include 1) updated recommendations for discontinuing primary and secondary OI prophylaxis among persons whose CD4+ T lymphocyte counts have increased in response to antiretroviral therapy; 2) emphasis on screening all HIV-infected persons for infection with hepatitis C virus; 3) new information regarding transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection; 4) new information regarding drug interactions, chiefly related to rifamycins and antiretroviral drugs; and 5) revised recommendations for immunizing HIV-infected adults and adolescents and HIV-exposed or infected children. PMID:12617574

Masur, Henry; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Holmes, King K