Sample records for common hiv-associated opportunistic

  1. Complications of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Hospitalised Patients with HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Helen; Meintjes, Graeme; Schutz, Charlotte; Goliath, Rene; Myer, Landon; Baatjie, Dorothea; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Maartens, Gary; Mendelson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-associated tuberculosis is a common coinfection in Sub-Saharan Africa, which causes high morbidity and mortality. A sub-set of HIV-associated tuberculosis patients require prolonged hospital admission, during which antiretroviral therapy initiation may be required. The aim of this study was to document the causes of clinical deterioration of hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in order to inform healthcare practice in low- to middle-income countries. Methods Prospective, observational cohort study of adult inpatients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in a dedicated tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Causes of clinical deterioration and outcome were recorded in the first 12 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis were excluded. Results Between May 2009 and November 2010, 112 patients (60% female), with a median age of 32 years were enrolled. At baseline the median CD4 count was 55 cells/mm3 (IQR 31–106) and HIV viral load 5.6 log copies/mL. All patients had significant comorbidity: 82% were bed-bound, 65% had disseminated tuberculosis and 27% had central nervous system tuberculosis. Seventy six patients (68%) developed 144 clinical events after starting antiretroviral therapy. TB-IRIS, hospital-acquired infections and significant drug toxicities occurred in 42%, 20.5% and 15% of patients respectively. A new opportunistic disease occurred in 15% of patients and a thromboembolic event in 8%. Mortality during the 12 week period was 10.6%. Conclusions High rates of TB-IRIS, hospital-acquired infections and drug toxicities complicate the course of patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in hospital. Despite the high morbidity, mortality was relatively low. Careful clinical management and adequate resources are needed in hospitalised HIV-TB patients in the 1st three months following ART initiation. PMID:23408935

  2. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any CD4 cell count. See Fact Sheet 508. Malaria is common in the developing world. It is ... aidsinfo.nih.gov/Guidelines/ and choosing "Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections Guidelines." Strong antiretroviral drugs can ...

  3. HIV associated pulmonary emphysema: a review of the literature and inquiry into its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Petrache, I; Diab, K; Knox, K S; Twigg, H L; Stephens, R S; Flores, S; Tuder, R M

    2008-05-01

    Chronic lung diseases are increasingly recognised complications of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of these, pulmonary emphysema, characterised by permanent destruction of the lung parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by various degrees of inflammation, is emerging as a distinct source of morbidity for patients infected with HIV. Similarly, HIV is now frequently cited as a susceptibility factor for the development of emphysema, independent of cigarette smoking status. The presence of common coexistent confounding factors that may predispose patients to chronic lung injury such as drugs, opportunistic infections and malnutrition, limits the scope of studies of direct mechanisms involved in HIV associated emphysematous lung disease. We review the clinical studies supporting a direct association between HIV infection and emphysema. Recent developments in the basic understanding of HIV infection and emphysema are also reviewed, since they may aid in understanding the pathobiology of HIV associated emphysema. The authors emphasise how HIV infection may affect cytotoxic lymphocyte activation, lung capillary endothelial cell injury and apoptosis, sphingolipid imbalance and oxidative stress in the lung. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV associated pulmonary emphysema may provide clues and therapeutic targets that have broader application in this disease, including cigarette smoke induced emphysema. PMID:18443163

  4. HIV-associated anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiquimod. The development of cost-effective national screening programs for HIV-associated anal cancer remains a challenge. PMID:21283597

  5. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

  6. Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flepisi, Brian Thabile; Bouic, Patrick; Sissolak, Gerhard; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of cancer, and predict response to chemotherapy. They offer the hope of early detection as well as tracking disease progression and recurrence. Current progress in the characterization of molecular genetics of HIV-associated cancers may form the basis for improved patient stratification and future targeted or individualized therapies. Biomarker use for cancer staging and personalization of therapy at the time of diagnosis could improve patient care. This review focuses on the relevance of biomarkers in the most common HIV-associated malignancies, namely, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. PMID:25057241

  7. [Opportunistic diseases in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Furrer, Hj

    2004-10-01

    Opportunistic diseases have been and still are a major cause of HIV associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with undiagnosed HIV infection often present with symptoms of opportunistic infections. Therefore, all clinicians should know their clinical presentations. Patients with severe immunodeficiency, manifested by low CD4-lymphocyte count, should receive primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci, T. gondii und M. avium. After successful initial treatment of opportunistic infections maintenance therapy is indicated. The introduction of potent antiretroviral combination therapy has led to a decline of incidence and letality of most opportunistic diseases and allows discontinuation of established primary prophylaxis and maintenance therapy if a durable rise of CD4-lymphocyte count can be achieved. The improvement of immunocompetence due to antiretroviral therapy is also associated with new clinical manifestations of opportunistic infections, the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes. The framework of the multicenter Swiss HIV Cohort Study with its detailed documentation of opportunistic diseases has allowed several important studies and analyses that have had a worldwide influence on the management of these diseases. PMID:15532192

  8. HIV-associated immune-mediated renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L Kimmel; Terry M Phillips; Andrea Ferreira-Centeno; Tunde Farkas-Szallasi; A Andrew Abraham; Carleton T Garrett

    1993-01-01

    HIV-associated immune-mediated renal disease. Although focal glomerulosclerosis is the most common renal disease, other proliferative glomerulonephritides are encountered in HIV-infected patients. We studied four HIV-infected patients with renal insufficiency, proteinuria, and proliferative glomerulonephritis, consistent with immune-mediated disease, to investigate the role of the virus and immune complexes in the pathogenesis of the nephropathy. Circulating immune complexes (CICs) and HIV-reactive antibodies

  9. HIV-Associated Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, Michele; Biava, Gianluigi; Antinori., Andrea

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection has been recognized as a prothrombotic condition and this association has now been proven by a large number of studies with a reported VTE frequency among HIV-infected patients ranging from 0.19% to 7,63 %/year. HIV infection is associated with a two to tenfold increased risk of venous thrombosis in comparison with a general population of the same age. Some risk factors demonstrated a strongest association with VTE such as, low CD4+ cell count especially in the presence of clinical AIDS, protein S deficiency, and protein C deficiency. Whereas other risk factors are still controversial like protease inhibitor therapy, presence of active opportunistic infections and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, including anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Physicians caring for HIV positive patients should be able to recognize and treat not only the well-known opportunistic infections and malignancies associated with this chronic disease, but also be alert to the less well-known complications such as thromboses. Pulmonary embolism should be included in the differential diagnosis when patients with HIV/AIDS have unexplained dyspnea or hypoxemia. In younger individuals with VTE, especially men, without other identifiable risk factors for VTE, HIV should be considered. Because interactions between warfarin and antiretrovirals is possible, health care providers should also be alert to the potential of dangerously high or low INRs when they are giving anticoagulants to patients with HIV infection who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21869916

  10. Opportunistic Pathogens and Elements of the Resistome that Are Common in Bottled Mineral Water Support the Need for Continuous Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water. PMID:25803794

  11. Opportunistic Pathogens and Elements of the Resistome that Are Common in Bottled Mineral Water Support the Need for Continuous Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water. PMID:25803794

  12. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worsen instead of improving over time, you should contact your care provider immediately. Additional Resources AIDSinfo â?? Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents AIDSinfo â?? Guidelines for Prevention and ...

  13. HIV-Associated Disruption of Tight and Adherens Junctions of Oral Epithelial Cells Facilitates HSV-1 Infection and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  14. Treatment of HIV-Associated Nephropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usama Elewa; Ana Maria Sandri; Stacey A. Rizza; Fernando C. Fervenza

    2011-01-01

    In patients with HIV, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved life expectancy. At the same time, this increase in life expectancy has been associated with a higher frequency of chronic kidney disease due to factors other than HIV infection. Besides HIV-associated nephropathy, a number of different types of immune complex and non-immune complex-mediated processes have been identified

  15. Leptin in congenital and HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Michael A; Farr, Olivia M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy metabolism via peripheral action on glucose synthesis and utilization as well as through central regulation of food intake. Patients with decreased amounts of fat in their adipose tissue (lipoatrophy) will have low leptin levels, and hypoleptinemic states have been associated with a variety of metabolic dysfunctions. Pronounced complications of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver are observed in patients suffering from congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy while somewhat less pronounced abnormalities are associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the so-called HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Previous uncontrolled open-label studies have demonstrated that physiological doses of leptin repletion have corrected many of the metabolic derangements observed in subjects with rare fat maldistribution syndromes such as generalized lipodystrophy. In the much more commonly encountered HIV-associated lipodystrophy, leptin replacement has been shown to decrease central fat mass and to improve insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and glucose levels. The United States Food and Drug Administration has recently granted approval for recombinant leptin therapy for congenital and acquired generalized lipodystrophy, however large, well-designed, placebo-controlled studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy, safety and adverse effects of leptin replacement. In this review, we present the role of leptin in the metabolic complications of congenital and acquired lipodystrophy and discuss current and emerging clinical therapeutic uses of leptin in humans with lipodystrophy. PMID:25267014

  16. Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy M. Polydefkis, MD nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy density determination has emerged as a diagnostic test for patients with small-fiber sensory neuropathy

  17. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Elbirt, Daniel; Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Bezalel-Rosenberg, Shira; Gill, Harpreet; Attali, Malka; Asher, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment still occurs in the era of HAART, though its onset appears to be delayed and its severity reduced, while HIV-infected individuals live longer with the infection. HAND defines three categories of disorders according to standardized measures of dysfunction: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying HAND involve host and virus characterizations and interactions and seem to depend heavily on the overall condition of the immune system. Since there are insufficient data at this point to determine the best therapeutic approach, and since HAART apparently is not sufficient to prevent or reverse HAND, therapy with a combination of drugs with high CPE should be considered while adjunctive and alternative therapies are being explored. PMID:25739180

  18. An official ATS workshop report: Emerging issues and current controversies in HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina; Beck, James M; Huang, Laurence

    2011-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases are major causes of morbidity and death in persons with HIV infection. Millions of people with HIV/AIDS throughout the world are at risk of opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, and Pneumocystis pneumonia. However, the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy has turned HIV into a chronic disease, and noninfectious lung diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are also emerging as important causes of illness. Despite the importance of these diseases and the rapidly evolving understanding of their pathogenesis and epidemiology, few avenues exist for the discussion and dissemination of new clinical and basic insights. In May of 2008, the American Thoracic Society sponsored a 1-day workshop, "Emerging Issues and Current Controversies in HIV-Associated Pulmonary Diseases," which brought together basic and clinical researchers in HIV-associated pulmonary disease. A review of the literature was performed by workshop participants, and the workshop included 18 presentations on diverse topics summarized in this article. PMID:21364216

  19. A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hahn; G. Arendt; J. S. Braun; H.-J von Giesen; I. W. Husstedt; M. Maschke; M. E. Straube; E. Schielke

    2004-01-01

    Background: Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies (HIV-SN) are a common complication of HIV infection. The pathogenesis is unknown and the treatment very limited. Gabapentin (GBP) is effective in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia and its effectiveness on painful HIV-SN has been reported anecdotally. Design: Multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Patients were followed for a 1-week screening, a 4-week

  20. HIV-associated renal disorders: Recent insights into pathogenesis and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Berggren; Vecihi Batuman

    2005-01-01

    Renal electrolyte disorders, acute renal failure, and a variety of chronic renal diseases are common in HIV-infected patients.\\u000a Glomerular disorders include IgA nephropathy, cryoglobulinemia, amyloidosis, and a lupus-like immune complex glomerulopathy.\\u000a The most attention has been focused on collapsing glomerulopathy associated with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal\\u000a failure, which appears to be unique for patients with HIV\\/AIDS, called HIV-associated nephropathy

  1. HIV-associated Multicentric Castleman Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Deepa; Mitsuyasu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (HIV MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, the incidence of which appears to be increasing in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Current knowledge of the disease is limited and this review will discuss what is known about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of HIV MCD. Recent findings HIV MCD has been shown to be associated with infection with human herpervirus-8 (HHV8). Vascular endothelial growth factor and the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are also thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCD. Currently, rituximab is often used alone or in combination with chemotherapy for treatment of MCD. Novel monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor are also being studied for the management of this disease. Summary Because HIV MCD is an uncommon diagnosis, comprehensive clinical studies have not been done, and understanding of the disease is incomplete. Further studies are needed to make definitive conclusions regarding optimal treatment of HIV MCD. PMID:21760504

  2. The successful use of lipectomy in the management of airway obstruction in a woman with HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Edison; Bogdasarian, Ronald; Blomain, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is a common complication of highly active antiretroviral therapy and is associated with significant comorbidities. Altered fat distribution, particularly lipohypertrophy of the dorsal cervical fat pad is associated with reduced quality of life as well as medical complications. We report the rare case of a patient with airway obstruction secondary to HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Ultrasound-assisted liposuction was successfully performed to relieve her airway obstruction and to facilitate a tracheostomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of its kind. We also provide a brief review of the literature on the current management options for HIV-associated lipodystrophy. PMID:25694636

  3. Targeting platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand: a new treatment strategy for HIV-associated neuroinflammation?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) continues to be one of the most prevalent global health afflictions to date. The advent and introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has made a significant impact on the course of infection. However, as patients are living longer, many HIV-associated illnesses are becoming prevalent among the infected population, especially those associated with chronic inflammation. Consistently, HIV-associated neuroinflammation is believed to be a major catalyst in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which are estimated to persist in approximately 50% of infected individuals regardless of cART. This dramatically underscores the need to develop effective adjunctive therapies capable of controlling this aspect of the disease, which are currently lacking. We previously demonstrated that the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is elevated in both the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively impaired infected individuals compared to their non-impaired infected counterparts. Our group, and others have recently demonstrated that there is an increasing role for this inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neuroinflammation, thereby identifying this molecule as a potential therapeutic target for the management of HAND. Platelets are the major source of circulating sCD40L, and these small cells are increasingly implicated in a multitude of inflammatory disorders, including those common during HIV infection. Thus, antiplatelet therapies that minimize the release of platelet-derived inflammatory mediators such as sCD40L are an innovative, non-traditional approach for the treatment of HIV-associated neuroinflammation, with the potential to benefit other HIV-associated illnesses. PMID:24289660

  4. HIV-Associated Eosinophilic Folliculitis and Follicular Mucinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Buezo; J. Fraga; P. Abajo; L. Ríos; E. Daudén; A. García-Díez

    1998-01-01

    The term HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) designates an idiopathic dermatitis that appears in HIV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations but with a distinctive histological feature characterized by a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the follicular infundibula. On the other side, follicular mucinosis (FM) is a reaction pattern in the follicular epithelium, characterized by a mucinous degeneration of the outer sheath of

  5. HIV associated neurodegeneration requires p53 in neurons and microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwenn A. Garden; Weiqun Guo; Suman Jayadev; Christina Tun; Stephanie Balcaitis; Jo Choi; Thomas J. Montine; Thomas Möller; Richard S. Morrison

    2004-01-01

    HIV infection of the central nervous system leads to HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in a substantial subset of infected individuals. The pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction in HAD is not well understood, but previous studies have demonstrated evidence for activation of apoptotic pathways. The tumor suppressor transcription factor p53 is an apical mediator of neuronal apoptosis following a variety of injurious stimuli.

  6. Polyamines: Predictive Biomarker for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merali, Salim; Barrero, Carlos A.; Sacktor, Ned C.; Haughey, Norman J.; Datta, Prasun K.; Langford, Dianne; Khalili, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetytransferase (SSAT) is the key enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines that are involved in regulating NMDA functioning. Over expression of SSAT leads to abnormal metabolic cycling and may disrupt NMDA receptor signaling. In fact, the HIV protein Tat induces neurotoxicity involving polyamine/NMDA receptor interactions. Thus, we investigated abnormal polyamine cycling in HIV+ participants with varying degrees of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Methods Acetyl-polyamine (SSAT products) levels were assessed by HPLC in CSF from 99 HIV-infected participants (no cognitive impairment (NCI, n=25), asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI, n=25), mild cognitive and motor disorders (MCMD, n=24), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD, n=25)). Polyamine levels in brain tissues from a subset of participants (uninfected (n=3), NCI (n=3), and MNCD (n=3)) were also assessed. Human primary astrocytes expressing HIV Tat were assessed for levels of the SSAT activity. Results Activation of the polyamine catabolic enzyme, SSAT increases polyamine flux in brain and CSF of HIV infected individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. CSF levels of acetylated polyamine increase with the degree of HAND severity as indicated by significantly increased acetylpolyamine levels in HAD participants compared to NCI and ANI (p<0.0001) and between MCMD and NCI and ANI (p<0.0001). In vitro studies suggest that the HIV protein Tat may be responsible in part for astrocyte-derived acetyl polyamine release. Interpretation Our data suggest that polyamine metabolism may play a pivotal role in the neurodegeneration process among HAND patients. Changes in polyamine flux may serve as a potential predictive diagnostic biomarker for different severities of HAND.

  7. Trichoderma species — opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Howell; Ada Viterbo; Ilan Chet; Matteo Lorito; Gary E. Harman

    2004-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. Recent discoveries show that they are opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts, as well as being parasites of other fungi. At least some strains establish robust and long-lasting colonizations of root surfaces and penetrate into the epidermis and a few cells below this level. They produce or release a

  8. Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; Lobo, Aaron S; Purcell, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    How can species be exploited economically to extinction? Past single-species hypotheses examining the economic plausibility of exploiting rare species have argued that the escalating value of rarity allows extinction to be profitable. We describe an alternative pathway toward extinction in multispecies exploitation systems, termed 'opportunistic exploitation'. In this mode, highly valued species that are targeted first by fishing, hunting, and logging become rare, but their populations can decline further through opportunistic exploitation while more common but less desirable species are targeted. Effectively, expanding exploitation to more species subsidizes the eventual extinction of valuable species at low densities. Managers need to recognize conditions that permit opportunistic depletion and pass regulations to protect highly desirable species when exploitation can expand to other species. PMID:23562732

  9. Role of Neuroimaging in HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Mary C.; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV enters the brain soon after seroconversion and can cause HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the more severe and progressive forms of HAND are less prevalent due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), ~ 40% of HIV-infected (HIV+) patients continue to have cognitive impairment. Some HIV+ individuals who have effective plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression with cART still develop HAND. It is often difficult to diagnose HAND in the outpatient setting as detailed neuropsychological performance testing is required. Additional biomarkers that are relatively easy to obtain and clinically relevant are needed for assessing HIV associated neuropathologic changes. Recently developed non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have great potential to serve as biomarkers. We review the application of some of these neuroimaging techniques [magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), volumetric MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI)] in HIV+ individuals. Each of the neuroimaging methods offers unique insight into mechanisms underlying neuroHIV, could monitor disease progression, and may assist in evaluating the efficacy of particular cART regimens. It is hoped that considerable progress will continue to occur such that some of these neuroimaging methods will be incorporated across multiple sites and included in future HAND guidelines. PMID:24715492

  10. Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus as a Risk Factor for HIV-Associated Neuroretinal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Andrea D.; Drye, Lea T.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Sezgin, Efe; Fishman, Sarah L.; Dieterich, Douglas T.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) penetrate the central nervous system. HIV-associated neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), a visual impairment of reduced contrast sensitivity and reading ability, is associated with cytokine dysregulation and genetic polymorphisms in the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) signaling pathway. We investigated associations between HCV and HIV-NRD and between HCV and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) gene. Methods.?Logistic and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze risk factors for HIV-NRD in 1576 HIV-positive patients who did not have an ocular opportunistic infection at enrollment. Median follow-up was 4.9 years (interquartile range, 2.4–8.8 years). Four IL10R1 SNPs were examined in a subset of 902 patients. Results.?The group included 290 patients with chronic HCV infection, 74 with prior infection, and 1212 with no HCV markers. There were 244 prevalent cases of HIV-NRD and 263 incident cases (rate = 3.9/100 person-years). In models adjusted for demographics, HIV treatment and status, liver function, and immune status, both the prevalence and incidence of HIV-NRD were significantly higher in patients with chronic HCV infection (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.31 and hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.13–2.34, respectively), compared to patients with no HCV markers. Chronic HCV was associated with rs2228055 and 2 additional IL-10R1 SNPs expected to reduce IL-10 signaling. HIV-NRD was not significantly associated with these SNPs. Conclusions.?HCV is a possible risk factor for HIV-NRD. Genetic analysis suggests that alterations in the IL-10 signaling pathway may increase susceptibility to HIV-NRD and HCV infection. Inflammation may link HCV and HIV-NRD. PMID:24081683

  11. Rodent models for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa; Gendelman, Howard E

    2012-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) reflect the spectrum of neural impairments seen during chronic viral infection. Current research efforts focus on improving antiretroviral and adjunctive therapies, defining disease onset and progression, facilitating drug delivery, and halting neurodegeneration and viral resistance. Because HIV is species-specific, generating disease in small-animal models has proved challenging. After two decades of research, rodent HAND models now include those containing a human immune system. Antiviral responses, neuroinflammation and immunocyte blood-brain barrier (BBB) trafficking follow HIV infection in these rodent models. We review these and other rodent models of HAND and discuss their unmet potential in reflecting human pathobiology and in facilitating disease monitoring and therapeutic discoveries. PMID:22305769

  12. HIV-Associated Histoplasmosis Early Mortality and Incidence Trends: From Neglect to Priority

    PubMed Central

    Adenis, Antoine; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Vantilcke, Vincent; Boukhari, Rachida; Blachet, Denis; Demar, Magalie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in French Guiana. It is the most common AIDS-defining illness and the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths. Diagnosis is difficult, but in the past 2 decades, it has improved in this French overseas territory which offers an interesting model of Amazonian pathogen ecology. The objectives of the present study were to describe the temporal trends of incidence and mortality indicators for HIV-associated histoplasmosis in French Guiana. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to describe early mortality rates observed in persons diagnosed with incident cases of HIV-associated Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum histoplasmosis admitted in one of the three main hospitals in French Guiana between 1992 and 2011. Early mortality was defined by death occurring within 30 days after antifungal treatment initiation. Data were collected on standardized case report forms and analysed using standard statistical methods. Results There were 124 deaths (45.3%) and 46 early deaths (16.8%) among 274 patients. Three time periods of particular interest were identified: 1992–1997, 1998–2004 and 2005–2011. The two main temporal trends were: the proportion of early deaths among annual incident histoplasmosis cases significantly declined four fold (?2, p<0.0001) and the number of annual incident histoplasmosis cases increased three fold between 1992–1997 and 1998–2004, and subsequently stabilized. Conclusion From an occasional exotic diagnosis, AIDS-related histoplasmosis became the top AIDS-defining event in French Guiana. This was accompanied by a spectacular decrease of early mortality related to histoplasmosis, consistent with North American reference center mortality rates. The present example testifies that rapid progress could be at reach if awareness increases and leads to clinical and laboratory capacity building in order to diagnose and treat this curable disease. PMID:25144374

  13. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

    2014-06-01

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  14. T cell susceptibility to HIV influences outcome of opportunistic infections.

    PubMed

    Saharia, Kapil K; Koup, Richard A

    2013-10-24

    During HIV infection, the timing of opportunistic infections is not always associated with severity of CD4 T cell depletion, and different opportunistic pathogens reactivate at different CD4 T cell thresholds. Here, we examine how differences in the phenotype and function of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells influence susceptibility to HIV infection. By focusing on three common opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus, and cytomegalovirus), we investigate how differential depletion of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells impacts the natural history of these pathogens in HIV infection. A broader understanding of this relationship can better inform treatment strategies against copathogens. PMID:24243010

  15. Prepulse Inhibition in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Vaida, Florin; Grant, Igor; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). 37 HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, though the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated. PMID:23552464

  16. HEp-2 Cell-Adherent Escherichia coli and Intestinal Secretory Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Outpatients with HIV-Associated Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, John J.; Salameh, Bassam M.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Jiang, Zhi D.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Arduino, Roberto; Smith, Melinda A.; Masozera, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself have recently been incriminated as causes of chronic HIV-associated diarrhea. This study sought to determine the prevalence of these two agents among HIV-infected patients with diarrhea in an outpatient setting in the United States and to compare their prevalence to that of other commonly recognized enteropathogens known to be present in this population. HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli was found in 20 of 83 (24.1%) patients with diarrhea. A diffuse pattern of adherence was the most common, found in 14 of 20 (70%) patients, followed by a localized adherence pattern (6 of 20; 30%). An intestinal secretory immune response against the p24 antigen of HIV was found in 9 of 34 (27.5%) patients with HIV-associated diarrhea. The following pathogens or products were also detected in lower frequencies: Cryptosporidium spp. (10.8%), Clostridium difficile toxin (8.8%), microsporidia (6%), Isospora belli (3.6%), Blastocystis hominis (2.4%), Giardia spp. (1.2%), Salmonella spp. (1.2%), and Mycobacterium spp. (1.2%). The role of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli and HIV enteric infections in patients with HIV-associated diarrhea deserves further study. PMID:9455887

  17. Current knowledge on HIV-associated Plasmablastic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, Michele; Castillo, Jorge J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated PBL is an AIDS-defining cancer, classified by WHO as a distinct entity of aggressive DLBCL. To date less than 250 cases have been published, of them 17 are pediatric. The pathogenesis of this rare disease is related to immunodeficiency, chronic immune stimulation and EBV. Clinically is a rapid growing destructive disease mainly involving the oral cavity even if extraoral and extranodal sites are not infrequent. The diagnosis requires tissue mass or lymph node biopsy and core needle or fine needle biopsy is acceptable only for difficult access sites. Classically immunophenotype is CD45, CD20, CD79a negative and CD38, CD138, MUM1 positive, EBER and KI67 is >80%. Regarding the therapy, standard treatment is, usually, CHOP or CHOP-like regimens while more intensive regimens as CODOX-M/IVAC or DA-EPOCH are possible options. Use of cART is recommended during chemotherapy, keeping in mind the possible overlapping toxicities. Rituximab is not useful for this CD20 negative disease and CNS prophylaxis is mandatory. Intensification with ABMT in CR1 may be considered for fit patients. For refractory/relapsed patients, therapy is, usually, considered palliative, however, in chemo-sensitive disease, intensification + ABMT or new drugs as Bortezomib may be considered. Factors affecting outcome are achieving complete remission, PS, clinical stage, MYC, IPI score. Reported median PFS ranges between 6–7 months and median OS ranges between 11–13 months. Long term survivors are reported but mostly in pediatric patients. Finally, due to the scarcity of data on this subtype of NHL we suggest that the diagnosis and the management of HIV-positive PBL patients should be performed in specialized centers. PMID:25408850

  18. An Unusual Case of Anti-GBM Antibody Elevation in HIV-Associated Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Raafat; Poenariu, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The most commonly seen glomerular disease in HIV infected patients is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN); however, a multitude of other nephropathies can occur in HIV infection with an almost equal cumulative frequency. We report an unusual case of a patient with clinical and histological evidence of HIVAN in which the diagnosis was initially confounded by the finding of an elevated serum anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 27-year-old African American female with a history of schizophrenia, cocaine abuse, and HIV infection who upon admission to our hospital was found to have severe acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis. Urine studies revealed nephrotic range proteinuria and a serological workup was positive for anti-GBM antibody elevation with a value of 91 units (normal: 0–20 units). A renal biopsy revealed HIVAN with no evidence of crescentic glomerulonephritis or anti-GBM disease. Conclusion. This case highlights the need for careful interpretation of anti-GBM antibody tests in HIV infected patients with kidney disease and, in particular, the need for biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis prior to starting therapy. More research is needed to study the prognostic correlation between the degree of anti-GBM antibody elevation in HIVAN and disease severity. PMID:24995137

  19. Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Peterson, Kristen L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Harris, J. Kirk; Pace, Norman R.

    2009-01-01

    The environments we humans encounter daily are sources of exposure to diverse microbial communities, some of potential concern to human health. In this study, we used culture-independent technology to investigate the microbial composition of biofilms inside showerheads as ecological assemblages in the human indoor environment. Showers are an important interface for human interaction with microbes through inhalation of aerosols, and showerhead waters have been implicated in disease. Although opportunistic pathogens commonly are cultured from shower facilities, there is little knowledge of either their prevalence or the nature of other microorganisms that may be delivered during shower usage. To determine the composition of showerhead biofilms and waters, we analyzed rRNA gene sequences from 45 showerhead sites around the United States. We find that variable and complex, but specific, microbial assemblages occur inside showerheads. Particularly striking was the finding that sequences representative of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other opportunistic human pathogens are enriched to high levels in many showerhead biofilms, >100-fold above background water contents. We conclude that showerheads may present a significant potential exposure to aerosolized microbes, including documented opportunistic pathogens. The health risk associated with showerhead microbiota needs investigation in persons with compromised immune or pulmonary systems. PMID:19805310

  20. Opportunistic Infections and Other Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HPV) and cervical cancer Menstrual problems Mouth problems Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Oral candidiasis (thrush) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Toxoplasmosis (toxo) Tuberculosis (TB) Vaginal yeast infections Where opportunistic infections and ...

  1. Role of TNF block genetic variants in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in black Southern Africans.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Hendry, Liesl M; Kamerman, Peter R; Chew, Constance Sn; Price, Patricia; Cherry, Catherine L; Lombard, Zané

    2015-03-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. The TNF block is a region within the central MHC that contains many immunoregulatory genes. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the TNF block have been associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians and whites. Here we investigated genetic associations with HIV-SN in 342 black Southern Africans (190 cases and 152 neuropathy-free controls) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the TNF block and a set of haplotypes defined by 31 SNPs in Asian and white populations (denoted FVa). We included population-appropriate tagSNPs derived from an African population (Yoruban, YRI, HapMap) and derived extended haplotypes comprising 61 SNPs (denoted FVa_ext b). We found no association between HIV-SN and carriage of two SNPs (TNF-1031/rs1799964*C and BAT1 (intron10)/rs9281523*C) associated with HIV-SN in whites and Asians. Additionally, a haplotype containing TNF-1031/rs1799964*C associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians, but was not present in this African population. However, alleles of seven SNPs associated with reduced risk of HIV-SN (corrected for age, height and multiple comparisons). These were rs11796*A, rs3130059*G, rs2071594*C, NFKBIL1-62/rs2071592*A, rs2071591*A, LTA+252/rs909253*G, rs1041981*C. One haplotype (FV18_ext1), not containing these alleles, was associated with increased risk of HIV-SN after correction for age, height and multiple comparisons. Our results confirm the involvement of genes in the TNF block in altering risk for HIV-SN, but genotypes critical in this African population differed from those affecting HIV-SN in whites and Asians. These differences support the need for genetic association studies in diverse populations. PMID:24896147

  2. An initial screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders of HIV-1 infected patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yulin; Qiao, Luxin; Ding, Wei; Wei, Feili; Zhao, Qingxia; Wang, Xicheng; Shi, Ying; Li, Ning; Smith, Davey

    2013-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities, are common among people living with HIV and AIDS. In combined antiretroviral therapy era in Western countries, nearly 40% of HIV-infected patients continue to suffer from HAND, mainly with mild or asymptomatic cognitive impairment. However, the prevalence and the clinical features of HAND in China are still not well known. In this study, a multi-center cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and clinical features of HAND in 134 HIV-1 infected patients in China. The International HIV Dementia Scale and a neuropsychological test battery were administered for screening and diagnosis HAND. Subjective complaints, CD4 count and viral loads in both blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were correlated with diagnosis of HAND. The results showed that the prevalence of HAND was approximately 37% in these patients. CD4 counts at time of sampling were significant lower in the HAND group than in the non-HAND group. But the distribution of the HAND severity did not differ by CD4 count or viral load. The presence of HAND was associated with cognitive and behavior disorder complaints (4.9- and 4.1-fold higher than those without HAND, respectively). The present data suggest that CD4 count and viral load cannot predict the severity of HAND, although the prevalence of HAND is similar to previous report in these patients. Cognitive and behavioral disorder is major complaint rather than cognitive and motor impairment. A larger prospective study is needed to obtain better estimates of HAND in China. PMID:22411002

  3. Screening for HIV-Associated Dementia in South Africa: Potentials and Pitfalls of Task-Shifting

    PubMed Central

    Remien, Robert H.; Mellins, Claude A.; Joska, John A.; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an urgent need for valid, reliable, and simple-to-use screening tools for HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in South Africa, as little is known about its impact on South Africa's 5.5 million people living with HIV (PLWH). Screening for HAD in South Africa involves several challenges, including few culturally appropriate and validated screening tools, and a shortage of trained personnel to conduct screening. This study examined rates of positive HAD screens as determined by the cutoff score on the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) administered by nonspecialist community health workers (CHWs) in South Africa and examined associations between positive HAD screens and common risk factors for HAD. Sixty-five Xhosa-speaking HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with low CD4 counts and documented ART adherence problems were administered a battery of demographic, psychiatric and neurocognitive screening measures. Positive HAD screens were present in 80% of the sample. Presence of a current alcohol dependence disorder and CD4 counts of 200 or lower were significantly associated with positive HAD screens. HIV-positive South Africans on ART with low CD4 counts and ART adherence problems may be at a very high risk for HAD, highlighting the need for more routine screening and monitoring of neurocognitive functions among South Africa's millions of PLWH on ART. Future research is needed to: (1) validate IHDS performance against a gold standard neurocognitive battery for the detection of HAD among larger samples of Xhosa-speaking South Africans with ART adherence difficulties and (2) compare performance of CHW to expert health care personnel in administering the IHDS. PMID:21919734

  4. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Phylogeny and Ecophysiology of Opportunistic "Snow Molds"

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Phylogeny and Ecophysiology of Opportunistic "Snow Molds" from a Subalpine Forest, LLC 2008 Abstract Mats of coenocytic "snow molds" are commonly observed covering the soil and litter of alpine and subalpine areas immediately following snow melt. Here, we describe the phylogenetic placement

  6. Longer ongoing task delay intervals exacerbate prospective memory deficits in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin E. Morgan; Erica Weber; Alexandra S. Rooney; Igor Grant; Steven Paul Woods

    2012-01-01

    The delay interval between encoding a future intention and detection of the retrieval cue is an essential feature of prospective memory (PM). McDaniel and Einstein's (2000) multiprocess theory posits that greater demands are placed on strategic monitoring processes as the delay interval lengthens. This hypothesis was examined in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which are associated with strategic dyscontrol of PM,

  7. OPPORTUNISTIC ORGANISMS AND THE WATER SUPPLY CONNECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organisms that established in water supply may also be opportunistic pathogens. epresentative opportunistic pathogens that are waterborne include acid-fast bacteria, fecal klebsiellae, Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. hese organisms may be found in the heterotroph ic bacter...

  8. Opportunistic Reasoning: A Design Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marin D. Simina; Janet L. Kolodner

    1995-01-01

    An essential component of opportunistic behavior is oppor- tunity recognition, the recognition of those conditions that facilitate the pursuit of some suspended goal. Opportunity recognition is a special case of situation assessment, the p ro- cess of sizing up a novel situation. The ability to recognize opportunities for reinstating suspended problem contexts (one way in which goals manifest themselves in

  9. Opportunistic Software Deployment in Disconnected

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Opportunistic Software Deployment in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Frédéric Guidec, Nicolas presents a middleware platform allowing the dissemination of software com- ponents on handheld devices repository with software components so as to be able to satisfy the deployment requests ex- pressed

  10. Opportunistic Energy Efficient Cooperative Communication

    E-print Network

    Lampe, Lutz

    , which adopt either end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio or capacity as selection metrics, our opportunistic huge amounts of diesel to generate the required electrical energy for operating base stations [1 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (e

  11. Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios

    E-print Network

    Shihada, Basem

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios Alexander W. Min, Kyu-Han Kim,§ Jatinder spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of ac- cessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary

  12. REMOTE DETECTION OF INVASSIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  13. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

  15. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a South Asian population - contextual application of the 2007 criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Nagaendran; Chua, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among HIV patients in a multiethnic South Asian population, describe the pattern of neurocognitive impairment in HAND and the factors associated with HAND. Design A cross-sectional survey of HIV-positive outpatients and inpatients. Setting The sole referral centre for HIV/AIDS treatment in Singapore. Participants Inclusion criteria were HIV positive, age between 21 and 80?years old and at least 3?years of education. Exclusion criteria included concomitant delirium, serious systemic disease or major psychiatric illness. 265 patients did not meet criteria or declined to participate. The final sample size was 132. Outcome measures The primary outcome measure was cognitive impairment based on performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, International HIV Dementia Scale and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The secondary outcome measure was the classification of impairment based on the 2007 updated research nosology for HAND. Results The prevalence of HAND was 22.7% of which 70% (15.9% of total) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 23.3% (5.3% of total) were mild neurocognitive disorder and 6.7% (1.5% of total) were HIV-associated dementia. Increasing age (OR 1.104, 95% CI 1.054 to 1.155, p<0.001), less education (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.89, p<0.001) and low baseline CD4 count (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.74, p=0.019) were associated with HAND. Delayed recall, language and abstract thinking were the domains most commonly affected, but impairment in visuospatial ability (RC 3.013, 95% CI 1.954 to 4.073, p<0.001) and attention (RC 2.205, 95% CI 1.043 to 3.367, p<0.001) were most strongly associated with HAND. Conclusion HAND is common among HIV patients in a South Asian sample, most of whom are asymptomatic. Older patients with less education and severe illness at diagnosis are at highest risk of HAND. Delayed recall is most commonly affected, but visuospatial dysfunction is most strongly associated with prevalent HAND. PMID:22331389

  16. Greater Preexisting Interferon ? Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens and Lower Bacillary Load During HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Timothy; Czechura, Tom; Crabtree, Scott; Arbeit, Robert D.; Matee, Mecky; Horsburgh, C. Robert; MacKenzie, Todd; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C. Fordham

    2013-01-01

    The role of preexisting interferon (IFN) ? responses in controlling bacillary burden in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated tuberculosis is not known. Among BCG-immunized HIV-infected adults who developed tuberculosis in a phase III trial of an investigational tuberculosis vaccine, greater baseline IFN-? responses to early secretory antigenic target 6 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate were associated with reduced bacillary burden on sputum smear grade, days to culture positivity on agar, and sputum culture grade during subsequent tuberculosis. This association was most consistent among recipients of the investigational vaccine. When HIV-associated tuberculosis develops, greater preexisting IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens are associated with reduced tuberculosis bacillary burden. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.?NCT0052195 PMID:23908490

  17. Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment. PMID:24462448

  18. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  19. Memory for verbal information in individuals with HIV-associated dementia complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DesirÉE A. White; Michael J. Taylor; Nelson Butters; Carol Mack; David P. Salmon; Guerry Peavy; Lee Ryan; Robert K. Heaton; J. Hampton Atkinson; James L. Chandler; Igor Grant

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of memory performance were examined for 9 participants with HIV-associated dementia (HAD), 15 HIV-seropositive participants without dementia, and 15 HIV-seronegative controls. Episodic and semantic memory were assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, and Verbal Fluency tests. The HAD group showed deficits in episodic memory, with relative sparing of semantic memory. In addition, results suggest

  20. HIV-associated nephropathy and end-stage renal disease in children in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data

  1. Increased levels of transforming growth factor-? in HIV-associated nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TATSUO YAMAMOTO; NANCY A. NOBLE; DIANE E. MILLER; LESLIE I. GOLD; AKIRA HISHIDA; MITSUMASA NAGASE; ARTHUR H. COHEN; WAYNE A. BORDER

    1999-01-01

    Increased levels of transforming growth factor-? in HIV-associated nephropathy.BackgroundHuman immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a renal disease of unknown pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) might be involved. We hypothesized that overproduction of TGF-? in the kidney might be involved in the pathogenesis of HIVAN.MethodsThe mRNA and protein expression of TGF-? isoforms, TGF-?1, TGF-?2,

  2. Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Singh; John A Joska; Karl Goodkin; Enrique Lopez; Landon Myer; Robert H Paul; Sally John; Henry Sunpath

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative

  3. Pathogen-specific T cell susceptibility to HIV influences the natural history of opportunistic infections

    PubMed Central

    Saharia, Kapil K.; Koup, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    During HIV infection, the timing of opportunistic infections is not always associated with severity of CD4 T cell depletion and different opportunistic pathogens reactivate at different CD4 T cell thresholds. Here we review how differences in the phenotype and function of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells influence susceptibility to HIV infection. By focusing on three common opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus, and cytomegalovirus) we examine how differential depletion of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells impacts the natural history of these pathogens in HIV infection. A broader understanding of this relationship can better inform treatment strategies against co-pathogens. PMID:24243010

  4. HIV-Associated TB in An Giang Province, Vietnam, 2001–2004: Epidemiology and TB Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Trinh Thanh; Shah, N. Sarita; Anh, Mai Hoang; Nghia, Do Trong; Thom, Duong; Linh, Truong; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Duong, Bui Duc; Chau, Luu Thi Minh; Mai, Phung Thi Phuong; Wells, Charles D.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Varma, Jay K.

    2007-01-01

    Background Mortality is high in HIV-infected TB patients, but few studies from Southeast Asia have documented the benefits of interventions, such as co-trimoxazole (CTX), in reducing mortality during TB treatment. To help guide policy in Vietnam, we studied the epidemiology of HIV-associated TB in one province and examined factors associated with outcomes, including the impact of CTX use. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected persons diagnosed with TB from 2001–2004 in An Giang, a province in southern Vietnam in which TB patients receive HIV counseling and testing. We used standard WHO definitions to classify TB treatment outcomes. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for the composite outcome of death, default, or treatment failure during TB treatment. From 2001–2004, 637 HIV-infected TB patients were diagnosed in An Giang. Of these, 501 (79%) were male, 321 (50%) were aged 25–34 years, and the most common self-reported HIV risk factor was sex with a commercial sex worker in 221 (35%). TB was classified as smear-positive in 531 (83%). During TB treatment, 167 (26%) patients died, 9 (1%) defaulted, and 6 (1%) failed treatment. Of 454 patients who took CTX, 116 (26%) had an unsuccessful outcome compared with 33 (70%) of 47 patients who did not take CTX (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.5). Adjusting for male sex, rural residence, TB smear status and disease location, and the occurrence of adverse events during TB treatment in multivariate analysis, the benefit of CTX persisted (adjusted odds ratio for unsuccessful outcome 0.1; CI, 0.1–0.3). Conclusions/Significance In An Giang, Vietnam, HIV-associated TB was associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Outcomes were significantly better in those taking CTX. This finding suggests that Vietnam should consider applying WHO recommendations to prescribe CTX to all HIV-infected TB patients. PMID:17551587

  5. Asymptotically Efficient Multi-Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Asymptotically Efficient Multi-Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Pouya Tehrani efficient as the total sensing time increases. This result finds application in opportunistic spectrum for efficient exploitation of spectrum opportunities. I. INTRODUCTION In opportunistic spectrum access

  6. Opportunistic Communication for eNetworks Cyberengineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsin Sohail; Mihaela Ulieru

    2007-01-01

    Within the broader context of the Adaptive Risk Management (ARM) Platform described in [27], the aim of this work is to show practically a proof of concept for a network architecture based on mobile code for Weiser's vision of ubiquitous computing [26] and opportunistic computing [22]. The proposed paradigm which animates the Opportunistic Communication Module (OCM) of the ARM Platform

  7. Bootstrapping opportunistic networks using social roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Bigwood; Tristan Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic routing protocols can enable mes- sage delivery in disconnected networks of mobile devices. To conserve energy in mobile environments, such routing protocols must minimise unnecessary message-forwarding. This paper presents an opportunistic routing protocol that leverages social role information. We compute node roles from a social network graph to identify nodes with similar contact re- lationships, and use these roles

  8. Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senhua Huang; Xin Liu; Zhi Ding

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by regulatory initiatives and radio technol- ogy advances, opportunistic spectrum access has the potential to mitigate spectrum scarcity and satisfy the increasing demand for spectrum. In this paper, we consider a scenario where secondary users can opportunistically access unused spectrum vacated by idle primaries. We introduce two metrics to protect primary performance, namely collision probability and overlapping time. We

  9. Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: Understanding Opportunistic Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Hartmann; Scott Doorley; Scott R. Klemmer

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic practices can accelerate and simplify ubiquitous computing systems design. Such practices may include copying and pasting code from online forums into one's own scripts or reappropriating components from consumer electronics for design prototypes. The authors introduce a framework that links opportunistic design for ubiquitous computing to hardware and software practices. They interview 14 professional and hobbyist \\

  10. Antiretroviral Adherence and the Nature of HIV-Associated Verbal Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Woo, Ellen; Foley, Jessica; Ettenhofer, Mark L.; Cottingham, Maria E.; Gooding, Amanda L.; Jang, Jiah; Kim, Michelle S.; Castellon, Steve A.; Miller, Eric N.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between antiretroviral adherence and HIV-associated verbal memory impairment. HIV-positive participants demonstrated poorer verbal memory than HIV-negative participants. Both good (?90%) and poor (<90%) adherers displayed encoding deficits as compared with controls, but only poor adherers exhibited retrieval deficits. Encoding deficits primarily accounted for reduced delayed recall in good adherers, but both encoding and retrieval deficits accounted for reduced delayed recall in poor adherers. The retrieval difference between the adherence groups might be explained by a neuroprotective effect of good antiretroviral adherence or preexisting HIV-related retrieval deficits that result in poorer adherence. PMID:21948894

  11. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

  12. Cognitive Neurorehabilitation of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A Qualitative Review and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the virologic management of HIV infection over the last two decades, effective treatments for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain elusive. While pharmacological interventions have yielded some success in improving neurocognitive outcomes in HIV, there is a dearth of rigorous studies examining the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation for remediating HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. This qualitative review summarizes and critiques the emerging literature on cognitive and behavioral treatments for HAND, which provides many reasons for optimism, but also has major limitations that underscore the scope of the work that lies ahead. Considering the notable real-world consequences of HAND, the development, validation, and clinical deployment of cognitive neurorehabilitation interventions tailored to the needs of persons living with HIV infection is a priority for clinical neuroAIDS investigators. In describing potential future directions for this endeavor, particular attention was paid to the application of cognitive neuropsychological principles in developing theory-driven approaches to managing HAND, improving everyday functioning, and enhancing HIV health outcomes. PMID:23417497

  13. Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype Does Not Increase Risk of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E.E.; Woods, S.P.; Letendre, S.L.; Franklin, D.R.; Bloss, C.; Goate, A.; Heaton, R.K.; Collier, A.C.; Marra, C.M.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Abramson, I.; Gamst, A.; Fennema-Notestine, C.; Smith, D.M.; Grant, I.; Vaida, F.; Clifford, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-seropositive (HIV+) apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers are at increased risk for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) compared to APOE4 noncarriers with HIV in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group sample. APOE genotype was determined in 466 CHARTER participants with varying disease stages and histories of antiretroviral treatment who did not have severe psychiatric or medical comorbid conditions that preclude diagnosis of HAND. HAND diagnoses were based on results of comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation and use of current neuroAIDS diagnostic criteria. HAND status consisting of two levels: neuropsychologically normal status (i.e., no HAND) and any HAND diagnosis (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, minor neurocognitive disorder, HIV-associated dementia). Logistic regression analyses revealed no association between APOE4 carrier status and HAND, and there were no interactions between APOE4 carrier status and ethnicity, age, substance use disorders, duration of infection, or nadir CD4. Results did not differ when analysis was restricted to symptomatic HAND, and no APOE4 gene dose-dependent relationship to HAND emerged. APOE4 status was not associated with concurrent HAND in this large, well-characterized sample. This does not preclude emergence of an association between APOE4 status and HAND as this population ages. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to examine APOE4 as a risk factor for neurocognitive decline, incident HAND at older ages, and potential associations with CSF amyloid. PMID:23408335

  14. Opportunistic infections (non-cytomegalovirus) in live related renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vinod, P B; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of review was increasing number of opportunistic infections with use of newer immunosuppression and difficulty in diagnosis and management of such patients. For this review, MEDLINE database was searched from 2000 to 2006 with the keywords of opportunistic infections in renal transplantation.Opportunistic infection is a serious clinical complication in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. The two major factors for successful renal transplantation are better control of rejection and better prevention and treatment of infection. In renal allograft recipient, immunosuppressive drug therapy is the major cause of immunocompromised status and occurrence of infections, which arise most commonly as a result of invasion by endogenous opportunists. The opportunistic infections with varicella zoster viruses, parvovirus B-19, polyomavirus, nocardia and mucormycosis in immunosuppressed patients were present with severe complications that are reviewed in this article. As a result of use of strong immunosuppressive drugs like tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetyl and antirejection therapy with antithymocyte globulins, these infections are now seen frequently, so they should always be included in differential diagnostic consideration. New diagnostic procedures and new treatment strategies are required to allow early detection and successful treatment of opportunistic infections in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:19672339

  15. Opportunistic Behavior in Motivated Learning Agents.

    PubMed

    Graham, James; Starzyk, Janusz A; Jachyra, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment. PMID:25291798

  16. Opportunistic, collaborative and synchronized, proximal device ecology

    E-print Network

    Toledano, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    CoSync is an on-device software framework for coordinating proximal consumer electronic devices in order to create a synchronized, opportunistic and collaborative device ecology. The CoSync device ecology combines multiple ...

  17. AIDS: neurological opportunist infections in central London.

    PubMed Central

    Guiloff, R J

    1989-01-01

    Twenty six (41%) of 64 central London cases of AIDS with nervous system involvement during the course of the illness had neurological opportunist infection. Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii were the commonest agents in 22 cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection. Eight cases had herpes zoster radiculopathy. Other infections included those caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and papova JC virus. Prognosis was generally poor, irrespective of whether the opportunist infection was treatable. PMID:2547063

  18. Resilient Opportunistic Forwarding: Issues and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Zhu; Kejie Lu

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic networks, which are seen as one of the major evolutions from MANETs, have attracted many attentions recently. Generally speaking, opportunistic networks cover many similar aspects of Delay Tolerant Networks and Disruption Tolerant Network, which can be characterized by intermittent connectivity, frequent end-to-end path disruption and topology changes. In such challenging network scenarios, the end-to-end network resilience, or the effectiveness

  19. Planning for rover opportunistic science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Forest, Fisher; Chouinard, Caroline; Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently set a record for the furthest distance traveled in a single sol on Mars. Future planetary exploration missions are expected to use even longer drives to position rovers in areas of high scientific interest. This increase provides the potential for a large rise in the number of new science collection opportunities as the rover traverses the Martian surface. In this paper, we describe the OASIS system, which provides autonomous capabilities for dynamically identifying and pursuing these science opportunities during longrange traverses. OASIS uses machine learning and planning and scheduling techniques to address this goal. Machine learning techniques are applied to analyze data as it is collected and quickly determine new science gods and priorities on these goals. Planning and scheduling techniques are used to alter the behavior of the rover so that new science measurements can be performed while still obeying resource and other mission constraints. We will introduce OASIS and describe how planning and scheduling algorithms support opportunistic science.

  20. Can Humanized Mice Reflect the Complex Pathobiology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    There is a rebirth of humanized mouse models in reflecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathobiology. This has allowed new investigations of viral diversity, immunity and developmental therapeutics. In the past, HIV infection and disease were, in part, mirrored in immune deficient mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells. What remained from early studies reflected the ability to mirror central nervous system (CNS) disease. As the wide spread use of combination antiretroviral therapies has changed the severity, but not prevalence, of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), mimicking such virus-induced CNS morbidities in humanized animals is essential for HIV/AIDS research activities. To this end, we now review the evidence for how and under what circumstances humanized mice may be utilized for studies of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. PMID:22222956

  1. Feasibility and potential role of ferumoxytol-enhanced neuroimaging in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Beau K; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Ogata-Arakaki, Debra; Umaki, Tracie; Neuwelt, Edward A; Shiramizu, Bruce T; Chow, Dominic C; Parikh, Nisha I; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Hamilton, Bronwyn E

    2013-12-01

    We assessed ferumoxytol-enhanced brain MRI to identify monocyte/macrophage accumulation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Four HIV-infected subjects with undetectable HIV RNA levels on antiretroviral therapy, HIV DNA level in CD14+ cells ?10 copies/10(6) cells, and cognitive impairment underwent ferumoxytol-enhanced brain MRI. On post-ferumoxytol susceptibility-weighted images, all HIV-infected subjects demonstrated a diffuse "tram track" appearance in the perivascular regions of cortical and deep white matter vessels suggesting ferumoxytol uptake in monocytes/macrophages. This finding was not present in an HIV-seronegative control. While ferumoxytol may have potential as an imaging biomarker for monocyte/macrophage accumulation in patients with HAND, future study is needed. PMID:24129909

  2. The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Robert K; Marcotte, Thomas D; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Sadek, Joseph; Moore, David J; Bentley, Heather; McCutchan, J Allen; Reicks, Carla; Grant, Igor

    2004-05-01

    HIV-1 infection can be associated with neuropsychological (NP) deficits ranging from subtle to severe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional, or "real-world" impact of HIV-associated NP impairment in a group of 267 HIV-infected participants. All participants received comprehensive NP, neuromedical, and standardized functional evaluations that included laboratory measures of shopping, cooking, financial management, medication management and vocational abilities. Compared to NP-normal participants, those with NP impairment performed significantly worse on all laboratory measures of everyday functioning. Multivariate analyses revealed that the NP ability domains of Abstraction/Executive Function, Learning, Attention/Working Memory and Verbal abilities most strongly and consistently predicted failures on the functional battery. Both NP impairment and impairment on the functional battery were significantly associated with subjective experiences of cognitive difficulties, as well as unemployment and increased dependence in activities of daily living; multivariate prediction models that also considered depressed mood and biological measures of disease progression revealed that impairment on the functional battery and depression were the only unique predictors of all three indicators of "real-world" functioning. The current results add to growing evidence concerning the clinical significance of HIV-associated NP impairment. Objective, laboratory based functional measures, such as those used here, may compliment NP testing in future studies directed at understanding the impact on life quality of central nervous system disorders and their treatments. Finally, there is a need for additional research investigating the apparently independent effect of depression on level of everyday functioning in HIV infected persons. PMID:15147590

  3. Role of Neurotrophic Factor alterations in the neurodegenerative process in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Langford, T. D.; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, E.

    2014-01-01

    Migration of HIV infected cells into the CNS is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These neuro-psychiatric syndromes are related to the neurodegenerative pathology triggered by the release of HIV proteins and cytokine/chemokines from monocytes/macrophages into the CNS –a condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). As a result of more effective combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) patients with HIV are living longer and thus the frequency of HAND has increased considerably, resulting in an overlap between the neurodegenerative pathology associated with HIV and that related to aging. In fact, HIV infection is believed to hasten the aging process. The mechanisms through which HIV and aging lead to neurodegeneration include: abnormal calcium flux, excitotoxicity, signaling abnormalities, oxidative stress and autophagy defects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that defects in the processing and transport of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) might also play a role. Recent evidence implicates alterations in neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with HAND in the context of aging. Here, we report FGF overexpression curtails gp120-induced neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, our data show disparities in brain neurotrophic factor levels may be exacerbated in HIV patients over 50 years of age. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on neurotrophins and HAND in the context of developing new therapies to combat HIV infection in the aging population. PMID:24510686

  4. Predictors of mortality in HIV-associated hospitalizations in Portugal: a hierarchical survival model

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Sara S; Andreozzi, Valeska; Martins, Maria O; Torgal, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing survival and the prevention of AIDS defining illness development are well established. However, the annual Portuguese hospital mortality is still higher than expected. It is crucial to understand the hospitalization behaviour to better allocate resources. This study investigates the predictors of mortality in HIV associated hospitalizations in Portugal through a hierarchical survival model. Methods The study population consists of 12,078 adult discharges from patients with HIV infection diagnosis attended at Portuguese hospitals from 2005–2007 that were registered on the diagnosis-related groups' database. We used discharge and hospital level variables to develop a hierarchical model. The discharge level variables were: age, gender, type of admission, type of diagnoses-related group, related HIV complication, the region of the patient's residence, the number of diagnoses and procedures, the Euclidean distance from hospital to the centroid of the patient's ward, and if patient lived in the hospital's catchment area. The hospital characteristics include size and hospital classification according to the National Health System. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to examine differences in survival curves. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty were applied to identify independent predictors of hospital mortality and to calculate hazard ratios (HR). Results The Cox proportional model with frailty showed that male gender, older patient, great number of diagnoses and pneumonia increased the hazard of HIV related hospital mortality. On the other hand tuberculosis was associated with a reduced risk of death. Central hospital discharge also presents less risk of mortality. The frailty variance was small but statistically significant, indicating hazard ratio heterogeneity among hospitals that varied between 0.67 and 1.34, and resulted in two hospitals with HR different from the average risk. Conclusion The frailty model suggests that there are unmeasured factors affecting mortality in HIV associated hospitalizations. Consequently, for healthcare policy purposes, hospitals should not all be treated in an equal manner. PMID:19627574

  5. Methamphetamine and Inflammatory Cytokines Increase Neuronal Na+\\/K+ATPase Isoform 3: Relevance for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurudutt Pendyala; James L. Buescher; Howard S. Fox

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse in conjunction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exacerbates neuropathogenesis and accelerates neurocognitive impairments in the central nervous system (CNS), collectively termed HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Since both HIV and METH have been implicated in altering the synaptic architecture, this study focused on investigating alterations in synaptic proteins. Employing a quantitative proteomics approach on synaptosomes isolated from

  6. Resolution of HIV-associated nephrotic syndrome with highly active antiretroviral therapy delivered by gastrostomy tube.

    PubMed

    Viani, R M; Dankner, W M; Muelenaer, P A; Spector, S A

    1999-12-01

    There is no consensus regarding the specific management of HIV-associated nephrotic syndrome. We report a child whose first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was nephropathy and wasting syndrome associated with profound immunodeficiency. The patient had a dramatic clinical and immunologic response to triple antiretroviral therapy delivered through a gastrostomy tube, with complete resolution of nephrotic syndrome. A 51/2-year-old African-American girl presented with a 2-week history of cough, chest pain, vomiting, loose stools, abdominal distention, anorexia, and fever. In addition, she had recurrent oral thrush. Her weight and height were below the 5th percentile. She was chronically ill, appearing with oropharyngeal thrush and pitting edema in lower extremities. She had scattered rhonchi and decreased breath sounds on both lung bases. Her abdomen was distended and diffusely tender. A chest radiograph showed consolidation of the right upper and left lower lobes with bilateral pleural effusion. Admission laboratories were consistent with nephrotic syndrome. Streptococcus pneumoniae grew from the blood culture and the child responded well to treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone. She was found to be HIV-infected, her CD4(+) cell count was 3 cells/mcL and her plasma HIV-1 RNA was >750 000 copies/mL. A percutaneous gastrostomy tube was placed for supplemental nutrition. She was treated with stavudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir via gastrostomy tube with good clinical response. Twenty-one months after instituting antiretroviral therapy, her weight and height had increased to the 50th and 10th percentile respectively, and she had complete resolution of her nephrotic syndrome. Her CD4(+) cell count increased to 1116 cells/mcL and her viral load has remained undetectable. HIV-1 associated nephrotic syndrome has been described in children with profound immunodeficiency. The course of untreated HIV-associated nephrotic syndrome is rapid progression to renal failure in up to 40% of the children. Regardless of the presence of renal insufficiency, if untreated, it is uniformly fatal. A modest improvement of HIV-1 associated nephrotic syndrome has been observed in patients treated with zidovudine. Steroid and cyclosporine treatment have resulted in improved renal function but long-term use of immunosuppressive therapy has raised concerns about safety. We have described, to our knowledge, the first child with HIV-associated nephrotic syndrome who had a remarkable clinical, immunologic, and virologic response to triple-drug combination therapy given by gastrostomy tube, with complete resolution of proteinuria and normalization of the serum albumin. She also had a striking improvement in weight, height, and quality-of-life. Whether the presence of a gastrostomy tube contributed to the excellent response because of improved compliance is unknown, but warrants systematic evaluation. PMID:10585995

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium minutissimum, an Opportunistic Pathogen and the Causative Agent of Erythrasma.

    PubMed

    Penton, Patricia K; Tyagi, Eishita; Humrighouse, Ben W; McQuiston, John R

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium minutissimum was first isolated in 1961 from infection sites of patients presenting with erythrasma, a common cutaneous infection characterized by a rash. Since its discovery, C. minutissimum has been identified as an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed cancer and HIV patients. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of C. minutissimum. PMID:25792058

  8. BBS-ONE: Bulletin board and forum system for mobile opportunistic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwoon Sung; Suman Srinivasan; Henning Schulzrinne

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bulletin boards and forum systems are commonly used to exchange opinions, news, event notifications, documents and other media on the Internet. However, such systems usually require a central server hosting the content. Such servers cannot be installed in ad-hoc opportunistic wireless networks, which are created when mobile devices congregate to form a localized and short-lived network without Internet connectivity.

  9. Cooperation and Learning in Multiuser Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Cooperation and Learning in Multiuser Opportunistic Spectrum Access Hua Liu§ , Bhaskar spectrum access net- work where spectrum opportunities are time varying and spatially inhomogeneous for the efficient utilization of the radio frequency spectrum is opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), where

  10. Trading Structure for Randomness in Wireless Opportunistic Routing

    E-print Network

    Chachulski, Szymon

    2007-02-23

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current opportunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, imposing a strict schedule on ...

  11. Therapy of HIV-associated lymphoma-recommendations of the oncology working group of the German Study Group of Physicians in Private Practice Treating HIV-Infected Patients (DAGNÄ), in cooperation with the German AIDS Society (DAIG).

    PubMed

    Hentrich, Marcus; Hoffmann, Christian; Mosthaf, Franz; Müller, Markus; Siehl, Jan; Wyen, Christoph; Hensel, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    AIDS-related aggressive B cell lymphoma (HIV-NHL) is the second most common HIV-associated malignancy. In contrast, Hodgkin-lymphoma (HL) is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Current evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of HIV-associated lymphoma (HIV-lymphoma) are not available. A panel of experts in the field of HIV-related lymphoma performed literature searches of the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases. The consensus process was carried out as an e-mail and meeting-based discussion group. Six cycles of R-CHOP or R-EPOCH are standard of care for patients (pts) with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Pts with Burkitt lymphoma and good performance status should receive dose-intensive regimens such as the GMALL B-ALL/NHL protocol. Standard therapy has not been defined for pts with plasmablastic and primary effusion lymphoma. Pts with lymphoma in sensitive relapse should receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Stage- and risk adapted treatment yields high remission and survival rates in pts with HIV-HL similar to those achieved in HIV-negative HL pts. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) should be applied concurrently to chemotherapy provided that pharmacokinetic interactions are being considered. Pts with HIV-lymphoma should usually be treated in an identical manner to HIV-negative patients. PMID:24807241

  12. Risky decision-making in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Cattie, Jordan E.; Doyle, Katie; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV show moderate deficits in decision-making, but the ecological relevance of such deficits on everyday functioning has not previously been described. This study sought to examine the magnitude, cognitive correlates, and everyday functioning impact of risky decision-making impairment in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Participants included 68 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 78 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 51 HIV- comparison participants, who were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) alongside a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and self-report measures assessing aspects of everyday functioning. HIV+ individuals with HAND performed more poorly on the IGT relative to the other two groups, most notably during the last three trial blocks. Within the HIV+ group, IGT performance during the last three trial blocks was most strongly associated with cognitive flexibility, but was not significantly related to declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), unemployment, or medication non-adherence. While overall IGT performance across the last three trial blocks may be helpful diagnostically in identifying decision-making impairment in HAND, examination of alternate, more specific metrics (e.g., individual deck selections across trial blocks) may be more useful in delineating the role of poor decision-making in HIV-related disability, and should be examined in future research. PMID:23181946

  13. Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Feintuch, Catherine M.; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV+) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV+ controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+; n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV?) (n = 18) and HIV+ (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV? (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV+ TST+ controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV+ control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV+ smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV+ individuals. PMID:24671553

  14. HIV-associated distal neuropathic pain is associated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter.

    PubMed

    Keltner, John R; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Vaida, Florin; Wang, Dongzhe; Franklin, Donald R; Dworkin, Robert H; Sanders, Chelsea; McCutchan, J Allen; Archibald, Sarah L; Miller, David J; Kesidis, George; Cushman, Clint; Kim, Sung Min; Abramson, Ian; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Julaton, Michelle D; Notestine, Randy J; Corkran, Stephanie; Cherner, Mariana; Duarte, Nichole A; Alexander, Terry; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Gelman, Benjamin B; Simpson, David M; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina M; Morgello, Susan; Brown, Greg; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J

    2014-06-01

    Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50 % of HIV patients. The clinical expression of HIV neuropathy is highly variable: many individuals report few symptoms, but about half report distal neuropathic pain (DNP), making it one of the most prevalent, disabling, and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage, making it unclear why some patients do, and others do not, report pain. To better understand central nervous system contributions to HIV DNP, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging volumes in 241 HIV-infected participants from an observational multi-site cohort study at five US sites (CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER). The association between DNP and the structural imaging outcomes was investigated using both linear and nonlinear (Gaussian Kernel support vector) multivariable regression, controlling for key demographic and clinical variables. Severity of DNP symptoms was correlated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volume (r?=?-0.24; p?=?0.004). Understanding the mechanisms for this association between smaller total cortical volumes and DNP may provide insight into HIV DNP chronicity and treatment-resistance. PMID:24549970

  15. HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Chin-Hong, Peter; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Berry, J. Michael; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Shiboski, Caroline H.; Jay, Naomi; Rubin, Mary; Chein, Aung; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals. Expression of HIV proteins in the mucosal epithelium was correlated with the disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). Treatment of polarized oral and anal epithelial cells and tissue explants with tat and gp120 led to disruption of epithelial TJ and increased HPV pseudovirion (PsV) paracellular penetration into the epithelium. PsV entry was observed in the basal/parabasal cells, the cells in which the HPV life cycle is initiated. Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia. PMID:24074602

  16. Impact of Previous ART and of ART Initiation on Outcome of HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, Enrico; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Angeletti, Claudio; Vanacore, Paola; Matteelli, Alberto; Gori, Andrea; Carbonara, Sergio; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has progressively decreased mortality of HIV-associated tuberculosis .To date, however, limited data on tuberculosis treatment outcomes among coinfected patients who are not ART-naive at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis are available. Methods. A multicenter, observational study enrolled 246 HIV-infected patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, in 96 Italian infectious diseases hospital units, who started tuberculosis treatment. A polytomous logistic regression model was used to identify baseline factors associated with the outcome. A Poisson regression model was used to explain the effect of ART during tuberculosis treatment on mortality, as a time-varying covariate, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results. Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment were as follows: 130 (52.8%) were successfully treated, 36 (14.6%) patients died in a median time of 2 months (range: 0–16), and 80 (32.6%) had an unsuccessful outcome. Being foreign born or injecting drug users was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In multivariable Poisson regression, cART during tuberculosis treatment decreased the risk of death, while this risk increased for those who were not ART-naive at tuberculosis diagnosis. Conclusions. ART during tuberculosis treatment is associated with a substantial reduction of death rate among HIV-infected patients. However, patients who are not ART-naive when they develop tuberculosis remain at elevated risk of death. PMID:22489253

  17. Neuronal ferritin heavy chain and drug abuse affect HIV-associated cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Jonathan; Abt, Anna; Myers, Jaclyn; Han, Rachel; Snyder, Melissa; Graziano, Alessandro; Festa, Lindsay; Kutzler, Michele; Garcia, Fernando; Gao, Wen-Jun; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay; Meucci, Olimpia

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of the chemokine CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4 promotes neuronal function and survival during embryonic development and throughout adulthood. Previous studies indicated that ?-opioid agonists specifically elevate neuronal levels of the protein ferritin heavy chain (FHC), which negatively regulates CXCR4 signaling and affects the neuroprotective function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Here, we determined that CXCL12/CXCR4 activity increased dendritic spine density, and also examined FHC expression and CXCR4 status in opiate abusers and patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is typically exacerbated by illicit drug use. Drug abusers and HIV patients with HAND had increased levels of FHC, which correlated with reduced CXCR4 activation, within cortical neurons. We confirmed these findings in a nonhuman primate model of SIV infection with morphine administration. Transfection of a CXCR4-expressing human cell line with an iron-deficient FHC mutant confirmed that increased FHC expression deregulated CXCR4 signaling and that this function of FHC was independent of iron binding. Furthermore, examination of morphine-treated rodents and isolated neurons expressing FHC shRNA revealed that FHC contributed to morphine-induced dendritic spine loss. Together, these data implicate FHC-dependent deregulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 as a contributing factor to cognitive dysfunction in neuroAIDS. PMID:24401274

  18. Prevalence of non-confounded HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the context of plasma HIV RNA suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucette A. Cysique; Bruce J. Brew

    2011-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is known to occur in the context of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART;\\u000a plasma HIV RNA <50 copies\\/ml). Here, we newly provide an analysis of its prevalence and nature in the absence of medical or\\u000a psychiatric confounds that may otherwise inflate the prevalence rate. We enrolled a cohort of 116 advanced HIV?+?individuals\\u000a on cART (51% virally suppressed

  19. Opportunistic Packet Scheduling in Body Area Networks

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    Opportunistic Packet Scheduling in Body Area Networks K. Shashi Prabh1 and Jan-Hinrich Hauer2 1 Center for Real-Time Systems Research (CISTER) School of Engineering (ISEP) Polytechnic Institute registered nurses by the year 2020 is projected within the USA alone [26]. Networks of sensors around as well

  20. Spectrum Characterization for Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Systems

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    1 Spectrum Characterization for Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Systems Tevfik Y¨ucek and H, Tampa, FL, 33620 yucek@eng.usf.edu and arslan@eng.usf.edu Abstract-- Spectrum sensing is one of the most challenging problems in cognitive radio systems. The spectrum of interest needs to be characterized and unused

  1. Opportunistic Spectrum Access: Challenges, Architecture, Protocols

    E-print Network

    Ramanathan, Ram

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access: Challenges, Architecture, Protocols C. Santivanez, R. Ramanathan, C and military communications. We discuss two broad classes of challenges to OSA: spectrum agility, which, public safety, and broadcast television ­ and regulations forbid a device from using an empty portion

  2. DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points on Communica- tion and Networks under Grant DAAD19-01-2-0011. ¢ Fig. 1: Sensor networks with mobile access

  3. Quantifying Content Consistency Improvements Through Opportunistic Contacts

    E-print Network

    Chaintreau, Augustin

    infrastructure-based mechanisms. While the benefits of such opportunistic sharing are intu- itive, quantifying on the structure of the social networks users be- long to. Furthermore, social connectivity influences not only, and willingness to share content, e.g., only to the members of their own social networks. We establish

  4. Techniques for Improving Opportunistic Sensor Networking Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane B. Eisenman; Andrew T. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    A number of recently proposed mobile sensor network archi- tectures rely on uncontrolled, or weakly-controlled mobility to achieve sensing coverage over time at low cost, an opportunistic sensor network- ing approach. However, this reliance on mobility also introduces a num- ber of challenges. In this paper, we discuss the challenges inherent in this networking paradigm, and describe two composable techniques,

  5. Hindering Eavesdropping via IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption

    E-print Network

    Castelluccia, Claude

    Hindering Eavesdropping via IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption Claude Castelluccia1 , Gabriel Montenegro scheme strictly layered on top of IPv6. Assuming that a node needs to send data toward another node, our on any global Trusted Third Party (such as DNSSEC or a PKI). The IPsec gateways are discovered using IPv6

  6. Leveraging Shared Context to Facilitate Opportunistic Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Fu; Jay Budzik; Kristian J. Hammond

    Current online c ommunication systems have neglected an important property of natural conversations; t hat i s, many conversations are opportunistic and arise from awareness of a shared context. As a result, users of current online c hat systems, for example, have to explicitly log in to p re- defined chat rooms with a strong goal in mind. Chatting is

  7. Collaboration and fairness in opportunistic spectrum access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitao Zheng; Chunyi Peng

    2005-01-01

    The open spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal spectrum utilization by letting users sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, naive spectrum assignment can lead to significant interference. We propose a network controlled spectrum access scheme where users behave collaboratively to optimize spectrum allocation for the entire network. We develop a graph-theoretical model to characterize the spectrum access

  8. Adaptive Channel Recommendation For Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianwei

    for white-space spectrum access [6], we can view the channel recommendation approach as a real1 Adaptive Channel Recommendation For Opportunistic Spectrum Access Xu Chen, Jianwei Huang, Husheng}@ie.cuhk.edu.hk,husheng@eecs.utk.edu Abstract--We propose a dynamic spectrum access scheme where secondary users cooperatively recommend "good

  9. Opportunistic Spectrum Access via Periodic Channel Sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qianchuan Zhao; Stefan Geirhofer; Lang Tong; Brian M. Sadler

    2008-01-01

    The problem of opportunistic access of parallel channels occupied by primary users is considered. Under a continuous-time Markov chain modeling of the channel occu- pancy by the primary users, a slotted transmission protocol for secondary users using a periodic sensing strategy with optimal dynamic access is proposed. To maximize channel utilization while limiting interference to primary users, a framework of

  10. STRUCTURE AND OPTIMALITY OF MYOPIC SENSING FOR OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    STRUCTURE AND OPTIMALITY OF MYOPIC SENSING FOR OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Qing Zhao University Angeles, CA 90089 bkrishna@usc.edu ABSTRACT We consider opportunistic spectrum access for secondary users when there are more than two chan- nels. Index Terms: Opportunistic spectrum access, POMDP, my- opic

  11. Dual-mixed HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Sheldon R.; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Little, Susan J.; Wagner, Gabriel; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV coreceptor usage of CXCR4 (X4) is associated with decreased CD4+ T-cell counts and accelerated disease progression, but the role of X4 tropism in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not previously been described. Methods This longitudinal study evaluated data on 197 visits from 72 recently HIV-infected persons who had undergone up to 4 sequential neurocognitive assessments over a median of 160 days (IQR 138–192). Phenotypic tropism testing (Trofile ES, Monogram, Biosciences) was performed on stored blood samples. Multivariable mixed model repeated measures regression was used to determine the association between HAND and dual-mixed (DM) viral tropism, estimated duration of infection (EDI), HIV RNA, CD4 count and problematic methamphetamine use. Results Six subjects (8.3%) had dual mixed tropism (DM) at their first neurocognitive assessment and four converted to DM in subsequent sampling (for total of 10 DM) at a median EDI of 10.1 months (IQR 7.2–12.2). There were 44 (61.1%) subjects who demonstrated HAND on at least one study visit. HAND was associated with DM tropism (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 0.9–20.5) and shorter EDI (odds ratio 1.1 per month earlier, 95% CI 1.0–1.2). Conclusion This study found that recency of HIV-1 infection and the development of DM tropism may be associated with HAND in the relatively early stage of infection. Together these data suggest that viral interaction with cellular receptors may play an important role in the early manifestation of HAND. PMID:24078557

  12. Role of obesity, metabolic variables, and diabetes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marquie-Beck, J.A.; FitzSimons, C.A.; Letendre, S.L.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, R.K.; Wolfson, T.; Rosario, D.; Alexander, T.J.; Marra, C.; Ances, B.M.; Grant, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relationships between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and metabolic variables in a subgroup of HIV+ participants examined in a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study. Methods: In a cross-sectional substudy of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort, 130 HIV+ participants provided fasting blood samples. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was defined by performance on neuropsychological tests adjusting for age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity. Global ratings and global deficit scores were determined. Demographics, biomarkers of HIV disease, metabolic variables, combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) history, other drug exposures, and self-reported diabetes were examined in multivariate models predicting NCI. Separate models were used for body mass index (BMI) alone (n = 90) and BMI and waist circumference (WC) together (n = 55). Results: NCI (global impairment rating ?5) was diagnosed in 40%. In univariate analyses, age, longer duration of HIV infection, obesity, and WC, but not BMI, were associated with NCI. Self-reported diabetes was associated with NCI in the substudy and in those >55 in the entire CHARTER cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that central obesity (as measured by WC) increased the risk of NCI and that greater body mass may be protective if the deleterious effect of central obesity is accounted for. Conclusions: As in HIV-uninfected persons, central obesity, but not more generalized increases in body mass (BMI), was associated with a higher prevalence of NCI in HIV+ persons. Diabetes appeared to be associated with NCI only in older patients. Avoidance of antiretroviral drugs that induce central obesity might protect from or help to reverse neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons. PMID:22330412

  13. Potential roles of microglial cell progranulin in HIV-associated CNS pathologies and neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lee, Sunhee C.

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a highly unusual molecule with both neuronal and microglial expression with two seemingly unrelated functions, i.e., as a neuronal growth factor and a modulator of neuroinflammation. Haploinsufficiency due to loss of function mutations lead to a fatal presenile dementing illness (frontotemporal lobar degeneration), indicating that adequate expression of PGRN is essential for successful aging. PGRN might be a particularly relevant factor in the pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We present emerging data and a review of the literature which show that cells of myeloid lineage such as macrophages and microglia are the primary sources of PGRN and that PGRN expression contributes to pathogenesis of CNS diseases. We also present evidence that PGRN is a macrophage antiviral cytokine. For example, PGRN mRNA and protein expression are significantly upregulated in brain specimens with HIVE, and in HIV-infected microglia in vitro. Paradoxically, our preliminary CHARTER data analyses indicate that lower PGRN levels in CSF trended towards an association with HAND, particularly in those without detectable virus. Based upon these findings, we introduce the hypothesis that PGRN plays dual roles in modulating antiviral immunity and neuronal dysfunction in the context of HIV infection. In the presence of active viral replication, PGRN expression is increased functioning as an anti-viral factor as well as a neuroprotectant. In the absence of active HIV replication, ongoing inflammation or other stressors suppress PGRN production from macrophages/microglia contributing to neurocognitive dysfunction. We propose CSF PGRN as a candidate surrogate marker for HAND. PMID:23959579

  14. Complement and HIV-I infection/HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-04-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

  15. Dual-mixed HIV-1 coreceptor tropism and HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Morris, Sheldon R; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Little, Susan J; Wagner, Gabriel; Morgan, Erin E; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M

    2013-10-01

    HIV coreceptor usage of CXCR4 (X4) is associated with decreased CD4+ T-cell counts and accelerated disease progression, but the role of X4 tropism in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not previously been described. This longitudinal study evaluated data on 197 visits from 72 recently HIV-infected persons who had undergone up to four sequential neurocognitive assessments over a median of 160 days (IQR, 138–192). Phenotypic tropism testing (Trofile ES, Monogram, Biosciences) was performed on stored blood samples. Multivariable mixed model repeated measures regression was used to determine the association between HAND and dual-mixed (DM) viral tropism, estimated duration of infection (EDI), HIV RNA, CD4 count, and problematic methamphetamine use. Six subjects (8.3 %) had DM at their first neurocognitive assessment and four converted to DM in subsequent sampling (for total of 10 DM) at a median EDI of 10.1 months (IQR, 7.2–12.2). There were 44 (61.1 %) subjects who demonstrated HAND on at least one study visit. HAND was associated with DM tropism (odds ratio, 4.4; 95 % CI, 0.9–20.5) and shorter EDI (odds ratio 1.1 per month earlier; 95 % CI, 1.0–1.2). This study found that recency of HIV-1 infection and the development of DM tropism may be associated with HAND in the relatively early stage of infection. Together, these data suggest that viral interaction with cellular receptors may play an important role in the early manifestation of HAND. PMID:24078557

  16. Identifying Risk Factors for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders Using the International HIV Dementia Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Sara; Önen, Nur; Gase, Amber; Overton, Edgar Turner; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite great advancements in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The gold standard for diagnosing cognitive impairment consists of a time-consuming neuropsychological battery of tests given by a trained neuropsychologist, however in the outpatient HIV clinic this is not feasible. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to help identify individuals with cognitive impairment in the outpatient setting. The IHDS is moderately sensitive for detecting more symptomatic forms of HAND but sensitivity has been shown to be poor in mild impairment. The IHDS has not been evaluated in developed countries in large cohort populations. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of only HIV+ individuals in an urban clinic and evaluated the prevalence of HAND and associated risk factors for cognitive impairment using the IHDS. A total of 507 HIV+ individuals participated in the study of which the majority were male (65%) and African American (68%); and 41% had cognitive impairment. On multivariate analysis, African American race (p=2.21), older age (p=1.03), high school education or less (p=2.03) and depression (p=1.05) were associated with cognitive impairment. The high prevalence of HAND in this group suggests that more severe forms of HAND persist despite cART. Identified risk factors were non-HIV-related and suggest that environmental and sociodemographic factors have a significant impact on cognitive functioning and should be given more attention. The IHDS should be further evaluated in large cohort HIV+ and HIV? populations in the United States, as there remains a significant need to identify an effective brief screening tool for cognitive impairment. PMID:24114509

  17. HIV-associated Prospective Memory Impairment in the Laboratory Predicts Failures on a Semi-naturalistic Measure of Health Care Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Zogg, Jennifer B.; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of prospective memory (ProM), increases the risk of poor everyday functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence. However, whether ProM plays a role in health care compliance outside of the realm of medication adherence remains to be determined. This study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM is an independent predictor of failure to comply with non-medication related instructions akin to those commonly given by health care providers. Participants were 139 HIV-infected adults who underwent medical, psychiatric, and neuropsychological assessments, including a laboratory-based measure of ProM. To assess real-world compliance, participants were instructed to call the examiner 24 hours after the evaluation and report how many hours they had slept. Individuals who failed to correctly comply with these instructions (n=104) demonstrated significantly lower performance on both time- and event-based ProM at baseline than the compliant group (n=35), an effect that was primarily driven by errors of omission. ProM remained a significant predictor of noncompliance after controlling for potential confounders, including demographics (e.g., education), traditional cognitive measures of retrospective memory and executive functions, and psychiatric factors (e.g., depression). Results support the hypothesis that ProM plays a unique role in compliance with health care instructions for HIV disease management and may inform interventions designed to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:20661839

  18. The Influence of HLA on HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in Anhui, China

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Rachel D.; Gupta, Saurabh; Riggs, Patricia; Cysique, Lucette A.; Letendre, Scott; Jin, Hua; Spector, Stephen A.; Singh, Kumud K.; Wolfson, Tanya; Wu, Zunyou; Hong, Kun Xue; Yu, Xin; Shi, Chuan; Heaton, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Background HLA-DR*04 was identified as a predictor of HIV-Associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), low CD4 T-cell responses to HIV, and low plasma HIV RNA levels in a U.S. cohort. We hypothesized that low CD4 T-cell activation leads to poor immune control of HIV in the CNS, predisposing to HAND, but also provided fewer target (activated CD4 T-cells) for HIV replication. To assess the consistency of these HLA Class II associations in a new cohort and extend analysis to HLA Class I, HLA types, neurocognitive, and virologic status were examined in a cohort of former plasma donors in China. Methods 178 HIV infected individuals in Anhui China, were HLA typed and underwent neurocognitive evaluations (using locally standardized norms), neuromedical, treatment and virologic assessments at baseline and at 12 months. Results HLA DR*04 was associated with a higher rate of baseline neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.04), neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.04), and lower levels of HIV RNA in plasma (p?=?0.05). HLA Class I alleles (B*27,57,58,A*03,33) that specify a CD8 T-cell response to conserved HIV sequences were neuroprotective, associated with less impairment at baseline (p?=?0.037), at month 012 (p?=?0.013) and less neurocognitive decline (p?=?0.023) in the interval. Consistent with the theory that effective CD8 T-cell responses require CD4 T-cell support, the HLA DR*04 allele reduced the neuroprotective effect of the Class I alleles. The presence of HLA-DR*04 and the Alzheimer associated allele ApoE4 in the same individual had a synergistic negative effect on cognition (p?=?0.003). Conclusions Despite major background differences between U.S. and Anhui China cohorts, HLA DR*04 predicted neurocognitive impairment and lower plasma HIV RNA levels in both populations. HLA Class I alleles associated with CD8 T-cell control of HIV were associated with protection from HAND, but protection was reduced in the presence of HLA-DR*04. PMID:22693541

  19. Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma; Beale, Mathew A.; Johnston, Simon A.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Loyse, Angela; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Gilbert, Andrew S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Bicanic, Tihana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. Methods. Sixty-five C. neoformans isolates from clinical trial patients with matched clinical data were assayed in vitro to determine murine macrophage uptake, intracellular proliferation rate (IPR), capsule induction, and laccase activity. Analysis of the correlation between prognostic clinical and host immune parameters and fungal phenotypes was performed using Spearman’s r, while the fungal-dependent impact on long-term survival was determined by Cox regression analysis. Results. High levels of fungal uptake by macrophages in vitro, but not the IPR, were associated with CSF fungal burden (r = 0.38, P = 0.002) and long-term patient survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5, P = 0.012). High-uptake strains were hypocapsular (r = –0.28, P = 0.05) and exhibited enhanced laccase activity (r = 0.36, P = 0.003). Fungal isolates with greater laccase activity exhibited heightened survival ex vivo in purified CSF (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and resistance to clearance following patient antifungal treatment (r = 0.39, P = 0.003). Conclusion. These findings underscore the contribution of cryptococcal-phagocyte interactions and laccase-dependent melanin pathways to human clinical presentation and outcome. Furthermore, characterization of fungal-specific pathways that drive clinical manifestation provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics and the management of CM. Funding. This work was made possible by funding from the Wellcome Trust (WT088148MF), the Medical Research Council (MR/J008176/1), the NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre and the Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine (to R.C. May), and a Wellcome Trust Intermediate fellowship (089966, to T. Bicanic). The C. neoformans isolates were collected within clinical trials funded by the British Infection Society (fellowship to T. Bicanic), the Wellcome Trust (research training fellowships WT069991, to A.E. Brouwer and WT081794, to J.N. Jarvis), and the Medical Research Council, United Kingdom (76201). The funding sources had no role in the design or conduct of this study, nor in preparation of the manuscript. PMID:24743149

  20. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/?l, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  1. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/?l, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  2. Management of HIV-associated tuberculosis in resource-limited settings: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) epidemic remains a huge challenge to public health in resource-limited settings. Reducing the nearly 0.5 million deaths that result each year has been identified as a key priority. Major progress has been made over the past 10 years in defining appropriate strategies and policy guidelines for early diagnosis and effective case management. Ascertainment of cases has been improved through a twofold strategy of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in TB patients and intensified TB case finding among those living with HIV. Outcomes of rifampicin-based TB treatment are greatly enhanced by concurrent co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART reduces mortality across a spectrum of CD4 counts and randomized controlled trials have defined the optimum time to start ART. Good outcomes can be achieved when combining TB treatment with first-line ART, but use with second-line ART remains challenging due to pharmacokinetic drug interactions and cotoxicity. We review the frequency and spectrum of adverse drug reactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) resulting from combined treatment, and highlight the challenges of managing HIV-associated drug-resistant TB. PMID:24295487

  3. Relevance of lipopolysaccharide levels in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment: the Neuradapt study.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Matteo; Dunais, Brigitte; Durant, Jacques; Carsenti-Dellamonica, Helene; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Ticchioni, Michel; Laffon, Muriel; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradier, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Contributory factors to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have been shown to include age, co-morbid infections, medication toxicity, virological, genetic and vascular mechanisms, as well as microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is suspected to trigger monocyte activation and increase trafficking of infected cells into the brain. In this study, our aim was to assess the degree of neurocognitive impairment in a group of randomly selected HIV-infected patients and investigate potential risk factors, including LPS plasma levels. Furthermore, we evaluated the relevance of LPS as a potential marker for screening patients with mild neurocognitive impairment. LPS plasma levels were compared among patients with HAND and those with no HAND. As LPS has also been shown to be elevated in hepatitis C co-infection, the analysis was stratified according to the presence or not of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. Differences between groups were evaluated using chi-square tests and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for HAND in the subgroups of HCV-positive and negative patients. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Analyses were conducted using SPSS® software. From December 2007 to July 2009, 179 patients were tested (mean age 44, 73 % male, 87 % on treatment, 30 % HCV co-infected, median CD4 504/ml and 67 % with viral load below 40 copies/ml). HAND was identified in 40/179 patients (22 %), the majority displaying asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment or mild neurocognitive disorder. Univariate analysis showed that age, illicit drug use, hepatitis C co-infection, prior AIDS-defining events, CD4/CD8 ratio and LPS plasma levels were significantly associated with HAND. The median LPS level was 98.2 pg/ml in the non-HAND group versus 116.1 pg/ml in the HAND group (p < 0.014). No differences were found in LPS values between subgroups of impairment. There was a clear association between LPS levels and HAND in the HCV-positive group (p = 0.036), while there was none in the HCV-negative group (p = 0.502). No difference in degree of hepatic fibrosis was found between the HAND and non-HAND groups. In conclusion, LPS levels were associated with HAND in the HCV-positive group, while, in the HCV-negative group, age and pro-viral DNA were the only variables independently associated with HAND. There was no difference in degree of liver disease as predicted by score of fibrosis between HAND and non-HAND groups. The role of HCV co-infection and higher LPS levels in the pathogenesis of HAND in patients with viral suppression on treatment requires further investigation. PMID:23846287

  4. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Ba?tu?, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  5. A Comprehensive Methodology for Opportunistic Spectrum Access based on Residual White Space

    E-print Network

    Sahoo, Anirudha

    A Comprehensive Methodology for Opportunistic Spectrum Access based on Residual White Space spectrum access, residual white space, cognitive radio 1. INTRODUCTION Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA SUs can opportunistically transmit in the white spaces based on residual white space distribution

  6. Energy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing in Opportunistic Mobile NetworksOpportunistic Mobile NetworksOpportunistic Mobile NetworksOpportunistic Mobile Networ

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Energy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing inEnergy-efficient Contact Probing in Opportunistic Mobile NetworksOpportunistic Mobile Networks;OutlineOutlineOutlineOutline Introduction Motivation Modeling the Contact Process Model Validation

  7. SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Qing Zhao@ece.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we study two important concepts in opportunis- tic spectrum access: spectrum intuitive terms central to opportunistic spectrum access. Their implications in spectrum opportunity

  8. Hierarchical Cooperative Caching in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    of the nodes in the network. With the popularization of smart phones, mobile opportunistic social networks (MOSNs), a new type of DTN, becomes popular. In MOSNs, the individuals carrying smart phones walk aroundHierarchical Cooperative Caching in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks Yunsheng Wang Dept

  9. Resource Use Pattern Analysis for Opportunistic Grids Marcelo Finger

    E-print Network

    Finger, Marcelo

    Resource Use Pattern Analysis for Opportunistic Grids Marcelo Finger Dept. of Computer Science- ability in opportunistic grids by means of Use Pattern Anal- ysis (UPA), a technique based on non is based on unsupervised machine learning [12, 2], which performs a clustering anal- ysis on past records

  10. A framework for opportunistic scheduling in wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Liu; Edwin K. P. Chong; Ness B. Shroff

    2003-01-01

    We present a method, called opportunistic scheduling, for exploiting the time- varying nature of the radio environment to increase the overall performance of the system under certain QoS\\/fairness requirements of users. We flrst introduce a general framework for opportunistic scheduling, and then identify three general categories of scheduling problems under this framework. We provide optimal solu- tions for each of

  11. Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szymon Chachulski; Michael Jennings; Sachin Katti; Dina Katabi

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current oppor- tunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, impos- ing a strict schedule on routers' access to the medium. Although the scheduler delivers opportunistic gains, it misses some of the inherent features of the 802.11 MAC. For example, it

  12. Practical privacy-aware opportunistic networking Iain Parris

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Tristan

    a protocol such as Bluetooth. If many such devices cooperate with one another, an opportunistic network may of creating privacy-preserving routing protocols, with less emphasis on discovering users' actual privacy understand users' privacy concerns. opportunistic networking, privacy, social networks, routing protocols 1

  13. Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access Yunxia Chen, Qing Zhao, and Ananthram Swami I. INTRODUCTION Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is one of the approaches envisioned with the current spectrum management policy and legacy wireless systems. The basic idea of OSA is to allow

  14. Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract--- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near­optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

  15. Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract-- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

  16. Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access Yunxia Chen, Qing Zhao Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783 Abstract--We design opportunistic spectrum access strategies for improving spectrum efficiency. In each slot, a secondary user chooses a subset of channels to sense

  17. DISTRIBUTED COGNITIVE MAC FOR ENERGY-CONSTRAINED OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    DISTRIBUTED COGNITIVE MAC FOR ENERGY-CONSTRAINED OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Yunxia Chen, Qing for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) under an energy constraint on the secondary users. The objective partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) and obtain the optimal spectrum sensing and access

  18. An opportunistic platform for Android-based mobile devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Meroni; Elena Pagani; Gian Paolo Rossi; Lorenzo Valerio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Android-based opportunistic platform for mobile computing applications. It has the aim to incentive the growth of practical experiences that should give an answer to the following question: can Opportunistic Networks actually compete with cellular networks to support urban-wide mobile computing applications?

  19. Directional navigation improves opportunistic communication for emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kokuti, Andras; Gelenbe, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  20. Opportunistic fungi: a view to the future.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Peter G

    2010-09-01

    Opportunistic fungi are a constantly evolving group of pathogens that plague a growing group of vulnerable patients. These include hospitalized patients, especially those in the intensive care unit; stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients; patients treated with immunosuppressant medications; those with advanced human immunodeficiency virus or other acquired immunodeficiency conditions; and patients with organ failure syndromes. Rapid diagnosis of invasive fungal infection is essential to optimize outcomes. Several newer nonculture-based diagnostics, including the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the beta-d-glucan assay and the multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based assays, may emerge as important tools facilitating early intervention with effective antifungal therapy. Newer azoles, including posaconazole, isavuconazole and ravuconazole, will potentially provide more effective therapeutic options in the future, diminishing the role for amphotericin B. PMID:20823702

  1. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Kokuti, Andras.; Gelenbe, Erol.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  2. Cortical neurons are a prominent source of the proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Silva, Katie; Hope-Lucas, Calixto; White, Tyesha; Hairston, Tai-Kyung; Rameau, Tatenda; Brown, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and remains so in those on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. To understand the pathophysiological significance of elevated OPN in the CNS, we sought to determine the cellular source of this cytokine. As HIV-1 replicates productively in macrophages/microglia, we tested whether these cells are the predominant producers of OPN in the brain. Stringent patient selection criteria, which excluded brain tissues from those with evidence of drug abuse and dependence, were used. Uninfected normal controls, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV+ asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), and HIV+ mild neurocognitive disorder (MND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) groups were included. Double-label immunohistochemistry for CNS cells and OPN was used to quantify OPN expression in astrocytes, macrophages/microglia, and neurons. While resident macrophages/microglia expressed OPN, astrocytes and unexpectedly neurons were also a major source of OPN. OPN levels in ionized Ca(2+)-binding adapter 1 (Iba1)/allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1)+ microglia in HIV+ ANI and MND/HAD exceeded those of HIV-negative controls and were comparable to expression seen in ALS. Moreover, in neurons, OPN was expressed at the highest levels in the HIV+ ANI group. These findings suggest that while infiltrating HIV-infected macrophages are most likely the initial source of OPN, resident CNS cells become activated and also express this inflammatory cytokine at significant levels. Moreover, as OPN levels are elevated compared to uninfected individuals and increases with the severity of impairment, it appears that the expression of OPN is persistent and sustained within the brain parenchyma in those that progress to HAND. PMID:25636782

  3. Cortical neurons are a prominent source of the proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Katie; Hope-Lucas, Calixto; White, Tyesha; Hairston, Tai-Kyung; Rameau, Tatenda

    2015-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and remains so in those on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. To understand the pathophysiological significance of elevated OPN in the CNS, we sought to determine the cellular source of this cytokine. As HIV-1 replicates productively in macrophages/microglia, we tested whether these cells are the predominant producers of OPN in the brain. Stringent patient selection criteria, which excluded brain tissues from those with evidence of drug abuse and dependence, were used. Uninfected normal controls, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV+ asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), and HIV+ mild neurocognitive disorder (MND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) groups were included. Doublelabel immunohistochemistry for CNS cells and OPN was used to quantify OPN expression in astrocytes, macrophages/microglia, and neurons. While resident macrophages/microglia expressed OPN, astrocytes and unexpectedly neurons were also a major source of OPN. OPN levels in ionized Ca2+-binding adapter 1 (Iba1)/allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1)+ microglia in HIV+ ANI and MND/HAD exceeded those of HIV-negative controls and were comparable to expression seen in ALS. Moreover, in neurons, OPN was expressed at the highest levels in the HIV+ ANI group. These findings suggest that while infiltrating HIV-infected macrophages are most likely the initial source of OPN, resident CNS cells become activated and also express this inflammatory cytokine at significant levels. Moreover, as OPN levels are elevated compared to uninfected individuals and increases with the severity of impairment, it appears that the expression of OPN is persistent and sustained within the brain parenchyma in those that progress to HAND. PMID:25636782

  4. Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Joseph N.; Bicanic, Tihana; Loyse, Angela; Namarika, Daniel; Jackson, Arthur; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Longley, Nicky; Muzoora, Conrad; Phulusa, Jacob; Taseera, Kabanda; Kanyembe, Creto; Wilson, Douglas; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; White, Nicholas; van der Horst, Charles; Wood, Robin; Meintjes, Graeme; Bradley, John; Jaffar, Shabbar; Harrison, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Identifying factors associated with mortality informs strategies to improve outcomes. Methods.?Five hundred one patients with HIV-associated CM were followed prospectively for 10 weeks during trials in Thailand, Uganda, Malawi, and South Africa. South African patients (n = 266) were followed for 1 year. Similar inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied at all sites. Logistic regression identified baseline variables independently associated with mortality. Results.?Mortality was 17% at 2 weeks and 34% at 10 weeks. Altered mental status (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–5.9), high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden (OR, 1.4 per log10 colony-forming units/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.0–1.8), older age (>50 years; OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4–11.1), high peripheral white blood cell count (>10 × 109 cells/L; OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.5–30.2), fluconazole-based induction treatment, and slow clearance of CSF infection were independently associated with 2-week mortality. Low body weight, anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL), and low CSF opening pressure were independently associated with mortality at 10 weeks in addition to altered mental status, high fungal burden, high peripheral white cell count, and older age. In those followed for 1 year, overall mortality was 41%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with 2-week CSF fungal burden (P = .007), but not with time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions.?CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes. PMID:24319084

  5. Optimal Channel Probing and Transmission Scheduling for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Chang, Nicholas B.

    In this study, we consider optimal opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) policies for a transmitter in a multichannel wireless system, where a channel can be in one of multiple states. In such systems, the transmitter typically ...

  6. On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

  7. The Role of Opportunistic Migration in Cyclic Games

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study cyclic evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. We find that opportunistic migration can inverse the cyclic prevalence between the strategies when the frequency of random imitation is large enough compared to the payoff-driven imitation. At the transition the average size of the patterns diverges and this threatens diversity of strategies. PMID:24892660

  8. The role of opportunistic migration in cyclic games.

    PubMed

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study cyclic evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. We find that opportunistic migration can inverse the cyclic prevalence between the strategies when the frequency of random imitation is large enough compared to the payoff-driven imitation. At the transition the average size of the patterns diverges and this threatens diversity of strategies. PMID:24892660

  9. Antiretroviral treatment interruptions and risk of non-opportunistic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Lichtenstein

    2009-01-01

    Structured treatment interruptions have been studied as a strategy to reduce antiretroviral toxicities and expenditures in\\u000a the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. Paradoxically, in addition to the increased incidence of death and opportunistic\\u000a infections, these interruptions in therapy have resulted in the development of a number of non-opportunistic diseases, including\\u000a cardiovascular events, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hypotheses regarding

  10. An Interface for Opportunistic Discovery of Information for Young People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamshid Beheshti; Andrew Large

    \\u000a The exploratory study investigates a virtual reality interface for opportunistic discovery for young people. We recruited\\u000a ten volunteer students, who performed a pre-assigned information search task in a VR library which consists of about 1500\\u000a web sites depicted as books organized on the shelves. We calculated a metric for opportunistic discovery of information (ODI)\\u000a based on the distance of books

  11. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Profiles Predict Risk of Early Mortality and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Joseph N; Meintjes, Graeme; Bicanic, Tihana; Buffa, Viviana; Hogan, Louise; Mo, Stephanie; Tomlinson, Gillian; Kropf, Pascale; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Harrison, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS. PMID:25853653

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Profiles Predict Risk of Early Mortality and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Joseph N.; Meintjes, Graeme; Bicanic, Tihana; Buffa, Viviana; Hogan, Louise; Mo, Stephanie; Tomlinson, Gillian; Kropf, Pascale; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Harrison, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS. PMID:25853653

  14. Genetically Modified Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-15

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage II AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage III AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage IV AIDS-related Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  15. Diagnosing symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: Self-report versus performance-based assessment of everyday functioning

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, K.; Moore, D. J.; Heaton, R. K.; Franklin, D. R.; Woods, S. P.; Clifford, D. B.; Collier, A. C.; Marra, C. M.; Gelman, B. B.; McArthur, J. C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D. M.; Rivera-Mindt, M.; Deutsch, R.; Ellis, R. J.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) include both “asymptomatic” and “symptomatic” neurocognitive impairment. Asymptomatic diagnoses indicate HAND without demonstrable functional impairment. The present study compares three approaches to assess functional decline: 1) self-report measures only (SR); 2) performance-based measures only (PB); and 3) combining SR and PB measures (SR+PB). Methods We assessed 674 HIV-infected research volunteers with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via SR and PB measures. HAND diagnoses in these 233 cognitively impaired individuals were determined according to published criteria, which allow for both SR and PB methods in establishing functional decline. Results The dual-method diagnosed the most symptomatic (53%; 124/233) HAND conditions, compared to either singular method, which were only 59% concordant. Participants classified as functionally-impaired via PB were more likely to be unemployed, more immunosuppressed, and had more hepatitis-C co-infection, whereas those classified via singular SR were more depressed. Conclusions Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. PB-based classification was associated with objective functional status (i.e., employment) and important disease-related factors, whereas the typical SR singular classifications may be biased by depressed mood. PMID:22114912

  16. Self-predictions of prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: evidence of a metamemory deficit.

    PubMed

    Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Doyle, Katie L; Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-12-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM; "remembering to remember"), conferring risk of daily functioning declines. However, self-perceptions of PM functioning are not reliably associated with PM performance in HIV, suggesting a possible deficit in awareness of PM abilities (meta-PM). Our study examined meta-PM in HAND and its correlates using self-predictions of laboratory-based PM performance. Performance-based PM abilities, self-reported prediction of PM performance, and PM complaints in everyday life were assessed in 49 individuals with HAND, 93 HIV+ without HAND (HIV+ noHAND), and 121 seronegative adults (HIV-). After controlling for group-level differences, HAND was associated with a greater number of PM symptoms in everyday life and worse PM performance when compared with both HIV+ noHAND and HIV- samples. Although HAND individuals reported somewhat lower predictions regarding their laboratory PM performance relative to the other study groups, they nevertheless exhibited significantly greater inaccurate overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Within the HAND group, overconfidence in time-based meta-PM was associated with executive dysfunction and antiretroviral (ARV) nonadherence. HAND individuals evidenced a moderate deficit in awareness of PM functioning characterized by overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Overconfidence in PM may result in absence of compensatory strategy use, and lead to increased errors in daily functioning (e.g., ARV nonadherence). PMID:25404005

  17. Methamphetamine and Inflammatory Cytokines Increase Neuronal Na+/K+-ATPase Isoform 3: Relevance for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pendyala, Gurudutt; Buescher, James L.; Fox, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse in conjunction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exacerbates neuropathogenesis and accelerates neurocognitive impairments in the central nervous system (CNS), collectively termed HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Since both HIV and METH have been implicated in altering the synaptic architecture, this study focused on investigating alterations in synaptic proteins. Employing a quantitative proteomics approach on synaptosomes isolated from the caudate nucleus from two groups of rhesus monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) differing by one regimen, METH treatment, we identified the neuron specific Na+/K+-ATPase alpha 1 isoform 3 (ATP1A3) to be up regulated after METH treatment, and validated its up regulation by METH in vitro. Further studies on signaling mechanisms revealed that the activation of ATP1A3 involves the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Given its function in maintaining ionic gradients and emerging role as a signaling molecule, changes in ATP1A3 yields insights into the mechanisms associated with HAND and interactions with drugs of abuse. PMID:22662178

  18. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: A Consensus Report of the Mind Exchange Program

    PubMed Central

    Antinori, Andrea; Arendt, Gabriele; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Chair; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Eggers, Christian; Brew, Bruce; Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Bernal-Cano, Francisco; Carvalhal, Adriana; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Cinque, Paola; Cysique, Lucette; Ellis, Ronald; Everall, Ian; Gasnault, Jacques; Husstedt, Ingo; Korten, Volkan; Machala, Ladislav; Obermann, Mark; Ouakinin, Silvia; Podzamczer, Daniel; Portegies, Peter; Rackstraw, Simon; Rourke, Sean; Sherr, Lorraine; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Winston, Alan; Wojna, Valerie; Yazdanpannah, Yazdan; Arbess, Gordon; Baril, Jean-Guy; Begovac, Josip; Bergin, Colm; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Brinkman, Kees; Canestri, Ana; Cholewi?ska-Szyma?ska, Gra?yna; Chowers, Michal; Cooney, John; Corti, Marcelo; Doherty, Colin; Elbirt, Daniel; Esser, Stefan; Florence, Eric; Force, Gilles; Gill, John; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Harrer, Thomas; Li, Patrick; de Kerckhove, Linos Van; Knecht, Gaby; Matsushita, Shuzo; Matulionyte, Raimonda; McConkey, Sam; Mouglignier, Antoine; Oka, Shinichi; Penalva, Augusto; Riesenberg, Klaris; Sambatakou, Helen; Tozzi, Valerio; Vassallo, Matteo; Wetterberg, Peter; Drapato, Alicia Wierci?ska

    2013-01-01

    Many practical clinical questions regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain unanswered. We sought to identify and develop practical answers to key clinical questions in HAND management. Sixty-six specialists from 30 countries provided input into the program, which was overseen by a steering committee. Fourteen questions were rated as being of greatest clinical importance. Answers were drafted by an expert group based on a comprehensive literature review. Sixty-three experts convened to determine consensus and level of evidence for the answers. Consensus was reached on all answers. For instance, good practice suggests that all HIV patients should be screened for HAND early in disease using standardized tools. Follow-up frequency depends on whether HAND is already present or whether clinical data suggest risk for developing HAND. Worsening neurocognitive impairment may trigger consideration of antiretroviral modification when other causes have been excluded. The Mind Exchange program provides practical guidance in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of HAND. PMID:23175555

  19. Theranostic quantum dots for crossing blood–brain barrier in vitro and providing therapy of HIV-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixia; Mahajan, Supriya; Roy, Indrajit; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex physiological checkpoint that restricts the free diffusion of circulating molecules from the blood into the central nervous system. Delivering of drugs and other active agents across the BBB is one of the major technical challenges faced by scientists and medical practitioners. Therefore, development of novel methodologies to address this challenge holds the key for both the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases, such as HIV-associated encephalopathy. Bioconjugated quantum dots (QDs) are excellent fluorescent probes and nano-vectors, being designed to transverse across the BBB and visualize drug delivery inside the brain. This paper discusses the use of functionalized QDs for crossing the blood–brain barrier and treating brain disease. We highlight the guidelines for using in vitro BBB models for brain disease studies. The theranostic QDs offers a strategy to significantly improve the effective dosages of drugs to transverse across the BBB and orientate to the targets inside the brain. PMID:24298256

  20. A proposition against using the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" in research on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    López, Enrique; Morales, Guadalupe; Saucedo, Carlos; Aguirre-Girón, Lizette; Mack, Sara; Goodkin, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the term "Hispanic" has been used to refer to a person or groups of persons who originate from Spanish-speaking countries. However, this term fails to account for variables such as nationality, ethnicity, race, and cultural origin as well as the extent of assimilation to a new culture. In addition, factors such as the individual's generation, specific migratory status, years of education in each country, fluency, and day-to-day language usage contribute to variance in neuropsychological testing outcomes, which are sensitive to these factors. We have noted that the usage of the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" is problematic in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) research; therefore, we propose grouping individuals by nationality or by the Spanish-speaking culture to which they belong. The rationale for not using these terms is based upon the sociodemographic findings among Spanish speakers infected with HIV and how these terms inadequately describe the rich heterogeneity of this population. PMID:21305841

  1. HIV-Associated Prospective Memory Impairment in the Laboratory Predicts Failures on a Semi-Naturalistic Measure of Health Care Compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Zogg; Steven Paul Woods; Erica Weber; Jennifer E. Iudicello; Matthew S. Dawson; Igor Grant

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of prospective memory (ProM), increases the risk of poor everyday functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence. However, whether ProM plays a role in health care compliance outside of the realm of medication adherence remains to be determined. This study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM is an independent predictor of failure to comply with non-medication-related

  2. Screening for HIV-Associated Peripheral Neuropathy in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cettomai, Deanna; Kwasa, Judith K.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Price, Richard W.; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; (OB/Gyn), MMed; Kendi, Caroline; Meyer, Ana-Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by non-physician health care workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy. METHODS We enrolled 240 HIV-infected outpatients using two-stage cluster randomized sampling. HCWs administered the several screening tools. Trained study staff performed QST. Tools were validated against a clinical diagnosis of neuropathy. RESULTS Participants were 65% women, mean age 36.4 years, median CD4 324 cells/?L. 65% were taking antiretrovirals, and 18% had moderate/severe neuropathy. The screening tests were 76% sensitive in diagnosing moderate/severe neuropathy with negative predictive values of 84–92%. QST was less sensitive but more specific. DISCUSSION Screening tests administered by HCW have excellent negative predictive values and are promising tools for scale-up in resource-limited settings. QST shows promise for research use. PMID:24037693

  3. Opportunistic MSPA Demonstration #1: Final Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. S.; Finley, S. G.; Heckman, D. P.; Lay, N. E.; Lush, C. M.; MacNeal, B. E.

    2015-02-01

    The Opportunistic Multiple Spacecraft Per Antenna (OMSPA) concept seeks to provide smallsat missions with a low-attributed-aperture-fee technique for obtaining routine downlink in a manner that is very low cost to the Deep Space Network (DSN). Unlike traditional MSPA in which the number of spacecraft that can be supported is limited by the number of available receivers, OMSPA makes use of a digital recorder at each station that is capable of capturing IF signals from every spacecraft in the antenna beam within the frequency bands of interest. When smallsat missions see one or more opportunities to intercept the traditionally scheduled antenna beam of a "host" spacecraft, they can transmit open loop during those opportunities. Via a secure Internet site, the smallsat mission operators can then retrieve relevant portions of the digital recording for subsequent demodulation and decoding or subscribe to a service that does it for them. The demonstration discussed in this article was intended to provide prospective smallsat users and the DSN, as the prospective service provider, with demonstrable proof that the OMSPA concept is, in fact, an operationally viable means for obtaining routine downlink telemetry. To do this, the demonstration began by treating Mars Odyssey as a "smallsat" and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) as the "host" spacecraft. Using a specially created Beam Intercept Planning System (BIPS) and a DSN 7-Day Schedule Cross-Comparison (7-DSC) tool, opportunities were identified when Mars Odyssey would be transmitting while in MRO's ground antenna beam. Existing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receivers (VSRs) were used to record the Mars Odyssey downlink telemetry during these opportunities. The recordings were played back to a secure server outside the Flight Operations Network firewall, but inside the JPL firewall. The demonstration team's signal processing personnel retrieved the recordings from this secure server and downloaded them to a workstation containing an OMSPA Software Demodulator (OSD) tool that was developed to demodulate and decode the Mars Odyssey signal. Validation of the recovered data was then accomplished by comparing the transfer frames obtained through OMSPA with those recovered via Mars Odyssey's formally scheduled downlink. The demonstration successfully achieved its intended purpose. All of the above steps were accomplished within an operationally viable timeframe, with at least 99.95 percent of the transfer frames being successfully recovered from each demonstration recording.

  4. Opportunistic respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akio; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2010-10-01

    The oral cavity of the hospitalized or bedridden elderly is often a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens associated with respiratory diseases. Commensal flora and the host interact in a balanced fashion and oral infections are considered to appear following an imbalance in the oral resident microbiota, leading to the emergence of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The definition of the process involved in colonization by opportunistic respiratory pathogens needs to elucidate the factors responsible for the transition of the microbiota from commensal to pathogenic flora. The regulatory factors influencing the oral ecosystem can be divided into three major categories: the host defense system, commensal bacteria, and external pathogens. In this article, we review the profile of these categories including the intricate cellular interaction between immune factors and commensal bacteria and the disturbance in homeostasis in the oral cavity of hospitalized or bedridden elderly, which facilitates oral colonization by opportunistic respiratory pathogens. PMID:20579096

  5. Incidence of HIV-Associated Tuberculosis among Individuals Taking Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kufa, Tendesayi; Mabuto, Tonderai; Muchiri, Evans; Charalambous, Salome; Rosillon, Dominique; Churchyard, Gavin; Harris, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of tuberculosis incidence and associated factors is required for the development and evaluation of strategies to reduce the burden of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Methods Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of tuberculosis incidence rates among HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy. Results From PubMed, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus databases, 42 papers describing 43 cohorts (32 from high/intermediate and 11 from low tuberculosis burden settings) were included in the qualitative review and 33 in the quantitative review. Cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings were smaller in size, had lower median CD4 cell counts at study entry and fewer person-years of follow up. Tuberculosis incidence rates were higher in studies from Sub-Saharan Africa and from World Bank low/middle income countries. Tuberculosis incidence rates decreased with increasing CD4 count at study entry and duration on combination antiretroviral therapy. Summary estimates of tuberculosis incidence among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy were higher for cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings compared to those from the low tuberculosis burden settings (4.17 per 100 person-years [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.39–5.14 per 100 person-years] vs. 0.4 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0.23–0.69 per 100 person-years]) with significant heterogeneity observed between the studies. Conclusions Tuberculosis incidence rates were high among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high/intermediate burden settings. Interventions to prevent tuberculosis in this population should address geographical, socioeconomic and individual factors such as low CD4 counts and prior history of tuberculosis. PMID:25393281

  6. Concurrent Classification Accuracy of the HIV Dementia Scale for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the CHARTER Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Umlauf, Anya; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Alexander, Terry; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), but concerns have persisted regarding its substandard sensitivity. This study aimed to examine the classification accuracy of the HDS using raw and norm-based cutpoints, and to evaluate the contribution of the HDS subtests to predicting HAND. Methods 1,580 HIV-infected participants from 6 U.S. sites completed the HDS, and a gold standard neuropsychological battery, on which 51% of participants were impaired. Results: Sensitivity and specificity to HAND using the standard raw HDS cutpoint were 24% and 92%, respectively. The raw HDS subtests of attention, recall, and psychomotor speed significantly contributed to classification of HAND, while visuomotor construction contributed the least. A modified raw cutpoint of 14 yielded sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 61%, with cross-validation. Using norms also significantly improved sensitivity to 69% with a concomitant reduction of specificity to 56%, while the positive predictive value declined from 75% to 62% and negative predictive value improved from 54% to 64%. The HDS showed similarly modest rates of sensitivity and specificity among subpopulations of individuals with minimal comorbidity and successful viral suppression. Conclusions Findings indicate that while the HDS is a statistically significant predictor of HAND, particularly when adjusted for demographic factors, its relatively low diagnostic classification accuracy continues to hinder its clinical utility. A raw cutpoint of 14 greatly improved the sensitivity of the previously established raw cutscore, but may be subject to ceiling effects, particularly on repeat assessments. PMID:23111573

  7. Cytokines in CSF correlate with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the post-HAART era in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Qiao, Luxin; Wei, Feili; Yin, Jiming; Liu, Lifeng; Ji, Yunxia; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of HIV dementia has declined, but the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains high. HIV-induced systemic and localized inflammation is considered to be one of the mechanisms of HAND. Changes in cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during HIV infection might help to identify HAND. To investigate whether the cytokine profile of the CSF during HIV infection could be used as a biomarker of HAND, we compared cytokine levels in the CSF of HIV-infected cases with and without neurocognitive impairment. Cytokine concentrations in the CSF were measured by quantification bioassays (Luminex xMAP). HIV-infected cases with neurocognitive impairment demonstrated higher levels of interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, induced protein (IP)-10, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the CSF than those without neurocognitive impairment (G-CSF (p=0.0003), IL-8 (p=0.0046), IP-10 (p<0.0001), and MCP-1 (p<0.0001)). There was no significant impact of HAART on cytokine levels in the CSF, except for IP-10, which was higher in HAART-treated patients with impaired cognition (p=0.0182). Findings from this preliminary study suggest that elevated levels of the cytokines IL-8, MCP-1, G-CSF, and IP-10 in the CSF are associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection, and these cytokines likely represent a biomarker profile for HAND. PMID:23389619

  8. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-09-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  9. Excess Soluble CD40L Contributes to Blood Brain Barrier Permeability In Vivo: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Donna C.; Hirschman, Michael P.; Sun, Anita; Singh, Meera V.; Kasischke, Karl; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L) are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1) positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking. PMID:23251626

  10. International Collaboration between US and Thailand on a Clinical Trial of Treatment for HIV-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, LO; Nolen, TL; Pramanpol, S; Wallace, D; Walker, ME; Pappas, P; Chetchotisakd, P

    2010-01-01

    Background International clinical trials can provide scientific and logistic benefits in spite of the many challenges. Determining whether a country, especially a developing country, is an appropriate location for the research should include in-country consultation and partnering to assess its social value for the population; that treatments are relevant for the population under study; and that the research infrastructure and ethical oversight are adequate. Collaboration increases the likelihood of study success and helps ensure that benefits accrue to recruited populations and their community. Purpose This paper describes our experiences on a bi-national study and may provide guidance for those planning to engage in future collaborations. Methods A Thai and United States team collaborated to develop and implement a Phase II clinical trial for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis to assess safety and tolerability of combination therapy versus standard treatment. Clinical and cultural differences, regulatory hurdles and operational issues were addressed before and during the study to ensure a successful collaboration between the 2 groups. Results The international multicenter study allowed for more rapid enrollment, reduced costs to complete the study, sharing of the benefits of research, greater generalizability of results and capacity building in Thailand; quality metrics in Thailand were equivalent to or better than those in the U.S. Conclusions Conducting successful clinical trials internationally requires early and ongoing collaboration to ensure the study meets sites’ requirements and expectations, conforms to varying national regulations, adheres to data quality standards and is responsive to the health needs of studied populations. PMID:19897055

  11. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  12. HIV associated dementia and HIV encephalitis II: Genes on chromosome 22 expressed in individually microdissected Globus pallidus neurons (Preliminary analysis).

    PubMed

    Shapshak, Paul; Duncan, Robert; Kangueane, Pandajarasamme; Somboonwit, Charurut; Sinnott, John; Commins, Deborah; Singer, Elyse; Levine, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed RNA gene expression in neurons from 16 cases in four categories, HIV associated dementia with HIV encephalitis (HAD/HIVE), HAD alone, HIVE alone, and HIV-1-positive (HIV+)with neither HAD nor HIVE. We produced the neurons by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from cryopreserved globus pallidus. Of 55,000 gene fragments analyzed, expression of 197 genes was identified with significance (p = 0.005).We examined each gene for its position in the human genome and found a non-stochastic occurrence for only seven genes, on chromosome 22. Six of the seven genes were identified, CSNK1E (casein kinase 1 epsilon), DGCR8 (Di George syndrome critical region 8), GGA1 (Golgi associated gamma adaptin ear containing ARF binding protein 1), MAPK11 (mitogen activated protein kinase 11), SMCR7L (Smith-Magenis syndrome chromosome region candidate 7-like), andTBC1D22A (TBC1 domain family member 22A). Six genes (CSNK1E, DGCR8, GGA1, MAPK11, SMCR7L, and one unidentified gene) had similar expression profiles across HAD/HIVE, HAD, and HIVE vs. HIV+ whereas one gene (TBC1D22A) had a differing gene expression profile across these patient categories. There are several mental disease-related genes including miRNAs on chromosome 22 and two of the genes (DGCR8 and SMCR7L) identified here are mental disease-related. We speculate that dysregulation of gene expression may occur through mechanisms involving chromatin damage and remodeling. We conclude that the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS involves dysregulation of expression of mental disease-related genes on chromosome 22 as well as additional genes on other chromosomes. The involvement of these genes as well as miRNA requires additional investigation since numerous genes appear to be involved. PMID:21738310

  13. HIV-1 Tat Alters Neuronal Autophagy by Modulating Autophagosome Fusion to the Lysosome: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Elueteri, Simona; Campos, Sofia; Serger, Elisabeth; Trejo, Margarita; Kosberg, Kori; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; He, Johnny J; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in monocyte-derived cells. Despite these findings, the mechanisms leading to dysregulated autophagy in the CNS remain unclear. Here we sought to determine how HIV Tat dysregulates autophagy in neurons. Tat caused a dose-dependent decrease in autophagosome markers, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain ? II (LC3II), and sequestosome 1(SQSTM1), in a membrane-enriched fraction, suggesting Tat increases autophagic degradation. Bafilomycin A1 increased autophagosome number, LC3II, and SQSTM1 accumulation; Tat cotreatment diminished this effect. Tat had no effect when 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 blocked early stages of autophagy. Tat increased numbers of LC3 puncta and resulted in the formation of abnormal autophagosomes in vitro. Likewise, in vivo studies in GFAP-Tat tg mice showed increased autophagosome accumulation in neurons, altered LC3II levels, and neurodegeneration. These effects were reversed by rapamycin treatment. Tat colocalized with autophagosome and lysosomal markers and enhanced the colocalization of autophagosome with lysosome markers. Furthermore, co-IP studies showed that Tat interacts with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) in vitro and in vivo, and LAMP2A overexpression reduces Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Hence, Tat protein may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion through interaction with LAMP2A leading to abnormal neuronal autophagy function and dysregulated degradation of critical intracellular components. Therapies targeting Tat-mediated autophagy alterations may decrease neurodegeneration in aging patients with HAND. PMID:25653352

  14. An implementation of opportunistic scheduling for robotic assembly

    E-print Network

    Butler, Allan Wayne

    1990-01-01

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. Cesar 0. Malave The goal of this research is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making... I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Trends in the Market Place 1. 2 Robots in Assembly 1. 3 The Problem 1. 3. 1 Robotic Programming 1. 3. 2 Random Assembly 1. 4 Method of Approach 1. 4. 1 Computer Vision 1. 4. 2 Artificial Intelligence 1. 4. 3 Literature Survey 1...

  15. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, AG; Nair, Bindu J; Sivakumar, TT; Joseph, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods. PMID:25328305

  16. Multiple rare opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in persistent foot skin infection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Giek Far; Sinniah, Sivaranjini; Idris, Tengku Idzzan Nadzirah Tengku; Puad, Mohamad Safwan Ahmad; Abd Rahman, Ahmad Zuhairi

    2013-03-01

    Persistent superficial skin infection caused by multiple fungi is rarely reported. Recently, a number of fungi, both opportunistic and persistent in nature were isolated from the foot skin of a 24-year old male in Malaysia. The fungi were identified as Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Phoma spp., Debaryomyces hansenii, Acremonium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus spp., This is the first report on these opportunistic strains were co-isolated from a healthy individual who suffered from persistent foot skin infection which was diagnosed as athlete's foot for more than 12 years. Among the isolated fungi, C. parapsilosis has been an increasingly common cause of skin infections. R. mucilaginosa and D. hansenii were rarely reported in cases of skin infection. A. pullulans, an emerging fungal pathogen was also being isolated in this case. Interestingly, it was noted that C. parapsilosis, R. mucilaginosa, D. hansenii and A. pullulans are among the common halophiles and this suggests the association of halotolerant fungi in causing persistent superficial skin infection. This discovery will shed light on future research to explore on effective treatment for inhibition of pathogenic halophiles as well as to understand the interaction of multiple fungi in the progress of skin infection. PMID:24175430

  17. A Spectrally Efficient Distributed Coded Cooperation Based on Opportunistic Relaying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wei; Pinyi Ren; Yanjie Liu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a spectrally efficient distributed coded cooperation based on Opportunistic Relaying for multi-relay. The proposed scheme chooses the best relay to participate in the cooperation depending on the instantaneous channel information. We adopt distributed Rate-compatible punctured convolutional code. The relay operates on DF mode. After the single relay has been chosen, the best relay will cooperate with the

  18. Opportunistic cooperative communications with reed-solomon convolutional concatenated codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative communications delivers spatial diversity for a communication system through the collaborated transmission of network users. Assisted by the intelligent relay selection, opportunistic cooperative communications in which the best relay is always selected for signal re-transmission can deliver a diversity gain on the order of number of relay candidates. It has the advantages of requiring low implementation complexity, alleviating user

  19. Analysis of Smartphone User Mobility Traces for Opportunistic Data Collection

    E-print Network

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    sensor networks, we focus on using smartphones to col- lect data from sensor nodes opportunistically Mobility, Wireless Sensor Network, Data Collection 1. INTRODUCTION As wireless sensor networks mature, we, such as environmental monitoring, domestic utility meter reading, urban monitoring, etc. For example, millions of water

  20. Congestion Aware Forwarding in Delay Tolerant and Social Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    maintaining high buffer availability and low delays. This paper explores a number of social, buffer and delay of the network in order to keep low delays, high success ratios and high availability of nodes. We conduct for opportunistic forwarding that supports optimization of multipoint high volume data flow transfer while

  1. Opportunistic Source Coding for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    1 Opportunistic Source Coding for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks Tao Cui, Lijun Chen capacity of multihop wireless networks, an important topic addressed by wireless sensor networks community for correlated data gathering in wireless sensor networks, which ex- ploits the broadcast nature of wireless

  2. Dialing for Displays: Session Initiation Protocol for Opportunistic Augmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Barton; Stina Nylander; Fopefolu Folowosele; Beverly Harrison

    2006-01-01

    Opportunistic augmentation denotes connecting a personal mobile device to another device to gain a transient advantage for the user. For example, a mo- bile phone user might borrow a large display and keyboard from a desktop personal computer. This uniquely ubiquitous computing activity requires effec- tive device and service discovery as well as appropri- ate media usable across two or

  3. Arcanobacterium pyogenes : molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Helen Jost; Stephen J. Billington

    2005-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen of economically important livestock, causing diseases as diverse as mastitis, liver abscessation and pneumonia. This organism possesses a number of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential. A. pyogenes expresses a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which is a haemolysin and is cytolytic for immune cells, including macrophages. Expression of pyolysin is

  4. Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication

    E-print Network

    Schurgot, Mary R; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

  5. Opportunistic DTN routing with window-aware adaptive replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Sandulescu; Simin Nadjm-Tehrani

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents ORWAR, a resource-efficient protocol for opportunistic routing in delay-tolerant networks. Our approach exploits the context of mobile nodes (speed, direction of movement and radio range) to estimate the size of a contact window. This knowledge is exploited to make better forwarding decisions and to minimize the probability of partially transmitted messages. As well as optimizing the use

  6. Opportunistic DTN Routing with Window-aware Adaptive Replication

    E-print Network

    Opportunistic DTN Routing with Window-aware Adaptive Replication Gabriel Sandulescu and Simin Nadjm (DTN) aim to provide reliable communication in networks in which end-to-end connectivity cannot attacks [8]. DTN defines an abstraction layer on top of transport layer and below application layer

  7. A Human Connectivity Model for Opportunistic Mobile Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Calegari; Mirco Musolesi; Franco Raimondi; Cecilia Mascolo

    Opportunistic networking protocols have recently started to emerge in different contexts, ranging from vehicular communications and remote populations connectivity to wildlife monitoring. These protocols are mainly based on the ability to exploit asynchronous communication among hosts who can act as carriers for the messages which are first stored and transported, and then delivered when the destination is reached. At the

  8. Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    1 Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development Björn Hartmann, Scott and digital hot glue and duct tape. It is about the hacks and prototypes of lowbrow experimentation, hacking ACM Classification Keywords D.2.11. [Software Engineering]: Software Architectures -- Patterns. K

  9. Opportunistic Network Coding for Video Streaming over Wireless

    E-print Network

    Markopoulou, Athina

    Opportunistic Network Coding for Video Streaming over Wireless Hulya Seferoglu, Athina Markopoulou,athina}@uci.edu Abstract-- In this paper, we study video streaming over wireless networks with network coding capabilities the information content per transmission. Our key insight is that, when the transmitted flows are video streams

  10. Opportunist politicians and the evolution of electoral competition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Opportunist politicians and the evolution of electoral competition Jean-François Laslier CNRS Abstract We study a unidimensional model of spatial competition between two parties with two types membership decisions. 1 Introduction In this paper we use a classical model of electoral competition to study

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, an Emergent Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Deligios, Massimo; Fraumene, Cristina; Abbondio, Marcello; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a yeast with valuable biotechnological features, has also been recorded as an emergent opportunistic pathogen that might cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of R. mucilaginosa strain C2.5t1, which was isolated from cacao seeds in Cameroon. PMID:25858834

  12. Cooperative Opportunistic Large Array Approach for Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-print Network

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    1 Cooperative Opportunistic Large Array Approach for Cognitive Radio Networks Vandana Rohokale E-mail: cornean@math.aau.dk Abstract-- Cognitive Radio (CR) seems to be a promising solution increase their effective QoS via cooperation. For cognitive radio networks, sharing of primary user

  13. Special Issue: Hippocampus and Memory An opportunistic theory of cellular

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    Special Issue: Hippocampus and Memory An opportunistic theory of cellular and systems consolidation that the consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memories rely on distinct mechanisms. Opinion Glossary Cellular, 9500 Gilman Drive #0109 La Jolla, CA 92093, USA Memories are often classified as hippocampus depen

  14. What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness-supported cooperative work General Terms Algorithms, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords Community awareness

  15. What's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    community awareness in such situations. In particular, a large body of research in Computer SupportedWhat's Happening?: Promoting Community Awareness through Opportunistic, Peripheral Interfaces Qiang of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 USA +1 404 894 5617 stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Maintaining an awareness

  16. Facilitating Opportunistic Communication by Tracking the Documents People Use

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Facilitating Opportunistic Communication by Tracking the Documents People Use Jay Budzik, Xiaobin and goals of others. We believe communication tools can be built that leverage knowledge of a user's goals and activities to make users aware of others relevant to them and their work, with the aim of facilitating

  17. On the Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Traffic Management System

    E-print Network

    Mascolo, Cecilia

    1 On the Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Traffic Management System for Vehicular Networks Ilias. A possible way to deal with this problem is to have transportation authorities distribute traffic information to drivers, which in turn can decide (or be aided by a navigator) to route around congested areas

  18. Utilization and fairness in spectrum assignment for opportunistic spectrum access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunyi Peng; Haitao Zheng; Ben Y. Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive distributed spectrum assignment can lead to significant interference between devices. In this paper, we define a general framework that defines the spectrum access problem for several definitions of overall system utility. By reducing the allocation problem

  19. Sensing-based Opportunistic Channel Access Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xin

    efficiency as shown in a number of studies, e.g., [16]. Since a large amount of white space (unused or lightly occupied spectrum) exists in time, space, and frequency, it is often the absence of dynamic initiatives and advanced radio technology, more flexible opportunistic spectrum access has great potential

  20. Urban Sensing Systems: Opportunistic or Participatory? Nicholas D. Lane,

    E-print Network

    Musolesi, Mirco

    of sensing systems for urban deployments is still in its infancy. An interesting unresolved issue-points of the spectrum of conscious human involvement, namely participatory sensing, and opportunistic sensing. We has evolved from static networks of specialized devices deployed to sense the environment, to networks

  1. Spectrum agile radio: radio resource measurements for opportunistic spectrum usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Mangold; Zhun Zhong; Kiran Challapali; Chun-Ting Chou

    2004-01-01

    Radio spectrum allocation is undergoing radical rethinking. Regulators, government agencies, industry, and the research community have recently established many initiatives for new spectrum policies and seek approaches to more efficiently manage the radio spectrum. In this paper, we examine new approaches, namely, spectrum agile radios, for opportunistic spectrum usage. Spectrum agile radios use parts of the radio spectrum that were

  2. Joint Design and Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Joint Design and Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Yunxia Chen, Qing Zhao develops optimal strategy for opportunis- tic spectrum access (OSA) by integrating the design of spectrum sensor at the physical layer with that of spectrum sensing and access policies at the medium access

  3. Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Sensing: Uniform and Random Sensing

    E-print Network

    Liu, Mingyan

    Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Sensing: Uniform and Random Sensing Quanquan Liang. It is there- fore desirable to be able to efficiently and accurately estimate channel statistics, even for resource constrained secondary users like wireless sensors. In this paper we focus on the traditional ML

  4. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 To avoid opportunistic infections, plants

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    sources of peptide antibiotics1 , which may explain the unexpected resistance of these tissuesNature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 8 To avoid opportunistic infections, plants and animals have regulated, antibiotic peptide, which resembles those in other mammals. Patients with psoriasis have fewer

  5. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina S. Druzhinina; Verena Seidl-Seiboth; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella; Benjamin A. Horwitz; Charles M. Kenerley; Enrique Monte; Prasun K. Mukherjee; Susanne Zeilinger; Igor V. Grigoriev; Christian P. Kubicek

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology

  6. HIV-Associated Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel G. Madariaga; Susan Swindells

    This chapter reviews the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) including its impact in altering the natural course of human\\u000a immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease; an overview of current regimens in use; factors influencing the choice of initial therapy;\\u000a complications and adverse effects; and treatment failure, and resistance. The focus is on management of primary HIV-related\\u000a diseases of the nervous system. While

  7. Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS Methods Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. Results At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Conclusions Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. PMID:23068916

  8. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are associated with opportunistic infection in patients with thymic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Browne, Sarah K; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Zaman, Rifat; Kristosturyan, Ervand; Rajan, Arun; Ding, Li; Ching, Kathryn H; Berman, Arlene; Oliveira, Joao B; Hsu, Amy P; Klimavicz, Caitlin M; Iadarola, Michael J; Holland, Steven M

    2010-12-01

    Patients with thymic malignancy have high rates of autoimmunity leading to a variety of autoimmune diseases, most commonly myasthenia gravis caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. High rates of autoantibodies to cytokines have also been described, although prevalence, spectrum, and functionality of these anti-cytokine autoantibodies are poorly defined. To better understand the presence and function of anti-cytokine autoantibodies, we created a luciferase immunoprecipitation system panel to search for autoantibodies against 39 different cytokines and examined plasma from controls (n = 30) and patients with thymic neoplasia (n = 17). In this screen, our patients showed statistically elevated, but highly heterogeneous immunoreactivity against 16 of the 39 cytokines. Some patients showed autoantibodies to multiple cytokines. Functional testing proved that autoantibodies directed against interferon-?, interferon-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-17A had biologic blocking activity in vitro. All patients with opportunistic infection showed multiple anti-cytokine autoantibodies (range 3-11), suggesting that anti-cytokine autoantibodies may be important in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections in patients with thymic malignancy. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00001355. PMID:20716769

  9. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are associated with opportunistic infection in patients with thymic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Zaman, Rifat; Kristosturyan, Ervand; Rajan, Arun; Ding, Li; Ching, Kathryn H.; Berman, Arlene; Oliveira, Joao B.; Hsu, Amy P.; Klimavicz, Caitlin M.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Holland, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with thymic malignancy have high rates of autoimmunity leading to a variety of autoimmune diseases, most commonly myasthenia gravis caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. High rates of autoantibodies to cytokines have also been described, although prevalence, spectrum, and functionality of these anti-cytokine autoantibodies are poorly defined. To better understand the presence and function of anti-cytokine autoantibodies, we created a luciferase immunoprecipitation system panel to search for autoantibodies against 39 different cytokines and examined plasma from controls (n = 30) and patients with thymic neoplasia (n = 17). In this screen, our patients showed statistically elevated, but highly heterogeneous immunoreactivity against 16 of the 39 cytokines. Some patients showed autoantibodies to multiple cytokines. Functional testing proved that autoantibodies directed against interferon-?, interferon-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-17A had biologic blocking activity in vitro. All patients with opportunistic infection showed multiple anti-cytokine autoantibodies (range 3-11), suggesting that anti-cytokine autoantibodies may be important in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections in patients with thymic malignancy. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00001355. PMID:20716769

  10. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    SciTech Connect

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  11. Phaeohyphomycoses, emerging opportunistic diseases in animals.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, S; Guillot, J; de Hoog, G S

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  12. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  13. HIV-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma: Good Efficacy and Tolerance of Intensive Chemotherapy Including CODOX-M/IVAC with or without Rituximab in the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, J. A.; Hicks, L. K.; Cheung, M. C.; Song, K. W.; Ezzat, H.; Leger, C. S.; Boro, J.; Montaner, J. S. G.; Harris, M.; Leitch, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The outcome of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has improved substantially in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, HIV-Burkitt lymphoma (BL), which accounts for up to 20% of HIV-NHL, has poor outcome with standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed HIV-BL treated in the HAART era with the Magrath regimen (CODOX-M/IVAC±R) at four Canadian centres. Results. Fourteen patients with HIV-BL received at least one CODOX-M/IVAC±R treatment. Median age at BL diagnosis was 45.5 years, CD4 count 375 cells/mL and HIV viral load (VL) <50?copies/mL. Patients received PCP prophylaxis and G-CSF, 13 received HAART with chemotherapy and 10 rituximab. There were 63 episodes of toxicity, none fatal, including: bacterial infection, n = 20; grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity, n = 14; febrile neutropenia, n = 7; oral thrush; and ifosfamide neurological toxicity, n = 1 each. At a median followup of 11.7 months, 12 (86%) patients are alive and in remission. All 10 patients who received HAART, chemotherapy, and rituximab are alive. CD4 counts and HIV VL 6 months following BL therapy completion (n = 5 patients) were >250 cells/mL and undetectable, respectively, in 4. Conclusion. Intensive chemotherapy with CODOX-M/IVAC±R yielded acceptable toxicity and good survival rates in patients with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma receiving HAART. PMID:22190945

  14. Experience and challenges presented by a multicenter crossover study of combination analgesic therapy for the treatment of painful HIV-associated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Taylor; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lee, Anthony; Evans, Scott; Bastow, Barbara; Simpson, David; Gilron, Ian; Dworkin, Robert; Daar, Eric S.; Wieclaw, Linda; Clifford, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared to placebo. Design This study was a phase II, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover multi-center study of analgesic therapy for patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain due to HIV-associated polyneuropathy. Duloxetine, methadone, combination duloxetine-methadone, and placebo were administered in four different possible sequences. The primary outcome measure was mean pain intensity (MPI) measured daily in a study-supplied pain diary. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled from 8 study sites and 8 patients completed the entire trial. Study treatments failed to show statistically significant change in MPI compared to placebo. Adverse events were frequent and associated with high rates of drug discontinuation and study drop-out. Conclusions Challenges with participant recruitment and poor retention precluded trial completion to its planned targets, limiting our evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of the study treatments. Challenges to successful completion of this study and lessons learned are discussed. PMID:23565581

  15. Right upper quadrant pain and mass in a 41-year-old previously healthy man: a presenting feature of HIV-associated extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma with cardiac involvement

    PubMed Central

    Vivekanandarajah, Abhirami; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Krishnarasa, Balakumar; Murukutla, Srujitha; Brenner, Arnold; Gupta, Shilpi

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing pandemic of HIV/AIDS, the incidence of HIV-associated lymphoma is expected to rise. Here, the authors report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with right upper quadrant pain and mass, and was subsequently diagnosed with HIV-associated diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with cardiac involvement. This case illustrates some of the uncommon and interesting aspects of DLBCL: primary extramedullary extranodal stage IV disease as the presenting feature; cardiac involvement at presentation; DLBCL as the only clue to the diagnosis of HIV; and management of HIV-associated DLBCL. This case is also a reminder of the importance of the routine HIV screening for all patients between the ages of 13–64 years, as advocated by centres of disease control and prevention. PMID:22605006

  16. Towards a Resource Reservation Approach for an Opportunistic Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Eliza; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced reservation has been used in grid environments to provide quality of service (QoS) and to guarantee resources available at the execution time. However, in grid subtypes, such as opportunistic grid computing, it is a challenge provides QoS and guarantee of availability resources. In this article, we propose a new advanced reservation approach which offers to a user the possibility to select resources in advance for a future utilization. Therefore, the main goal of this proposal is to offer a best effort feature to a user from an opportunistic configuration. In these types of environments, it is not possible to provide QoS, because, usually, there are no guarantees of resources availability and, consequently, the execution of users applications. In addition, this research work provides a way to organize executions, what it can improve the scheduling and system operations. Experimental results, carried out through a case study, shown the efficiency and relevance of our proposal.

  17. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  18. Risk Assessment of Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Rusin; Joan B. Rose; Charles N. Haas; Charles P. Gerba

    \\u000a This study was undertaken to examine quantitatively the risks to human health posed by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria\\u000a found naturally in ambient and potable waters. There is no clear-cut evidence that the HPC bacteria as a whole pose a public\\u000a health risk. Only certain members are opportunistic pathogens. Using the four-tiered approach for risk assessment from the\\u000a National Academy

  19. Delay-Optimal Opportunistic Scheduling and Approximations: The Log Rule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilal Sadiq; Seung Jun Baek; Gustavo de Veciana

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the design of opportunistic packet schedulers for users sharing a time-varying wireless channel from the performance and the robustness points of view. Firstly, for a simplified model falling in the classical Markov decision process framework where arrival and channel statistics are known, we numerically compute and evaluate the character- istics of mean-delay-optimal scheduling policies. The computed policies

  20. Management of immunosuppression and antiviral treatment before and after heart transplant for HIV-associated dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Durante-Mangoni, E; Maiello, C; Limongelli, G; Sbreglia, C; Pinto, D; Amarelli, C; Pacileo, G; Perrella, A; Agrusta, F; Romano, G; Marra, C; Di Giambenedetto, S; Nappi, G; Utili, R

    2014-01-01

    Infection with HIV may lead to the development of cardiomyopathy as improved antiretroviral regimens continue to prolong patient life. However, advanced therapeutic options, such as heart transplant, have until recently been precluded to HIV-positive persons. A favorable long-term outcome has been obtained after kidney or liver transplant in HIV-positive recipients fulfilling strict virological and clinical criteria. We recently reported the first heart transplant in a HIV-infected patient carried out in our center. In this article, we detail the major challenges we faced with the management of antiretroviral and immunosuppressive treatments over the first 3 years post-transplant. The patient had developed dilated cardiomyopathy while on antiretroviral treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz. He was in WHO Stage 1 of HIV infection and had normal CD4+ count and persistently undetectable HIV-RNA. In spite of cardiac resynchronization therapy and maximal drug therapy, the patient progressed to end stage heart failure, requiring heart transplant. He was placed on a standard immune suppressive protocol including cyclosporine A and everolimus. Despite its potential pharmacokinetic interaction with efavirenz, everolimus was chosen to reduce the long-term risk of opportunistic neoplasia. Plasma levels of both drugs were monitored and remained within the target range, although high doses of everolimus were needed. There were no infectious, neoplastic or metabolic complications during a 3-year follow-up. In summary, our experience supports previous data showing that cardiac transplantation should not be denied to carefully selected HIV patients. Careful management of drug interactions and adverse events is mandatory. PMID:24674686

  1. Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Impact of HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haddow, Lewis John; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus Suleman; Mosam, Anisa; Moodley, Pravi; Parboosing, Raveen; Easterbrook, Philippa Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. Methods and Findings 498 adults initiating ART in Durban, South Africa were followed prospectively for 24 weeks. IRIS diagnosis was based on consensus expert opinion, and classified by mode of presentation (paradoxical worsening of known opportunistic infection [OI] or unmasking of subclinical disease). 114 patients (22.9%) developed IRIS (36% paradoxical, 64% unmasking). Mucocutaneous conditions accounted for 68% of IRIS events, mainly folliculitis, warts, genital ulcers and herpes zoster. Tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 25% of IRIS events. 18/135 (13.3%) patients with major pre-ART OIs (e.g. TB, cryptococcosis) developed paradoxical IRIS related to the same OI. Risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline viral load >5.5 vs. <4.5 log10 (adjusted hazard ratio 7.23; 95% confidence interval 1.35–38.76) and ?30 vs. >30 days of OI treatment prior to ART (2.66; 1.16–6.09). Unmasking IRIS related to major OIs occurred in 25/498 patients (5.0%), and risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline C-reactive protein ?25 vs. <25 mg/L (2.77; 1.31–5.85), haemoglobin <10 vs. >12 g/dL (3.36; 1.32–8.52), ?10% vs. <10% weight loss prior to ART (2.31; 1.05–5.11) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on pre-ART chest x-ray (9.15; 4.10–20.42). IRIS accounted for 6/25 (24%) deaths, 13/65 (20%) hospitalizations and 10/35 (29%) ART interruptions or discontinuations. Conclusion IRIS occurred in almost one quarter of patients initiating ART, and accounted for one quarter of deaths in the first 6 months. Priority strategies to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity and mortality in ART programmes include earlier ART initiation before onset of advanced immunodeficiency, improved pre-ART screening for TB and cryptococcal infection, optimization of OI therapy prior to ART initiation, more intensive clinical monitoring in initial weeks of ART, and education of health care workers and patients about IRIS. PMID:23152745

  2. Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995

  3. Alterations in the levels of vesicular trafficking proteins involved in HIV replication in the brains and CSF of patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Adame, Anthony; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral therapies. A HAND-specific biomarker indicative of neuropsychological impairment (NPI) would give insight into disease progression and aid clinicians in designing therapy. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins such as tumor susceptibility gene (TSG)-101, vacuolar protein sorting (VPS)-4 and LIP-5 are important for HIV replication and recently antiviral interferon stimulated gene (ISG)-15 was proposed as a biomarker for CNS injury. Here, we analyzed a well-characterized cohort of HIV+ cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem brain specimens for multiple vesicular trafficking proteins and a related innate immune protein, ISG-15, TSG-101, VPS-4 and LIP-5. All protein levels trended higher with increased NPI and neuropathology. ISG-15 CSF levels were increased in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) compared to normal cases, and three quarters of HIVE samples had above average CSF ISG-15 levels. VPS-4 CSF levels were increased in NPI/NPI-O compared to normal patients. VPS-4 CSF levels in HIV-associated dementia were equivalent to that of normal patients. LIP-5 CSF levels positively correlate with ISG-15 levels, and higher than average ISG-15 levels indicate elevated viral load. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses show increased expression of ISG-15, VPS-4 and LIP-5 in neuronal cell bodies and astroglial cells. ESCRT protein CSF levels analyzed in conjunction with viral load may be indicative of NPI stage, and may aid in the diagnosis and design of therapies for HIV patients. Further studies on the ESCRT protein expression during HIV infection may lead to a promising biomarker for predicting progression of NPI. PMID:24292993

  4. Comparison of flucytosine and fluconazole combined with amphotericin B for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z-W; Lu, X; Shen, C; Lin, D-F

    2014-08-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend combination antifungal therapy with amphotericin B (AmB) as an induction therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. The objective of this study was to compare the survival benefit between 5-FC (flucytosine) and fluconazole as second-line drugs given in combination with AmB. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective controlled studies reporting early combination treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to October 2013. Randomised trials and prospective cohort studies were selected. The primary outcome was mortality in the first 14 and 70 days. The secondary outcome was early fungicidal activity (EFA) in the first 2 weeks. Four trials were included in our study. All included studies could be considered to be of fair quality in their methodology. The meta-analysis suggested that mortality was lower in patients who were given AmB and 5-FC at the 2 weeks point (Fig. 2); the overall reduction in mortality with the 5-FC combination group was 44% [risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.95, p?=?0.03]. EFA was significantly shorter in patients receiving AmB plus 5-FC [mean difference (MD) -0.10 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per day, 95 % CI -0.11-0.09, p?HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:24550039

  5. Opportunistic Ports and Spaces of Exchange in Late Roman Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidwanger, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Ports served not only as interfaces between land and sea, but as central gathering spaces for economic and cultural exchange. Drawing on case studies from the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus, this paper situates opportunistic ports lacking built facilities within a broader socioeconomic context of diverse maritime communications, expanding rural settlement, and increased agricultural productivity during late antiquity. Though simple, these sites served as active agents in the development of new maritime networks as well as local markets throughout their hinterlands, adding flexibility and dynamism to the economic ties between city, countryside, and the wider late Roman world.

  6. Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

  7. Opportunistic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Monica A; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2012-01-01

    With more than half the world's population, many Asia-Pacific countries still lack resources for adequate infection control and diagnostics. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have a significant impact on public health in the region, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The incidence of IFI in the Asia-Pacific region is increasing because of the expanded population of immunosuppressed patients resulting from advances in medical technology, such as treatments for cancer and transplantation, as well as the impact of human immunodeficiency virus. Even so, the epidemiology of IFIs is not well described in the Asia-Pacific region. Prevalence of some infections, such as mucormycosis, is particularly related to undiagnosed or untreated diabetes, which is likely to be a continuing problem with the epidemic of diabetes in the region. In addition, despite some effective treatment options, IFIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to increase recognition of invasive mycoses in this large area, this paper reviews recent findings on the epidemiology of the most clinically significant opportunistic mould and yeast infections in the Asia-Pacific region, i.e., aspergillosis, mucormycosis, pythiosis, scedosporiosis, fusariosis, candidiasis, trichosporonosis, and cryptococcosis. PMID:21905945

  8. Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts - from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases - through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of 'omic' technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

  9. Spectrum-Sensing Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Outage and Diversity Performance

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Spectrum-Sensing Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Outage and Diversity Performance Kyounghwan a spectrum-sensing opportunistic wire- less relay network which is defined by a source node, a destination spectrum nomi- nally assigned to a primary node. We aim to understand the per- formance of this system

  10. Opportunistic Subcarrier Management for Delay Sensitive Traffic in OFDMA-based Wireless Multimedia Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed K. F. Khattab; Khaled M. F. Elsayed

    Radio resource allocation in OFDMA can exploit multiuser diversity to increase system capacity by implementing opportunistic scheduling and resource management techniques. This paper presents a new opportunistic subcarrier management scheme for OFDMA-based wireless multimedia networks. The scheme targets the class of delay-sensitive packets that belong to interactive applications. The subcarrier management is done in two steps: the OFDMA subcarrier allocation

  11. On cognitive radio networks with opportunistic power control strategies in fading channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Chen; Guanding Yu; Zhaoyang Zhang; Hsiao-hwa Chen; Peiliang Qiu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio system in fading wireless channels and propose an opportunistic power control strategy for the cognitive users, which serves as an alternative way to protect the primary user's transmission and to realize spectrum sharing between the primary user and the cognitive users. The key feature of the proposed strategy is that, via opportunistically

  12. Optimal and Approximate Mobility-Assisted Opportunistic Scheduling in Cellular Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Hussain Ali; Vikram Krishnamurthy; Victor C. M. Leung

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of scheduling multiple users in the downlink of a time-slotted cellular data network. For such a network, opportunistic scheduling algorithms improve system performance by exploiting time variations of the radio channel. We present novel optimal and approximate opportunistic scheduling algorithms that combine channel fluctuation and user mobility information in their decision rules. The algorithms modify

  13. An Evaluation of Routing Reliability in Non-collaborative Opportunistic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-jyh Chen; Che-liang Chiou; Yi-chao Chen

    2009-01-01

    An opportunistic network is a type of challenged net- work that has attracted a great deal of attention in re- cent years. While a number of schemes have been pro- posed to facilitate data dissemination in opportunistic networks, there is an implicit assumption that each par- ticipating peer behaves collaboratively. Consequently, these schemes may be vulnerable if there are unco-

  14. MOON: MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments Virginia Tech

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xiaosong

    MOON: MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments Heshan Lin Virginia Tech hlin2@cs.vt.edu Xiaosong Ma this, we propose MOON, short for MapReduce On Opportunistic eNvironments. MOON extends Hadoop, an open, demonstrate that MOON can deliver a three-fold performance improvement to Hadoop in volatile, volunteer

  15. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  16. Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

  17. HIV-associated tuberculosis: relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing mortality from HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) requires diagnostic tools that are rapid and have high sensitivity among patients with poor prognosis. We determined the relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays. Methods Consecutive ambulatory patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa were screened for TB regardless of symptoms using diagnostic assays prospectively applied to sputum (fluorescence smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF and liquid culture (reference standard)) and retrospectively applied to stored urine samples (Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF). Assay sensitivities were calculated stratified according to pre-defined indices of disease severity: CD4 count, symptom intensity, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin concentration and vital status at 90 days. Results Sputum culture-positive TB was diagnosed in 15% (89/602) of patients screened and data from 86 patients were analyzed (median CD4 count, 131 cells/?L) including 6 (7%) who died. The sensitivity of sputum microscopy was 26.7% overall and varied relatively little with disease severity. In marked contrast, the sensitivities of urine-based and sputum-based diagnosis using Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays were substantially greater in sub-groups with poorer prognosis. Rapid diagnosis from sputum and/or urine samples was possible in >80% of patients in sub-groups with poor prognosis as defined by either CD4 counts <100 cells/?L, advanced symptoms, CRP concentrations >200 mg/L or hemoglobin <8.0 g/dl. Retrospective testing of urine samples with Determine TB-LAM correctly identified all those with TB who died. Conclusions The sensitivities of Xpert MTB/RIF and Determine TB-LAM for HIV-associated TB were highest among HIV-infected patients with the most advanced disease and poorest prognostic characteristics. These data provide strong justification for large-scale intervention studies that assess the impact on survival of screening using these new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic approaches. PMID:24168211

  18. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Malawian Adults and Effect on Adherence to Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christine M.; van Oosterhout, Joep J.; Ngwalo, Chisomo; Stewart, Robert C.; Benjamin, Laura; Robertson, Kevin R.; Khoo, Saye; Allain, Theresa J.; Solomon, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence and burden of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HAND in adult Malawians on cART and investigated the relationship between HAND and adherence to cART. Methods HIV positive adults in Blantyre, Malawi underwent a full medical history, neurocognitive test battery, depression score, Karnofsky Performance Score and adherence assessment. The Frascati criteria were used to diagnose HAND and the Global Deficit Score (GDS) was also assessed. Blood was drawn for CD4 count and plasma nevirapine and efavirenz concentrations. HIV negative adults were recruited from the HIV testing clinic to provide normative scores for the neurocognitive battery. Results One hundred and six HIV positive patients, with median (range) age 39 (18–71) years, 73% female and median (range) CD4 count 323.5 (68–1039) cells/µl were studied. Symptomatic neurocognitive impairment was present in 15% (12% mild neurocognitive disorder [MND], 3% HIV associated dementia [HAD]). A further 55% fulfilled Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI); however factors other than neurocognitive impairment could have confounded this estimate. Neither the symptomatic (MND and HAD) nor asymptomatic (ANI) forms of HAND were associated with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz concentrations, adjusted odds ratio 1.44 (CI. 0.234, 8.798; p?=?0.696) and aOR 0.577 (CI. 0.09, 3.605; p?=?0.556) respectively. All patients with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz levels had a GDS of less than 0.6, consistent with normal neurocognition. Discussion/Conclusion Fifteen percent of adult Malawians on cART had a diagnosis of MND or HAD. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations were found exclusively in patients with normal neurocognitive function suggesting HAND did not affect cART adherence. Further study of HAND requires more robust locally derived normative neurocognitive values and determination of the clinical relevance of ANI. PMID:24915530

  19. Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Hedeoma drummondii against opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Valdez, E; Rivas-Morales, C; Oranday-Cardenas, A; Verde-Star, M J; Carranza-Rosales, P

    2011-02-15

    Hedeoma drummondii is a medicinal plant with diverse properties; however, validations of its medicinal uses are scarce. To evaluate its antimicrobial properties H. drummondii, was tested against opportunistic pathogens of medical importance. Antimicrobial tests were performed by the microdilution method in order to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for each extract. Extracts of this plant showed relevant antimicrobial activity, results revealed that the hexanic extract has stronger activity and broader spectrum compared to acetone and methanol extracts. The activity of hexanic extract may be attributed mainly to the presence of the monoterpenes pulegone and menthol. In conclusion, the hexanic extract possess relevant antibacterial properties which suggests that H. drummondii have bioactive principles; these new data provide scientific support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine, particularly for gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:21870634

  1. An opportunistic theory of cellular and systems consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Shuman, Tristan; Anagnostaras, Stephan; Wixted, John

    2011-01-01

    Memories are often classified as hippocampus-dependent or –independent, and sleep has been found to facilitate both, but in different ways. In this Opinion article, we explore the optimal neural state for cellular and systems consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories that benefit from sleep. We suggest that these two kinds of consolidation, which are ordinarily treated separately, may overlap in time and jointly benefit from a period of reduced interference (during which no new memories are formed). Conditions that result in reduced interference include slow wave sleep (SWS), NMDA receptor antagonists, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and acetylcholine antagonists. We hypothesize that the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories may not depend on SWS per se. Instead, the brain opportunistically consolidates previously encoded memories whenever the hippocampus is not otherwise occupied by the task of encoding new memories. PMID:21742389

  2. Evidence of cryptic individual specialization in an opportunistic insectivorous bat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat use and feeding behaviors of cryptic animals are often poorly understood. Analyses of stable isotope ratios in animal body tissues can help reveal an individual's location and resource use during tissue growth. We investigated variation in stable isotope ratios of 4 elements (H, C, N, and S) in the hair of a sedentary species of insectivorous bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inhabiting a chemically complex urban landscape. Our objective was to quantify population-level isotopic variation and test for evidence of resource specialization by individuals. Bats were sampled over 3 annual molt cycles at maternity roosts in buildings and variance components analysis was used to test whether intraindividual isotopic variation among molts differed from interindividual variation, after controlling for year and roost-group effects. Consistent with prior evidence that E. fuscus is opportunistic in its habitat use and foraging at the population level, we observed wide population-level variation for all isotopes. This variation likely reflects the chemical complexity of the urban landscape studied. However, isotopic variation among years within marked individuals was lower than variation among marked individuals within year for all isotopes, and carbon signatures indicated resource specialization by roost groups and individuals. This is the 1st study to examine variation in stable isotope ratios of individual wild bats over multiple years. Although our results suggest this population tends toward opportunistic habitat use or prey selection, or both, during molt periods, results also indicate that individuals and groups of bats composing the population might be habitat or dietary specialists—a novel finding for insectivorous bats.

  3. [Acute psychosis as a side effect of efavirenz therapy with metabolic anomalies: an important differential diagnosis of HIV-associated psychoses].

    PubMed

    Hinsch, M C; Reichelt, D; Husstedt, I W

    2014-10-01

    Among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections psychiatric disease poses a particular challenge for caregivers. Neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz have been described in up to 40% of patients showing dizziness, insomnia, unusual dreams, mood instability, personality alterations and thought disorders. In immigrants from Africa and South America these side effects may be related to elevated plasma concentrations of efavirenz due to polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 isozymes (especially G516T). Alleles for these polymorphisms are more frequent in African and South American patients. We report a case of a 52-year-old patient from Guinea who was referred to the department of neurology under the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Since the start of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) including efavirenz the patient had suffered severe personality alterations, acoustic and visual hallucinations and delusions which led to discrimination and reduced quality of life. Diagnostic procedures including magnetic resonance imaging (MRT) and spinal fluid analysis resulted in normal values and did not explain the disease. After switching to nevirapin instead of efavirenz the psychotic symptoms disappeared within 5 days. PMID:25200885

  4. Trends in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus antibodies prior to the development of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Katie; Johnston, W Thomas; Nalwoga, Angela; Webb, Emily L; Mayanja, Billy N; Miley, Wendell; Elliott, Alison M; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-06-15

    HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa since both the causative agent, Kaposi's sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV), and the major risk factor, HIV, are prevalent. In a nested case-control study within a long-standing clinical cohort in rural Uganda, we used stored sera to examine the evolution of antibody titres against the KSHV antigens K8.1 and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) among 30 HIV-infected subjects who subsequently developed HIV-related KS (cases) and among 108 matched HIV/KSHV coinfected controls who did not develop KS. Throughout the 6 years prior to diagnosis, antibody titres to K8.1 and LANA were significantly higher among cases than controls (p?

  5. Intra-individual Neurocognitive Variability Confers Risk of Dependence in Activities of Daily Living among HIV-Seropositive Individuals without HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the strong predictors of everyday functioning difficulties, approximately half of all functionally impaired individuals are labeled “neurocognitively normal” according to the standard neuropsychological measures, suggesting that novel predictors of functional problems in this prevalent subgroup are needed. The present study hypothesized that increased neurocognitive intra-individual variability as indexed by dispersion would be associated with poor daily functioning among 82 persons with HIV infection who did not meet research criteria for HAND. An intra-individual standard deviation was calculated across the demographically adjusted T-scores of 13 standard neuropsychological tests to represent dispersion, and functional outcomes included self-reported declines in basic and instrumental activities of daily functioning (basic activity of daily living [BADL] and instrumental activity of daily living [IADL], respectively) and medication management. Dispersion was a significant predictor of medication adherence and dependence in both BADL and IADL, even when other known predictors of functional status (i.e., age, affective distress, and indices of disease severity) were included in the models. As a significant and unique predictor of a performance on the range of daily functioning activities, neurocognitive dispersion may be indicative of deficient cognitive control expressed as inefficient regulation of neurocognitive resources in the context of competing functional demands. As such, dispersion may have clinical utility in detecting risk for functional problems among HIV-infected individuals without HAND. PMID:22337933

  6. Association of self-reported painful symptoms with clinical and neurophysiologic signs in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Papp, J.; Morgello, S.; Vaida, F.; Fitzsimons, C.; Simpson, D.M.; Elliott, K.J.; Al-Lozi, M.; Gelman, B.B.; Clifford, D.; Marra, C.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Atkinson, J.H.; Dworkin, R.H.; Grant, I.; Ellis, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history. PMID:20851521

  7. Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Marina T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Middleton, Melanie G.; McDonald, Ann M.; Law, Matthew; Kaldor, John M.; Grulich, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in cancer incidence in people with HIV in Australia since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study of people with HIV (n = 20 232) using data linkage between national registers of HIV/AIDS and cancer in 1982–2004. Methods Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare site-specific cancer incidence during the early (1996–1999) and late (2000–2004) HAART periods with that prior to HAART (1982–1995). Five-year age-specific, sex-specific, calendar year-specific, and state-specific standardized incidence ratios with 95% confidence interval were also calculated for each period. Results Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma declined significantly (Ptrend < 0.001). Incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma was significantly higher during the early-HAART period (incidence rate ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.19–4.63) but declined thereafter (Pdiff = 0.014). Incidence of anal cancer was unchanged (Ptrend = 0.451) and remained raised more than 30-fold. Incidence declined significantly for melanoma (Ptrend = 0.041) and prostate cancer (Ptrend = 0.026), and, during the late-HAART period, was lower than in the general population for both cancers. Incidence of colorectal cancer was consistently lower than in the general population. Conclusion Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has continued to decline among people with HIV in Australia, though it remains very substantially elevated. Incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma may now also be declining. Incidence of anal cancer has remained stable, and it is now the third most common cancer in HIV-infected Australians. Reasons for the reduced incidence of colorectal and prostate cancer, and more recently of melanoma, are unclear. PMID:19734774

  8. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district

    PubMed Central

    Kisangau, Daniel P; Lyaruu, Herbert VM; Hosea, Ken M; Joseph, Cosam C

    2007-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV/AIDS opportunistic conditions considered during the study were Tuberculosis (TB), Herpes zoster (Shingles), Herpes simplex (Genital herpes), Oral candidiasis and Cryptococcal meningitis. Other symptomatic but undefined conditions considered were skin rashes and chronic diarrhea. Methods An open-ended semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting field information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data collected. Factor of informant consensus (Fic) was used to analyze the ethnobotanical importance of the plants. Results In the present study, 75 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 41 families were found to be used to treat one or more HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. The study revealed that TB and oral candidiasis were the most common manifestations of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections affecting most of the population in the area. It unveils the first detailed account of ethnomedical documentation of plants focusing the management of HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. Conclusion It is concluded that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed to drugs for the management of the HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. PMID:17623081

  9. Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

  10. From Spectrum Pooling to Space Pooling: Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Cognitive Networks

    E-print Network

    Perlaza, Samir M.

    We describe a noncooperative interference alignment (IA) technique which allows an opportunistic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link (secondary) to harmlessly coexist with another MIMO link (primary) in the same ...

  11. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  12. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL DATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  13. ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS OF AIRBORNE HYSPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR MAPPING OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN FRESHWATER COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  14. Opportunistic scheduling of delay sensitive traffic in OFDMA-based wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed K. F. Khattab; Khaled M. F. Elsayed

    2006-01-01

    OFDMA is an attractive multiple access technique for packet-based mobile broadband wireless access for beyond 3G and 4G systems. Radio resource allocation in OFDMA can exploit multiuser diversity to increase system capacity by implementing opportunistic scheduling techniques. This paper presents a new opportunistic scheduling scheme for OFDMA-based wireless multimedia networks. We focus the scheduling algorithm on the class of delay-sensitive

  15. Emergence of opportunistic mould infections in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlo Upton; Kieren A. Marr

    2006-01-01

    Infection due to opportunistic moulds is an emerging problem in hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Through the 1990s, the\\u000a incidence of invasive aspergillosis in allogenic graft recipients climbed steadily, peaking at 10% to 15%. In this decade,\\u000a other opportunistic mould infections are emerging, including zygomycosis, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis. These epidemiologic\\u000a changes are likely due to greater or different types of host

  16. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; LaMontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system. Methods: A decision tree was constructed and parameterised using empirical data from a chlamydia screening pilot study and other sources. The model was run using baseline data from the pilot, and univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: The total estimated cost for offering screening over 12 months to 33 215 females aged 16–24 was £493 412. The average cost (with partner management) was £14.88 per screening offer (90% credibility interval (CI) 10.34 to 18.56), £21.83 per testing episode (90% CI 18.16 to 24.20), and £38.36 per positive episode (90% CI 33.97 to 42.25). The proportion of individuals accepting screening, the clinician (general practitioner/nurse) time and their relative involvement in discussing screening, the test cost, the time to notify patients of their results, and the receptionist time recruiting patients had the greatest impact on the outcomes in both the univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Results from this costing study may be used to inform resource allocation for current and future chlamydia screening programme implementation. PMID:15459403

  17. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  18. Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

  19. Bacteria and tumours: causative agents or opportunistic inhabitants?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Associations between different bacteria and various tumours have been reported in patients for decades. Studies involving characterisation of bacteria within tumour tissues have traditionally been in the context of tumourigenesis as a result of bacterial presence within healthy tissues, and in general, dogma holds that such bacteria are causative agents of malignancy (directly or indirectly). While evidence suggests that this may be the case for certain tumour types and bacterial species, it is plausible that in many cases, clinical observations of bacteria within tumours arise from spontaneous infection of established tumours. Indeed, growth of bacteria specifically within tumours following deliberate systemic administration has been demonstrated for numerous bacterial species at preclinical and clinical levels. We present the available data on links between bacteria and tumours, and propose that besides the few instances in which pathogens are playing a pathogenic role in cancer, in many instances, the prevalent relationship between solid tumours and bacteria is opportunistic rather than causative, and discuss opportunities for exploiting tumour-specific bacterial growth for cancer treatment. PMID:23537317

  20. Invasive genotypes are opportunistic specialists not general purpose genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Drown, Devin M; Levri, Edward P; Dybdahl, Mark F

    2011-01-01

    It is not clear which forms of plasticity in fitness-related traits are associated with invasive species. On one hand, it may be better to have a robust performance across environments. On the other, it may be beneficial to take advantage of limited favorable conditions. We chose to study a worldwide invasive species, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and compare the plasticity of life-history traits of a sample of invasive genotypes to a sample of ancestral-range genotypes. We examined the responses to salinity in this freshwater snail because it varies spatially and temporally in the introduced range and contributes to variation in fitness in our system. We used a recently developed statistical method that quantifies aspects of differences in the shape among reaction norms. We found that the invasive lineages survived and reproduced with an increased probability at the higher salinities, and were superior to ancestral-range lineages in only two traits related to reproduction. Moreover, we found that in terms of traits related to growth, the invasive lineages have a performance optimum that is shifted to higher salinities than the ancestral-range lineages as well as having a narrower niche breadth. Contrary to the prediction of the general purpose genotype hypothesis, we found that invasive lineages tended to be opportunistic specialists. PMID:25567958

  1. Identification of an Abbreviated Test Battery for Detection of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in an Early-Managed HIV-Infected Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Roediger, Mollie J. P.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Hale, Braden; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Agan, Brian K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART), and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool. Methods Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test), neuropsychological battery (?120 min); neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ?0.5). Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to

  2. Challenges in the detection, prevention, and treatment of HIV-associated malignancies in low- and middle-income countries in Africa.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, Clement A; Casper, Corey; Bhatia, Kishor; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Sasco, Annie J; Phipps, Warren; Vermund, Sten H; Krown, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Cancers associated with immunosuppression and infections have long been recognized as a major complication of HIV/AIDS. More recently, persons living with HIV are increasingly diagnosed with a wider spectrum of HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAM) as they live longer on combination antiretroviral therapy. This has spurred research to characterize the epidemiology and determine the optimal management of HIVAM with a focus on low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given background coinfections, environmental exposures, host genetic profiles, antiretroviral therapy usage, and varying capacities for early diagnosis and treatment, one can expect the biology of cancers in HIV-infected persons in LMICs to have a significant impact on chronic HIV care, as is now the case in high-income countries. Thus, new strategies must be developed to effectively prevent, diagnose, and treat HIVAM in LMICs; provide physical/clinical infrastructures; train the cancer and HIV workforce; and expand research capacity-particularly given the challenges posed by the limitations on available transportation and financial resources and the population's general rural concentration. Opportunities exist to extend resources supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria to improve the health-care infrastructure and train the personnel required to prevent and manage cancers in persons living with HIV. These HIV chronic care infrastructures could also serve cancer patients regardless of their HIV status, facilitating long-term care and treatment for persons who do not live near cancer centers, so that they receive the same degree of care as those receiving chronic HIV care today. PMID:25117957

  3. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  4. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) is Not Associated with Increased Fibrillar Amyloid Deposits Using 11C-PiB in Middle-Aged HIV+ Participants

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Christensen, Jon J.; Thomas, Jewell; Venkat, Rohit; Teshome, Mengesha; Aldea, Patricia; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Diagnostic challenges exist for differentiating HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in HIV+ participants. Both disorders have cerebral amyloid containing plaques associated with abnormalities in amyloid beta protein 1–42 (A?42) metabolism. We evaluated if the amyloid-binding agent 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) could discriminate AD from HAND in middle-aged HIV+ participants. Design 11C-PiB scanning, clinical assessment, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis were performed. ?2 and t-tests assessed differences in clinical and demographic variables between HIV+ participants and community-living individuals followed by Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed for regional differences in A?42 using 11C-PiB. Setting ADRC and HIV clinic Participants 16 HIV+ participants (11 cognitively normal, 5 with HAND) and 19 ADRC participants (8 cognitively normal, 11 with symptomatic AD). Main Outcome Measure(s) Mean and regional 11C-PiB binding potentials Results Symptomatic AD were older (p < 0.001), had lower CSF A?42 (p < 0.001), and had higher CSF tau levels (p < 0.001) than other groups. Regardless of degree of impairment, HIV+ participants did not have increased 11C-PiB. Mean and regional binding potentials were elevated for symptomatic AD participants (p <0.0001). Conclusions Middle-aged HIV+ participants, even with HAND, do not exhibit increased 11C-PiB while symptomatic AD individuals have increased fibrillar A?42 deposition in cortical and subcortical regions. Observed dissimilarities between HAND and AD may reflect differences in A?42 metabolism. 11C-PiB may provide a diagnostic biomarker for distinguishing symptomatic AD from HAND in middle-aged HIV+ participants. Future cross sectional and longitudinal studies are required to assess utility of 11C-PiB in older HAND individuals. PMID:22232345

  5. Absolute Leukocyte Telomere Length in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals: Evidence of Accelerated Cell Senescence in HIV-Associated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, David A.; Nashta, Negar F.; Guillemi, Silvia; Harris, Marianne; Lima, Viviane D.; Um, Soo-Jung; Li, Yuexin; Tam, Sheena; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Raju, Rekha; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon A.; Bourbeau, Jean; Tan, Wan C.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Sin, Don D.; Montaner, Julio; Man, S. F. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL) in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001); however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469). Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019) and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023) had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026), smoking (p=0.005), reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030), and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049). HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects. PMID:25885433

  6. Challenges in the Detection, Prevention, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Malignancies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adebamowo, Clement A.; Casper, Corey; Bhatia, Kishor; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sasco, Annie J.; Phipps, Warren; Vermund, Sten H.; Krown, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers associated with immunosuppression and infections have long been recognized as a major complication of HIV/AIDS. More recently, persons living with HIV are increasingly diagnosed with a wider spectrum of HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAM) as they live longer on combination antiretroviral therapy. This has spurred research to characterize the epidemiology and determine the optimal management of HIVAM with a focus on low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given background coinfections, environmental exposures, host genetic profiles, antiretroviral therapy usage, and varying capacities for early diagnosis and treatment, one can expect the biology of cancers in HIV-infected persons in LMICs to have a significant impact on chronic HIV care, as is now the case in high-income countries. Thus, new strategies must be developed to effectively prevent, diagnose, and treat HIVAM in LMICs; provide physical/clinical infrastructures; train the cancer and HIV workforce; and expand research capacity—particularly given the challenges posed by the limitations on available transportation and financial resources and the population’s general rural concentration. Opportunities exist to extend resources supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria to improve the health-care infrastructure and train the personnel required to prevent and manage cancers in persons living with HIV. These HIV chronic care infrastructures could also serve cancer patients regardless of their HIV status, facilitating long-term care and treatment for persons who do not live near cancer centers, so that they receive the same degree of care as those receiving chronic HIV care today. PMID:25117957

  7. Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

  8. Lessons Learned Developing a Diagnostic Tool for HIV-Associated Dementia Feasible to Implement in Resource-Limited Settings: Pilot Testing in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kwasa, Judith; Cettomai, Deanna; Lwanya, Edwin; Osiemo, Dennis; Oyaro, Patrick; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Price, Richard W.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Meyer, Ana-Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the utility and reliability of a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia (HAD) for use by primary health care workers (HCW) which would be feasible to implement in resource-limited settings. Background In resource-limited settings, HAD is an indication for anti-retroviral therapy regardless of CD4 T-cell count. Anti-retroviral therapy, the treatment for HAD, is now increasingly available in resource-limited settings. Nonetheless, HAD remains under-diagnosed likely because of limited clinical expertise and availability of diagnostic tests. Thus, a simple diagnostic tool which is practical to implement in resource-limited settings is an urgent need. Methods A convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients was enrolled in Western Kenya. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic tool for HAD as administered by a primary HCW. This was compared to an expert clinical assessment which included examination by a physician, neuropsychological testing, and in selected cases, brain imaging. Agreement between HCW and an expert examiner on certain tool components was measured using Kappa statistic. Results The sample was 57% male, mean age was 38.6 years, mean CD4 T-cell count was 323 cells/µL, and 54% had less than a secondary school education. Six (20%) of the subjects were diagnosed with HAD by expert clinical assessment. The diagnostic tool was 63% sensitive and 67% specific for HAD. Agreement between HCW and expert examiners was poor for many individual items of the diagnostic tool (K?=?.03–.65). This diagnostic tool had moderate sensitivity and specificity for HAD. However, reliability was poor, suggesting that substantial training and formal evaluations of training adequacy will be critical to enable HCW to reliably administer a brief diagnostic tool for HAD. PMID:22412945

  9. Genome-Wide Patterns of Recombination in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Dettman, Jeremy R.; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Kassen, Rees

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of acute nosocomial infections as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent reports of the intercontinental spread of a CF-specific epidemic strain, combined with high intrinsic levels of antibiotic resistance, have made this opportunistic pathogen an important public health concern. Strain-specific differences correlate with variation in clinical outcomes of infected CF patients, increasing the urgency to understand the evolutionary origin of genetic factors conferring important phenotypes that enable infection, virulence, or resistance. Here, we describe the genome-wide patterns of homologous and nonhomologous recombination in P. aeruginosa, and the extent to which the genomes are affected by these diversity-generating processes. Based on whole-genome sequence data from 32 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, we examined the rate and distribution of recombination along the genome, and its effect on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that recombination was common and usually involves short stretches of DNA (200–300 bp). Although mutation was the main source of nucleotide diversity, the import of polymorphisms by homologous recombination contributed nearly as much. We also identified the genomic regions with frequent recombination, and the specific sequences of recombinant origin within epidemic strains. The functional characteristics of the genes contained therein were examined for potential associations with a pathogenic lifestyle or adaptation to the CF lung environment. A common link between many of the high-recombination genes was their functional affiliation with the cell wall, suggesting that the products of recombination may be maintained by selection for variation in cell-surface molecules that allows for evasion of the host immune system. PMID:25480685

  10. Genome-wide patterns of recombination in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Jeremy R; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Kassen, Rees

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of acute nosocomial infections as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent reports of the intercontinental spread of a CF-specific epidemic strain, combined with high intrinsic levels of antibiotic resistance, have made this opportunistic pathogen an important public health concern. Strain-specific differences correlate with variation in clinical outcomes of infected CF patients, increasing the urgency to understand the evolutionary origin of genetic factors conferring important phenotypes that enable infection, virulence, or resistance. Here, we describe the genome-wide patterns of homologous and nonhomologous recombination in P. aeruginosa, and the extent to which the genomes are affected by these diversity-generating processes. Based on whole-genome sequence data from 32 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, we examined the rate and distribution of recombination along the genome, and its effect on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that recombination was common and usually involves short stretches of DNA (200-300 bp). Although mutation was the main source of nucleotide diversity, the import of polymorphisms by homologous recombination contributed nearly as much. We also identified the genomic regions with frequent recombination, and the specific sequences of recombinant origin within epidemic strains. The functional characteristics of the genes contained therein were examined for potential associations with a pathogenic lifestyle or adaptation to the CF lung environment. A common link between many of the high-recombination genes was their functional affiliation with the cell wall, suggesting that the products of recombination may be maintained by selection for variation in cell-surface molecules that allows for evasion of the host immune system. PMID:25480685

  11. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  12. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Jo; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI). However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia. PMID:22096404

  13. Characterization of the Population Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin in Neonates Using an Opportunistic Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Tremoulet, Adriana; Le, Jennifer; Poindexter, Brenda; Sullivan, Janice E.; Laughon, Matthew; Delmore, Paula; Salgado, Andrea; Ian-U Chong, Sandy; Melloni, Chiara; Gao, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Capparelli, Edmund V.

    2014-01-01

    Although ampicillin is the most commonly used drug in neonates, developmental pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing are lacking. Ampicillin is primarily renally eliminated, and developmental changes are expected to influence PK. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, opportunistic, prospective PK study of ampicillin in neonates stratified by gestational age (GA) (?34 or >34 weeks) and postnatal age (PNA) (?7 or >7 days). Drug concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. PK data were analyzed using population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM 7.2. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the probability of target attainment for the time in which the total steady-state ampicillin concentrations remained above the MIC (T>MIC) for 50%, 75%, and 100% of the dosing interval. A total of 142 PK samples from 73 neonates were analyzed (median [range] GA, 36 [24 to 41] weeks; PNA, 5 [0 to 25] days). The median ampicillin dose was 200 (100 to 350) mg/kg/day. Postmenstrual age and serum creatinine were covariates for ampicillin clearance (CL). A simplified dosing regimen of 50 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?7 days, 75 mg/kg every 12 h for GA of ?34 weeks and PNA of ?8 and ?28 days, and 50 mg/kg every 8 h for GA of >34 weeks and PNA of ?28 days achieved the prespecified surrogate efficacy target in 90% of simulated subjects. Ampicillin CL was associated with neonatal development. A simplified dosing regimen stratified by GA and PNA achieves the desired surrogate therapeutic target in the vast majority of neonates. PMID:24614374

  14. Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

  15. The spectrum of opportunistic filamentous fungi present in the CBS culture collection.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, G S; Tan, C S; Stalpers, J A; Stegehuis, G

    1992-01-01

    The mould collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, The Netherlands, was screened for isolates originating from warm-blooded animals. The range of species indicates that distribution of clinically relevant, pathogenic or opportunistic strains over the fungal kingdom is non-random. Some opportunistic fungi possess adaptations to life under hostile environmental conditions, enabling them to survive inside the human body. Presence of melanin or carotene seems to be an important virulence factor. Opportunistic fungi which sporulate in submersion are able to disseminate or cause severe local mycoses when the aspecific immune system of the host is impaired. Mycoses caused by a few dimorphic fungi, mostly in their natural ecological niche living in association with vertebrates, are promoted by specific immune deficiencies. PMID:1291870

  16. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  17. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  18. Opportunistic Adaptation in Start-Up Companies - Exploring the links between business model learning and the resource base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Andrén; Mats Magnusson; Sören Sjölander

    It has been proposed that a key success factor for entrepreneurial start-up companies in dynamic industries is their capacity to continuously adapt their business opportunistically. However, the concept of opportunistic adaptation is in need of further development and clarification in order to make it possible to empirically test its usefulness, something that this far has been done only to a

  19. A report from the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2015 (February 23-26 - Seattle, Washington, USA).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-03-01

    The largest conference on HIV and AIDS, the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) also encompasses opportunistic and other important pathogens, notably in 2015 hepatitis C virus and the Ebola virus. This year's conference involved 4 days of discussions on highly relevant basic, translational and clinical research and developments in the ongoing battle against these infections. PMID:25876564

  20. Aquatic Mammals 2003, 29.1, 104107 Opportunistic carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus

    E-print Network

    Aquatic Mammals 2003, 29.1, 104­107 Opportunistic carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus, Orlando, FL 32816, USA Abstract The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus lati- rostris) is one of the most ecology to de ne critical habitats. Manatees generally are con- sidered to be strictly herbivious mammals

  1. Opportunistic Collaboration: Unlocking the Archives of the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Sian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To review a small specialist repository's strategic and opportunistic approach to utilising collaborative regional and national digital initiatives to increase access. The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (BIAD) Archives activity is evaluated to determine whether a project-based approach recognises and meets the needs of historians,…

  2. Dissemination in opportunistic mobile ad-hoc networks: The power of the crowd

    E-print Network

    -7-0001 Abstract: Opportunistic ad-hoc communication enables portable devices such as smartphones to effectively and classify mobile users in each area according to their social behavior: So- cials are devices that show up of users in each class rather than their social behavior, contradicting some of the previous observations

  3. Dissemination in Opportunistic Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: the Power of the Crowd

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    --Opportunistic ad-hoc communication enables portable devices such as smartphones to effectively exchange information in each area according to their social behavior: Socials are devices that show up frequently rather than their social behavior, contradicting some of the previous observations. We validate

  4. Empirical Evaluation of Hybrid Opportunistic Pan Hui, Anders Lindgren, Jon Crowcroft

    E-print Network

    Hui, Pan "Ben"

    Empirical Evaluation of Hybrid Opportunistic Networks Pan Hui, Anders Lindgren, Jon Crowcroft a nearly complete coverage of a whole city area [26]. There is therefore an abundance of sceptics to delay show similarities to, for example, a well covered WiFi city area, and by changing the number of APs

  5. Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research Theus, mobility and communication ties. Stumbl is a Facebook application that provides participating users with a user-friendly interface to report their daily face-to-face meetings with other Facebook friends

  6. Exploiting Multi-Antennas for Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Zhang; Ying-Chang Liang

    2008-01-01

    In cognitive radio (CR) networks, there are scenarios where the secondary (lower priority) users intend to communicate with each other by opportunistically utilizing the transmit spectrum originally allocated to the existing primary (higher priority) users. For such a scenario, a secondary user usually has to tradeoff between two conflicting goals at the same time: one is to maximize its own

  7. Optimization of Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Ghasemi; Elvino S. Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the low utilization of the licensed spectrum across many frequency bands, sensing-based oppor- tunistic spectrum access has recently emerged as an alternative to the outdated exclusive spectrum access policy. Under this new paradigm, a secondary (unlicensed) user monitors a primary (licensed) frequency band for a given time and opportunistically transmits if it does not detect any ongoing licensed

  8. Opportunistic scheduling for wireless systems with multiple interfaces and multiple constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Suresh Kulkarni; Catherine Rosenberg

    2003-01-01

    We consider a scheduling problem for packet based systems with time-varying channel conditions. Designing scheduling mechanisms that take advantage of time-varying channel conditions, which are different for different users, is necessary to improve system performance; however this has to be done in a way that provides some level of fairness among the users. Such scheduling mechanisms are termed opportunistic. We

  9. An Analysis of Delay-Constrained Opportunistic Scheduling for Cellular Wireless Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roshni Srinivasan; John S. Baras

    Base station schedulers in 3G and evolving 4G cellular systems use knowledge of the time-varying channel conditions of mobile users to exploit the multiuser diversity inherent in wireless networks. Although such opportunistic schedulers significantly improve the system throughput by scheduling users when their channel conditions are most favorable, they could degrade the user experience as a result of unfair resource

  10. Traitement d'Image Embarqu et Communication Opportuniste sur Drones Lgers pour Systmes de

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Traitement d'Image Embarqué et Communication Opportuniste sur Drones Légers pour Systèmes de Surveillance Contexte : Les drones sont en passe de devenir des systèmes de surveillance performants et niveau de qualité et de versatilité, les drones se doivent de fournir un certain nombre de services

  11. Residual White Space Distribution-Based Opportunistic Channel Access for Cognitive Radio Enabled Devices

    E-print Network

    Sahoo, Anirudha

    (usually referred as white spaces or holes) in various spectrum bands by allow- ing secondary devices, the secondary nodes should be able to identify the white spaces in the spectrum and utilize them. HoweverResidual White Space Distribution-Based Opportunistic Channel Access for Cognitive Radio Enabled

  12. Optimality and Complexity of Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Truncated Markov Decision Process Formulation

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    time and location, a large portion of licensed spectrum lies unused. For example, over 62% white space the pervasive existence of spectrum opportunities in both time and space. It has been shown that, at any givenOptimality and Complexity of Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Truncated Markov Decision Process

  13. Opportunistic Spectrum Scheduling for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks in White Space

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Opportunistic Spectrum Scheduling for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks in White Space Li Zhang, Kai: {jxzhang,kaizeng,pmohapatra}@ucdavis.edu Abstract--Recent works have shown that the white-space spectrum-- Cognitive radio networks, white-space, mobility, spectrum hand-off, scheduling, channel assignment. I

  14. Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Relay Networks Based on White Space Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Wang; Wei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks when a decode and forward relay is employed. To better exploit the white space in primary networks, we propose two cognitive spectrum access approaches based on white space modeling, referred to as successive sensing based spectrum access and simultaneous sensing based spectrum access. We further study the optimal

  15. A comprehensive methodology for opportunistic spectrum access based on residual white space distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuj Sharma; Anirudha Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that Secondary Users (SU) have channel occupancy data (channel idle and busy durations) of Primary Users (PU), this paper presents a methodology to fit primary channel occupancy data to a distribution. Then we show how SUs can opportunistically transmit in the white spaces based on residual white space distribution while keeping probability of interference (with the PUs) below a

  16. A cooperative infrastructure discovery protocol for vehicle to Internet opportunistic communications

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    , industrial zones, shopping malls and air- ports. These access points (APs) are mainly deployedA cooperative infrastructure discovery protocol for vehicle to Internet opportunistic-urban areas. Besides part of them offer free access, hence such infrastructure can provide intermittent

  17. Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1?/? mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1?/? mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  18. Optimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    ].) An aircraft engine consists of thousands of parts. Some of the parts are safety-critical, which meansOptimization of opportunistic replacement activities: A case study in the aircraft industry Torgny Svensson # Abstract In the aircraft industry maximizing availability is essential. Maintenance schedules

  19. Microbiological characterization of aquatic microbiomes targeting taxonomical marker genes and antibiotic resistance genes of opportunistic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Johannes; Bollmann, Anna; Seitz, Wolfram; Schwartz, Thomas

    2015-04-15

    The dissemination of medically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (blaVIM-1, vanA, ampC, ermB, and mecA) and opportunistic bacteria (Enterococcus faecium/faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and CNS) was determined in different anthropogenically influenced aquatic habitats in a selected region of Germany. Over a period of two years, four differently sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with and without clinical influence, three surface waters, four rain overflow basins, and three groundwater sites were analyzed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Results were calculated in cell equivalents per 100ng of total DNA extracted from water samples and per 100mL sample volume, which seems to underestimate the abundance of antibiotic resistance and opportunistic bacteria. High abundances of opportunistic bacteria and ARG were quantified in clinical wastewaters and influents of the adjacent WWTP. The removal capacities of WWTP were up to 99% for some, but not all investigated bacteria. The abundances of most ARG targets were found to be increased in the bacterial population after conventional wastewater treatment. As a consequence, downstream surface water and also some groundwater compartments displayed high abundances of all four ARGs. It became obvious that the dynamics of the ARG differed from the fate of the opportunistic bacteria. This underlines the necessity of an advanced microbial characterization of anthropogenically influenced environments. PMID:25634736

  20. Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aravind Kailas

    2010-01-01

    Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions

  1. RANC: Opportunistic Multipath Routing Protocol in WSNs Using Reality-Aware Network Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Liu; Junzhao Du; Jie Zhang; Xiaojun Li; Hui Liu

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency is one of the primary concerns when designing routing protocol in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we design an opportunistic multi-path routing protocol (RANC) using network coding technique facing the realistic link in WSNs. RANC uses Reality-Aware Network Coding technique to reduce energy consumption. During the encoding process, the local topology, the LQI between nodes, and

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 56, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2008 785 Opportunistic Spectrum Access via

    E-print Network

    Tong, Lang

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 56, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2008 785 Opportunistic Spectrum Access via Periodic Channel Sensing Qianchuan Zhao, Member, IEEE, Stefan Geirhofer, Student Member, IEEE for secondary users using a periodic sensing strategy with optimal dynamic access is proposed. To maximize

  3. PePiT: Opportunistic Dissemination of Large Contents on Android Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PePiT: Opportunistic Dissemination of Large Contents on Android Mobile Devices Matteo Sammarco this in- formation to transfer less prevalent pieces first. In this paper, we present PePiT, an Android application based on PACS. PePiT enables the dissemination of pictures between collocated Android devices

  4. Epithelial IL-22RA1-mediated fucosylation promotes intestinal colonization resistance to an opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M; Stares, Mark D; Browne, Hilary P; Keane, Jacqueline A; Page, Andrew J; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J; Gaffney, Daniel J; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-10-01

    Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1(-/-) mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1(-/-) mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  5. Opportunistic Diseases in HIV-Infected Patients in Gabon following the Administration of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Guiyedi, Vincent; Ondounda, Magloire; Efire, Nora; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Dibo, Mireille; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:24323514

  6. Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.; Jones, Kathy U.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark C.; Birmele, Michele; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for microbial detection: a) Labor & time intensive cultivation-based approaches that can fail to detect or characterize all cells present. b) Requires collection of samples on orbit and transportation back to ground for analysis. Disadvantages to current detection methods: a) Unable to perform quick and reliable detection on orbit. b) Lengthy sampling intervals. c) No microbe identification.

  7. Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Birmele, Michele N.; Castro, Victoria A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Jones, Kathy U.; Singhal, Adesh; Johnston, Angela S.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Ozbolt, Tamra A.; Jett, Daniel X.; Roberts, Michael S.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Because the International Space Station is a closed environment with rotations of astronauts and equipment that each introduce their own microbial flora, it is necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbial monitoring includes labor- and time-intensive methods to enumerate total bacterial and fungal cells, with limited characterization, during in-flight testing. Although this culture-based method is sufficient for monitoring the International Space Station, on future long-duration missions more detailed characterization will need to be performed during flight, as sample return and ground characterization may not be available. At a workshop held in 2011 at NASA's Johnson Space Center to discuss alternative methodologies and technologies suitable for microbial monitoring for these long-term exploration missions, molecular-based methodologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recommended. In response, a multi-center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Kennedy Space Center) collaborative research effort was initiated to explore novel commercial-off-the-shelf hardware options for space flight environmental monitoring. The goal was to evaluate quantitative or semi-quantitative PCR approaches for low-cost in-flight rapid identification of microorganisms that could affect crew safety. The initial phase of this project identified commercially available platforms that could be minimally modified to perform nominally in microgravity. This phase was followed by proof-of-concept testing of the highest qualifying candidates with a universally available challenge organism, Salmonella enterica. The analysis identified two technologies that were able to perform sample-to-answer testing with initial cell sample concentrations between 50 and 400 cells. In addition, the commercial systems were evaluated for initial flight safety and readiness.

  8. Opportunistic Parasites among Immunosuppressed Children in Minia District, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Azza K.; Ali, Basma A.; Moslam, Fadia A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children. PMID:22451735

  9. Use of opportunistic clinical data and a population pharmacokinetic model to support dosing of clindamycin for premature infants to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D; Melloni, C; Yogev, R; Poindexter, B B; Mendley, S R; Delmore, P; Sullivan, J E; Autmizguine, J; Lewandowski, A; Harper, B; Watt, K M; Lewis, K C; Capparelli, E V; Benjamin, D K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, M

    2014-10-01

    Clindamycin is commonly prescribed to treat children with skin and skin-structure infections (including those caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)), yet little is known about its pharmacokinetics (PK) across pediatric age groups. A population PK analysis was performed in NONMEM using samples collected in an opportunistic study from children receiving i.v. clindamycin per standard of care. The final model was used to optimize pediatric dosing to match adult exposure proven effective against CA-MRSA. A total of 194 plasma PK samples collected from 125 children were included in the analysis. A one-compartment model described the data well. The final model included body weight and a sigmoidal maturation relationship between postmenstrual age (PMA) and clearance (CL): CL (l/h) = 13.7 × (weight/70)(0.75) × (PMA(3.1)/(43.6(3.1) + PMA(3.1))); V (l) = 61.8 × (weight/70). Maturation reached 50% of adult CL values at ~44 weeks PMA. Our findings support age-based dosing. PMID:24949994

  10. Opportunistic toenail onychomycosis. The fungal colonization of an available nail unit space by non-dermatophytes is produced by the trauma of the closed shoe by an asymmetric gait or other trauma. A plausible theory.

    PubMed

    Zaias, N; Escovar, S X; Rebell, G

    2014-08-01

    Opportunistic onychomycosis is defined, when a non-dermatophyte mould is cultured from an abnormal nail unit in the absence of a dermatophyte. The presumption is that the mould has caused the abnormal clinical appearance of the nail unit, yet there are no data available to substantiate this claim. Reports have only identified the mould being recovered from the nail unit niche. A review of the published dermatologic literature describing toenail opportunistic onychomycosis by non-dermatophyte fungi has shown toenails with onycholysis, nail bed (NB) keratosis and nail plate surface abnormalities. The appearance of these clinical changes is indistinguishable from the diagnosis of the Asymmetric Gait Nail Unit Signs (AGNUS). AGNUS is produced by the friction of the closed shoe in patients with an asymmetric gait, resulting primarily from the ubiquitous uneven flat feet. Most commonly, species of Acremonium (Cephalosporium), Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis and rarely species of many different fungi genera are capable of surviving and reproducing in a keratinous environment and change the clinical appearance of the involved nail unit. AGNUS toenails predispose to the colonization by the non-dermatophyte opportunistic fungi but not by dermatophyte fungi. PMID:24708482

  11. Stress responses in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Fiester, Steven E; Actis, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a wide range of severe infections among compromised and injured patients worldwide. The relevance of these infections are, in part, due to the ability of this pathogen to sense and react to environmental and host stress signals, allowing it to persist and disseminate in medical settings and the human host. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles that environmental and cellular stressors play in the ability of A. baumannii to resist nutrient deprivation, oxidative and nitrosative injury, and even the presence of the commonly used antiseptic ethanol, which could serve as a nutrient- and virulence-enhancing signal rather than just being a convenient disinfectant. Emerging experimental evidence supports the role of some of these responses in the pathogenesis of the infections A. baumannii causes in humans and its capacity to resist antibiotics and host response effectors. PMID:23464372

  12. Using Dedicated and Opportunistic Networks in Synergy for a Cost-effective Distributed Stream Processing Platform

    E-print Network

    Asaduzzaman, Shah

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case for exploiting the synergy of dedicated and opportunistic network resources in a distributed hosting platform for data stream processing applications. Our previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of combining dedicated reliable resources with opportunistic resources in case of high-throughput computing applications, where timely allocation of the processing units is the primary concern. Since distributed stream processing applications demand large volume of data transmission between the processing sites at a consistent rate, adequate control over the network resources is important here to assure a steady flow of processing. In this paper, we propose a system model for the hybrid hosting platform where stream processing servers installed at distributed sites are interconnected with a combination of dedicated links and public Internet. Decentralized algorithms have been developed for allocation of the two classes of network resources among the competing tasks with an objective ...

  13. On rate improvements and power saving with opportunistic relaying in home power line networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Salvatore; Tonello, Andrea M.

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the use of half duplex time division relay protocols to possibly provide achievable rate improvements, power saving, and coverage extension in home power line communication (PLC) networks. We consider a network where the communication between the source and the destination nodes follows an opportunistic protocol, namely, the relay is used whenever it allows with respect to the direct transmission: (a) for achievable rate improvements, under a power spectral density (PSD) mask constraint; or (b) for power saving, under a PSD mask and a rate target constraint. Opportunistic decode and forward (ODF), and opportunistic amplify and forward (OAF) are considered. At the physical layer, we assume the use of multi-carrier modulation. Under these assumptions, we find the optimal resource allocation, namely, the optimal power and time slot allocation, between the source and the relay nodes that maximizes the achievable rate, or minimizes the total transmitted power for both ODF and OAF. For the power minimization problem of ODF, we show that the joint problem of power and time slot allocation of DF is very hard to be solved and thus implemented. Therefore, to reduce complexity, we propose a simplified algorithm that considers two convex sub-problems. Through numerical results, we show that its performance is very close to the optimum. Finally, since over in-home PLC networks, the relay can only be placed in accessible points of the network, i.e., in outlets, or in the main panel, or in derivation boxes, for each opportunistic protocol, we also investigate the influence on performances from the relay position. Results are obtained using both measured channel responses and generated ones; thanks to the use of a statistically representative simulator. They show that significant rate improvements and power savings can be obtained as a function of the relay position and network size.

  14. Reproductive Endocrinology of a Free-Living, Opportunistically Breeding Passerine (White-Winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Deviche; Peter J. Sharp

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, in a free-living opportunistic breeder, the White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), the degree to which annual changes in photoperiod and differences in the timing of breeding in different years correlate with the secretion of reproductive hormones. Seasonal changes in concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin were compared in White-winged Crossbills in interior

  15. Opportunistic Infections and Complications in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Jaivinder; Nanda, Sanjeev; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the correlation between various opportunistic infections and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children and the immune status of these patients, evaluated by absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count and CD4 percentage. Methods: This study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2010 at the Antiretroviral Treatment Centre of the Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak, Haryana, in northern India. A total of 20 HIV-1-infected children aged 4–57 months were studied. Demographic and baseline investigations were performed prior to the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A fixed-dose combination of HAART was given based on the patient’s weight. Baseline investigations were repeated after six months of HAART. Results: There was a significant increase in the patients’ haemoglobin, weight, height and CD4 count after six months of HAART. Significant improvements (P <0.05) were also noted in the patients’ immune status, graded according to the World Health Organization. Conclusion: This study observed that the severity and frequency of opportunistic complications in paediatric patients with HIV-1 increased with a fall in the CD4 count. The treatment of opportunistic infections, along with antiretroviral therapy, may lead to both clinical and immunological recovery as well as a decreased incidence of future opportunistic infections. The CD4 count may give treating physicians an initial idea about the immune status of each child and could also be used as a biological marker of HAART efficacy. Patient compliance must be ensured during HAART as this is a key factor in improving outcomes. PMID:25364555

  16. Invasion Ability and Disease Dynamics of Environmentally Growing Opportunistic Pathogens under Outside-Host Competition

    PubMed Central

    Merikanto, Ilona; Laakso, Jouni T.; Kaitala, Veijo

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of the evolution of virulence concentrate on obligatory host-pathogen relationship. Yet, many pathogens replicate in the environment outside-host where they compete with non-pathogenic forms. Thus, replication and competition in the outside-host environment may have profound influence on the evolution of virulence and disease dynamics. These environmentally growing opportunistic pathogens are also a logical step towards obligatory pathogenicity. Efficient treatment methods against these diseases, such as columnaris disease in fishes, are lacking because of their opportunist nature. We present a novel epidemiological model in which replication and competition in the outside-host environment influences the invasion ability of a novel pathogen. We also analyze the long-term host-pathogen dynamics. Model parameterization is based on the columnaris disease, a bacterial fresh water fish disease that causes major losses in fish farms worldwide. Our model demonstrates that strong competition in the outside-host environment can prevent the invasion of a new environmentally growing opportunist pathogen and long-term disease outbreaks. PMID:25415341

  17. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    PubMed

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A.?pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens?PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S.?marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A.?pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata. PMID:24983533

  18. Common variable immunodeficiency and isosporiasis: first report case.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gisele Barbosa E; Fernandes, Karla Pereira; Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues Silva

    2012-12-01

    We report a severe case of diarrhea in a 62-year-old female HIV-negative patient from whom Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli were isolated. Because unusual and opportunistic infections should be considered as criteria for further analysis of immunological status, laboratory investigations led to a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). This is the first reported case of isosporiasis in a patient with CVID and illustrates the importance of being aware of a possible link, particularly in relation to primary immunodeficiency. PMID:23295886

  19. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  20. Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems ?

    PubMed Central

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Weinrich, Lauren A.; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

  1. Anthropogenic Disturbance Can Determine the Magnitude of Opportunistic Species Responses on Marine Urban Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Methodology/Principal Findings Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies that consider the ecological features of built infrastructures and the fundamental value of controlling biodiversity in marine urban systems. PMID:21826224

  2. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  3. M2b macrophage elimination and improved resistance of mice with chronic alcohol consumption to opportunistic infections.

    PubMed

    Ohama, Hideko; Asai, Akira; Ito, Ichiaki; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Kobayashi, Makiko; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Fujio

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol abuse was found to predispose persons to opportunistic infections. In this study, we tried to improve the host antibacterial resistance of chronic alcohol-consuming (CAC) mice to opportunistic infections. Bactericidal macrophages with functions to produce IL-12 and to express mRNAs for CXCL9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (M1 macrophages) were characterized as the main effector cells in host antibacterial innate immunities against infections with opportunistic pathogens. However, CAC mice were found to be carriers of M2b macrophages [macrophages with functions to produce IL-10 and to express mRNAs for CD163, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, and LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for high-voltage electron microscopy on T cells)], which were inhibitory on macrophage conversion from resident macrophages to M1 macrophages. Under treatment with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, a specific inhibitor of M2b macrophages, CAC mouse macrophages reverted to resident macrophages, and M1 macrophages were induced by a bacterial antigen from macrophages of CAC mice that were previously treated with the oligodeoxynucleotides. Opportunistic infections (enterococcal translocation and Klebsiella pneumonia) in CAC mice were completely controlled by CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. These results indicate that certain opportunistic infections in alcoholics are controllable through the modulation of M2b macrophages. PMID:25485859

  4. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  5. Opportunistic and restrictive matings among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshikazu Hasegawa; Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa

    1983-01-01

    The mating patterns of free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, were studied. Opportunistic mating (non-competitive and temporary mating) was frequently\\u000a observed in a large-sized unit-group, among young, low-ranking males, and among young, newcomer, non-ovulating females. Restrictive\\u000a mating (a continuous sexual relationship between a particular pair which includes possessiveness and consortship) was frequently\\u000a observed in a small-sized unit-group,

  6. Recent trends in the spectrum of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in South India

    PubMed Central

    Shahapur, Praveen R.; Bidri, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opportunistic infections (OI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The pattern of OIs differs widely, hence it is necessary to correlate spectrum of OIs and CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals in specific localities. Materials and Methods: The present study describes the clinical and laboratory profiles of different OIs among 55 HIV seropositive patients. CD4 count was estimated and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 27 patients as per National Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Control Organization guidelines. These 27 patients were classified into stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 based on CD4 counts of >500 cells/?l, 200-499 cells/?l and <200 cells/?l respectively. The OIs presented by respective groups were documented. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be the most common OI constituting 43.6% of all cases followed by candidiasis (30.9%), cryptosporidial diarrhea (21.8%), herpes zoster (16.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (3.63%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (1.81%), and other miscellaneous infections (23.6%). Only 1 patient was found in stage I while 13 patients each were grouped in stage II or stage III. The mean CD4 count in our study population who were on ART was 230 ± 150 cells/µl. Conclusion: The pattern of OIs among our study group did not differ significantly from patients not receiving ART. The effect of ART on CD4 count differs from patient to patient based on the degree of depletion of CD4 count before the initiation of ART, drug adherence, concomitant OIs and their treatment. PMID:25097422

  7. AsrR Is an Oxidative Stress Sensing Regulator Modulating Enterococcus faecium Opportunistic Traits, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, François; van Schaik, Willem; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; Le Bras, Florian; Verneuil, Nicolas; Zhang, Xinglin; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Willems, Rob J. L.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial resistance and adaptation for survival within the host, thereby contributes importantly to the opportunistic traits of E. faecium. PMID:22876178

  8. ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  9. Striatal dopamine D2-like receptor correlation patterns with human obesity and opportunistic eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juen; Simmons, W. Kyle; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex; Hall, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is believed to be driven by a food environment that promotes consumption of inexpensive, convenient, high-calorie, palatable foods. Individual differences in obesity susceptibility or resistance to weight loss may arise due to alterations in the neurocircuitry supporting food reward and eating habits. In particular, dopamine signaling in the ventromedial striatum is thought to encode food reward and motivation, whereas dopamine in the dorsal and lateral striatum orchestrates the development of eating habits. We measured striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential (D2BP) using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fallypride in 43 human subjects with body mass indices (BMI) ranging from 18–45 kg/m2. Opportunistic eating behavior and BMI were both positively associated with D2BP in the dorsal and lateral striatum, whereas BMI was negatively associated with D2BP in the ventromedial striatum. These results suggest that obese people have alterations in dopamine neurocircuitry that may increase their susceptibility to opportunistic overeating while at the same time making food intake less rewarding, less goal-directed, and more habitual. Whether or not the observed neurocircuitry alterations pre-existed or occurred as a result of obesity development, they may perpetuate obesity given the omnipresence of palatable foods and their associated cues. PMID:25199919

  10. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40?mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed. PMID:24379742

  11. Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L?1 (p<0.05) in both semi-continuous co-culture assays and in co-culture assays without nutrient supplementation. In contrast, although U. prolifera had a density effect on G. lichvoides, the differences among treatments were not significant (p>0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community. PMID:22496758

  12. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  13. Internalised homonegativity predicts HIV-associated risk behavior in European men who have sex with men in a 38-country cross-sectional study: some public health implications of homophobia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Berg, Rigmor C; Schmidt, Axel J; Hospers, Harm J; Breveglieri, Michele; Furegato, Martina; Weatherburn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Internalised homonegativity (IH) is hypothesised to be associated with HIV risk behaviour and HIV testing in men who have sex with men (MSM). We sought to determine the social and individual variables associated with IH and the associations between IH and HIV-related behaviours. Design and setting We examined IH and its predictors as part of a larger Internet-delivered, cross-sectional study on HIV and health in MSM in 38 European countries. Participants 181?495 MSM, IH data analysis subsample 144?177. All participants were male, over the age of consent for homosexual activity in their country of domicile, and have had at least one homosexual contact in the past 6?months. Methodology An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was disseminated in 25 languages through MSM social media, websites and organisations and responses saved to a UK-based server. IH was measured using a standardised, cross-culturally appropriate scale. Results Three clusters of European countries based on the level of experienced discrimination emerged. IH was predicted by country LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) legal climate, Gini coefficient and size of place of settlement. Lower IH was associated with degree the respondent was ‘out’ as gay to others and older age. ‘Outness’ was associated with ever having an HIV test and age, education and number of gay friends, while IH (controlling for the number of non-steady unprotected sex partners and perceived lack of control over safe sex) was associated with condom use for anal intercourse. Conclusions IH is associated with LGB legal climate, economic development indices and urbanisation. It is also associated with ‘outness’ and with HIV risk and preventive behaviours including HIV testing, perceived control over sexual risk and condom use. Homonegative climate is associated with IH and higher levels of HIV-associated risk in MSM. Reducing IH through attention to LGB human rights may be appropriate HIV reduction intervention for MSM. PMID:23386580

  14. Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary

    E-print Network

    Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire Karen Scarfone NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification and Director NIST Interagency Report 7697 #12;COMMON PLATFORM ENUMERATION (CPE): DICTIONARY SPECIFICATION

  15. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  16. Introduction of an opportunistic bacterial cotton pathogen into bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, seed and boll rot associated with microorganism infections have had a significantly negative impact on cotton yield in southeastern Cotton Belt states. Based on Koch’s postulates, we previously established that an opportunistic strain of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans, originall...

  17. A study on micro-fungi in arid areas: Notes on soil saprotrophs and animal opportunistic pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Ciccarone; Angelo Rambelli

    2000-01-01

    Soil fungi were studied in three desert areas in Namibia with the aim of identifying saprotrophic microorganisms associated with animal communities as opportunistic pathogens. The extremely arid environment of the Naukluft Desert Park was found to be more selective for soil fungi, whereas the soils of Etosha Pan, with seasonal wet areas, and the mobile dunes of Sossousvlei, which absorb

  18. On Selection of Candidates for Opportunistic Any-Path Forwarding Zifei Zhong, Junling Wang, Guor-Huar Lu, Srihari Nelakuditi

    E-print Network

    Nelakuditi, Srihari

    1 On Selection of Candidates for Opportunistic Any-Path Forwarding Zifei Zhong, Junling Wang, Guor, a set of candidate next hops are selected in-advance and one of them is chosen for forwarding on a per destination. The candidate selection and prioritization are the two key issues that need to be addressed

  19. Cross-Layer Based Opportunistic MAC Protocols for QoS Provisionings Over Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hang Su; Xi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We propose the cross-layer based opportunistic multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer with the packets scheduling at MAC layer, for the wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, the MAC protocols enable the secondary users to identify and utilize the leftover frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference to

  20. Characteristics and stage of the underlying diseases could determine the risk of opportunistic infections in patients receiving alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Nosari, A; Tedeschi, A; Ricci, F; Montillo, M

    2008-02-01

    Alemtuzumab is usually associated with opportunistic infections. We have treated 67 patients, 8 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 59 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with campath. Among CLL patients, 6 used alemtuzumab in first line, alone or with chemotherapy, 41 as consolidation therapy and 11 as salvage therapy, 3 alone and 8 with chemotherapy. In our series opportunistic infections were prevalently found in patients submitted to alemtuzumab salvage therapy (33.3%), with or without chemotherapy; in particular 1 pulmonary nocardiosis, 1 tubercolosis. Also during the first line alemtuzumab therapy one case of lysteriosis and one case of HBV reactivation were found (33.3%). No opportunistic infections were diagnosed to our CLL patients in consolidation therapy, when the underlying hematologic disease was reduced or present only as minimal residual disease. A good response of malignancy, namely CLL, to induction therapy, such as a less aggressive schedule of therapy, determine a lower risk of immunosuppression and therefore a low number of opportunistic infections. PMID:18245646

  1. Les «protisteså parasites ou opportunistes en pathologie humaine, animale et végétale : Le point sur la systématique actuelle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Rispail

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic systematics and advances in molecular biology overturn the habitually used taxonomy. For instance, the «kingdom Protistaå (=«Protoctistaå) is brought down, and groups admitted for decades («Protozoaå, «Flagellateså, «Amoebaeå, «Algae …) are henceforth out of date. Parasites and opportunists are herein reclassified. For use by parasitologists, a simplified classification is proposed in the form of a table and of drawings.

  2. A CASE OF FATAL IDIOPATHIC ENTERITIS AND MULTIPLE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DENDRITIC CELL DEFICIENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Janice; Kozarek, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Unstructured Summary We present a case of an adult patient with new-onset severe, idiopathic, protein-wasting enteropathy, in whom an extensive immunological workup was performed. We found a lack of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the blood and bowel, as well as elevated circulating TGF-beta levels and decreased numbers of circulating FOXP3+ regulatory T cells with diminished CTLA4 expression. She failed to respond to glucocorticoids and infliximab, and instead developed a constellation of opportunistic infections, including CMV ileitis, Mucormycosis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and ultimately passed away. While the cause of her lack of DC’s is unknown, this data suggests a key role for these cells in both regulating mucosal immunity and promoting effective cell-mediated immunity against pathogens in humans. PMID:23539396

  3. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling'?

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented. PMID:25186140

  4. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa carries a secretable arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Russell E.; Hong, Song; Gronert, Karsten; Serhan, Charles N.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, lipoxygenases play key roles in inflammation by initiating the transformation of arachidonic acid into potent bioactive lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and lipoxins. In general, most bacteria are believed to lack lipoxygenases and their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. It is therefore of interest that an ORF (PA1169) with high homology to eukaryotic lipoxygenases was discovered by analysis of the whole-genome sequence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using TLC and liquid chromatography-UV-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS-MS), we demonstrate that PA1169 encodes a bacterial lipoxygenase (LoxA) that converts arachidonic acid into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). Although mammalian lipoxygenases are cytoplasmic enzymes, P. aeruginosa LoxA activity is secreted. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which a pathogen-secreted lipoxygenase may modulate host defense and inflammation via alteration of the biosynthesis of local chemical mediators. PMID:14766977

  5. Discrete-time Queuing Analysis of Opportunistic Spectrum Access: Single User Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-long; Xu, Yu-hua; Gao, Zhan; Wu, Qi-hui

    2011-11-01

    This article studies the discrete-time queuing dynamics of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) systems, in which the secondary user seeks spectrum vacancies between bursty transmissions of the primary user to communicate. Since spectrum sensing and data transmission can not be performed simultaneously, the secondary user employs a sensing-then-transmission strategy to detect the presence of the primary user before accessing the licensed channel. Consequently, the transmission of the secondary user is periodically suspended for spectrum sensing. To capture the discontinuous transmission nature of the secondary user, we introduce a discrete-time queuing subjected to bursty preemption to describe the behavior of the secondary user. Specifically, we derive some important metrics of the secondary user, including secondary spectrum utilization ratio, buffer length, packet delay and packet dropping ratio. Finally, simulation results validate the proposed theoretical model and reveal that the theoretical results fit the simulated results well.

  6. Structural diversity and biological significance of glycosphingolipids in pathogenic and opportunistic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luciana L.; Toledo, Marcos S.; Ferreira, Felipe A. S.; Straus, Anita H.; Takahashi, Helio K.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components and have key roles in biological systems, acting as second messengers or modulators of signal transduction by affecting several events, ranging from cell adhesion, cell growth, cell motility, regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. Over the last 20 years our laboratory and other research groups determined the glycan and ceramide structures of more than 20 GSLs from several pathogenic/opportunistic fungi, using a combination of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance as well as other immunochemical and biochemical techniques. Fungal GSLs can be divided in two major classes: neutral GSLs, galactosyl- and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and acidic GSLs, the glycosylinositol-phosphorylceramides (GIPCs). Glycosyl structures in fungal GIPCs exhibited significant structural diversity and distinct composition when compared to mammalian GSLs, e.g., the expression of inositol-mannose and inositol-glucosamine cores and the terminal residue of ?-D-galactofuranose which are absent in mammalian cells. Studies performed by our group demonstrated that GIPC (Galf? 6[Man?3]Man?2InsPCer) elicited in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis an immune response with production of antibodies directed to the terminal residue of ?-D-galactofuranose. Further studies also showed that inhibition of GlcCer biosynthetic pathways affects fungal colony formation, spore germination and hyphal growth, indicating that enzymes involved in GlcCer biosynthesis may represent promising targets for the therapy of fungal infections. Recently, it was shown that GlcCer and GIPCs are preferentially localized in membrane microdomains and monoclonal antibodies directed to these GSLs interfere in several fungal biological processes such as growth and morphological transition. This review focuses on glycan structures carried on sphingolipids of pathogenic/opportunistic fungi, and aspects of their biological significance are discussed. PMID:25309884

  7. Temperature-dependent inhibition of opportunistic Vibrio pathogens by native coral commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Frydenborg, Beck R; Krediet, Cory J; Teplitski, Max; Ritchie, Kim B

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria isolated from the mucus layer of a healthy elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are capable of inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, Vibrio shiloi AK1 and Vibrio coralliilyticus. These vibrios are known to cause disease in corals and their virulence is temperature dependent. Elevated temperature (30 °C) increased the cell numbers of one commensal and both Vibrio pathogens in monocultures. We further tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature favors pathogenic organisms by simultaneously increasing the fitness of vibrios and decreasing the fitness of commensals by measuring growth of each species within a co-culture over the course of 1 week. In competition experiments between vibrios and commensals, the proportion of Vibrio spp. increased significantly under elevated temperature. We finished by investigating several temperature-dependent mechanisms that could influence co-culture differences via changes in competitive fitness. The ability of Vibrio spp. to utilize glycoproteins found in A. palmata mucus increased or remained stable when exposed to elevated temperature, while commensals' tended to decrease utilization. In both vibrios and commensals, protease activity increased at 30 °C, while chiA expression increased under elevated temperatures for Vibrio spp. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms through which elevated temperature may select for pathogenic bacterial dominance and lead to disease or a decrease in coral fitness. PMID:24370863

  8. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. I: Acceptability of urine testing in primary and secondary healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, J; Catchpole, M; Rogers, P; Perkins, E; Jackson, N; Carlisle, C; Randall, S; Hopwood, J; Hewitt, G; Underhill, G; Mallinson, H; McLean, L; Gleave, T; Tobin, J; Harindra, V; Ghosh, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the acceptability of opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young people in a range of healthcare settings. Design: An opportunistic screening programme (1 September 1999 to 31 August 2000) using urine samples tested by ligase chain reaction (LCR). Data on uptake and testing were collected and in-depth interviews were used for programme evaluation. Setting: General practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine clinics, adolescent sexual health clinics, termination of pregnancy clinics, and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics) in two health authorities (Wirral and Portsmouth and South East Hampshire). Main participants: Sexually active women aged between 16 and 24 years attending healthcare settings for any reason. Main outcome measures: Uptake data: proportion of women accepting a test by area, healthcare setting, and age; overall population coverage achieved in 1 year. Evaluation data: participants' attitudes and views towards opportunistic screening and urine testing. Results: Acceptance of testing by women (16–24 years) was 76% in Portsmouth and 84% in Wirral. Acceptance was lower in younger women (Portsmouth only) and varied by healthcare setting within each site. 50% of the target female population were screened in Portsmouth and 39% in Wirral. Both the opportunistic offer of screening and the method of screening were universally acceptable. Major factors influencing a decision to accept screening were the non-invasive nature of testing and treatment, desire to protect future fertility, and the experimental nature of the screening programme. Conclusions: An opportunistic model of urine screening for chlamydial infection is a practical, universally acceptable method of screening. PMID:12576607

  9. Environmental regulation of annual schedules in opportunistically-breeding songbirds: adaptive specializations or variations on a theme of white-crowned sparrow?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Thomas P; Cornelius, Jamie M; Sewall, Kendra B; Kelsey, T Rodd; Hau, Michaela; Perfito, Nicole

    2008-07-01

    How birds use environmental cues to time breeding, migration and molt has been the subject of intensive study for nearly 90 years. Most work has focused on seasonal breeders; opportunistic breeders have been presumed to differ fundamentally from seasonal taxa in ways that facilitate coping with unpredictable environments. Understanding patterns and mechanisms of opportunists' responses to environmental cues can reveal the extent to which different environments require specialized adaptations of cue response systems. In this review we will present our perspective on how patterns and mechanisms of environmental cue response of three groups of opportunists--zebra finches, crossbills and Darwin's finches--compare with seasonal breeders. Long-standing predictions regarding tonic activity of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system have been confirmed in at least some opportunists. However, opportunists resemble seasonal breeders in some surprising ways, illustrating basic similarity among taxa facing very different timing challenges. For instance, many opportunists completely regress the gonads outside breeding times, rely on initial predictive cues (both photic and non-photic) to regulate timing and rate of reproductive development, and in some cases even appear to display internal changes in responsiveness to environmental cues (i.e., cycles of reproductive refractoriness and sensitivity). Although advantages of unrestricted temporal flexibility are intuitively clear for animals coping with unpredictable habitats, the available data on these opportunists indicate that in all but the most extremely capricious situations the advantages of flexibility may be at least partly outweighed by contrasting advantages of following a reliable temporal schedule. PMID:18602554

  10. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  11. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2012, 57% (0.3 million) were enrolled on ART and 80% (0.4 million) were enrolled on ... Three interlinked patient monitoring systems for HIV care/ART, MCH/PMTCT (including malaria prevention during pregnancy), and ...

  12. Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Sam; Winsto, Alan; Letendre, Scott; Michael, Benedict D; McArthur, Justin C; Khoo, Saye; Solomon, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that around half of individuals infected with HIV-1 have some degree of cognitive impairment despite the use of antiretroviral drugs. However, prevalence estimates vary depending on the population and methods used to assess cognitive impairment. Whether asymptomatic patients would benefit from routine screening for cognitive difficulties is unclear and the appropriate screening method and subsequent management is the subject of debate. In some patients, HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher concentrations in CSF than in blood, which potentially results from the poor distribution of antiretroviral drugs into the CNS. However, the clinical relevance of so-called CSF viral escape is not well understood. The extent to which antiretroviral drug distribution and toxicity in the CNS affect clinical decision making is also debated. PMID:25316020

  13. HIV-associated chronic immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4+ T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4+ T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4+ T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation that have been observed to be characteristic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to ‘show AIDS the door’, and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives. PMID:23772616

  14. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  15. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rDNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, e.g. Legionella pneumophila, via parasitization of free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoebae. Yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise pl...

  16. Idiopathic CD4 Lymphocytopenia: Spectrum of opportunistic infections, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Dina S.; Esmadi, Mohammad; Steinmann, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) was first defined in 1992 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the repeated presence of a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of fewer than 300 cells per cubic millimeter or of less than 20% of total T cells with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and no condition that might cause depressed CD4 counts. Most of our knowledge about ICL comes from scattered case reports. The aim of this study was to collect comprehensive data from the previously published cases to understand the characteristics of this rare condition. We searched the PubMed database and Science Direct for case reports since 1989 for Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia cases. We found 258 cases diagnosed with ICL in 143 published papers. We collected data about age, sex, pathogens, site of infections, CD4 count, CD8 count, CD4:CD8 ratio, presence of HIV risk factors, malignancies, autoimmune diseases and whether the patients survived or died. The mean age at diagnosis of first opportunistic infection (or ICL if no opportunistic infection reported) was 40.7 ± 19.2 years (standard deviation), with a range of 1 to 85. One-sixty (62%) patients were males, 91 (35.2%) were females, and 7 (2.7%) patients were not identified whether males or females. Risk factors for HIV were documented in 36 (13.9%) patients. The mean initial CD4 count was 142.6 ± 103.9/mm3 (standard deviation). The mean initial CD8 count was 295 ± 273.6/mm3 (standard deviation). The mean initial CD4:CD8 ratio was 0.6 ± 0.7 (standard deviation). The mean lowest CD4 count was 115.4 ± 87.1/mm3 (standard deviation). The majority of patients 226 (87.6%) had at least one infection. Cryptococcal infections were the most prevalent infections in ICL patients (26.6%), followed by mycobacterial infections (17%), candidal infections (16.2%), and VZV infections (13.1%). Malignancies were reported in 47 (18.1%) patients. Autoimmune diseases were reported in 37 (14.2%) patients. PMID:23930241

  17. [Investigation of the effect of constructions in hospital environment on the crucial units for immunocompromised patients and the development of opportunistic mold infections].

    PubMed

    Eren, Ay?e; Ku?timur, Semra; Kalkanci, Ay?e; Unverdi, Salman; Akta?, Firdevs; Sucak, Gülsan Türköz

    2008-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effect of building constructions in and around our hospital, on the development of opportunistic mold infections in immunocompromised patients hospitalized in bone marrow and kidney transplantation units and haematology and oncology units. Samples were collected from high risk units by an air sampler (Air Ideal) from indoors and outdoors of a total of 43 patient rooms. The most commonly isolated species from indoor air cultures of our hospital were Penicillium spp. (50.6%), Cladosporium spp. (20%), Chrysonilia spp. (11%) and Aspergillus (10.6%) species. When outdoor samples were considered, Penicillium spp. (38.8%) was still in the first line, followed by Cladosporium spp. (24.3%), Paecillomyces spp. (10.7%) and Aspergillus (8.7%) species. There was no statistically significant difference of total colony and spore numbers between the samples obtained from indoor and outdoor air (p > 0.05), indicating the close relation with the construction studies in and around the hospital. Clinical samples including bronchoalveoler lavage (BAL) fluid, sputum, endotracheal aspirate and sinus tissue were collected from the total of 43 patients staying at these air sampled rooms, and eight of them (18.6%) yielded positivity for the growth of molds. Of them four were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum (sputum isolates), two as Aspergillus fumigatus (sputum and BAL isolates), one as Aspergillus flavus (BAL isolate), and one as Valsa sordida (sinus tissue) which is considered as a plant pathogen. A total of 53 sera, BAL, and tissue supernatant samples were screened by ELISA for the presence of galactomannan antigen, and five of the eight patients whose cultures were positive were also found positive for galactomannan antigen. One patient has died due to invasive aspergillosis whose BAL specimen and indoor air sample were positive for A. fumigatus. In evaluation of indoor air samples before and after the change of HEPA filters, statistically significant decrease was detected in total colony and spore numbers between the samples taken before and after the filter changes (p < 0.005). This study has emphasized the importance of examination of mold flora of indoor air and clinical samples of high risk group patients intermittantly, in order to prevent opportunistic mold infections in crucial units especially during hospital constructions. PMID:18444565

  18. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

  19. A Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The importance of a common schooling to provide a common education and to create a common culture is argued. The limited separate education supported by E. Callan will not be effective in maintaining the distinctive cultural integrity it hopes to defend. (SLD)

  20. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  1. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  2. Potential roles for GNIH and GNRH-II in reproductive axis regulation of an opportunistically breeding songbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Perfito; Richard Zann; Takayoshi Ubuka; George Bentley; Michaela Hau

    2011-01-01

    The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Screening Programme and Brief Intervention for Excessive Alcohol Use in Primary Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luqman Tariq; Matthijs van den Berg; Rudolf T. Hoogenveen; Pieter H. M. van Baal; Syed Ahmer

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundEffective prevention of excessive alcohol use has the potential to reduce the public burden of disease considerably. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for excessive alcohol use in primary care in the Netherlands, which is targeted at early detection and treatment of ‘at-risk’ drinkers.Methodology and ResultsWe compared a SBI scenario (opportunistic screening and brief intervention for

  4. Constraint satisfaction using a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that performs opportunistic arc and path revision

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, J. [National Univ. of Ireland, Cork (Ireland); Dozier, G. [North Carolina A& T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that quickly solves (Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs)). This hybrid uses opportunistic arc and path revision in an interleaved fashion to reduce the size of the search space and to realize when to quit if a CSP is based on an inconsistent constraint network. This hybrid outperforms a well known hill-climbing algorithm, the Iterative Descent Method, on a test suite of 750 randomly generated CSPs.

  5. A Reduced-PAR Opportunistic STBC Scheme for Frequency-Selective Channels in the Presence of Frequency Offset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dandan Wang; Hlaing Minn; Naofal Al-dhahir

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic space-time block codes (STBC) have been investigated for flat-fading channels in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel scheme for integrating them with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for frequency-selective channels with an unequal error protection capability making it attractive for multimedia and multicasting applications. In addition, our new scheme optimizes the tradeoff between coding gain and

  6. Seasonal Changes in Brain GnRH Immunoreactivity and Song-Control Nuclei Volumes in an Opportunistically Breeding Songbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton; Pierre J. Deviche; Renee D. Crain; Gregory F. Ball; Thomas P. Hahn

    2001-01-01

    White-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera) are opportunistic breeders that can nest at almost any time of year if there is sufficient food. Other cardueline finches that have been shown to breed on a strictly seasonal schedule become absolutely refractory to the stimulatory effects of long-day photoperiod, dramatically down-regulate hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and reduce the volume of several song-control nuclei in

  7. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana de Aguirre; Steven F. Hurst; Jong Soo Choi; Jong Hee Shin; Hans Peter Hinrikson; Christine J. Morrison

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus,

  8. The prevalence of opportunistic infections and malignancies in autopsied patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opportunistic infections and malignancies such as malignant lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma are significant complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Japan in 1997, the incidence of clinical complications has decreased. In the present study, autopsy cases of HIV infection in Japan were retrospectively investigated to reveal the prevalence of opportunistic infections and malignancies. Methods A total of 225 autopsy cases of HIV infection identified at 4 Japanese hospitals from 1985–2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Mean CD4 counts of patients were 77.0 cells/?L in patients who received any antiretroviral therapy during their lives (ART (+) patients) and 39.6 cells/?L in naïve patients (ART (?) patients). Cytomegalovirus infection (142 cases, 63.1%) and pneumocystis pneumonia (66 cases, 29.3%) were the most frequent opportunistic infections, and their prevalence was significantly lower in ART (+) patients than ART (?) patients. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma were observed in 30.1% and 16.2% of ART (?) patients, and 37.9% and 15.2% of ART (+) patients, respectively. Malignant lymphoma was the most frequent cause of death, followed by cytomegalovirus infection regardless of ART. Non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers such as liver and lung cancer caused death more frequently in ART (+) patients (9.1%) than in ART (?) patients (1.5%; P?=?0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of infectious diseases and malignancies were revealed in autopsy cases of HIV infection in Japan. The prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection and pneumocystis pneumonia at autopsy were lower in ART (+) patients than ART (?) patients. Higher prevalence of non-AIDS defining malignancies among ART (+) patients than ART (?) patients suggests that onsets of various opportunistic infections and malignancies should be carefully monitored regardless of whether the patient is receiving ART. PMID:24775713

  9. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M.; Huls, M. Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated “D-CAR”) upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR+ T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR+ T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR+ T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR+ T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

  10. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Manuri, Pallavi R; Albert, Nathaniel D; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M; Huls, M Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2014-07-22

    Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect their specificity to target tumor-associated antigens in vivo. We now have developed this molecular strategy to render cytotoxic T cells specific for fungi. We adapted the pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to activate T cells via chimeric CD28 and CD3-? (designated "D-CAR") upon binding with carbohydrate in the cell wall of Aspergillus germlings. T cells genetically modified with the Sleeping Beauty system to express D-CAR stably were propagated selectively on artificial activating and propagating cells using an approach similar to that approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacturing CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells for clinical trials. The D-CAR(+) T cells exhibited specificity for ?-glucan which led to damage and inhibition of hyphal growth of Aspergillus in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of D-CAR(+) T cells with steroids did not compromise antifungal activity significantly. These data support the targeting of carbohydrate antigens by CAR(+) T cells and provide a clinically appealing strategy to enhance immunity for opportunistic fungal infections using T-cell gene therapy. PMID:25002471

  11. CD4+ T cell–independent DNA vaccination against opportunistic infections

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mingquan; Ramsay, Alistair J.; Robichaux, Myles B.; Norris, Karen A.; Kliment, Corrine; Crowe, Christopher; Rapaka, Rekha R.; Steele, Chad; McAllister, Florencia; Shellito, Judd E.; Marrero, Luis; Schwarzenberger, Paul; Zhong, Qiu; Kolls, Jay K.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion or dysfunction of CD4+ T lymphocytes profoundly perturbs host defenses and impairs immunogenicity of vaccines. Here, we show that plasmid DNA vaccination with a cassette encoding antigen (OVA) and a second cassette encoding full-length CD40 ligand (CD40L), a molecule expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and critical for T cell helper function, can elicit significant titers of antigen-specific immunoglobulins in serum and Tc1 CD8+ T cell responses in CD4-deficient mice. To investigate whether this approach leads to CD4+ T cell–independent vaccine protection against a prototypic AIDS-defining infection, Pneumocystis (PC) pneumonia, we used serum from mice vaccinated with PC-pulsed, CD40L-modifed DCs to immunoprecipitate PC antigens. Kexin, a PC antigen identified by this approach, was used in a similar DNA vaccine strategy with or without CD40L. CD4-deficient mice receiving DNA vaccines encoding Kexin and CD40L showed significantly higher anti-PC IgG titers as well as opsonic killing of PC compared with those vaccinated with Kexin alone. Moreover, CD4-depleted, Kexin-vaccinated mice showed a 3-log greater protection in a PC challenge model. Adoptive transfer of CD19+ cells or IgG to SCID mice conferred protection against PC challenge, indicating a role of humoral immunity in the protection. The results of these studies show promise for CD4-independent vaccination against HIV-related or other opportunistic pathogens. PMID:16308571

  12. Genetic and virulence variation in an environmental population of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Alshareef, Fadwa; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-04-01

    Environmental populations of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus have been shown to be genotypically diverse and to contain a range of isolates with varying pathogenic potential. In this study, we combined two RAPD primers to investigate the genetic diversity of environmental isolates from Manchester collected monthly over 1 year alongside Dublin environmental isolates and clinical isolates from patients. RAPD analysis revealed a diverse genotype, but with three major clinical isolate clusters. When the pathogenicity of clinical and Dublin isolates was compared with a random selection of Manchester isolates in a Galleria mellonella larvae model, as a group, clinical isolates were significantly more pathogenic than environmental isolates. Moreover, when relative pathogenicity of individual isolates was compared, clinical isolates were the most pathogenic, Dublin isolates were the least pathogenic and Manchester isolates showed a range in pathogenicity. Overall, this suggests that the environmental population is genetically diverse, displaying a range in pathogenicity, and that the most pathogenic strains from the environment are selected during patient infection. PMID:24464798

  13. Alterations of skin innate immunity in lymphedematous limbs: Correlations with opportunistic diseases.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Chessa, Marco Adriano; Russo, Teresa; Cozza, Valentina; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphedematous areas are sites of regional immune destabilization depicting a typical example of an immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD). This study evaluates the expression of some components of the skin innate immunity on lymphedematous limbs with the aim to clarify some facets of the ICD. Patients selected underwent two skin biopsies: One was obtained from the limb affected by lymphedema, another from the contralateral healthy limb. Expression of some components of the skin innate immunity was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stronger gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), human ?-defensin 2 (HBD-2), desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) was found in keratinocytes derived from the affected limb compared with that of keratinocytes derived from contralateral healthy limb. Downregulation of survivin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) gene expression was found in the affected limbs. No induction of IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) was detectable in keratinocyte cultures obtained from both lymphedematous and normal limbs. Different phases and components of skin innate immunity turned out to be altered in the lymphedematous sites. Molecular alterations were similar in all patients recruited in the study. These changes might favor the local appearance or progression of opportunistic diseases such as tumors, infections, and immune-mediated skin disorders. PMID:25160100

  14. Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and ?? T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections.

    PubMed

    Conti, Heather R; Peterson, Alanna C; Brane, Lucas; Huppler, Anna R; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Whibley, Natasha; Garg, Abhishek V; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R; Gibson, Gregory A; Mamo, Anna J; Osborne, Lisa C; Bishu, Shrinivas; Ghilardi, Nico; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Watkins, Simon C; Artis, David; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-09-22

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7R?(-/-), and Rag1(-/-) mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1-2 d by tongue-resident populations of ?? T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD44(hi)TCR?(+)CCR6(+) natural Th17 (nTh17) cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) or NK cells. These cells function redundantly, as TCR-?(-/-) and TCR-?(-/-) mice were both resistant to OPC. Whereas ?? T cells were previously shown to produce IL-17 during dermal candidiasis and are known to mediate host defense at mucosal surfaces, nTh17 cells are poorly understood. The oral nTh17 population expanded rapidly after OPC, exhibited high TCR-? clonal diversity, and was absent in Rag1(-/-), IL-7R?(-/-), and germ-free mice. These findings indicate that nTh17 and ?? T cells, but not ILCs, are key mucosal sentinels that control oral pathogens. PMID:25200028

  15. Multisource fusion for opportunistic detection and probabilistic assessment of homeland terrorist threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskey, Kathryn B.; Levitt, Tod S.

    2002-08-01

    Bayesian Network Fragments (BNFrags) provide a practical, computational methodology to encode a distributed library of computer-usable knowledge patterns for automated reasoning about aspects of homeland defense against terrorism. Multi-Entity Bayesian Networks provide a means of encoding repeated patterns and relationships in the form of BNFrags having variables that range over entities of a given type. New evidence either is matched to existing entities or triggers new entities to be hypothesized. BNFrag instances are created by replacing the variables by the names of entities in the situation. These BNFrags are combined to form situation-specific Bayesian networks (SSNs). We propose the use of MEBNs as the inferential cornerstone of a cumulative national, distributed knowledge base (KB) for homeland defense. In this paper we illustrate the use of MEBNs for these purposes with an example concerning a multi-city coordinated biowarfare attack. We show how current trends in the use of on-line reporting by health care and related facilities has the potential to enable opportunistic detection of and response to low probability, high consequence events for which it would otherwise be a practical impossibility to set up specifically directed monitoring capabilities.

  16. Functional characterization of the RNA chaperone Hfq in the opportunistic human pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Förstner, Konrad U; Sharma, Cynthia M; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo; De Gregorio, Eliana

    2012-11-01

    Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia. PMID:22923593

  17. [Screening for opportunistic infections and vaccination before introduction of biologic therapy].

    PubMed

    Sinci?, Brankica Mijandrusi?; Vince, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    Patients on anti-TNFalpha medications carry a higher risk for developing opportunistic infections. In order to introduce anti-TNFalpha therapy, screening for hepatitis viruses B and C, HIV, EBV, HPV, TBC, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections should be performed. Screening involves patient's history of earlier infectious diseases, vaccinations and traveling to parts of the world with endemic diseases. Clinical examination should be supplemented with stomatologic and gynecologic exams. Laboratory results include leukogram, transaminases, C-reactive protein, urine analysis, hepatitis B, C, HIV and EBV serology. Varicella zoster virus serology depends on past medical history. If the patient has traveled to tropical areas, both stool analysis and strongiloidiasis serology should be performed. Other mandatory examinations include chest radiography, PPD and TBC serology using interferon gamma release test (IGRA). If suspecting intra-abdominal abscess, magnetic resonance of the abdomen is recommended. In case of abscess, CMV or Clostridium difficile colitis anti-TNF-alpha therapy is contraindicated. Live vaccine application is contraindicated in patients receiving anti-TNFalpha therapy. All seronegative patients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B virus. Seasonal flu vaccination is recommended to be applicated yearly and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine once in every five years. Based on the past medical history and serologic results, patients are vaccinated against VZV with extra precaution. Human papilloma virus vaccination is performed in a group of women under 23 years of age, after gathering cervical smear sample analysis. PMID:24471299

  18. Opportunistic Scheduling for Hybrid Network Coding and Cooperative Relaying Techniques in Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lin; Murata, Hidekazu; Aïssa, Sonia; Yoshida, Susumu

    With the purpose of improving the performance of next generation wireless networks, cooperative relaying (CoR) and network cod- ing (NC) are promising techniques. The number of time slots required for NC in bidirectional transmission is less than that required for CoR, and hence, NC can achieve higher throughput performance than CoR. However, the disadvantage of NC is that asymmetric traffic ratio conditions might cause a significant decrease in the bidirectional throughput. In contrast, CoR is robust to asymmetric traffic ratio conditions. In this paper, in order to improve the throughput of NC even under asymmetric traffic ratio conditions, we propose an opportunistic scheduling scheme for hybrid NC and CoR. In the proposed scheduling scheme, the transmission protocol with best throughput performance can be adaptively selected based on instantaneous channel state information. Computer simulation results reveal that the proposed scheduling scheme not only achieve higher throughput than the conventional scheduling scheme but is also robust against asymmetric traffic ratio conditions. By adjusting the scheduler's parameter, the proposed scheduling scheme can provide a tradeoff between the throughput and the traffic ratio. Moreover, in certain cases, maximizing the throughput of NC and guaranteeing the offered traffic ratio can be achieved at the same time.

  19. Agent-Based Modeling Approach of Immune Defense Against Spores of Opportunistic Human Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tokarski, Christian; Hummert, Sabine; Mech, Franziska; Figge, Marc Thilo; Germerodt, Sebastian; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi like the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are a major threat to immunocompromised patients. An impaired immune system renders the body vulnerable to invasive mycoses that often lead to the death of the patient. While the number of immunocompromised patients is rising with medical progress, the process, and dynamics of defense against invaded and ready to germinate fungal conidia are still insufficiently understood. Besides macrophages, neutrophil granulocytes form an important line of defense in that they clear conidia. Live imaging shows the interaction of those phagocytes and conidia as a dynamic process of touching, dragging, and phagocytosis. To unravel strategies of phagocytes on the hunt for conidia an agent-based modeling approach is used, implemented in NetLogo. Different modes of movement of phagocytes are tested regarding their clearing efficiency: random walk, short-term persistence in their recent direction, chemotaxis of chemokines excreted by conidia, and communication between phagocytes. While the short-term persistence hunting strategy turned out to be superior to the simple random walk, following a gradient of chemokines released by conidial agents is even better. The advantage of communication between neutrophilic agents showed a strong dependency on the spatial scale of the focused area and the distribution of the pathogens. PMID:22557995

  20. Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Machouart, M.; Larché, J.; Burton, K.; Collomb, J.; Maurer, P.; Cintrat, A.; Biava, M. F.; Greciano, S.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gérard, A.; Fortier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis. PMID:16517858

  1. Effective but Costly, Evolved Mechanisms of Defense against a Virulent Opportunistic Pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yixin H.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost. PMID:19381251

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in those infected with HIV: clinical aspects and other opportunistic infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Medrano, F J; Rosenthal, E; Cacopardo, B; Nigro, L

    2003-10-01

    Cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-positive individuals have been reported from most areas of the world where the geographical distributions of the two infections overlap. The majority of the co-infected cases that have been recorded, however, live around the Mediterranean basin. In these subjects, the length of the incubation period of VL is presumably very short, particularly in those who have severe immunodepression. At diagnosis, almost all cases of VL/HIV co-infection have been found to have fewer than 200 CD4+ cells/microl blood, and about 50% meet the AIDS-defining criteria during their first episode of VL. The clinical manifestations of VL in HIV-infected individuals may be similar to those seen in HIV-negative cases; fever, pancytopenia and hepato-splenomegaly, for example, are found in 75% of all the HIV-positive cases. Following the dissemination of the parasites, however, the HIV-positive cases may develop unusual, multi-organ pathology. Almost all the cases of co-infection are very prone to VL relapses, even after carefully managed antileishmanial treatment. The opportunistic infections that are often seen in HIV-positives frequently develop during VL episodes, the signs and symptoms of the leishmaniasis then confusingly overlapping with those of the other infections. PMID:14678637

  3. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  4. Long-term anaerobic survival of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa via pyruvate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Eschbach, Martin; Schreiber, Kerstin; Trunk, Katharina; Buer, Jan; Jahn, Dieter; Schobert, Max

    2004-07-01

    Denitrification and arginine fermentation are central metabolic processes performed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during biofilm formation and infection of lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Genome-wide searches for additional components of the anaerobic metabolism identified potential genes for pyruvate-metabolizing NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), phosphotransacetylase (pta), and acetate kinase (ackA). While pyruvate fermentation alone does not sustain significant anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa, it provides the bacterium with the metabolic capacity for long-term survival of up to 18 days. Detected conversion of pyruvate to lactate and acetate is dependent on the presence of intact ldhA and ackA-pta loci, respectively. DNA microarray studies in combination with reporter gene fusion analysis and enzyme activity measurements demonstrated the anr- and ihfA-dependent anaerobic induction of the ackA-pta promoter. Potential Anr and integration host factor binding sites were localized. Pyruvate-dependent anaerobic long-term survival was found to be significantly reduced in anr and ihfA mutants. No obvious ldhA regulation by oxygen tension was observed. Pyruvate fermentation is pH dependent. Nitrate respiration abolished pyruvate fermentation, while arginine fermentation occurs independently of pyruvate utilization. PMID:15231792

  5. Estimating spatial and temporal variability of juvenile North Sea plaice from opportunistic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poos, J. J.; Aarts, G.; Vandemaele, S.; Willems, W.; Bolle, L. J.; van Helmond, A. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys are often insufficient to accurately capture the distribution of a species in both space and time. Complementary to the use of research vessel data, platforms of opportunity can be a powerful strategy to monitor species distributions at high temporal and spatial resolution. In this study we use data from commercial fishing vessels, collecting - under the European Union data collection framework - biological data on all species that are caught and subsequently discarded. Using such discard data in combination with a systematic trawl survey, we model the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the central North Sea. There is a clear age-dependent difference between the commercial fishing vessel data and the research vessel data, with age 1 being the dominating age in the survey catches, while age 2 is the dominating age in the discards. The results show how immature plaice, slowly migrate from the nursery areas, westwards into the deeper regions of the North Sea. Also, the results show that during the study period, juvenile plaice gradually moved to deeper waters at an earlier age. Finally we discuss how the framework can be applied to similar opportunistic data to monitor seasonal and inter-annual migration of marine organisms, and to quantify how they may be influenced by biotic and abiotic gradients, such as temperature.

  6. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 ?g C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 ?g N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  7. Development of a rapid detection system for opportunistic pathogenic Cronobacter spp. in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jennifer; Schmidt, Herbert; Loessner, Martin J; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-09-01

    Certain species of the genus Cronobacter are considered opportunistic pathogens, but their detection in milk products according to ISO/TS 22964 may take up to six days. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive PCR-based detection system for these species including enrichment, DNA-isolation and detection by real-time PCR, using the outer membrane protein gene ompA as a target. The assay was successfully validated using type strains of the genus Cronobacter, as well as 18 strains of closely related genera as controls. A total of 40 Cronobacter spp. food isolates yielded positive results, while the food matrix itself did not influence the PCR reaction. An equal detection limit as achieved with the ISO/TS 22964 method was established in this study, when 0.01 CFU Cronobacter sakazakii DSM 4485(T) per gram powdered infant formula were successfully detected after 28 days of storage at ambient temperature. In comparison to the ISO/TS 22964 method, the method described here has an equal detection limit, but offers a specific detection at the genus level in an analysis time of 24 h. PMID:24929712

  8. Within-year differences in reproductive investment in laboratory zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata), an opportunistically breeding bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Pariser, Emma C.; Graves, Jeff A.

    2008-12-01

    Reproduction in opportunistically breeding bird species has traditionally been considered non-seasonal with individuals taking advantage of favourable environmental conditions as they arise. However, some studies imply that this opportunistic breeding may be superimposed on an underlying seasonality, which has effects on the readiness to breed when conditions are favourable. The zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata) is the classic opportunistic breeder and widely used as such in studies. In a series of laboratory-based breeding experiments, we found evidence to suggest that there are seasonal differences in maternal reproductive investment in the zebra finch even when photoperiod, temperature, relative humidity and diet were held constant. Females showed highly significant seasonal differences in clutch size and egg mass with laying order. Clutch size showed a spring/summer peak typical of multi-brooded species in the wild. There was also a significant increase in egg mass with laying order in all seasons except winter. This variation in breeding parameters with season may allow females to adjust investment depending on the potential fitness returns from a given reproductive attempt. These findings also raise a warning about interpreting results of multiple zebra finch breeding experiments that have been carried out in different seasons.

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  10. COMMON WEEDS MASSACHUSETTS

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    oleraceae Annual COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME LIFE CYCLE 6. CARPETWEED FAMILY (Aizoaceae) Carpetweed Mollugo verticillata Annual 7. PINK FAMILY (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion Silene cucubalus Perennial Bouncingbet

  11. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  12. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common

  13. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  14. Orosomucoid 1 drives opportunistic infections through the polarization of monocytes to the M2b phenotype.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kiwamu; Ito, Ichiaki; Kobayashi, Makiko; Herndon, David N; Suzuki, Fujio

    2015-05-01

    Orosomucoid (ORM, composed of two isoforms, ORM1 and ORM2) has been described as an inducer of M2 macrophages, which are cells that decrease host antibacterial innate immunities. However, it is unknown which phenotypes of M2 macrophages are induced by ORM. In this study, healthy donor monocytes stimulated with ORM (ORM-monocytes) were characterized phenotypically and biologically. CCL1 (a biomarker of M2b macrophages) and IL-10 were detected in monocyte cultures supplemented with ORM1; however, CCL17 (a biomarker of M2a macrophages) and CXCL13 (a biomarker of M2c macrophages) were not produced in these cultures. All of these soluble factors were not detected in the culture fluids of monocytes stimulated with ORM2. Monocytes stimulated with ORM1 were characterized as CD64(-)CD209(-)CD163(+)CCL1(+) cells. MRSA and Enterococcus faecalis infections were accelerated in chimeras (NOD/scid IL-2R?(null) mice reconstituted with white blood cells) after inoculation with monocytes stimulated with ORM1 or treatment with ORM1; however, the infections were greatly mitigated in both chimeras inoculated with ORM1-stimulated monocytes and treated with ORM1, after an additional treatment with an inhibitor of M2b macrophages (CCL1 antisense ODN). These results indicate that ORM1 stimulates quiescent monocytes to polarize to M2b monocytes. The regulation of M2b macrophages may be beneficial in controlling opportunistic infections in patients with a large amount of plasma ORM1. PMID:25689617

  15. Multiplex Touchdown PCR for Rapid Typing of the Opportunistic Pathogen Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Emma; Nagy, István; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Propionibacterium acnes is composed of a number of distinct phylogroups, designated types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II, and III, which vary in their production of putative virulence factors, their inflammatory potential, and their biochemical, aggregative, and morphological characteristics. Although multilocus sequence typing (MLST) currently represents the gold standard for unambiguous phylogroup classification and individual strain identification, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming technique. As a consequence, we developed a multiplex touchdown PCR assay that in a single reaction can confirm the species identity and phylogeny of an isolate based on its pattern of reaction with six primer sets that target the 16S rRNA gene (all isolates), ATPase (types IA1, IA2, and IC), sodA (types IA2 and IB), atpD (type II), and recA (type III) housekeeping genes, as well as a Fic family toxin gene (type IC). When applied to 312 P. acnes isolates previously characterized by MLST and representing types IA1 (n = 145), IA2 (n = 20), IB (n = 65), IC (n = 7), II (n = 45), and III (n = 30), the multiplex displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting isolates within each targeted phylogroup. No cross-reactivity with isolates from other bacterial species was observed. This multiplex assay will provide researchers with a rapid, high-throughput, and technically undemanding typing method for epidemiological and phylogenetic investigations. It will facilitate studies investigating the association of lineages with various infections and clinical conditions, and it will serve as a prescreening tool to maximize the number of genetically diverse isolates selected for downstream higher-resolution sequence-based analyses. PMID:25631794

  16. Symptoms of Fern Distortion Syndrome Resulting from Inoculation with Opportunistic Endophytic Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Joseph W.; McInroy, John A.; Liu, Ke; Hu, Chia-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Fern Distortion Syndrome (FDS) is a serious disease of Leatherleaf fern (Rumohra adiantiformis). The main symptom of FDS is distortion of fronds, making them unmarketable. Additional symptoms include stunting, irregular sporulation, decreased rhizome diameter, and internal discoloration of rhizomes. We previously reported an association of symptoms with increased endophytic rhizome populations of fluorescent pseudomonads (FPs). The aim of the current study was to determine if FPs from ferns in Costa Rica with typical FDS symptoms would recreate symptoms of FDS. Methodology and Findings Greenhouse tests were conducted over a 29-month period. Micro-propagated ferns derived from tissue culture were first grown one year to produce rhizomes. Then, using an 8×9 randomized complete block experimental design, 8 replicate rhizomes were inoculated by dipping into 9 different treatments before planting. Treatments included water without bacteria (control), and four different groups of FPs, each at a two concentrations. The four groups of FPs included one group from healthy ferns without symptoms (another control treatment), two groups isolated from inside rhizomes of symptomatic ferns, and one group isolated from inside roots of symptomatic ferns. Symptoms were assessed 12 and 17 months later, and populations of FPs inside newly formed rhizomes were determined after 17 months. Results showed that inoculation with mixtures of FPs from ferns with FDS symptoms, but not from healthy ferns, recreated the primary symptom of frond deformities and also the secondary symptoms of irregular sporulation, decreased rhizome diameter, and internal discoloration of rhizomes. Conclusions These results suggest a model of causation of FDS in which symptoms result from latent infections by multiple species of opportunistic endophytic bacteria containing virulence genes that are expressed when populations inside the plant reach a minimum level. PMID:23516499

  17. Toward perpetual wireless networks: Opportunistic large arrays with transmission thresholds and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailas, Aravind

    Solving the key issue of sustainability of battery-powered sensors continues to attract significant research attention. The prevailing theme of this research is to address this concern using energy-efficient protocols based on a form of simple cooperative transmission (CT) called the opportunistic large arrays (OLAs), and intelligent exploitation of energy harvesting and hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). The two key contributions of this research, namely, OLA with transmission threshold (OLA-T) and alternating OLA-T (A-OLA-T), offer an signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) advantage (i.e., benefits of diversity and array (power) gains) in a multi-path fading environment, thereby reducing transmit powers or extending range. Because these protocols do not address nodes individually, the network overhead remains constant for high density networks or nodes with mobility. During broadcasting across energy-constrained networks, while OLA-T saves energy by limiting node participation within a single broadcast, A-OLA-T optimizes over multiple broadcasts and drains the nodes in an equitable fashion. A major bottleneck for network sustainability is the ability of a rechargeable battery (RB) to store energy, which is limited by the number of charge-discharge cycles. Energy harvesting using a HESS that comprises a RB and a supercapacitor (SC) will minimize the RB usage, thereby preserving the charge-discharge cycles. Studying the HESS is important, rather than the SC-alone because while an SC with harvested energy may be sufficient for routine monitoring, if there is an alert, the RB could be used as necessary to support the heavier reporting requirements. Therefore, another key contribution of this research is the design and analysis of a novel routing metric called communications using HESS (CHESS), which extends the RB-life by relaying exclusively with SC energy.

  18. Common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure in B-cell differentiation with defective immunoglobulin production. Affected patients are uniquely susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated organisms and have an increased propensity for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. The diagnosis of CVID is commonly delayed and the underlying cause of the disorder is not understood. Replacement antibody therapy reduces the risk of serious infections. However, optimal treatment regimens for the uncommon manifestations associated with this disease, such as granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, require further research. PMID:23883805

  19. Commonly Occurring VHL Manifestations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alliance*. Frequency of pheochromocytoma varies widely depending on genotype. Ages at Diagnosis Most Common Ages at DX ... paragangliomas. **Frequency of pheochromocytoma varies widely depending on genotype. Patients/Caregivers Annual Meetings Basic Facts about VHL ...

  20. Deriving Common Model Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Momsen

    In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

  1. Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

  2. Common skin conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

  3. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ?8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10–100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health. PMID:23254513

  4. Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dejean, Alain; Gibernau, Marc; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; McKey, Doyle

    2004-10-01

    Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant-plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by different ants. In addition to these correlative data, protection conferred by different ant species was compared by herbivore-placement experiments. Identity of ant associate changed predictably over plant ontogeny. Pheidole megacephala was restricted to very small plants; saplings were occupied by either Oecophylla longinoda or Crematogaster sp., and the latter species was the sole occupant of larger trees. Damage by caterpillars of the nymphalid butterfly Acraea zetes accounted for much of the herbivory to leaves. Ant species differed in the protection provided to hosts. While P. megacephala provided no significant protection, plants occupied by O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. suffered less damage than did unoccupied plants or those occupied by P. megacephala. Furthermore, O. longinoda provided more effective protection than did Crematogaster sp. Herbivore-placement experiments confirmed these results. Workers of O. longinoda killed or removed all larval instars of A. zetes. Crematogaster preyed on only the two first larval instars, and P. megacephala preyed mainly on eggs, only rarely attacking the two first larval instars. Opportunistic ants provided significant protection to this relatively unspecialised myrmecophyte. The usual associate of mature trees was not the species that provided most protection.

  5. In Vitro Activity of the New Triazole Voriconazole (UK109,496) against Opportunistic Filamentous and Dimorphic Fungi and Common and Emerging Yeast Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 67 isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bipolaris spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pseudallescheria boydii, Rhizopus arrhizus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, His- toplasma capsulatum, and Sporothrix schenckii. The in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin B,

  6. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63?007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12?753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19?908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32?661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but still consistent with, a previous survey of appendix tissue that showed a prevalence of 292 per million with a 95% confidence interval of 60 to 853 per million. Continuing to archive and test tonsil specimens, especially in older birth cohorts, and other complementary large scale anonymous tissue surveys, particularly of post-mortem tissues, will further refine the calculated prevalence of PrPCJD. PMID:19460798

  7. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections. PMID:24875186

  8. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening criteria (availability, environmental compatibility, mass competitiveness of energy storage, safety, and practicality for the application) were used to define concept applicability for each lunar and Mars application. A screening study resulted in 13 power systems for lunar applications and 15 for Mars applications. A commonality analysis showed several power systems with potentially high commonality (across both lunar and Mars applications). These high commonality systems include d PVA/RFC, dynamic isotope (1033 K Stirling, 1133 K Brayton, and 1300 K Brayton PCU's), SP-100 TE and dynamic derivatives (Mars systems required vacuum enclosure), in-core thermionic reactor, and liquid metal cooled reactor/Stirling cycle (1033 K). The generic commonality results were used to synthesize 3 high commonality power system architectures: (1) predominantly PV (limited nuclear and isotope), (2) predominantly in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS, and (3) predominantly SP-100 reactor/DIPS. The in-core thermionic reactor/DIPS power system architecture had the lowest total mass. Specific outputs from this study included lists of power system requirements, power system candidates, a power system application matrix, power system characteristics (mass), power system commonality ratings, example high commonality power system architectures, architecture masses, and issues/design solutions for lunar/Mars commonality.

  9. The Federal Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  11. Feeding host range of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) demonstrates its opportunistic host-seeking behavior in rural Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kek, Relus; Hapuarachchi, H C; Chung, Chiew-Yuan; Humaidi, Mahathir Bin; Razak, Muhammad Aliff B A; Chiang, Suzanna; Lee, Caleb; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a competent vector of arboviruses of public health importance, including dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus viruses. Ae. albopictus is the primary vector of chikungunya virus in Singapore. However, despite being ubiquitous, it plays a secondary role in DENV transmission. The vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus for DENV in field settings appears to be weak because dengue primarily occurs in Aedes aegypti (L.)-dominated, urban settings of the country. As host-seeking behavior is one of the determinants of vectorial capacity, we screened 6,762 female Ae. albopictus from rural, semiurban, and urban locations in Singapore for avian and nonavian bloodmeals using two polymerase chain reaction-sequencing assays developed in-house. The majority (83.2%, n = 79) of bloodmeals from rural and semiurban areas were from humans. However, Ae. albopictus was also found to feed on shrews, swine, dogs, cats, turtles, and multiple hosts in rural settings. In urban areas, all positive bloodmeals were from humans. There were no avian bloodmeals. Our findings testify that Ae. albopictus is highly anthropophagic even in rural settings, but become opportunistic in extremely low human abundance. This opportunistic feeding behavior warrants further investigations into the vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus to assess its role in arbovirus transmission in endemic habitats. PMID:25118424

  12. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    PubMed

    Babi?, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. PMID:25749362

  13. Discovering Common Denominators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Kloper

    2012-07-22

    Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

  14. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:May 29,2014 Cholesterol can be both good and bad, so it's important to learn the facts about ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  15. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  16. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  17. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Blood Draw For Research Common Research Procedures: Blood Draws What is a blood draw? A blood draw done. More questions? Call: Questions to ask: 1. Are you drawing my blood specifically for the research keep my samples? 8. Will my blood samples be used for future research? 9. Will the results of the blood

  18. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    MRI Scans For Research Common Research Procedures: MRI Scans More questions? Call: Questions to ask: 1. Is this MRI being done specifically for the research study or is it also part of my regular and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before acting on any information

  19. For Research Common Research

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    PET Scans For Research Common Research Procedures: PET Scans What is Positron Emission Tomography: 1. Is this PET scan being done specifically for the research study or is it also a part of my purposes and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before

  20. Common name Scientific name

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    T Other Softwoods Eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana NT 1 S S­I I Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis T 1 to western Virginia. CharacteristicsofCommonWesternVirginiaTrees Publication 420-351 www.ext.vt.edu Produced in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are es- tablished and maintained for the benefit

  1. Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES: Shoulder injury or pain may be triggered by a specific event those required in swimming, tennis, baseball, and football can lead to shoulder pain. These OVER USE labor can lead to shoulder pain over time. Long term shoulder problems are more likely when pain

  2. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  3. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  4. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  5. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  6. The Common Property Resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pacific Pacific

    Greetings from The Commons in an Age of Globalization, the 9th Biennial Conference of the IASCP. People from around the world are gathered in a small city of amazingly comfortable meeting tents on a golf course, surrounded by antelope and warthogs . The elephants only come at night. We are having a wonderful meeting and there will be a full

  7. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  8. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  9. COMMON LISP: The language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Steele; G. L. Jr

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input\\/output; file system interface; and errors.

  10. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  11. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  12. Common Foot Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also associated with warm, damp feet. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection causing blisters of ... The most common fungal disease in humans, athlete's foot, may be passed to humans… ... Warts are growths of the skin and mucous membranes (the mouth or genitals) that are caused by over 100 ...

  13. [Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Medina-Torres, Edgar Alejandro; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus) and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia). Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect. PMID:25758115

  14. The Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

  15. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  18. Least Common Ancestor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac D. Scherson; Chi-kai Chien

    1993-01-01

    Least Common Ancestor Networks (LCANs) are introducedand shown to be a class of networks that includefat-trees, baseline networks, SW-banyans and therouter networks of the TRAC 1.1 and 2.0, and theCM-5. Some LCAN properties are stated and the permutationrouting capabilities of an important subclassare analyzed. Simulation results for three permutationclasses verify the accuracy of an iterative solution fora randomized routing strategy.1

  19. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  20. Common anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  1. Diagnosing Common Skin Eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Enta, Tom

    1972-01-01

    The skin reacts to various insults in a limited number of ways. For this reason the etiologic diagnosis of a simple eruption may require some scrutiny on the part of the examiner. Only when a true diagnosis is arrived at, will the treatment be effective or successful. The author provides several examples of commonly seen eruptions and discusses their differential features. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468760

  2. Digital Resource Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".

  3. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  4. Common Southeast Wetland Plants Common name1,2

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    capensis No common rush Juncus effuses Seed rice cut grass Leersia oryzoides Seed common duckweed Lemna minor Aquatic Vegetation, Inverts sprangletop Leptochloa panacea Seed cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis

  5. InProc.oftheTheFullyNetworkedCarWorkshop,GenevaInternationalMotorShow,Geneva,Switzerland,March34,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links

    E-print Network

    applications, based on satellite communication links (i.e., LEO/MEO satellite constellations). In such scenario,2010. Opportunistic Vehicular Networks by Satellite Links for Safety Applications A.M. Vegni1 , C. Vegni2 , and T, Boston, MA tdcl@ bu.edu Satellite radio is one of a complementary set of network connectivity

  6. Colletotrichum species as emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: A report of 3 cases of phaeohyphomycosis and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan P. O'Quinn; Jennifer L. Hoffmann; Alan S. Boyd

    2001-01-01

    Background: Numerous etiologic agents of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis have been reported. Colletotrichum spp, common plant pathogens, have been reported as a cause of ocular keratomycosis, but only one previous case of cutaneous disease (hyalohyphomycosis) has been attributed to this genus. Objective: Our purpose was to describe 3 cases of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Colletotrichum spp occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy for

  7. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B against Opportunistic Moniliaceous and Dematiaceous Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA ESPINEL-INGROFF

    2001-01-01

    The NCCLS proposed standard M38-P describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds); however, standard conditions are not available for testing their fungicidal activities (minimum fungicidal or lethal concentrations (MFCs)). This study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against 260 common and emerging

  8. Boston University Digital Common

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

  9. Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed

    E-print Network

    Asteraceae (Aster family) Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed seedling. Life. psilostachya DC.) Differs by having a perennial nature with prolific creeping roots, densely hairy leaves

  10. Regular habitat switch as an important feeding strategy of an opportunistic seabird species at the interface between land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    During deteriorated prey availability, purely pelagic, specialised seabird species have to alter their feeding strategy by extending foraging radii and/or time spent at sea or reducing feeding intervals of chicks. In contrast, more generalised species such as the opportunistic black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus) breeding at the German North Sea coast, can be assumed to react on prey shortages by switching foraging habitats. The coastal zone of the German North Sea provides a rich habitat mosaic consisting of the offshore zone, tidal flats and terrestrial habitats. Thus, we expected distinct temporal and spatial patterns of habitat switch in accordance with prey availability and environmental constraints. We carried out ship-based and aerial surveys as well as dietary analyses and observations on flight activity. We found a significant switch from terrestrial to marine feeding sites both on a daily basis (related to tidal cycle) and over the whole breeding season. Most likely, the latter switch is the result of lower prey availability in the terrestrial habitats and an increasing quality (in terms of prey abundance and energy intake) of the marine area. While there was only moderate variability in habitat use among different years, we revealed significant differences in the diet of birds from different colonies. The high dietary plasticity and flexible feeding strategy, switching between terrestrial and marine prey is certainly of major importance for the success of an opportunistic avian top predator in a complex coastal zone. It is suggested that - compared to situations elsewhere - the number of breeding pairs of black-headed gulls in the German North Sea coast are still stable due to the switch of foraging habitats performed by individuals in this region.

  11. Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

    PubMed Central

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Lud?k; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

  12. Cryptic Regulation of Vasotocin Neuronal Activity but Not Anatomy by Sex Steroids and Social Stimuli in Opportunistic Desert Finches

    PubMed Central

    Kabelik, David; Morrison, Jenilee A.; Goodson, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In most vertebrate species, the production of vasotocin (VT; non-mammals) and vasopressin (VP; mammals) in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) waxes and wanes with seasonal reproductive state; however, opportunistically breeding species might need to maintain high levels of this behaviorally relevant neuropeptide year-round in anticipation of unpredictable breeding opportunities. We here provide support for this hypothesis and demonstrate that these neurons are instead regulated ‘cryptically’ via hormonal regulation of their activity levels, which may be rapidly modified to adjust VT signaling. First, we show that combined treatment of male and female zebra finches (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione does not alter the expression of VT immunoreactivity within the BSTm; however, both hormonal treatment and social housing environment (same-sex versus mixed-sex) alter VT colocalization with the immediate early gene product Fos (a proxy marker of neural activation) in the BSTm. In a second experiment, manipulations of estradiol (E2) levels with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) or subcutaneous E2 implants failed to alter colocalization, suggesting that the colocalization effects in experiment 1 were solely androgenic. LET treatment also did not affect VT immunoreactivity in a manner reversible by E2 treatment. Finally, comparisons of VT immunoreactivity in breeding and nonbreeding individuals of several estrildid species demonstrate that year-round stability of VT immunoreactivity is found only in highly opportunistic species, and is therefore not essential to the maintenance of long-term pair bonds, which are ubiquitous in the Estrildidae. PMID:20332615

  13. Cellular Immune Responses in HIV-Negative Immunodeficiency with Anti-Interferon-? Antibodies and Opportunistic Intracellular Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Wongkulab, Panuwat; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Chaiwarit, Romanee; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in resistance to intracellular infection. We previously reported antibodies against interferon-gamma (IFN-?) in HIV? negative (HIV?) patients with acquired immunodeficiency presenting with repeated episodes of disseminated infection caused by uncommon opportunistic intracellular fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. This follow-up study aimed to investigate cellular immune responses in these unusual patients. Methods Twenty HIV? patients presenting with ?2 episodes of culture- or histopathologic-proven opportunistic infections were enrolled along with age- and sex-matched controls comprised of 20 HIV+ patients plus 20 healthy adults. Monocyte phenotyping and intracellular cytokine production were determined by staining with specific antibodies followed by flow cytometry. Anti-interferon-? antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and inducible nitric oxide synthase by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results There were no differences among cases, HIV+, and healthy controls in the percentage of monocytes, or CD68 and HLA-DR expression on their surfaces. FcR1 (CD119) expression on monocytes was significantly higher in cases than in HIV+ (p<0.05) and healthy controls (p<0.01), suggesting the presence of activated monocytes in the circulation. Interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production in CD4 cells were significantly lower in cases than in healthy controls (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). CD8 production of TNF-? among cases was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p<0.05). Conclusion Immunodeficiency in HIV? individuals with repeated infections with intracellular pathogens may be associated with one or more of the abnormal immune responses reflected by the reduced production of both IL-2 by CD4 T cells and TNF-? by CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, as well as presence of anti-IFN-? antibody, as previously reported. PMID:25329064

  14. Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michael S.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

  15. Commons Sense: Common Property Rights, Efficiency, and Institutional Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Clark

    1998-01-01

    Common property rights were widespread in English agriculture for at least 600 years. Since privatizing common fields allegedly produced huge profits in the eigh- teenth century, common land owners seemingly squandered 15 percent of potential income for generations. Ingenious explanations have been produced for this market failure. This article argues for a simple, brutal resolution. Common fields survived because enclosure

  16. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): review of common infectious manifestations and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, David M; Venter, Willem DF; Van Rie, Annelies; Feldman, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. A paradoxical clinical worsening of a known condition or the appearance of a new condition after initiating therapy characterizes the syndrome. Potential mechanisms for the syndrome include a partial recovery of the immune system or exuberant host immunological responses to antigenic stimuli. The overall incidence of IRIS is unknown, but is dependent on the population studied and its underlying opportunistic infectious burden. The infectious pathogens most frequently implicated in the syndrome are mycobacteria, varicella zoster, herpesviruses, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). No single treatment option exists and depends on the underlying infectious agent and its clinical presentation. Prospective cohort studies addressing the optimal screening and treatment of opportunistic infections in patients eligible for ART are currently being conducted. These studies will provide evidence for the development of treatment guidelines in order to reduce the burden of IRIS. We review the available literature on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of IRIS, and present treatment options for the more common infectious manifestations of this diverse syndrome and for manifestations associated with a high morbidity. PMID:17488505

  17. National PTA Common Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

  18. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  19. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    PubMed

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis. PMID:22292352

  20. Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

  1. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

  2. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures.

  3. Introduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals

    E-print Network

    Blin, Guillaume

    Conclusion Comparing genomes Genomes evolved from a common ancestor tend to share the same varieties of geneIntroduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 Jens Stoye2 1Université Paris

  4. From opportunistic networks to opportunistic computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Conti; S. Giordano; M. May; A. Passarella

    2010-01-01

    Personal computing devices, such as smart-phones and PDAs, are commonplace, bundle several wireless network interfaces, can support compute intensive tasks, and are equipped with powerful means to produce multimedia content. Thus, they provide the resources for what we envision as a human pervasive network: a network formed by user devices, suitable to convey to users rich multimedia content and services

  5. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information and research priorities will be examined and an action plan developed in future months. PMID:12286443

  6. Common cancers in centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Shamfa C.; Delcastilo, Estevan; Osiro, Stephen; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background A Centenarian is a person who attains and lives beyond the age of 100. Four percent of centenarians die from cancer. It is therefore important to understand which cancers affect them in order to devise better methods to prevent and treat them. The aim of this study was to investigate the top cancers that affect centenarians. Material/Method We identified 1385 cases with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database. Our study included centenarians age 100–115 years diagnosed with the 5 most common cancers between 1973 and 2007 in the United States. Observed survival (OS) was calculated for each cancer type. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) method was used to calculate OS at 1-month intervals for the first 40 months after diagnosis using SEER*Stat version 7.04. A log rank test was performed on KM survival output and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios. All statistical analyses were performed with 95% confidence intervals with significance determined at P<0.05. Cox proportional hazard analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Results There were 879 (63.47%) females and 506 (36.53%) males. There were 1118 (80.72%) whites, 159 (11.48%) blacks, and 108 (7.80%) other. The top cancers were 405 (29.24%) breast, 267 (19.28%) colorectal, 254 (18.34%) prostate, 247 (17.83%) lung and bronchus, and 212 (15.31%) urinary and kidney cancer cases. Conclusions As the prevalence of centenarians increases, it is becoming increasingly important to become aware of the cancers that affect them in order to better manage them. PMID:24399367

  7. Open Mind Commons: An Inquisitive Approach to Learning Common Sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Speer

    Open Mind Commons is an interface for collecting common sense knowledge from users over the Web. By giving the user many forms of feedback and using inferences by anal- ogy to find appropriate questions to ask, Open Mind Com- mons can learn well-connected structures of common sense knowledge, refine its existing knowledge, and build analo- gies that lead to even

  8. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

  9. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  10. Common liability to addiction and “gateway hypothesis”: Theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirillova, Galina P.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Conway, Kevin P.; Maher, Brion S.; Iacono, William G.; Bierut, Laura; Neale, Michael C.; Clark, Duncan B.; Ridenour, Ty A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Two competing concepts address the development of involvement with psychoactive substances: the “gateway hypothesis” (GH) and common liability to addiction (CLA). Method The literature on theoretical foundations and empirical findings related to both concepts is reviewed. Results The data suggest that drug use initiation sequencing, the core GH element, is variable and opportunistic rather than uniform and developmentally deterministic. The association between risks for use of different substances, if any, can be more readily explained by common underpinnings than by specific staging. In contrast, the CLA concept is grounded in genetic theory and supported by data identifying common sources of variation in the risk for specific addictions. This commonality has identifiable neurobiological substrate and plausible evolutionary explanations. Conclusions Whereas the “gateway” hypothesis does not specify mechanistic connections between “stages”, and does not extend to the risks for addictions, the concept of common liability to addictions incorporates sequencing of drug use initiation as well as extends to related addictions and their severity, provides a parsimonious explanation of substance use and addiction co-occurrence, and establishes a theoretical and empirical foundation to research in etiology, quantitative risk and severity measurement, as well as targeted non-drug-specific prevention and early intervention. PMID:22261179

  11. Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters

    E-print Network

    family) Common lambsquarters continued Similar weeds Atriplex (Atriplex patula L.) Differs by having lambsquarters. #12;Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot family) Common lambsquarters continued Atriplex plant. Atriplex seedling. Atriplex leaf base with a lobe on each side. #12;

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  13. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  14. ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES

    E-print Network

    ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES CIRCULAR 14 Marine Biological labiMutuo ( DEC 1;#12;ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES By Albert W. Herre, Ichthyologist Office of Foreign;ENGLISH AND LOCAL COMMON NAMES OF PHILIPPINE FISHES Contents Page Preface v English--Tagalog 1 English

  15. Opportunistic invasive fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina prognosis from immunocompromised humans to potential mitogenic RBL with an exceptional and novel antitumor and cytotoxic effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Arora; N. Dilbaghi; A. Chaudhury

    With the ever-increasing risk for fungal infections, one can no longer ignore fungi. It is imperative that clinical manifestations\\u000a “presume fungus” with their epidemiologic and pathogenic features when evaluating a potentially infected patient. In the high-risk\\u000a patient groups, fungi with intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents already exist, with a tendency to emerge as opportunistic\\u000a pathogens. One of the smart pathogens

  16. Drug-specific risk of non-tuberculosis opportunistic infections in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy reported to the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Salmon-Ceron; F Tubach; O Lortholary; O Chosidow; S Bretagne; N Nicolas; E Cuillerier; B Fautrel; C Michelet; J Morel; X Puéchal; D Wendling; M Lemann; P Ravaud; X Mariette

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAnti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy may be associated with opportunistic infections (OIs).ObjectiveTo describe the spectrum of non-tuberculosis OIs associated with anti-TNF therapy and identify their risk factors.MethodsA 3-year national French registry (RATIO) collected all cases of OI in patients receiving anti-TNF treatment for any indication in France. A case–control study was performed with three controls treated with anti-TNF agents per

  17. Growth promotion of the opportunistic human pathogen, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, by heme, hemoglobin, and coculture with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Brozyna, Jeremy R; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is both a commensal of humans and an opportunistic pathogen. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms underpinning the virulence of this bacterium. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to S. aureus,S. lugdunensis makes neither staphyloferrin A (SA) nor staphyloferrin B (SB) in response to iron deprivation, owing to the absence of the SB gene cluster, and a large deletion in the SA biosynthetic gene cluster. As a result, the species grows poorly in serum-containing media, and this defect was complemented by introduction of the S. aureusSA gene cluster into S. lugdunensis. S. lugdunensis expresses the HtsABC and SirABC transporters for SA and SB, respectively; the latter gene set is found within the isd (heme acquisition) gene cluster. An isd deletion strain was significantly debilitated for iron acquisition from both heme and hemoglobin, and was also incapable of utilizing ferric-SB as an iron source, while an hts mutant could not grow on ferric-SA as an iron source. In iron-restricted coculture experiments, S. aureus significantly enhanced the growth of S. lugdunensis, in a manner dependent on staphyloferrin production by S. aureus, and the expression of the cognate transporters by S. lugdunensis. PMID:24515974

  18. Network analysis suggests a potentially ‘evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A.; Forney, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only ‘non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially ‘evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the ‘confrontation' between the ‘evil' alliance and ‘benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  19. Network analysis suggests a potentially 'evil' alliance of opportunistic pathogens inhibited by a cooperative network in human milk bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sam Ma, Zhanshan; Guan, Qiong; Ye, Chengxi; Zhang, Chengchen; Foster, James A; Forney, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    The critical importance of human milk to infants and even human civilization has been well established. Yet our understanding of the milk microbiome has been limited to cataloguing OTUs and computation of community diversity. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on the bacterial interactions within the milk microbiome. To bridge this gap, we reconstructed a milk bacterial community network based on Hunt et al. Our analysis revealed that the milk microbiome network consists of two disconnected sub-networks. One sub-network is a fully connected complete graph consisting of seven genera as nodes and all of its pair-wise interactions among the bacteria are facilitative or cooperative. In contrast, the interactions in the other sub-network of eight nodes are mixed but dominantly cooperative. Somewhat surprisingly, the only 'non-cooperative' nodes in the second sub-network are mutually cooperative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium that include some opportunistic pathogens. This potentially 'evil' alliance between Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium could be inhibited by the remaining nodes that cooperate with one another in the second sub-network. We postulate that the 'confrontation' between the 'evil' alliance and 'benign' alliance and the shifting balance between them may be responsible for dysbiosis of the milk microbiome that permits mastitis. PMID:25651890

  20. Network-assisted genetic dissection of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanhae; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Maeng, Shinae; Chen, Ying-Lien; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Sohyun; Janbon, Guilhem; Kim, Taeyup; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus that causes meningoencephalitis. Due to the increasing global risk of cryptococcosis and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, the development of predictive genetics platforms for the rapid identification of novel genes governing pathogenicity and drug resistance of C. neoformans is imperative. The analysis of functional genomics data and genome-scale mutant libraries may facilitate the genetic dissection of such complex phenotypes but with limited efficiency. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network for C. neoformans, CryptoNet, which covers ~81% of the coding genome and provides an efficient intermediary between functional genomics data and reverse-genetics resources for the genetic dissection of C. neoformans phenotypes. CryptoNet is the first genome-scale co-functional network for any fungal pathogen. CryptoNet effectively identified novel genes for pathogenicity and drug resistance using guilt-by-association and context-associated hub algorithms. CryptoNet is also the first genome-scale co-functional network for fungi in the basidiomycota phylum, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the ascomycota phylum. CryptoNet may therefore provide insights into pathway evolution between two distinct phyla of the fungal kingdom. The CryptoNet web server (www.inetbio.org/cryptonet) is a public resource that provides an interactive environment of network-assisted predictive genetics for C. neoformans. PMID:25739925

  1. A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis. PMID:23597661

  2. Clinical Significance of Filamentous Basidiomycetes Illustrated by Isolates of the Novel Opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the Human Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P.; Gaur, S. N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

  3. Opportunistic Autoimmune Disorders Potentiated by Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors Anti-CTLA-4 and Anti-PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi-chi M.; Flynn, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer and autoimmune diseases, recent ongoing and completed clinical trials have focused on specific targets to redirect the immune network toward eradicating a variety of tumors and ameliorating the self-destructive process. In a previous review, both systemic immunomodulators and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), anti-CTLA-4, and anti-CD52, were discussed regarding therapeutics and autoimmune sequelae, as well as predisposing factors known to exacerbate immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This review will focus on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, and the data from most clinical trials involve blockade with anti-CTLA-4 such as ipilimumab. However, despite the mild to severe irAEs observed with ipilimumab in ~60% of patients, overall survival (OS) averaged ~22–25% at 3–5?years. To boost OS, other mAbs targeting programed death-1 and its ligand are undergoing clinical trials as monotherapy or dual therapy with anti-CTLA-4. Therapeutic combinations may generate different spectrum of opportunistic autoimmune disorders. To simulate clinical scenarios, we have applied regulatory T cell perturbation to murine models combined to examine the balance between thyroid autoimmunity and tumor-specific immunity. PMID:24904570

  4. Network-assisted genetic dissection of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanhae; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Maeng, Shinae; Chen, Ying-Lien; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Sohyun; Janbon, Guilhem; Kim, Taeyup; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus that causes meningoencephalitis. Due to the increasing global risk of cryptococcosis and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, the development of predictive genetics platforms for the rapid identification of novel genes governing pathogenicity and drug resistance of C. neoformans is imperative. The analysis of functional genomics data and genome-scale mutant libraries may facilitate the genetic dissection of such complex phenotypes but with limited efficiency. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network for C. neoformans, CryptoNet, which covers ~81% of the coding genome and provides an efficient intermediary between functional genomics data and reverse-genetics resources for the genetic dissection of C. neoformans phenotypes. CryptoNet is the first genome-scale co-functional network for any fungal pathogen. CryptoNet effectively identified novel genes for pathogenicity and drug resistance using guilt-by-association and context-associated hub algorithms. CryptoNet is also the first genome-scale co-functional network for fungi in the basidiomycota phylum, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the ascomycota phylum. CryptoNet may therefore provide insights into pathway evolution between two distinct phyla of the fungal kingdom. The CryptoNet web server (www.inetbio.org/cryptonet) is a public resource that provides an interactive environment of network-assisted predictive genetics for C. neoformans. PMID:25739925

  5. Clinical significance of filamentous basidiomycetes illustrated by isolates of the novel opportunist Ceriporia lacerata from the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Agarwal, Kshitij; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, P; Gaur, S N; de Hoog, G S; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-02-01

    The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 ?g/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes. PMID:23241374

  6. The opportunistic nature of Trichinella--exploitation of new geographies and habitats.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    For more than 100 years, Trichinella spiralis (former Trichina spiralis) was considered a zoonotic parasite of the domestic habitat involving pigs, synanthropic rats and humans. In the last 70 years, there has been increasing evidence that the biomass of nematodes of the genus Trichinella is greater in wild animals than in domestic animals. Omnivores and carnivores (mammals, birds and some reptiles), mainly those with cannibalistic and scavenger behaviour, act primarily as reservoirs for the 12 Trichinella taxa recognized to date. The distribution areas of Trichinella spp. hosts can help to identify the environmental suitability where the different Trichinella taxa can be detected. Both the survival of larvae in decaying muscles of their hosts, which is favoured by high humidity and low temperatures, and human behaviour in the domestic and wild habitats play roles in the transmission patterns of these nematodes. Although Trichinella taxa develop in different host species circulating in different geographical regions, there is a common denominator among the hosts, namely their scavenging behaviour. PMID:23433987

  7. Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attracts egg predators and opportunists through chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, B A; Callaghan, D T; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

    2014-05-01

    Two separate field experiments were conducted in a series of small boreal lakes to test for the attraction of egg predators to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning shoals and subsequently to determine whether chemosensory cues attract egg predators to these sites. In the first experiment, minnow traps set on spawning sites captured significantly more egg predators than those set on structurally similar non-spawning sites. Captures of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, common shiner Luxilus cornutus, blacknose shiner Notropis heterolepis and virile crayfish Orconectes virilis were more than double on spawning sites relative to non-spawning sites for the two study lakes. To test whether chemosensory cues could attract egg predators to S. namaycush spawning sites, paired minnow traps were placed on eight to 10 sites in each of the three study lakes; one trap contained visually concealed S. namaycush spawning substratum and the other with visually concealed non-spawning substratum. Traps containing spawning substratum consistently captured more fish and had higher mean daily catches than those that contained non-spawning substratum. The combined results demonstrate a greater prevalence of egg predators on S. namaycush spawning shoals that appears to be the result of chemosensory attraction to spawning substratum. PMID:24724980

  8. A Five-Year Survey of Dematiaceous Fungi in a Tropical Hospital Reveals Potential Opportunistic Species

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-01-01

    Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi) are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%), voriconazole (90.7%), ketoconazole (86.7%) and itraconazole (85.3%) showed in vitro activity (MIC ?1 µg/mL) to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%), caspofungin (74.7%) and amphotericin B (70.7%). Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3%) of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL) to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae) showed potential multidrug resistance. PMID:25098697

  9. Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice is associated with the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xie, Zhenxing; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of the Peyer’s patches play a key role in the development of the mucosal immune, but their population composition has been ignored. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the changes in the composition of indigenous opportunistic bacteria in the Peyer’s patches are associated with obesity. C57BL/6J-male mice had been fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet. After 25 weeks, mice in high-fat diet exhibit either an obesity-prone (OP) or an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. Control diet group (CT) and OR group had a significant larger bacteria diversity than that in the OP group. Allobaculum and Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in high-fat diet induced OP mice compared with CT and OR mice, whereas Rhizobium and Lactococcus was significantly increased. The result of quantitative real-time PCR was consistent with that of 454 pyrosequencing. Significant correlations between mRNA expression of inflammation marks and the top 5 abundance genera bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches were observed by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Taken together, the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches plays a major role in the development of inflammation for an occurrence of obesity. PMID:25320459

  10. Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) and Preliminary Mode of Action Studies of 3-Substituted Benzylthioquinolinium Iodide as Anti-opportunistic Infection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bolden, Sidney; Zhu, Xue Y.; Etukala, Jagan R; Boateng, Comfort; Mazu, Tryphon; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are devastating to immunocompromised patients. And in especially sub-Saharan Africa where the AIDS epidemic is still raging, the mortality rate was recently as high as 70%. The paucity of anti-opportunistic drugs, the decreasing efficacy and the development of resistance against the azoles and even amphotericin B have stimulated the search for new drugs with new mechanisms of action. In a previous work, we showed that a new chemotype derived from the natural product cryptolepine displayed selective toxicity against opportunistic pathogens with minimal cytotoxicity to normal cells. In this manuscript, we report the design and synthesis of substituted benzylthioquinolinium iodides, evaluated their anti-infective properties and formulated some initial structure-activity relationships around phenyl ring A from the original natural product. The sensitivity of the most potent analog 10l, to selected strains of C. cerevisiae was also evaluated leading to the observation that this scaffold may have a different mode of action from its predecessor, cryptolepine. PMID:24141203

  11. How common are Earths? How common are Jupiters?

    E-print Network

    Charles H. Lineweaver; Daniel Grether; Marton Hidas

    2002-09-19

    Among the billions of planetary systems that fill the Universe, we would like to know how ours fits in. Exoplanet data can already be used to address the question: How common are Jupiters? Here we discuss a simple analysis of recent exoplanet data indicating that Jupiter is a typical massive planet rather than an outlier. A more difficult question to address is: How common are Earths? However, much indirect evidence suggests that wet rocky planets are common.

  12. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; de Valk, Henriette; Courbil, Rémi; Chabanel, Anne; Simonet, Marion; Maire, Francoise; Jbilou, Saadia; Tiberghien, Pierre; Blanchard, Hervé; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Bernet, Claude; Simon, Loïc; Sénéchal, Hélène; Pouchol, Elodie; Angot, Christiane; Ribaud, Patricia; Socié, G.; Flèche, M.; Brieu, Nathalie; Lagier, Evelyne; Chartier, Vanessa; Allegre, Thierry; Maulin, Laurence; Lanic, Hélène; Tilly, Hervé; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Pihet, Marc; Schmidt, Aline; Kouatchet, Achille; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; Ifrah, Norbert; Mercat, Alain; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Albert, Olivier; Leguay, Thibaut; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bonhomme, Julie; Reman, Oumédaly; Lesteven, Claire; Poirier, Philippe; Chabrot, Cécile Molucon; Calvet, Laure; Baud, Olivier; Cambon, Monique; Farkas, Jean Chistophe; Lafon, Bruno; Dalle, Frédéric; Caillot, Denis; Lazzarotti, Aline; Aho, Serge; Combret, Sandrine; Facon, Thierry; Sendid, Boualem; Loridant, Séverine; Louis, Terriou; Cazin, Bruno; Grandbastien, Bruno; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lotthé, Anne; Cartron, Guillaume; Ravel, Christophe; Colson, Pascal; Gaudard, Philippe; Bonmati, Caroline; Simon, Loic; Rabaud, Christian; Machouart, Marie; Poisson, Didier; Carp, Diana; Meunier, Jérôme; Gaschet, Anne; Miquel, Chantal; Sanhes, Laurence; Ferreyra, Milagros; Leibinger, Franck; Geudet, Philippe; Toubas, Dominique; Himberlin, Chantal; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Delmer, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Gargala, Gilles; Michot, Jean-Baptiste; Girault, Christophe; David, Marion; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Jardin, Fabrice; Honderlick, Pierre; Caille, Vincent; Cerf, Charles; Cassaing, Sophie; Recher, Christian; Picard, Muriel; Protin, Caroline; Huguet, Françoise; Huynh, Anne; Ruiz, Jean; Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice; Letocart, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Verdeil, Xavier; Cavalié, Laurent; Chauvin, Pamela; Iriart, Xavier; Valentin, Alexis; Bouvet, Emmanuelle; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Jeblaoui, Asma; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan; Zalar, Polona; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Gurgui, Merce

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens. PMID:25516620

  13. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA) estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU) of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH). The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2%) cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%), Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%), malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%), basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%), miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%), and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%). Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality. PMID:21645347

  14. Common Southeast Wetland Plants Common name1,2

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Echinochloa walteri Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Common spikerush Eleocharis palustris Needlepod rush panacea Marsh seedbox Ludwigia palustris Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Yellow water lily Nuphar

  15. Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzola, Claudio

    2012-04-01

    According to Reichenbach's principle of common cause, positive statistical correlations for which no straightforward causal explanation is available should be explained by invoking the action of a hidden conjunctive common cause. Hofer-Szabó and Rédei's notion of a Reichenbachian common cause system is meant to generalize Reichenbach's conjunctive fork model to fit those cases in which two or more common causes cooperate in order to produce a positive statistical correlation. Such a generalization is proved to be unsatisfactory in the light of a probabilistic conception of causation. Accordingly, an alternative model for systems of multiple common causes is offered, which is capable of emulating the explanatory efficacy of Reichenbachian common cause systems, while overcoming their major conceptual shortcomings at the same time.

  16. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  17. Free Light Chains and the Risk of AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Landgren, Ola; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Goedert, James J.; Engels, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?The relevance of B-cell dysfunction for progression to AIDS among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals has not been clearly defined. We evaluated the association between circulating ? and ? free light chains (FLCs), which are markers of B-cell dysfunction, and risk of developing an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected men. Methods.?The study included 252 case patients with clinical AIDS and 252 HIV-infected controls from the Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study I. Case patients were matched to controls on birth date, specimen type, blood sample collection date, and CD4 cell count. Levels of ? and ? FLCs were measured in serum or plasma collected 0–2.5 years before selection. Elevated FLC levels (? or ?, above the upper limit of normal) were classified as polyclonal (normal ?-? ratio) or monoclonal (abnormally skewed ?-? ratio). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for AIDS. Results.?FLC levels were higher in case patients than in controls, for ? (median, 4.03 vs 2.98 mg/dL) and ? (3.77 vs 2.42 mg/dL) FLCs. Compared with normal levels, above-normal FLC levels were associated with AIDS (OR, 3.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78–5.49] for ? and 3.47 [2.31–5.20] for ? FLCs), and the association with AIDS was strengthened with increasing ? and ? FLC levels (P trends < .0001). Polyclonal FLC elevation was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of AIDS (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.97–7.54), but monoclonal FLC elevation was not associated with AIDS. Conclusions.?Circulating FLCs are associated with elevated risk of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. Polyclonal B-cell dysfunction may contribute to HIV-related immune suppression and predispose to clinical AIDS events. PMID:22893577

  18. Evolving Strategies, Opportunistic Implementation: HIV Risk Reduction in Tanzania in the Context of an Incentive-Based HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Packel, Laura; Keller, Ann; Dow, William H.; de Walque, Damien; Nathan, Rose; Mtenga, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic. The shortcomings of BCC interventions are partly due to barriers arising from structural or economic constraints. Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex set of risk factors that may lead to HIV infection. Methods In 2009/2010 we conducted 216 in-depth interviews with a subset of study participants enrolled in the RESPECT study - an HIV prevention trial in Tanzania that used cash awards to incentivize safer sexual behaviors. We analyzed community diaries to understand how the study was perceived in the community. We drew on these data to enhance our understanding of how the intervention influenced strategies for risk reduction. Results We found that certain situations provide increased leverage for sexual negotiation, and these situations facilitated opportunistic implementation of risk reduction strategies. Opportunities enabled by the RESPECT intervention included leveraging conditional cash awards, but participants also emphasized the importance of exploiting new health status knowledge from regular STI testing. Risk reduction strategies included condom use within partnerships and/or with other partners, and an unexpected emphasis on temporary abstinence. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of increasing opportunities for implementing risk reduction strategies. We found that an incentive-based intervention could be effective in part by creating such opportunities, particularly among groups such as women with limited sexual agency. The results provide new evidence that expanding regular testing of STIs is another important mechanism for providing opportunities for negotiating behavior change, beyond the direct benefits of testing. Exploiting the latent demand for STI testing should receive renewed attention as part of innovative new combination interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:22952872

  19. Incidence of opportunistic illness before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in children in LEGACY

    PubMed Central

    Nesheim, Steven R.; Hardnett, Felicia; Wheeling, John T.; Siberry, George K.; Paul, Mary E.; Emmanuel, Patricia; Bohannon, Beverly; Dominguez, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about immune-reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in children in the United States. Methods LEGACY is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants age 0-24 years at enrollment during 2005-2007 from 22 US clinics. For this analysis, we included participants with complete medical record abstraction from birth or time of HIV diagnosis through 2006. Opportunistic illness (OI) included AIDS-defining conditions and selected HIV-related diagnoses. We calculated the incidence (#/100 patient-years) of OI diagnosed in the six months pre- and post-initiation of the first HAART regimen with a virologic response. We defined OI as IRIS if an OI’s incidence increased after HAART initiation. “Responders” were defined as experiencing ?1 log decline in viral load within six months following HAART initiation. Results Among 575 patients with complete chart abstraction, 524 received HAART. Of these 524 patients, 343 were responders, 181 were non-responders, and 86 experienced OI. Responders accounted for 98/124 (79%) of OI. Pre-HAART and post-HAART OI incidences were 43.7 and 24.4 (P = 0.003), respectively, among responders, and 15.9 and 9.1 (P =0.2), respectively, among non-responders. Overall, OI incidences among responders and non-responders were 33.8 and 12.3, respectively (P = 0.002). Responders were more likely to experience herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and CMV, before HAART initiation (all, P<0.05). Conclusions We detected few OIs and no IRIS among participants initiating HAART. The unexpectedly higher OI prevalence among responders, mostly occurring before HAART initiation, may have motivated higher adherence by responders and subsequent categorization as a responder. PMID:24067552

  20. First description of a novel Weissella species as an opportunistic pathogen for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Ai Hua; Ji, Cheng; Yang, Wu Ming

    2009-05-12

    Six strains of Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-motile, irregular short rod-shaped Weissella bacteria, with width and length of 0.5-0.6 and 1.2-2.7microm were isolated from diseased rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in winter of 2007 at a commercial fishery in Jingmen, Hubei province, China. The diseased rainbow trout exhibited hemorrhage in eyes, anal region, intestine and abdomen wall, petechia of liver, some fish with hydrocele in stomach. Six isolates had identical biochemical reactions, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), enzymatic profile analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility results, indicating as a single clonal outbreak. But all were different from any other validated twelve Weissella species in the term of physiological and biochemical characters. It is indicated that isolates are phylogenetically closer to Weissella halotolerans, Weissella viridescens and Weissella minor on 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis result, than to W. halotolerans and W. viridescens on the result of ARDRA study and enzymatic profile analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was used to scan effective drugs for the therapy of this disease. Experimental infection assays with one isolate were conducted and pathogenicity (by intraperitoneal injection) was demonstrated in rainbow trout O. mykiss (Walbaum) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) fingerlings. Because no Weissella was detected in fish feedstuffs and pond water, the source of this pathogen remains unknown, and Weissella isolates were regarded as an opportunistic pathogen for rainbow trout. This is the first report of Weissella strains which can cause disease of cultured fish in the world. PMID:19321272