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Sample records for common laboratory quadrennial

  1. [The "incorrect" laboratory result. II: Common misinterpretations of laboratory results].

    PubMed

    Thiery, J; Fiedler, G M

    2004-04-01

    In the second part of our review the most frequent misinterpretations of laboratory results in the daily clinical practise are discussed. Special attention has been given to frequent misinterpretations in the analysis of electrolytes, enzymes and hormones in plasma/serum (pseudohyperkalemia, macroenzymes, macroprolactinemia). Misinterpretations of the testing of blood gases, serum glucose, lipid concentrations, and calcium are described in greater detail. In addition, potential errors in the urinanalysis and the importance of adequate sampling of blood specimens for coagulation testing are described. The hematological results can be misinterpreted in the presence of EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytenia and of irregular immunoglobulines. Immunological methods themselves can lead to misinterpretations of the laboratory result, e. g. caused by the high dose hook effect and interferences in the presence of rheumatoid factor or HAMA. Finally clinical relevant errors in the therapeutic drug monitoring are discussed which are associated with the limited specificity of the antibodies in the commonly used immunological tests. PMID:15151138

  2. 77 FR 2867 - 2010 Quadrennial Regulatory Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Commission seeks comment in this proceeding on the aspects of the Commission's 2008 Diversity Order (73 FR... Inquiry (75 FR 33227, June 11, 2010, FCC 10-92, rel. May 25, 2010) (NOI) on May 25, 2010, seeking comment... the 2006 Quadrennial Review Order (73 FR 9481, February 21, 2008, FCC 07-216, rel. Feb. 4, 2008)....

  3. Common ground: An environmental ethic for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three predominant philosophies have characterized American business ethical thinking over the past several decades. The first phase is the ethics of self-interest'' which argues that maximizing self-interest coincidentally maximizes the common good. The second phase is legality ethics.'' Proponents argue that what is important is knowing the rules and following them scrupulously. The third phase might be called stake-holder ethics.'' A central tenant is that everyone affected by a decision has a moral hold on the decision maker. This paper will discuss one recent initiative of the Los Alamos National Laboratory to move beyond rules and regulations toward an environmental ethic that integrates the values of stakeholder ethics'' into the Laboratory's historical culture and value systems. These Common Ground Principles are described. 11 refs.

  4. Crime laboratory proficiency testing results, 1978-1991, II: Resolving questions of common origin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Markham, P N

    1995-11-01

    A preceding article has examined the origins of crime laboratory proficiency testing and the performance of laboratories in the identification and classification of common types of physical evidence. Part II reviews laboratory proficiency in determining if two or more evidence samples shared a common source. Parts I and II together review the results of 175 separate tests issued to crime laboratories over the period 1978 to 1991. Laboratories perform best in determining the origin of finger and palm prints, metals, firearms (bullets and catridge cases), and footwear. Laboratories have moderate success in determining the source of bloodstains, questioned documents, toolmarks, and hair. A final category is of greater concern and includes those evidence categories where 10% or more of results disagree with manufacturers regarding the source of samples. This latter group includes paint, glass, fibers, and body fluid mixtures. The article concludes with a comparison of current findings with earlier LEAA study results, and a discussion of judicial and policy implications. PMID:8522912

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Report on the First Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrennial Technology Review Team

    2011-09-01

    Access to clean, affordable, secure, and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of American’s economic growth. Yet, today the Nation’s systems that produce, store, transmit, and use energy are falling short of U.S needs. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) first Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR), launched at the recommendation of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), addresses these facts. The report details today’s energy landscape and the associated energy security, economic and environmental challenges; provides a framework for presenting six strategies to address those challenges encompassing vehicle efficiency, deployment of alternative hydrocarbon fuels, increased building and industrial efficiency, modernization of the grid, and deployment of clean electricity; addresses priorities among activities in DOE’s energy-technology programs; and explains the roles that DOE, the broader government, the private sector, the national laboratories, and academia play in energy transformation.

  6. An Alternative Approach for Preparing and Standardizing Some Common Aqueous Reagents Used in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaku, Samuel; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    A guide for instructors and laboratory assistants to prepare some common aqueous reagents used in an undergraduate laboratory is presented. Dilute reagents consisting of H[superscript +](aq), I[subscript 3][superscript-](aq), Ce[superscript 4+](aq), and Ag[superscript+](aq) were prepared by electrolytic oxidation of respective precursors.…

  7. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  8. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material – though anisotropically contracted – and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: • Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope. • Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven. • Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  9. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  10. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  11. Role of Curcumin in Common Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Review of Current Laboratory, Translational, and Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Peddada, Krishi V; Peddada, Kranti Venkata; Shukla, Surendra K; Mishra, Anusha; Verma, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The Indian spice turmeric, in which the active and dominant biomolecule is curcumin, has been demonstrated to have significant medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. This promise is potentially very applicable to musculoskeletal disorders, which are common causes of physician visits worldwide. Research at the laboratory, translational and clinical levels that supports the use of curcumin for various musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, musculocartilaginous disorders, and sarcoma is here in comprehensively summarized. Though more phase I-III trials are clearly needed, thus far the existing data show that curcumin can indeed potentially be useful in treatment of the hundreds of millions worldwide who are afflicted by these musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26311096

  12. Activity of antibiotics against Mycobacterium species commonly found in laboratory zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Carolyn T.; Whipps, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism used in a wide range of research fields. Importance is placed on zebrafish health and the maintenance of disease-free laboratory fish so that experimental studies are not inadvertently impacted. Mycobacteriosis is a common infection of laboratory zebrafish that is caused by several Mycobacterium species. Little is known regarding the potential of antibiotic treatment for zebrafish mycobacteriosis; however, treatment of infected zebrafish may be appropriate to maintain valuable strains. Here, we investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of both rapid and slow growing zebrafish Mycobacterium spp. isolates in vitro. Antibiotic testing was carried out using a commercially available 96-well microtiter plate format. Results indicate that some but not all antibiotics tested are effective at inhibiting mycobacterial growth and that susceptibility varies among species and strains. Tigecycline, tobramycin, clarithromycin and amikacin were most effective at broad inhibition of rapid-growing mycobacteria; whereas, amikacin, clarithromycin, and rifampin were effective at inhibiting all slow-growing Mycobacterium marinum strains tested. Results support the potential for targeted antibiotic treatment of zebrafish infected with mycobacteria, but additional in vivo testing should be carried out. PMID:25951167

  13. Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marianna; Tuttle, Lori J.; Conner, Blair R.; Dixon, Danielle M.; Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are deleteriously affected by vaginal birth, which contributes to the development of pelvic floor disorders. To mechanistically link these events, experiments using animal models are required, as access to human PFM tissue is challenging. In choosing an animal model, a comparative study of PFM design is necessary, since gross anatomy alone is insufficient to guide the selection. Methods Human PFM architecture was measured using micromechanical dissection and then compared with mouse (n=10), rat (n=10), and rabbit (n=10) using the Architectural Difference Index (ADI) (parameterizing a combined measure of sarcomere length-to-optimal-sarcomere ratio, fiber-to-muscle-length ratio, and fraction of total PFM mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) contributed by each muscle). Coccygeus (C), iliocaudalis (IC), and pubocaudalis (PC) were harvested and subjected to architectural measurements. Parameters within species were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's tests. The scaling relationships of PFM across species were quantified using least-squares regression of log-10-transformed variables. Results Based on the ADI, rat was found to be the most similar to humans (ADI = 2.5), followed by mouse (ADI = 3.3). When animals' body mass was regressed against muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and PCSA scaling coefficients showed a negative allometric relationship or smaller increase than predicted by geometric scaling. Conclusion In terms of muscle design among commonly used laboratory animals, rat best approximates the human PFM, followed by mouse. Negative allometric scaling of PFM architectural parameters is likely due to the multifaceted function of these muscles. PMID:24915840

  14. Phenotypic Consequences of a Spontaneous Loss of Heterozygosity in a Common Laboratory Strain of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Toni; Hickman, Meleah; Bellido, Alberto; Berman, Judith; Larriba, Germán

    2016-07-01

    By testing the susceptibility to DNA damaging agents of several Candida albicans mutant strains derived from the commonly used laboratory strain, CAI4, we uncovered sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in CAI4 and its derivatives, but not in CAF2-1. This sensitivity is not a result of URA3 disruption because the phenotype was not restored after URA3 reintroduction. Rather, we found that homozygosis of a short region of chromosome 3R (Chr3R), which is naturally heterozygous in the MMS-resistant-related strains CAF4-2 and CAF2-1, confers MMS sensitivity and modulates growth polarization in response to MMS. Furthermore, induction of homozygosity in this region in CAF2-1 or CAF4-2 resulted in MMS sensitivity. We identified 11 genes by SNP/comparative genomic hybridization containing only the a alleles in all the MMS-sensitive strains. Four candidate genes, SNF5, POL1, orf19.5854.1, and MBP1, were analyzed by generating hemizygous configurations in CAF2-1 and CAF4-2 for each allele of all four genes. Only hemizygous MBP1a/mbp1b::SAT1-FLIP strains became MMS sensitive, indicating that MBP1a in the homo- or hemizygosis state was sufficient to account for the MMS-sensitive phenotype. In yeast, Mbp1 regulates G1/S genes involved in DNA repair. A second region of homozygosis on Chr2L increased MMS sensitivity in CAI4 (Chr3R homozygous) but not CAF4-2 (Chr3R heterozygous). This is the first example of sign epistasis in C. albicans. PMID:27206717

  15. Common Covert Chemical and Physical Hazards in School Science Laboratories. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Explains that mercury is a dangerous substance to use in school science laboratories and gives several examples of mercury poisoning. Lists some precautions that should be taken in case of mercury spillage in the lab. Advocates using non-mercury laboratory equipment and limiting student access to mercury to prevent dangerous situations. (YDS)

  16. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  17. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-03-26

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients' care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  18. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul; Schriefer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%-40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%-100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics. PMID:27314832

  19. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%–40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%–100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics. PMID:27314832

  20. Laboratory wind tunnel testing of three commonly used saltation impact sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic sensors that record individual impacts from saltating particles are used with increasing frequency in wind erosion field studies. Little is known about the limitations of these instruments or comparability of data collected with them. We tested the three most commonly used Saltation Imp...

  1. Motivational Project-Based Laboratory for a Common First Year Electrical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedic, Zorica; Nafalski, Andrew; Machotka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years many universities worldwide have introduced a common first year for all engineering disciplines. This is despite the opinion of many academics that large classes have negative effects on the learning outcomes of first year students. The University of South Australia is also faced with low motivation amongst engineering…

  2. Racial/Ethnic-Specific Reference Intervals for Common Laboratory Tests: A Comparison among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and White

    PubMed Central

    Miyamura, Jill; Chen, John J

    2015-01-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) for common clinical laboratory tests are usually not developed separately for different subpopulations. The aim of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in RIs of common biochemical and hematological laboratory tests using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012 data. This current study included 3,077 participants aged 18–65 years who reported their health status as “Excellent,” “Very good,” or “Good,” with known race/ethnicity as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian. Quantile regression analyses adjusted for sex were conducted to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in the normal ranges of 38 laboratory tests. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found in almost all laboratory tests. Compared to whites, the normal range for Asians significantly shifted to higher values in globulin and total protein and to lower values in creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume. These results indicate that racial/ethnic subpopulations have unique distributions in the labortoary tests and race/ethnicity may need to be incorporated in the development of their RIs. Establishment of racial/ethnic-specific RIs may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment to improve quality of patient care, especially for a state with diverse racial/ethnic subpopuations such as Hawai‘i. PMID:26468426

  3. Common Pitfalls in Nanotechnology: Lessons Learned from NCI’s Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Crist, Rachael M.; Grossman, Jennifer Hall; Patri, Anil K.; Stern, Stephan T.; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Adiseshaiah, Pavan P.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory’s (NCL) unique set-up has allowed our lab to handle and test a variety of nanoparticle platforms intended for the delivery of cancer therapeutics and/or imaging contrast agents. Over the last six years, the NCL has characterized more than 250 different nanomaterials from more than 75 different investigators. These submitted nanomaterials stem from a range of backgrounds and experiences, including government, academia and industry. This has given the NCL a unique and valuable opportunity to observe trends in nanoparticle safety and biocompatibility, as well as note some of the common mistakes and oversights of nanoformulation. While not exhaustive, this article aims to share some of the most common pitfalls observed by the NCL as they relate to nanoparticle synthesis, purification, characterization and analysis. PMID:22772974

  4. Study on Microbial Deposition and Contamination onto Six Surfaces Commonly Used in Chemical and Microbiological Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Donegà, Valentina; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola; Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    The worktops in both chemical and microbiological laboratories are the surfaces most vulnerable to damage and exposure to contamination by indoor pollutants. The rate at which particles are deposited on indoor surfaces is an important parameter to determine human exposure to airborne biological particles. In contrast to what has been established for inorganic pollutants, no limit has been set by law for microbial contamination in indoor air. To our knowledge, a comparative study on the effect of surfaces on the deposition of microbes has not been carried out. An evaluation of the microbial contamination of worktop materials could be of crucial importance, both for safety reasons and for the reliability of tests and experiments that need to be carried out in non-contaminated environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall microbial contamination (fungi, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, staphylococci) on six widely used worktop materials in laboratories (glass, stainless steel, fine porcelain stoneware, post-forming laminate, high-performing laminate and enamel steel) and to correlate it with the characteristics of the surfaces. After cleaning, the kinetics of microbial re-contamination were also evaluated for all surfaces. PMID:26193296

  5. Dissolution kinetics of CaCO[sub 3] in common laboratory solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Pingitore, N. Jr.; Estrada, L.Y.; Borrego, P.M.; Crawford, G.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Fretzdorff, S.B.; Seitz, B.P. . Geologisch-Palaoontologisches Inst. und Museum); Love, K.M. )

    1993-07-01

    The dissolution of calcium carbonate with both organic and aqueous solvents was examined quantitatively and kinetically. Neither ethanol and nor acetone at 25 C dissolved appreciable aragonite or calcite, even after nearly ten days. Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) was a much less effective solvent than deionized water, producing little or no net calcium in solutions in contact with calcium carbonate. Although exposure to sodium hydroxide solutions also yielded relatively small concentrations of calcium in the field, characterization of the exposed carbonate grains by X-ray powder diffraction and by light microscopy revealed extensive replacement of the CaCO[sub 3] by Ca(OH)[sub 2], calcium hydroxide (portlandite). A solution of Alconox, a commercial laboratory anionic detergent, was about half again as potent as deionized water, and hydrogen peroxide proved to be many times more corrosive of calcium carbonate than deionized water. These results are consistent with published and anecdotal observations of the effects of laboratory preparation protocols on calcium carbonate. The authors quantitative data permit the researcher to assess the potential for a treatment procedure using any of these solutions to compromise the integrity of a sample of calcium carbonate.

  6. Study on Microbial Deposition and Contamination onto Six Surfaces Commonly Used in Chemical and Microbiological Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Donegà, Valentina; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola; Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The worktops in both chemical and microbiological laboratories are the surfaces most vulnerable to damage and exposure to contamination by indoor pollutants. The rate at which particles are deposited on indoor surfaces is an important parameter to determine human exposure to airborne biological particles. In contrast to what has been established for inorganic pollutants, no limit has been set by law for microbial contamination in indoor air. To our knowledge, a comparative study on the effect of surfaces on the deposition of microbes has not been carried out. An evaluation of the microbial contamination of worktop materials could be of crucial importance, both for safety reasons and for the reliability of tests and experiments that need to be carried out in non-contaminated environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall microbial contamination (fungi, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, staphylococci) on six widely used worktop materials in laboratories (glass, stainless steel, fine porcelain stoneware, post-forming laminate, high-performing laminate and enamel steel) and to correlate it with the characteristics of the surfaces. After cleaning, the kinetics of microbial re-contamination were also evaluated for all surfaces. PMID:26193296

  7. Systematic study for DNA recovery and profiling from common IED substrates: From laboratory to casework.

    PubMed

    Phetpeng, Sukanya; Kitpipit, Thitika; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2015-07-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) made from household items are encountered in terrorist attacks worldwide. Assembling an IED leaves trace DNA on its components, but deflagration degrades DNA. To maximize the amount of DNA recovered, a systematic evaluation of DNA collection methods was carried out and the most efficient methods were implemented with IED casework evidence as a validation exercise. Six swab types and six moistening agents were used to collect dried buffy coat stains on four common IED substrates. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations were then compared with tape-lifting using three brands of adhesive tape and also with direct DNA extraction from evidence. The most efficient collection methods for different IED substrates (post-study protocol) were then implemented for IED casework and compared with the pre-study protocol using 195 pieces of IED evidence. There was no single best swab type or moistening agent. Swab type had the largest effect on DNA recovery percentages, but moistening agents, substrates, and the interactions between factors all affected DNA recovery. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations performed equally well when compared with the best adhesive tape and direct extraction. The post-study protocol significantly improved STR profiles obtained from IED evidence. This paper outlines a comprehensive study of DNA collection methods for trace DNA and the validation of the most efficient collection methods with IED evidence. The findings from both parts of this study emphasize the need to continuously re-evaluate standard operating protocols with empirical studies. PMID:25828367

  8. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit. PMID:26629334

  9. Adaptation of the ORAC assay to the common laboratory equipment and subsequent application to antioxidant plastic films.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Vera, P; Rubio, C; Nerin, C

    2009-06-01

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method has been adapted to the instrumental laboratory and optimized for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of a novel active packaging. As the ORAC assay requires the monitorization of a reaction at controlled temperature by means of the fluorescence signal decrease over time, specific instrumental is usually necessary. In this work, a common liquid chromatographic device has been adapted to perform the ORAC assay, leaving it accessible to any laboratory. Using this adaptation, five different essential oils have been determined resulting in the following antioxidant order: clove (2.66 g Trolox per gram of essential oil), oregano (2.25), cinnamon (1.93), rosemary (1.66), and ginger (1.47). After incorporating the essential oils to the film, its antioxidant capacity has also been checked and related to the concentration of essential oil as well as the thickness of the active film. The results point out that for the same amount of essential oil incorporated measured as grams per square meter, thicker films have more antioxidant capacity than the thinner and more concentrated ones. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity found in the films was always higher than expected taking into account the amount of essential oil incorporated. Some likely explanations have been proposed, leading to the improvement of the antioxidant film under development. PMID:19352636

  10. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  11. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either <10% or >10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  12. Identification and expression of the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Wan, Q Y; Wang, L F; Su, J G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene (lgp2) from common carp Cyprinus carpio was isolated and characterized. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of lgp2 was 3061 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 680 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 77 341·2 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 6·53. The predicted protein included four main overlapping structural domains: a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, a DEAD-DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase super family C-terminal domain and a regulatory domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed widespread expression of lgp2, mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (mavs) and interferon transcription factor 3 (irf3) in tissues of nine organs. lgp2, mavs and irf3 expression levels were significantly induced in all examined organs by infection with koi herpesvirus (KHV). lgp2, mavs and irf3 messenger (m)RNA levels were significantly up-regulated in vivo after KHV infection, and lgp2 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro after stimulation with synthetic, double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)]. These findings suggest that lgp2 is an inducible protein involved in the innate immune defence against KHV in C. carpio. These results provide the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of lgp2 in fishes. PMID:25359511

  13. A selected review of abstracts from the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO), San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013 The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO) was the largest neuro-oncology meeting that meets once every 4 years and brings together clinicians and scientists from all parts of the world whose focus is on new brain cancer clinical trials and research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The WFNO 2013 meeting included 1 education day, 2.5 days of presentation, 13 sunrise sessions, one town hall meeting, one mini-symposium, 130 oral presentations and 900 abstracts. This short meeting review highlights select adult clinical abstracts presented at WFNO 2013 that will only in part encompass the contents of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:25055016

  14. Oil accumulation in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: characterization, variability between common laboratory strains and relationship with starch reserves

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When cultivated under stress conditions, many microalgae species accumulate both starch and oil (triacylglycerols). The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has recently emerged as a model to test genetic engineering or cultivation strategies aiming at increasing lipid yields for biodiesel production. Blocking starch synthesis has been suggested as a way to boost oil accumulation. Here, we characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation process in Chlamydomonas and quantify TAGs in various wild-type and starchless strains. Results In response to nitrogen deficiency, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produced TAGs enriched in palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids that accumulated in oil-bodies. Oil synthesis was maximal between 2 and 3 days following nitrogen depletion and reached a plateau around day 5. In the first 48 hours of oil deposition, a ~80% reduction in the major plastidial membrane lipids occurred. Upon nitrogen re-supply, mobilization of TAGs started after starch degradation but was completed within 24 hours. Comparison of oil content in five common laboratory strains (CC124, CC125, cw15, CC1690 and 11-32A) revealed a high variability, from 2 μg TAG per million cell in CC124 to 11 μg in 11-32A. Quantification of TAGs on a cell basis in three mutants affected in starch synthesis (cw15sta1-2, cw15sta6 and cw15sta7-1) showed that blocking starch synthesis did not result in TAG over-accumulation compared to their direct progenitor, the arginine auxotroph strain 330. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between cellular oil and starch levels among the twenty wild-type, mutants and complemented strains tested. By contrast, cellular oil content was found to increase steeply with salt concentration in the growth medium. At 100 mM NaCl, oil level similar to nitrogen depletion conditions could be reached in CC124 strain. Conclusion A reference basis for future genetic studies of oil metabolism in Chlamydomonas is provided. Results

  15. Energy and angular dependences of common types of personal dosemeters in the mirror of the First national intercomparison of individual dosimetric monitoring laboratories in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Volosky, V

    2015-12-01

    In depth analysis of the results of the First National Intercomparison of individual dosimetry laboratories in Ukraine has revealed energy and angular responses of the most common types of personal dosemeters and dosi metric systems. Participating laboratories use 9 different types of dosimetric systems - automatic, semi automat ic and manual. If was found that energy dependences of the most common dosemeter types in Ukraine generally correspond to the literature data on respective TLD materials (LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,TiandAl2O3:С), however, due to peculiarities of holders (filters) and dose algorithms, for some dosimetry systems the energy dependences can be improved (compensated). Angular dependences proved to be more pronounced: only two systems revealed weak dependence of response on the incident angle, for other systems at large angles (α=60°) dosemeters overestimate true dose values. PMID:26695907

  16. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  17. An investigation of the effects of the common cold on simulated driving performance and detection of collisions: a laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Jamson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present research was to investigate whether individuals with a common cold showed impaired ability on a simulated driving task and the ability to detect potential collisions between moving objects. Design The study involved comparison of a healthy group with a group with colds. These scores were adjusted for individual differences by collecting further data when both groups were healthy and using these scores as covariates. On both occasions, volunteers rated their symptoms and carried out a simulated driving session. On the first occasion, volunteers also carried out a collision detection task. Setting University of Leeds Institute for Transport Studies. Sample Twenty-five students from the University of Leeds. Ten volunteers were healthy on both occasions and 15 had a cold on the first session and were healthy on the second. Main outcome measures In the collision detection task, the main outcomes were correct detections and response to a secondary identification task. In the simulated driving task, the outcomes were speed, lateral control, gap acceptance, overtaking behaviour, car following, vigilance and traffic light violations. Results Those with a cold detected fewer collisions and had a higher divided attention error than those who were healthy. Many basic driving skills were unimpaired by the illness. However, those with a cold were slower at responding to unexpected events and spent a greater percentage of time driving at a headway of <2 s. Conclusions The finding that having a common cold is associated with reduced ability to detect collisions and respond quickly to unexpected events is of practical importance. Further research is now required to examine the efficacy of information campaigns and countermeasures such as caffeine. PMID:22761287

  18. Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joan M; Lee, Michelle Minjung; Murphy, Helen R

    2012-02-01

    The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods. PMID:22094179

  19. Value of commonly measured laboratory tests as biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of absolute eosinophil count, serum IgE, ESR and CRP as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA). Methods. Patients were selected from an observational EGPA cohort. Absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were measured quarterly. Disease activity was defined by validated assessment tools. The association of tests with disease activity was assessed via regression models, adjusting for repeated measures and treatment status. Survival analysis was used to determine if laboratory tests were predictive of the 3 month future flare risk. Results. Seventy-four per cent of 892 study visits in 141 patients occurred while patients were on treatment, mostly during remission or mild disease activity, defined as a BVAS for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) of 1 or 2. Correlations between absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were mostly low or non-significant (r = −0.08 to 0.44). There were few weak associations with disease activity [absolute eosinophil count: OR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02); ESR: OR 1.15/10 mg/l increase (95% CI 1.04, 1.27)]. When BVAS/WG ≥1 defined active disease, the absolute eosinophil count [hazard ratio (HR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02)] was weakly predictive of flare. When BVAS/WG ≥3 defined active disease, ESR was weakly predictive of flare [HR 1.52/10 mm/h increase (95% CI 1.17, 1.67)]. Conclusion. The absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP have limitations as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity or predictors of flare in EGPA. These findings suggest that novel biomarkers of disease activity for EGPA are needed. PMID:25406357

  20. Tracking Jupiter’s Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation and Mid-Latitude Zonal Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Fletcher, Leigh N.; DeWitt, Curtis N.; Cosentino, Rick; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We report on initial results of a long term observational study to track the temporal and 3-dimensional evolution of the Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) and the propagation and evolution of mid-latitude zonal waves in Jupiter’s stratosphere. These wave-driven phenomena affect variations in Jupiter’s vertical and horizontal temperature field, which can be inferred by measuring methane emission in the thermal infrared at 1245 cm-1. Using TEXES, the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph, mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility we observed high-spectral resolution (R=75,000) scan maps of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes in January and October 2012, February 2013, and February 2014. These initial datasets were taken using several different observing strategies in an attempt to optimize efficiency and mapping accuracy in preparation for our prime study period (2014-2019). We will present the zonally averaged inferred thermal structure over ±30° latitude and between 10 and 0.01 mbar, showing the QQO’s downward progression along with inferred 3-dimensional thermal maps (latitude, longitude, pressure) displaying a multitude of vertically isolated waves and eddies. These results set the stage for an unprecedented dataset that will: 1) significantly improve the determination of the period and vertical descent velocity of Jupiter’s QQO and map its 3-dimensional spatial structure; 2) measure the zonal wavenumbers, vertical wavelengths, zonal group velocities and lifetimes of transient mid-latitude waves that are impossible to obtain from historic mid-infrared imaging datasets due to their lack of vertical resolution; and 3) record the thermal state of Jupiter’s stratosphere in detail prior to, during, and after Juno’s prime mission to assist in analysis of Juno Mission observations from the Waves, JIRAM, and UVS instruments.

  1. No evidence for an association between common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in delta and bristle number variation in natural and laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Genissel, Anne; Pastinen, Tomi; Dowell, Andrea; Mackay, Trudy F C; Long, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that naturally occurring nonsynonymous variants in the Delta ligand of the Notch signaling pathway contribute to standing variation in sternopleural and/or abdominal bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster, for both a large cohort of wild-caught flies and previously described laboratory lines. We sequenced the transcribed region of Delta for 16 naturally occurring chromosomes and 65 SNPs, including 7 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), were observed. Identified nsSNPs and 6 additional common SNPs, all located in exon 6 and the 3' UTR, were genotyped in 2060 wild-caught flies using an OLA-based methodology and genotyped in 38 additional natural chromosomes via DNA sequencing. None of the genotyped nsSNPs were significantly associated with natural variation in bristle number as assessed by a permutation test. A 95% upper bound on the additive genetic variance attributable to each genotyped SNP in the large natural cohort is <2% of the total phenotypic variation. Results suggest that two previously detected genotype/phenotype associations between bristle number and variants in the introns of Delta cannot be explained by linkage disequilibrium between these variants and nearby nonsynonymous variants. Unidentified regulatory variants more parsimoniously explain previous observations. PMID:15020426

  2. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Kyle J.; Wells, Julie M.; Kho, Alvin T.; Philip, Vivek M.; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http

  3. TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.; Gyllborg, Mattias C.; Kocher, Acadia A.; Markey, Laura E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  4. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http

  5. Commonly Practiced Quality Control and Quality Assurance Procedures for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis in Forensic Urine Drug-Testing Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, B A; Huestis, M A; Wilkins, D G

    1997-12-01

    Forensic urine drug-testing laboratories operate in a prescribed scientific and administrative manner to ensure accurate test results. All specimens positive by an initial immunoassay test must be confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). To provide adequate control and verification of these analytical processes, laboratories must implement appropriate policies and procedures to be used in routine practice. This review describes the following topics regarding GC/MS analyses: method validation, instrument performance, assay calibration, quality control, criteria for designating a positive test result, sample and batch acceptance criteria, and GC/MS data review. PMID:26269941

  6. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  7. Analysis of longitudinal laboratory data in the presence of common selection mechanisms: a view toward greater emphasis on pre-marketing pharmaceutical safety.

    PubMed

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Jenkins, Cathy A; Ostroff, Jack H; Gillen, Daniel L; Harrell, Frank E; Trost, Donald C

    2008-05-30

    Pharmaceutical safety has received substantial attention in the recent past; however, longitudinal clinical laboratory data routinely collected during clinical trials to derive safety profiles are often used ineffectively. For example, these data are frequently summarized by comparing proportions (between treatment arms) of participants who cross pre-specified threshold values at some time during follow-up. This research is intended, in part, to encourage more effective utilization of these data by avoiding unnecessary dichotomization of continuous data, acknowledging and making use of the longitudinal follow-up, and combining data from multiple clinical trials. However, appropriate analyses require careful consideration of a number of challenges (e.g. selection, comparability of study populations, etc.). We discuss estimation strategies based on estimating equations and maximum likelihood for analyses in the presence of three response history-dependent selection mechanisms: dropout, follow-up frequency, and treatment discontinuation. In addition, because clinical trials' participants usually represent non-random samples from target populations, we describe two sensitivity analysis approaches. All discussions are motivated by an analysis that aims to characterize the dynamic relationship between concentrations of a liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase) and three distinct doses (no drug, low dose, and high dose) of an nk-1 antagonist across four Phase II clinical trials. PMID:17929332

  8. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  9. A reference interval study for common biochemical analytes in Eastern Turkey: a comparison of a reference population with laboratory data mining

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Umudum, Fatma Zuhal; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) in a Turkish population living in Northeast Turkey (Erzurum) for 34 analytes using direct and indirect methods. In the present study, the regional RIs obtained were compared with other RI studies, primarily the nationwide study performed in Turkey. Materials and methods For the direct method, 435 blood samples were collected from a healthy group of females (N = 218) and males (N = 217) aged between 18 and 65 years. The sera were analysed in Ataturk University hospital laboratory using Roche reagents and analysers for 34 analytes. The data from 1,366,948 records were used to calculate the indirect RIs using a modified Bhattacharya method. Results Significant gender-related differences were observed for 17 analytes. There were also some apparent differences between RIs derived from indirect and direct methods particularly in some analytes (e.g. gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, LDL-cholesterol and iron). The RIs derived with the direct method for some, but not all, of the analytes were generally comparable with the RIs reported in the nationwide study and other previous studies in Turkey.There were large differences between RIs derived by the direct method and the expected values shown in the kit insert (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and vitamin B12). Conclusions These data provide region-specific RIs for 34 analytes determined by the direct and indirect methods. The observed differences in RIs between previous studies could be related to nutritional status and environmental factors. PMID:27346966

  10. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  11. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  12. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  13. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  14. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  15. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  16. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  17. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  18. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  19. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  20. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  1. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  3. The Indiana Laboratory System: Focus on Environmental Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Kara R.; Matheson, Shelley R.; Lovchik, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) Laboratories are working to improve Indiana's state public health laboratory system. Environmental laboratories are key stakeholders in this system, but their needs have been largely unaddressed prior to this project. In an effort to identify and engage these laboratories, the ISDH Laboratories organized and hosted the First Annual Environmental Laboratories Meeting. The focus of this meeting was on water-testing laboratories throughout the state. Meeting objectives included issue identification, disaster recovery response, and communication efforts among system partners. Common concerns included the need for new technology and updated methods, analyst training, certification programs for analysts and sample collectors, electronic reporting, and regulation interpretation and inspection consistency. Now that these issues have been identified, they can be addressed through a combination of laboratory workgroups and collaboration with Indiana's regulatory agencies. Participants were overwhelmingly positive about the meeting's outcomes and were willing to help with future laboratory system improvement projects. PMID:23997304

  4. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  5. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  6. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  7. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  9. LABCON - Laboratory Job Control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reams, L. T.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program LABCON controls the budget system in a component test laboratory whose workload is made up from many individual budget allocations. A common denominator is applied to an incoming job, to which all effort is charged and accounted for.

  10. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  11. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  12. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  13. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  14. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  15. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  16. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  17. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  18. Common Conditions in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Common Conditions in ...

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  20. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  1. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: The Selection of Eyewash Stations for Laboratory Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Douglas B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates and compares common eyewash stations currently being used in laboratories. Discusses types available, installation, water supply needs, and maintenance. Lists current OSHA eyewash station standards. (ML)

  5. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  6. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  7. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  8. Caffeine and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Thomas, M; Perry, K; Whitney, H

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine whether caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee removed the malaise (reduced alertness, slower psychomotor performance) associated with having a common cold. One hundred volunteers were tested when healthy and 46 returned to the laboratory when they developed colds. Those subjects who remained healthy were then recalled as a control group. On the second visit subjects carried out two sessions, one pre-drink and another an hour after the drink. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions, caffeinated coffee (1.5 mg/kg caffeine/body weight), decaffeinated coffee or fruit juice. Subjects with colds reported decreased alertness and were slower at performing psychomotor tasks. Caffeine increased the alertness and performance of the colds subjects to the same level as the healthy group and decaffeinated coffee also led to an improvement. These results suggest that drugs which increase alertness can remove the malaise associated with the common cold, and that increased stimulation of the sensory afferent nerves may also be beneficial. PMID:9443519

  9. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  10. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3

  11. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  12. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  13. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  14. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  15. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  16. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  17. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  20. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  1. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  2. The Common Denominator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

  3. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  4. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  5. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  6. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  7. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  8. Commonly missed orthopedic problems.

    PubMed

    Ballas, M T; Tytko, J; Mannarino, F

    1998-01-15

    When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon. PMID:9456991

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  11. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  12. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  13. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  14. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  15. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  16. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  17. Little Known Facts about the Common Tuning Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, P. P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the physical principles of the tuning fork which has a common use in teaching laboratories. Includes information on its vibration, frequency of vibration, elasticity, and reasons for having two prongs. (YDS)

  18. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  19. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  20. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  1. Commonly used gastrointestinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the spectrum and mechanisms of neurologic adverse effects of commonly used gastrointestinal drugs including antiemetics, promotility drugs, laxatives, antimotility drugs, and drugs for acid-related disorders. The commonly used gastrointestinal drugs as a group are considered safe and are widely used. A range of neurologic complications are reported following use of various gastrointestinal drugs. Acute neurotoxicities, including transient akathisias, oculogyric crisis, delirium, seizures, and strokes, can develop after use of certain gastrointestinal medications, while disabling and pervasive tardive syndromes are described following long-term and often unsupervised use of phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and other drugs. In rare instances, some of the antiemetics can precipitate life-threatening extrapyramidal reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or serotonin syndrome. In contrast, concerns about the cardiovascular toxicity of drugs such as cisapride and tegaserod have been grave enough to lead to their withdrawal from many world markets. Awareness and recognition of the neurotoxicity of gastrointestinal drugs is essential to help weigh the benefit of their use against possible adverse effects, even if uncommon. Furthermore, as far as possible, drugs such as metoclopramide and others that can lead to tardive dyskinesias should be used for as short time as possible, with close clinical monitoring and patient education. PMID:24365343

  2. Research programs at the Department of Energy National Laboratories. Volume 2: Laboratory matrix

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    For nearly fifty years, the US national laboratories, under the direction of the Department of Energy, have maintained a tradition of outstanding scientific research and innovative technological development. With the end of the Cold War, their roles have undergone profound changes. Although many of their original priorities remain--stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile, for example--pressing budget constraints and new federal mandates have altered their focus. Promotion of energy efficiency, environmental restoration, human health, and technology partnerships with the goal of enhancing US economic and technological competitiveness are key new priorities. The multiprogram national laboratories offer unparalleled expertise in meeting the challenge of changing priorities. This volume aims to demonstrate each laboratory`s uniqueness in applying this expertise. It describes the laboratories` activities in eleven broad areas of research that most or all share in common. Each section of this volume is devoted to a single laboratory. Those included are: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Los Alamos National Laboratory; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; and Sandia National Laboratories. The information in this volume was provided by the multiprogram national laboratories and compiled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  3. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  4. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  5. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  6. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  7. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  8. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  9. Recovery of Silver and Cobalt from Laboratory Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Donald F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for recovering silver and cobalt from laboratory wastes (including those resulting from student experiments) are presented. The procedures are generally applicable since only common, inexpensive laboratory reagents are needed. (JN)

  10. A common language for computer security incidents

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  11. The Common Land Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2003-08-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

  12. Common approaches for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A South-South program organized by JOICFP provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experiences in the field of adolescent reproductive health (RH) between Mexico and the Philippines. Alfonso Lopez Juarez, executive director, Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM), shared MEXFAM's experiences with field personnel and GO-NGO representatives related to JOICFP's RH-oriented project in the Philippines while in the country from November 16 to 21. The program was also effective for identifying common issues and effective approaches to adolescent health issues and communicating with youth on RH and sexual health. The exchange was supported by the Hoken Kaikan Foundation and organized by JOICFP in collaboration with UNFPA-Manila and the Commission on Population (POPCOM). Lopez shared some of the lessons of MEXFAM's decade-long Gente Joven IEC program on adolescent health with GO and NGO representatives at a forum held on November 18. The event was opened by Dr. Carmencita Reodica, secretary, Department of Health (DOH). He then moved to the project sites of Balayan and Malvar municipalities of Batangas Province, where he spoke with field staff and demonstrated MEXFAM's approach in classroom situations with young people. Lopez also observed various adolescent activities such as group work with peer facilitators. "I am pleased that we can share some applicable experiences and learn from each other's projects," commented Lopez. PMID:12348336

  13. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  14. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  15. HOW COMMON IS RSI?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel; Calnan, Michael; Coggon, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Statistics from Labour Force Surveys are widely quoted as evidence for the scale of occupational illness in Europe. However, occupational attribution depends on whether participants believe their health problem is caused or aggravated by work, and personal beliefs may be unreliable. We assessed the potential for error for work-associated arm pain. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to working-aged adults, randomly chosen from five British general practices. We asked about: occupational activities; mental health; self-rated health; arm pain; and beliefs about its causation. Those in work (n = 1769) were asked about activities likely to cause arm pain, from which we derived a variable for exposure to any ‘arm-straining’ occupational activity. We estimated the relative risk (RR) from arm-straining activity, using a modified Cox model, and derived the population attributable fraction (PAF). We compared the proportion of arm pain cases reporting their symptom as caused or made worse by work with the calculated PAF, overall and for subsets defined by demographic and other characteristics. Results Arm pain in the past year was more common in the 1,143 subjects who reported exposure to arm-straining occupational activity (RR 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5). In the study sample as a whole, 53.9% of 817 cases reported their arm pain as work-associated, whereas the PAF for arm-straining occupational activity was only 13.9%. The ratio of cases reported as work-related to the calculated attributable number was substantially higher below 50 years (5.4) than at older ages (3.0) and higher in those with worse self-rated and mental health. Conclusions Counting people with arm pain which they believe to be work-related can overestimate the number of cases attributable to work substantially. This casts doubt on the validity of a major source of information used by European Governments to evaluate their occupational health strategies. PMID:18056747

  16. Laboratory Maintenance of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Robin R; Cotter, Peggy A

    2009-11-01

    The causative agent of the respiratory disease whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis, is a nutritionally fastidious microorganism but can be grown with relative ease in research laboratories. Stainer-Scholte synthetic broth medium and Bordet-Gengou blood agar both support growth of B. pertussis and are commonly used. B. pertussis prefers aerobic conditions and a temperature range of 35 degrees to 37 degrees C. Appropriate laboratory safety protocols are required to prevent the generation of aerosols, which could potentially spread this highly infectious agent. PMID:19885941

  17. How I treat common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is a rare immune deficiency, characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulin G, A, and/or M with loss of antibody production. The diagnosis is most commonly made in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years, but both children and older adults can be found to have this immune defect. The range of clinical manifestations is broad, including acute and chronic infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, and an increased incidence of cancer and lymphoma. For all these reasons, the disease phenotype is both heterogeneous and complex. Contributing to the complexity is that patient cohorts are generally small, criteria used for diagnosis vary, and the doses of replacement immune globulin differ. In addition, routines for monitoring patients over the years and protocols for the use of other biologic agents for complications have not been clarified or standardized. In the past few years, data from large patient registries have revealed that both selected laboratory markers and clinical phenotyping may aid in dissecting groups of subjects into biologically relevant categories. This review presents my approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency, with suggestions for the use of laboratory biomarkers and means of monitoring patients. PMID:20332369

  18. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs. PMID:26688819

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  20. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  2. Committee Handbook for Common Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Sharon; And Others

    This manual on general education and common learning was prepared by and for the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Committees for Common Learning (CCL's), which have been charged with reviewing the DCCCD's general education curriculum and degree requirements and making recommendations concerning common learning requirements and…

  3. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  4. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  5. Quadrennial Energy Review Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Pryor, Mark L. [D-AR

    2011-10-13

    11/15/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-188. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Laboratory aspects of Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, A G

    1988-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease), a common tick-borne disorder of people and domestic animals in North America and Europe, is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Following the discovery and initial propagation of this agent in 1981 came revelations that other tick-associated infectious disorders are but different forms of Lyme borreliosis. A challenge for the clinician and microbiology laboratory is confirmation that a skin rash, a chronic meningitis, an episode of myocarditis, or an arthritic joint is the consequence of B. burgdorferi infection. The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis may be established by (i) directly observing the spirochete in host fluid or tissue, (ii) recovering the etiologic spirochete from the patient in culture medium or indirectly through inoculation of laboratory animals, or (iii) carrying out serologic tests with the patient's serum or cerebrospinal fluid. The last method, while lacking in discriminatory power, is the most efficacious diagnostic assay for most laboratories at present. Images PMID:3069200

  7. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  8. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  9. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  10. Competence across Europe: Highest Common Factor or Lowest Common Denominator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore diversity in competence models across Europe and consider the extent to which there is sufficient common ground for a common European approach to underpin the European Qualifications Framework. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a literature review and interviews with policy makers.…

  11. Constructing the Commons: Practical Projects To Build the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several projects aimed at building the Information Commons, including: Knowledge Conservancy plans to create a database of all freely available digitized content; the Universal Library, a project with the long-term goal of providing free, online access to all books; and several projects of the Creative Commons intended to build a robust…

  12. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  13. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  14. Measuring Dynamic Kidney Function in an Undergraduate Physiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on…

  15. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  16. Perceptions of Competence of Three Levels of Medical Laboratory Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Judith A.

    Commonalities and differences in the perception of competence among three levels of medical laboratory personnel were assessed through a survey of 100 educators, chief technologists, and working technicians. Respondents rated medical technologists (MTs), medical laboratory technicians (MLTs), and certified laboratory assistants (CLAs) on 270 tasks…

  17. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  18. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  19. Using Dragonflies as Common, Flexible & Charismatic Subjects for Teaching the Scientific Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    Biology laboratories are usually designed around convenient and available subjects. For example, for animal laboratories "Daphnia magna," "Drosophila melanogaster," frogs, rats, and mice are common animals that are relatively easy to obtain, relatively cheap, and consequently lend themselves well to laboratory experimentation. On many campuses, …

  20. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  1. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  2. The common ancestry of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin) of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky) and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section. PMID:21087490

  3. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  4. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  5. Connecticut's Common Core of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Since its adoption in January 1987, Connecticut's Common Core of Learning has set the standard of an educated citizen for the state, and the five 1991-1995 Statewide Educational Goals for Students incorporate its policy on the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are expected of Connecticut's public secondary school graduates. The Common Core…

  6. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  7. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  8. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  9. Care of Mastomys in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jodi; Wilson, Steven

    2016-05-20

    Mastomys rodents occupy a valuable niche in biomedical research, but there is very little published information regarding how to care for them in the laboratory. Here we provide information about the physical and behavioral characteristics of this unusual laboratory rodent, its taxonomic history, common diseases that affect it, and its use in research. We also provide housing recommendations based upon almost 15 years of experience successfully maintaining a colony of Mastomys coucha at our institution. PMID:27203263

  10. Surfactants Enhance Primisulfuron Activity in Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) is one of the most widely distributed weed species in the world and is competitive with 40 crops. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of non-ionic (Induce®) and organosilicone (Silwet L-77®) surfactants on primisulfuron...

  11. Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

    1985-01-01

    The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  15. Misconceptions about Acne Still Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157613.html Misconceptions About Acne Still Common Skin condition isn't caused by ... of negative and mistaken beliefs about people with acne, a new study finds. Researchers showed photos of ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  17. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Unfortunately, cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  20. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  1. Common Skin Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Six common pediatric skin problems are discussed through the use of case histories. Problems of differential diagnosis are outlined, and the various steps and pitfalls in therapy itemized. PMID:21308018

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  4. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  5. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  6. Employment at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Peterson; C. A. Allen

    2007-04-01

    Scientists enter the National Laboratory System for many different reasons. For some, faculty positions are scarce, so they take staff-scientist position at national laboratories (i.e. Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Los Alamos, and Brookhaven). Many plan to work at the National Laboratory for 5 to 7 years and then seek an academic post. For many (these authors included), before they know it it’s 15 or 20 years later and they never seriously considered leaving the laboratory system.

  7. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  8. The laboratory mouse and wild immunology.

    PubMed

    Viney, M; Lazarou, L; Abolins, S

    2015-05-01

    The laboratory mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, has been the workhorse of the very successful laboratory study of mammalian immunology. These studies--discovering how the mammalian immune system can work--have allowed the development of the field of wild immunology that is seeking to understand how the immune responses of wild animals contributes to animals' fitness. Remarkably, there have hardly been any studies of the immunology of wild M. musculus domesticus (or of rats, another common laboratory model), but the general finding is that these wild animals are more immunologically responsive, compared with their laboratory domesticated comparators. This difference probably reflects the comparatively greater previous exposure to antigens of these wild-caught animals. There are now excellent prospects for laboratory mouse immunology to make major advances in the field of wild immunology. PMID:25303494

  9. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  10. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  11. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  12. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  13. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  15. Hemochromatosis. More common than you think.

    PubMed Central

    Borgaonkar, Mark Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the genetics, presentation, diagnosis, and management of hereditary hemochromatosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to June 2002, and references of relevant papers were reviewed. Most articles were reviews, practice guidelines, or observational studies. Several randomized controlled trials were identified but none studied primary therapy for hemochromatosis. MAIN MESSAGE: Hemochromatosis, the most common genetic disease in white populations, has a prevalence of one in 200, yet is still underrecognized. This disease of unregulated iron absorption leads to generalized iron overload that can eventually impair organ systems and lead to cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Symptoms are often nonspecific and patients are identified by mild abnormalities in routine laboratory testing. Transferrin saturation, ferritin levels, and genotyping can often establish the diagnosis. Iron depletion therapy with phlebotomy is helpful if initiated before organ damage occurs. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should be aware that hemochromatosis can be treated effectively if diagnosed early. PMID:12602841

  16. Buyer Beware: Pitfalls in Toxicology Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Algren, D Adam; Christian, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly used in various clinical settings and situations. Immunoassays are the most commonly available method of testing for urine drug screens in hospitals. Although convenient, immunoassays are prone to false positive and false negative results. It is important for the health care provider to understand the principles of the laboratory methods involved with urine drug screens as this will help guide appropriate result interpretation and therefore improve clinical care. PMID:26168592

  17. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  18. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  19. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Rosario; MacFadyen, Bruce V

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has become the procedure of choice in the management of choledocholithiasis in several laparoscopic centers. The increasing interest for this laparoscopic approach is due to the development of instrumentation and technique, allowing the procedure to be performed safely, and it is also the result of the revised role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which has been questioned because of its cost, risk of complications and effectiveness. Many surgeons, however, are still not familiar with this technique. In this article we discuss the technique and results of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Both the laparoscopic transcystic approach and choledochotomy are discussed, together with the results given in the literature. When one considers the costs, morbidity, mortality and the time required before the patient can return to work, it would appear that laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is more favorable than open surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative or postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the technique requires advanced laparoscopic skills, including suturing, knot tying, the use of a choledochoscope, guidewire, dilators and balloon stone extractor. Although laparoscopic common bile duct exploration appears to be the most cost-effective method to treat common bile duct stones, it should be emphasized that this procedure is very challenging, and it should be performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons with experience in biliary surgery. PMID:11981684

  20. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  1. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  2. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  3. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  4. Dual-benefit technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    What does the pulp and paper industry have in common with the desert southwest and nuclear weapons? As a representative of one of the Nations three nuclear weapons design laboratories (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories), my goal is to identify ``dual-benefit`` technologies where codevelopment will both strengthen the nation`s competitive position and enhance national security. In development of this presentation, I found more common elements than I could possibly survey in this brief period.

  5. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  6. Common Emergencies in Pet Birds.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jane D

    2016-05-01

    Treating avian emergencies can be a challenging task. Pet birds often mask signs of illness until they are critically ill and require quick initiation of supportive care with minimal handling to stabilize them. This article introduces the clinician to common avian emergency presentations and details initial therapeutics and diagnostics that can be readily performed in the small-animal emergency room. Common disease presentations covered include respiratory and extrarespiratory causes of dyspnea, gastrointestinal signs, reproductive disease, neurologic disorders, trauma, and toxin exposure. The duration and severity of the avian patient's disease and the clinician's initiation of appropriate therapy often determines clinical outcome. PMID:26948267

  7. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  8. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  9. Common Types of Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... heart defect, treatment options and expected results. The descriptions and pictures of common heart defects that follow ...

  10. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  11. "Common Core Implementation Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the testimony of Carmel Martin, Executive Vice President for Policy at the Center for American Progress, delivered at the New York State Office of the Governor Common Core Implementation Panel on Wednesday, February 19, 2014. In this statement, Martin began by saying that The Center for American Progress believes that this…

  12. Common Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

    The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

  13. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  14. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  15. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  16. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  17. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  18. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  19. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  20. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  1. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  2. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  3. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  4. Common Ground: Opportunities and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, M. Katherine; Muck, Randolph; Bazemore, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Wraps up a theme issue that explores the common ground between the restorative justice and community justice movements and examines their effect on substance-abusing youth and the communities in which they reside. Suggests that restorative justice programs may help adolescent treatment providers in their adoption of practices to promote change and…

  5. Leadership in Education: Five Commonalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Reflecting on 43 interviews with eminent educational leaders from all backgrounds and political stripes, the author isolates five common characteristics: a bedrock belief in their work's usefulness, courage to swim upstream on behalf of their beliefs, possession of a social conscience, seriousness of purpose, and situational mastery. (MLH)

  6. Virtual Instruction: A Qualitative Research Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…

  7. THERMAL BIOLOGY OF THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In view of the array of thermal interactions commonly reported in physiological, pharmacological and behavioral studies of the rat, it would be timely to thoroughly review and develop a data base of the basic thermoregulatory parameters of the laboratory rat. his review contains ...

  8. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  9. Use of Pseudophase TLC in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Daniel W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that pseudophase liquid chromatography, which uses aqueous surfactant solutions instead of organic solvents for the mobile phase, can be substituted for thin-layer chromatography in the introductory organic course. Outlines the method as it applies to common separations in the laboratory. (JN)

  10. PRECISION AND RELIABILITY OF LABORATORY PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited set of laboratory test data on clay liner permeabilities was gathered from six sources to create a data bank suitable for a preliminary statistical analysis. The collected data were also used to survey the most commonly used permeameters and testing methods for clay lin...

  11. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias." PMID:24526573

  12. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  14. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

  15. Laboratory evaluation of difenacoum as a rodenticide.

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, M. R.; Redfern, R.; Rowe, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The efficacy of difenacoum as a new anticoagulant rodenticide was evaluated by blood coagulation studies and laboratory feeding tests using warfarin-resistant and non-resistant common rats (Rattus norvegicus), ship rats (R. rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). Prothrombin assays indicated that the compound had as marked an activity with warfarin-resistant common rats as coumatetralyl had with non-resistant animals. Feeding tests confirmed that 0-005% would be a near-optimal concentration for field use, although there was some evidence of unpalatability. Results with ship rats and house mice were less favourable. Trials with enclosed colonies of warfarin-resistant mice confirmed the laboratory finding that although difenacoum was more effective than all other currently used anticoagulants, it was unlikely to give complete control. It is concluded that difenacoum is a valuable new rodenticide, especiaaly for controlling warfarin-resistant common rats. PMID:1056964

  16. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  17. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  18. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain. PMID:25921681

  19. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  20. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. eComLab: remote laboratory platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontual, Murillo; Melkonyan, Arsen; Gampe, Andreas; Huang, Grant; Akopian, David

    2011-06-01

    Hands-on experiments with electronic devices have been recognized as an important element in the field of engineering to help students get familiar with theoretical concepts and practical tasks. The continuing increase the student number, costly laboratory equipment, and laboratory maintenance slow down the physical lab efficiency. As information technology continues to evolve, the Internet has become a common media in modern education. Internetbased remote laboratory can solve a lot of restrictions, providing hands-on training as they can be flexible in time and the same equipment can be shared between different students. This article describes an on-going remote hands-on experimental radio modulation, network and mobile applications lab project "eComLab". Its main component is a remote laboratory infrastructure and server management system featuring various online media familiar with modern students, such as chat rooms and video streaming.

  2. Audiotutorial Teaching of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This audiotutorial course consists of 35 minicourses including biology, husbandry, and diseases of the common laboratory animals. Each minicourse includes an audiocassette tape recording and visual and written materials. The course is available for distribution. (Author/LBH)

  3. THE GREEN DORM: A SUSTAINABLE RESIDENCE AND LIVING LABORATORY FOR STANFORD UNIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lotus Living Laboratory at Stanford University is exploring sustainable building technologies and sustainable living habits through the design, construction and operation of The Green Dorm, an innovative facility containing residential, laboratory and commons space. Both ...

  4. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  5. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  6. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  7. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  8. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  9. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  10. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  11. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  12. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  13. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  14. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  15. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  16. Practical Laboratory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. R.

    This book is intended as a guide for people who are planning chemistry and physics research laboratories. It deals with the importance of effective communication between client and architect, the value of preliminary planning, and the role of the project officer. It also discusses the size and layout of individual laboratories, the design of…

  17. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  18. Laboratory for Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the activities of the Laboratory for Oceans. The staff and the research activities are nearly evenly divided between engineering and scientific endeavors. The Laboratory contributes engineering design skills to aircraft and ground based experiments in terrestrial and atmospheric sciences in cooperation with scientists from labs in Earth sciences.

  19. Hazardous waste disposal and the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1990-01-01

    Negligent, unregulated hazardous waste management has resulted in real and potential threats to public health and safety. The federal government has responded with laws and regulations aimed at the producers of hazardous waste, including clinical laboratories. Clinical laboratory managers must understand how the requirements apply to their facilities and how to comply with them, or risk violating the law. The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) imposes controls on hazardous waste management through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulate these activities through 40 CFR and 49 CFR, respectively. 49 CFR specifies the characteristics of hazardous waste and lists more than 400 toxic chemicals, including several commonly used in clinical laboratories. Laboratories must conduct chemical inventories to determine if they should obtain an EPA identification number as a hazardous waste generator. Most clinical laboratories can operate satellite accumulation points and accumulate, store, transport, and dispose of waste in accordance with EPA and DOT regulations. Regulations pertaining to infectious waste, sure to affect many clinical laboratories, are being developed now by the EPA. The tracking system mandated by the federal government can be supplemented by state and local authorities and poses a significant regulatory challenge to clinical laboratory managers. PMID:10104718

  20. Standardization of Terminology in Laboratory Medicine II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Jong-Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Jang, Seongsoo; Ki, Chang-Seok; Bae, Sook Young; Kim, Jang Su; Kwon, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential in data transmission between health care institutes and in maximizing the benefits of information technology. The purpose of this study was to standardize medical terms for laboratory observations. During the second year of the study, a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms that covered those used in tertiary health care institutes and reference laboratories was developed. The laboratory terms in the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) database were adopted and matched with the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes in Korea. A public hearing and a workshop for clinical pathologists were held to collect the opinions of experts. The Korean standard laboratory terminology database containing six axial concept names, components, property, time aspect, system (specimen), scale type, and method type, was established for 29,340 test observations. Short names and mapping tables for EDI codes and UMLS were added. Synonym tables were prepared to help match concept names to common terms used in the fields. We herein described the Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, and result units encompassing most of the laboratory tests in Korea. PMID:18756062

  1. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Magma transport in volcanic plumbing systems induces surface deformation, which can be monitored by geodetic techniques, such as GPS and InSAR. These geodetic signals are commonly analyzed through geodetic models in order to constrain the shape of, and the pressure in, magma plumbing systems. These models, however, suffer critical limitations: (1) the modelled magma conduit shapes cannot be compared with the real conduits, so the geodetic models cannot be tested nor validated; (2) the modelled conduits only exhibit shapes that are too simplistic; (3) most geodetic models only account for elasticity of the host rock, whereas substantial plastic deformation is known to occur. To overcome these limitations, one needs to use a physical system, in which (1) both surface deformation and the shape of, and pressure in, the underlying conduit are known, and (2) the mechanical properties of the host material are controlled and well known. In this contribution, we present novel quantitative laboratory results of shallow magma emplacement. Fine-grained silica flour represents the brittle crust, and low viscosity vegetable oil is an analogue for the magma. The melting temperature of the oil is 31°C; the oil solidifies in the models after the end of the experiments. At the time of injection the oil temperature is 50°C. The oil is pumped from a reservoir using a volumetric pump into the silica flour through a circular inlet at the bottom of a 40x40 cm square box. The silica flour is cohesive, such that oil intrudes it by fracturing it, and produces typical sheet intrusions (dykes, cone sheets, etc.). During oil intrusion, the model surface deforms, mostly by doming. These movements are measured by an advanced photogrammetry method, which uses 4 synchronized fixed cameras that periodically image the surface of the model from different angles. We apply particle tracking method to compute the 3D ground deformation pattern through time. After solidification of the oil, the

  2. Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Darius J; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes. PMID:25836705

  3. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  4. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirén, Jouni

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  5. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  6. What do lollipops and influenza have in common?

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Human drug trials have begun to test a new way to treat influenza that has the potential to create a universal vaccine. The powerful x-ray beams from the Advanced Light Source at Argonne National Laboratory outside of Chicago enabled scientists to see the structure of the influenza virus clear enough to discover a key commonality among influenza strains. Scientist Damien Ekiert, who won a 2012 award for his work in this discovery, explains why drug manufacturers could capitalize on this.

  7. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  8. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  9. ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

    The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

  10. Common hematological disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Totadri, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    It is common for primary care physicians to be faced with children with hematological disorders in everyday practice. The article seeks to provide realistic information for the first-contact physician in handling common hematological diseases in children. Practical step-wise approach to understanding and investigating anemia and bleeding disorders is illustrated. Requirement of iron in normal children and management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia is explained. The gold standard for IDA continues to be ferrous sulphate which has good bioavailability and is inexpensive. There is emerging concept of delayed clamping of umbilical cord at birth, particularly in regions with widespread IDA, to augment iron stores in infancy. Typical case scenarios of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and hemophilia are provided to facilitate the understanding of management in day to day practice. The vital role of the medical practitioner in shared care of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia is emphasized. A risk based treatment algorithm for febrile neutropenia is provided. PMID:23934100

  11. Inverse Common-Reflection-Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroud, H.; Tygel, M.; Freitas, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) stack method is a powerful tool to produce high-quality stacked images of multicoverage seismic data. As a result of the CRS stack, not only a stacked section, but also a number of attributes defined at each point of that section, are produced. In this way, one can think of the CRS stack method as a transformation from data space to attribute space. Being a purely kinematic method, the CRS stack lacks amplitude information that can be useful for many purposes. Here we propose to fill this gap by means of a combined use of a zero-offset section (that could be a short-offset or amplitude-corrected stacked section) and common midpoint gather. We present an algorithm for an inverse CRS transformation, namely one that (approximately) transforms the CRS attributes back to data space. First synthetic tests provide satisfying results for the two simple cases of single dipping-plane and single circular reflectors with a homogeneous overburden, and provide estimates of the range of applicability, in both midpoint and offset directions. We further present an application for interpolating missing traces in a near-surface, high-resolution seismic experiment, conducted in the alluvial plain of the river Gave de Pau, near Assat, southern France, showing its ability to build coherent signals, where recording was not available. A somewhat unexpected good feature of the algorithm, is that it seems capable to reconstruct signals even in muted parts of the section.

  12. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  13. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D. V.; Watts, A. J.; Rice, D. A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

  14. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  15. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  16. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  17. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  18. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  19. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  20. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  1. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  2. Managing laboratory test use: principles and tools.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian R

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult for unaided physicians to keep up with the scientific advances and changing practice guidelines relevant to ordering and interpreting laboratory tests. Overordering, underordering, and misordering of tests are all common, and specific practices vary tremendously from community to community. Pathologists and clinical laboratory scientists have valuable knowledge that can help treating physicians provide higher-quality and more cost-effective care. Laboratorians can use online test catalogs to steer physicians toward optimal test algorithms, with hyperlinking to journal articles, clinical guidelines, and other reference materials. Retrospective audit of ordering patterns can efficiently pinpoint educational needs specific to a physician community. PMID:17950895

  3. Field evaluation of two commonly used slipmeters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Cotnam, John P; Matz, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A variety of slipmeters have been used to assess the slipperiness of floor surfaces. International standards for the operation of slipmeters describe the protocol for a single measurement. These standards usually do not cover some of the critical elements in safety assessment such as methods for the selection of measurement locations and the necessary number of repeated measurements at each location. Furthermore, most of the slipmeters were evaluated in laboratory settings with new floor surfaces and artificial contaminants. Two commonly used slipmeters, the Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, were evaluated at actual worksites in this experiment. Four floor tiles in each of four different work areas in the kitchens of 18 fast food restaurants were selected for repeated measurements with these two slipmeters. The results indicated that sanding of footwear materials has a significant effect on the outcomes of friction measurements, and the tile-to-tile variations in friction in the same areas of restaurants were also mostly statistically significant. Significant local variation in friction among tiles in the same area could potentially increase the chances of slip and fall incidents. Both slipmeters used in this experiment could potentially have problems in the areas with grease, such as grill and fryer areas, since the build-up of grease during repeated strikes could alter the outcome of friction measured. PMID:12523805

  4. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  5. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  6. CLL: Common Leukemia; Uncommon Presentations.

    PubMed

    Lad, Deepesh; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Manupdesh Singh; Das, Ashim; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bal, Amanjit; Khadwal, Alka; Prakash, Gaurav; Suri, Vikas; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay; Varma, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    We report here a series of ten patients with uncommon presentations and associations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) not reported hitherto or occasionally reported in literature. The first two cases describe unusual causes of abdominal distension in CLL and unusual sites infiltration by CLL. The next two cases illustrate occurrence of CLL in association with other hematological malignancies. Cases five and six describe unusual infections and their impact on CLL. Cases seven and eight depict associations of rare non-hematological autoimmune conditions with CLL. The last two cases describe transformation at unusual sites. This series of ten cases illustrates how a common leukemia like CLL can present in different forms and how despite so much progress in understanding of this leukemia so little is known of such presentations. PMID:27429518

  7. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  8. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  9. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  10. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  11. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  12. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  13. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

  15. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  16. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  17. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George

    2013-06-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  18. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  19. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.

  20. The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  1. Conceptual design of new metrology laboratories for the National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Christopher J.

    1994-10-01

    The National Physical Laboratory is planning to house the Division of Mechanical and Optical Metrology and the Division of Material Metrology in a new purpose built laboratory building on its site at Teddington, London, England. The scientific staff were involved in identifying and agreeing the vibration performance requirements of the conceptual design. This was complemented by an extensive surgery of vibration levels within the existing facilities and ambient vibration studies at the proposed site. At one end of the site there is significant vibration input from road traffic. Some of the test equipment is also in itself a source of vibration input. These factors, together with normal occupancy inputs, footfalls and door slams, and a highly serviced building led to vibration being dominant in influencing the structural form. The resulting structural concept comprises three separate structural elements for vibration and geotechnical reasons. The laboratories most sensitive to disturbance by vibration are located at the end of the site farthest from local roads on a massive ground bearing slab. Less sensitive laboratories and those containing vibration sources are located on a massive slab in deep, piled foundations. A common central plant area is located alongside on its own massive slab. Medium sensitivity laboratories and offices are located at first floor level on a reinforced concrete suspended floor of maximum stiffness per unit mass. The whole design has been such as to permit upgrading of areas, eg office to laboratory; laboratory to `high sensitivity' laboratory, to cater for changes in future use of the building.

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  3. Development of a laboratory niche Web site.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B; Dimenstein, Simon I

    2013-10-01

    This technical note presents the development of a methodological laboratory niche Web site. The "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) Web site is used as an example. Although common steps in creation of most Web sites are followed, there are particular requirements for structuring the template's menu on methodological laboratory Web sites. The "nested doll principle," in which one object is placed inside another, most adequately describes the methodological approach to laboratory Web site design. Fragmentation in presenting the Web site's material highlights the discrete parts of the laboratory procedure. An optimally minimal triad of components can be recommended for the creation of a laboratory niche Web site: a main set of media, a blog, and an ancillary component (host, contact, and links). The inclusion of a blog makes the Web site a dynamic forum for professional communication. By forming links and portals, cloud computing opens opportunities for connecting a niche Web site with other Web sites and professional organizations. As an additional source of information exchange, methodological laboratory niche Web sites are destined to parallel both traditional and new forms, such as books, journals, seminars, webinars, and internal educational materials. PMID:23769601

  4. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  5. Common data elements for clinical research in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Lynch, David R; Pandolfo, Massimo; Schulz, Jorg B; Perlman, Susan; Delatycki, Martin B; Payne, R Mark; Shaddy, Robert; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Farmer, Jennifer; Kantor, Paul; Raman, Subha V; Hunegs, Lisa; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Miller, Kristy; Kaufmann, Petra

    2013-02-01

    To reduce study start-up time, increase data sharing, and assist investigators conducting clinical studies, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke embarked on an initiative to create common data elements for neuroscience clinical research. The Common Data Element Team developed general common data elements, which are commonly collected in clinical studies regardless of therapeutic area, such as demographics. In the present project, we applied such approaches to data collection in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a neurological disorder that involves multiple organ systems. To develop FRDA common data elements, FRDA experts formed a working group and subgroups to define elements in the following: ataxia and performance measures; biomarkers; cardiac and other clinical outcomes; and demographics, laboratory tests, and medical history. The basic development process included identification of international experts in FRDA clinical research, meeting by teleconference to develop a draft of standardized common data elements recommendations, vetting of recommendations across the subgroups, and dissemination of recommendations to the research community for public comment. The full recommendations were published online in September 2011 at http://www.commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/FA.aspx. The subgroups' recommendations are classified as core, supplemental, or exploratory. Template case report forms were created for many of the core tests. The present set of data elements should ideally lead to decreased initiation time for clinical research studies and greater ability to compare and analyze data across studies. Their incorporation into new, ongoing studies will be assessed in an ongoing fashion to define their utility in FRDA. PMID:23239403

  6. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  7. Common questions about wound care.

    PubMed

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists. PMID:25591209

  8. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  9. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies. PMID:26214918

  10. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  11. Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Perez, Evan D

    2016-07-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of cough, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and fever. To diagnose GABHS pharyngitis, a rapid antigen detection test should be ordered in patients with a modified Centor or FeverPAIN score of 2 or 3. First-line treatment for GABHS pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of penicillin or amoxicillin. Patients allergic to penicillin can be treated with firstgeneration cephalosporins, clindamycin, or macrolide antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more effective than acetaminophen and placebo for treatment of fever and pain associated with GABHS pharyngitis; medicated throat lozenges used every two hours are also effective. Corticosteroids provide only a small reduction in the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely. PMID:27386721

  12. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations. PMID:2569162

  13. Development of the Design Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla, Harry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the design laboratory at the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT). Considers course objectives, design projects, project structure, mechanical design, project management, and laboratory operation. This laboratory complements SIT's course in process design, giving students a complete design experience. (JN)

  14. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  15. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  16. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  17. The behavioural final common path.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D J; Sibly, R M

    1975-05-15

    In this paper it is argued that any model of the motivational (i.e. reversible) processes governing the behaviour of an animal can be represented by means of isoclines in a multidimensional 'causal-factor space'. The argument is axiomatic, based upon the two prime assumptions: that (1) it is always possible to classify the behavioural repertoire of a species in such a way that the classes are mutually exclusive in the sense that the members of different classes cannot occur simultaneously, and (2) these incompatible actions are uniquely determined by a particular set of causal factors. The isoclines join all points in the space which present a given 'degree of competitiveness' of a particular 'candidate' for overt behavioural expression. The competition between candidates is an inevitable consequence of the fact that animals cannot 'do more than one thing at a time', and is envisaged as taking place in the behavioural final common path. An empirical method of determining the motivational state (i.e. point in causal-factor space) is outlined. This is a 'relative' method, independent of the arbitrary calibration of the axes of the causal-factor space. It is shown that an arbitrary scale of measurement along any two axes of the causal-factor space is all that is necessary for empirical determination of the shape of a motivational isocline. Experiments in which this method has been applied to the measurement of hunger and thirst in doves are outlined, and the results are discussed in terms of their implications for motivation theory in general. PMID:239416

  18. Sequential Infection with Common Pathogens Promotes Human-like Immune Gene Expression and Altered Vaccine Response.

    PubMed

    Reese, Tiffany A; Bi, Kevin; Kambal, Amal; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Beura, Lalit K; Bürger, Matheus C; Pulendran, Bali; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David; Haining, W Nicholas; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-05-11

    Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood. Sequential pathogen exposure induced gene signatures that recapitulated those seen in blood from pet store-raised versus laboratory mice, and adult versus cord blood in humans. Therefore, basal and vaccine-induced murine immune responses are altered by infection with agents common outside of barrier facilities. This raises the possibility that we can improve mouse models of vaccination and immunity by selective microbial exposure of laboratory animals to mimic that of humans. PMID:27107939

  19. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  20. Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

  1. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  2. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  3. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  4. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  5. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  6. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  7. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  8. Comparison of Diagnostic Criteria for Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Brewerton, Maia; Slade, Charlotte; Jordan, Anthony; Gillis, David; Steele, Richard; Koopmans, Wikke; Woon, See-Tarn

    2014-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency condition in adults. The genetic basis for the condition is not known and no single clinical feature or laboratory test can establish the diagnosis; it has been a diagnosis of exclusion. In areas of uncertainty, diagnostic criteria can provide valuable clinical information. Here, we compare the revised European society of immune deficiencies (ESID) registry (2014) criteria with the diagnostic criteria of Ameratunga et al. (2013) and the original ESID/pan American group for immune deficiency (ESID/PAGID 1999) criteria. The ESID/PAGID (1999) criteria either require absent isohemagglutinins or impaired vaccine responses to establish the diagnosis in patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia. Although commonly encountered, infective and autoimmune sequelae of CVID were not part of the original ESID/PAGID (1999) criteria. Also excluded were a series of characteristic laboratory and histological abnormalities, which are useful when making the diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria of Ameratunga et al. (2013) for CVID are based on these markers. The revised ESID registry (2014) criteria for CVID require the presence of symptoms as well as laboratory abnormalities to establish the diagnosis. Once validated, criteria for CVID will improve diagnostic precision and will result in more equitable and judicious use of intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy. PMID:25309532

  9. Mass Spectrometry contamination from Tinuvin 770, a common additive in laboratory plastics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior sensitivity of current mass spectrometers makes them prone to contamination issues which can have deleterious effects on sample analysis. Here, Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate (marketed under the name Tinuvin 770) is identified as a major contaminant in applications utiliz...

  10. On the Determination of the Emission Wavelength of an Infrared LED with Common Laboratory Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RayChaudhuri, Barun

    2011-01-01

    This work demonstrates an experiment on the optoelectronic properties of a p-n junction suitable for students of undergraduate physics. It investigates, from an educational point of view, the origin of the wavelength of radiation emitted by a light emitting diode (LED) and determines the emission wavelength of an infrared LED without using…

  11. Possible land management uses of common cypress to reduce wildfire initiation risk: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Hernando, C; Madrigal, J; Danti, R; Moya, J; Guijarro, M; Pecchioli, A; Moya, B

    2015-08-15

    Accurate determination of flammability is required in order to improve knowledge about vegetation fire risk. Study of the flammability of different plant species is essential for the Mediterranean area, where most ecosystems are adapted to natural fire but vulnerable to recurrent human-induced fires, which are the main cause of forest degradation. However, the methods used to evaluate vegetation flammability have not yet been standardized. Cupressus sempervirens is a native or naturalized forest tree species in the Mediterranean area that is able to tolerate prolonged drought and high temperatures. The aim of this study was to characterize the flammability of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis at particle level by using different bench-scale calorimetry techniques (mass loss calorimeter, epiradiator and oxygen bomb) to determine the main flammability descriptors (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability) in live crown and litter samples. Our findings indicate that this variety of cypress is relatively resistant to ignition because of the high ash content, the high critical heat flux, the high time to ignition displayed by both crown and litter samples and the ability of the leaves to maintain a high water content during the summer. We also discuss the possibility of exploiting some morphological, functional and ecological traits of the species to construct a barrier system (with selected varieties of cypress) as a promising complementary land management tool to reduce the fire spread and intensity in a Mediterranean context. PMID:26046989

  12. Characteristics of Learning Computer-Controlled Mechanisms by Teachers and Students in a Common Laboratory Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchnoy, Evgeny; Verner, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Growing popularity of robotics education motivates developing its didactics and studying it in teacher training programs. This paper presents a study conducted in the Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, in which university students and school pupils cope with robotics challenges of designing, building and operating…

  13. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  14. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  15. Green Laboratory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Presents schools as the perfect microcosms of the world of the 1990s: most work is done indoors, many resources are consumed, and schools sit surrounded by large chunks of land mostly devoted to grass and parking. Suggests that a school can serve as two perfect environmental education laboratories, one indoor and one outdoor. Describes how to…

  16. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  17. Introducing Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)

  18. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  19. Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz de la Pena, Arsenio; Gonzalez-Gomez, David; Munoz de la Pena, David; Gomez-Estern, Fabio; Sequedo, Manuel Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    designed for automating the collection and assessment of laboratory exercises is presented. This Web-based system has been extensively used in engineering courses such as control systems, mechanics, and computer programming. Goodle GMS allows the students to submit their results to a…

  20. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REES, ALUN L.W.

    THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

  2. Writing the Laboratory Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanare, Howard M.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of proper scientific notekeeping. The principles presented in this book are goals for which working scientists must strive. Chapter 1, "The Reasons for Notekeeping," is an overview of the process of keeping a laboratory notebook. Chapter 2, "The Hardware of Notekeeping," is intended especially…

  3. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Microcomputers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafert, Bruce; Nicklin, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester hour laboratory course introduced junior and senior physics majors to assembly language programing and to interfacing KIM-1 microcomputer to experiments. A general purpose interface to a standard breadboard was developed. Course details, apparatus, and some interfacing projects are given. (Author/SK)

  5. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  6. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  7. Development of a common data model for scientific simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, J.; Butler, D.M.; Matarazzo, C.; Miller, M.; Schoof, L.

    1999-06-01

    The problem of sharing data among scientific simulation models is a difficult and persistent one. Computational scientists employ an enormous variety of discrete approximations in modeling physical processes on computers. Problems occur when models based on different representations are required to exchange data with one another, or with some other software package. Within the DOE`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), a cross-disciplinary group called the Data Models and Formats (DMF) group, has been working to develop a common data model. The current model is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. One of these layers is an abstract model based on set theory and topology called the fiber bundle kernel (FBK). This layer provides the flexibility needed to describe a wide range of mesh-approximated functions as well as other entities. This paper briefly describes the ASCI common data model, its mathematical basis, and ASCI prototype development. These prototypes include an object-oriented data management library developed at Los Alamos called the Common Data Model Library or CDMlib, the Vector Bundle API from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the DMF API from Sandia National Laboratory.

  8. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  9. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. PMID:24548716

  10. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

  11. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  12. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  13. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  14. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particularly helpful in distinguishing iron deficiency from thalassemia minor. Significant changes have occurred in the laboratory evaluation of macrocytic anemia, and a new syndrome of nitrous oxide-induced megaloblastosis and neurologic dysfunction has been recognized. A suggested approach to the hemolytic anemias includes using the micro-Coombs' test and ektacytometry. Finally, a number of causes have been identified for normocytic anemia without reticulocytosis, including normocytic megaloblastic anemia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:3577135

  16. Laboratory models of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Christopher R.; Snow, John T.

    Nature provides many examples of intense but small-scale atmospheric vortices, the most devastating being tornadoes. Other small vortices include waterspouts, fire whirls, dust devils, and steam devils. Several aspects of small-scale atmospheric vortex flows are of concern to the atmospheric scientist, namely: determination of their kinematic structure, understanding of their formation and dynamics, identification of the factors that control their intensities, and application of new knowledge and insights in ways that will provide greater protection for society from the hazards of these phenomena. Although some of the vortex types listed above occur more frequently and are more readily available for observation than tornadoes, all small-scale vortices are inherently infrequent, short-lived phenomena; it has been expedient for some scientists to simulate tornadolike flows in the laboratory. This laboratory work constitutes a small but significant part of the overall tornado research effort.

  17. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  18. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  19. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  20. A lunar laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, P. W.; Duke, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration.

  1. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  2. Fish Surgery: Presurgical Preparation and Common Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sladky, Kurt K; Clarke, Elsburgh O

    2016-01-01

    Fish surgical procedures are commonplace in aquaria, zoos, laboratory facilities, and pet clinical practice. To incorporate fish surgery into a clinical setting, an understanding of anatomic differences between mammals and fish, bath anesthetics, and recirculating anesthesia techniques must be developed; a system or different size systems to accommodate anesthesia and surgery of particular species of concern at an institution or practice constructed; and familiar mammalian surgical principles applied with some adaptations. Common surgical procedures in fish include coeliotomy for intracoelomic mass removal, reproductive procedures, gastrointestinal foreign body removal, radiotransmitter placement, and integumentary mass excision. PMID:26611924

  3. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: (1) objectives, (2) approach and techniques adopted, (3) adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), and (4) results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a

  4. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  5. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  6. Portable Laser Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.T.

    1994-07-01

    A Portable Laser Laboratory (PLL) is being designed and built for the CALIOPE Program tests which will begin in October of 1994. The PLL is designed to give maximum flexibility for evolving laser experiments and can be readily moved by loading it onto a standard truck trailer. The internal configuration for the October experiments will support a two line DIAL system running in the mid-IR. Brief descriptions of the laser and detection systems are included.

  7. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  9. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  10. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  11. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to approval... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not...

  12. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  13. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  14. Emergence Prediction of Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common groundsel is an important weed of strawberry and other horticultural crops. There are few herbicides registered for common groundsel control in such crops, and understanding and predicting the timing and extent of common groundsel emergence may facilitate its management. We developed simple e...

  15. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  16. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

  17. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility; and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options: the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase 2 study are described in the present report.

  18. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  19. Laboratory Diagnosis of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Petri, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples. PMID:14557296

  20. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  1. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  2. An Experiment to Determine the Discharge Characteristics of Common Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2003-04-01

    An experiment is presented to investigate the discharge characteristics of common batteries using readily available equipment in an introductory physics laboratory. We used PASCO-750 science workshop interface, their two voltage sensors, and their DataStudio software to collect the data for some popular name brand AA and AAA batteries. The significant advantages are that it is relatively easy to carry out, the measurements are precise, and the topic is relevant to every day life with practical applications. It also serves as an experiment to introduce computer interfacing in data collection, as well as the Spread Sheet in data analysis and graphing. The spin off of this experiment is an accurate method to study the longevity of common batteries. Our results indicate that some of the popular name brand batteries don't last long as mentioned in their advertisements and some of the not so popular batteries are more cost effective.

  3. Live coral repels a common reef fish ectoparasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artim, J. M.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs are undergoing rapid changes as living corals give way to dead coral on which other benthic organisms grow. This decline in live coral could influence habitat availability for fish parasites with benthic life stages. Gnathiid isopod larvae live in the substratum and are common blood-feeding parasites of reef fishes. We examined substrate associations and preferences of a common Caribbean gnathiid, Gnathia marleyi. Emergence traps set over predominantly live coral substrata captured significantly fewer gnathiids than traps set over dead coral substrata. In laboratory experiments, gnathiids preferred dead coral and sponge and tended to avoid contact with live coral. When live gnathiids were added to containers with dead or live coral, significantly fewer were recovered from the latter after 24 h. Our data therefore suggest that live coral is not suitable microhabitat for parasitic gnathiid isopods and that a decrease in live coral cover increases available habitat for gnathiids.

  4. Common Technologies for Environmental Research Infrastructures in ENVRIplus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2016-04-01

    develop a common metrological language adapted to the observation of our environment? We aim at creating a space for exchange on the "hardware" issues of our networks of observatories, a forum that allows fast transmission across RIs of best practices and state of the art technology, a laboratory for joint research and co-development, where research infrastructures and their communities join efforts on well-identified objectives.

  5. Environmental Science Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobbe, Maurice A.

    The objective of this manual is to provide a set of basic analytical procedures commonly used to determine environmental quality. Procedures are designed to be used in an introductory course in environmental science and are explicit enough to allow them to be performed by both the non-science or beginning science student. Stressing ecology and…

  6. Voluntary electronic reporting of laboratory errors: an analysis of 37,532 laboratory event reports from 30 health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Snydman, Laura K; Harubin, Beth; Kumar, Sanjaya; Chen, Jack; Lopez, Robert E; Salem, Deeb N

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory testing is essential for diagnosis, evaluation, and management. The objective was to describe the type of laboratory events reported in hospitals using a voluntary electronic error reporting system (e-ERS) via a cross-sectional analysis of reported laboratory events from 30 health organizations throughout the United States (January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2005). A total of 37,532 laboratory-related events were reported, accounting for 14.1% of all reported quality events. Preanalytic laboratory events were the most common (81.1%); the top 3 were specimen not labeled (18.7%), specimen mislabeled (16.3%), and improper collection (13.2%). A small number (0.08%) of laboratory events caused permanent harm or death; 8% caused temporary harm. Most laboratory events (55%) did not cause harm. Laboratory errors constitute 1 of 7 quality events. Laboratory errors often are caused by events that precede specimen arrival in the lab and should be preventable with a better labeling processes and education. Most laboratory errors do not lead to patient harm. PMID:21918013

  7. Laboratory assessment of transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Merrill D; Yazaki, Masahide; Magy, Nadine

    2002-12-01

    Mutations in transthyretin (TTR) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant systemic amyloidosis. To date, more than 80 TTR mutations have been associated with amyloidosis in humans. A high prevalence of some mutations like Val122Ile which is identified in 3% of African Americans indicates the necessity of thorough investigation of patients suspected of having, or to be at risk of developing, TTR amyloidosis. Laboratory tests available for evaluation of TTR amyloidosis include both DNA and protein assays. In the case of a known mutation DNA analysis is realized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymerase chain reaction-induced mutation restriction analysis (PCR-IMRA), single strand confirmation polymorpism (SSCP) or nucleotide sequencing. SSCP, PCR-non-isotopic RNAse cleavage assay (NIRCA) or nucleotide sequencing are used to identify an unknown mutation. At the protein level, two techniques are used, isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry, in both cases (known or unknown mutation). The identification of a previously unknown mutation requires a combination of clinical, pathological and molecular studies. PMID:12553428

  8. Using Laboratory Models to Test Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lewis; O'Donnell, Carl R.; Gilman, Sean A.; Lansing, Robert W.; Schwartzstein, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Opioids are commonly used to relieve dyspnea, but clinical data are mixed and practice varies widely. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory drive under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Methods: Six healthy volunteers received morphine (0.07 mg/kg) and placebo intravenously on separate days (randomized, blinded). We measured two responses to a CO2 stimulus: (1) perceptual response (breathing discomfort; described by subjects as “air hunger”) induced by increasing partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) during restricted ventilation, measured with a visual analog scale (range, “neutral” to “intolerable”); and (2) ventilatory response, measured in separate trials during unrestricted breathing. Measurements and Main Results: We determined the PetCO2 that produced a 60% breathing discomfort rating in each subject before morphine (median, 8.5 mm Hg above resting PetCO2). At the same PetCO2 after morphine administration, median breathing discomfort was reduced by 65% of its pretreatment value; P < 0.001. Ventilation fell 28% at the same PetCO2; P < 0.01. The effect of morphine on breathing discomfort was not significantly correlated with the effect on ventilatory response. Placebo had no effect. Conclusions: (1) A moderate morphine dose produced substantial relief of laboratory dyspnea, with a smaller reduction of ventilation. (2) In contrast to an earlier laboratory model of breathing effort, this laboratory model of air hunger established a highly significant treatment effect consistent in magnitude with clinical studies of opioids. Laboratory studies require fewer subjects and enable physiological measurements that are difficult to make in a clinical setting. Within-subject comparison of the response to carefully controlled laboratory stimuli can be an efficient means to optimize treatments before clinical trials. PMID:21778294

  9. Economic Education Laboratory: Initiating a Meaningful Economic Learning through Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noviani, Leny; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sabandi, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory is considered as one of the resources in supporting the learning process. The laboratory can be used as facilities to deepen the concepts, learning methods and enriching students' knowledge and skills. Learning process by utilizing the laboratory facilities can help lecturers and students in grasping the concept easily, constructing the…

  10. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  11. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  12. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  13. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  15. Laboratory and Industrial Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This handbook supplements the Facilities Engineering Handbook (NHB 7320.1) and provides additional policies and criteria for uniform application to ventilation systems. It expands basic requirements, provides additional design and construction guidance, and places emphasis on those design considerations which will provide for greater effectiveness in the use of these systems. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all NASA field installations and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Since supply of this handbook is limited, abstracts of the portion or portions applicable to a given requirement will be made for the individual specific needs encountered rather than supplying copies of the handbook as has been past practice.

  16. Preoperative Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Bock, Matthias; Fritsch, Gerhard; Hepner, David L

    2016-03-01

    Routine preoperative testing is not cost-effective, because it is unlikely to identify significant abnormalities. Abnormal findings from routine testing are more likely to be false positive, are costly to pursue, introduce a new risk, increase the patient's anxiety, and are inconvenient to the patient. Abnormal findings rarely alter the surgical or anesthetic plan, and there is usually no association between perioperative complications and abnormal laboratory results. Incidental findings and false positive results may lead to increased hospital visits and admissions. Preoperative testing needs to be done based on a targeted history and physical examination and the type of surgery. PMID:26927738

  17. Laboratory prototype flash evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and on-orbit peak heat loads, and Freon 22 for terrestrial flight phases below 120,000 feet altitude. The design features, fabrication techniques used for the prototype unit, redundancy considerations, and the fluid temperature control arrangement are reported in detail. The results of an extensive test program to determine the evaporator operational characteristics under a wide variety of conditions are presented.

  18. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  19. Novae as Thermonuclear Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    2003-07-01

    Fred Hoyle undertook a study of observational consequences of the thermonuclear paradigm for the nova event in the years following his 1972 resignation from Cambridge University. The most fruitful of these have been in the areas of gamma-ray astronomy, by which one attempts to measure the level of radioactivity in the nova envelope, and of presolar grain studies in laboratories, by which one measures anomalous isotopic ratios that fingerprint condensation in the thermonuclear event. This work summarizes progress with these two astronomical measures of the novae.

  20. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy`s. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  1. Laboratory Visualization of Global Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandkar, S.; Sheldon, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic fields have been difficult to image since their invention by Michael Faraday. A common introductory physics demonstration uses iron filings suspended in glycerin to image the 3-D dipole field around a bar magnet. However helpful this display, the filings have the discouraging property of modifying the field they incarnate. It is with even greater difficulty that the magnetospheric fields are imaged, thus the excitement over energetic neutral atom images of trapped ions, providing the first global images of the ghostly magnetic fields. We demonstrate an even simpler technique of observing the magnetic field via photons produced by collisional excitation of the background neutral gas in a laboratory vacuum chamber. The intensity is then directly proportional to the ion density, giving direct evidence of magnetic topology and structure. Several unique trapping regions in the laboratory analog "double-dipole" magnetosphere were uncovered with this technique. In addition, optical emissions are enhanced by field-aligned potentials which can illuminate individual field lines. An laboratory "substorm" triggered by field-aligned potentials is presented, demonstrating this approach. Finally, we present several ways in which field-aligned discharges were produced in vitro, both statically and dynamically. If the laboratory analog holds for the magnetosphere, we have another tool for identifying the two ends of a field line.

  2. The Laboratory in Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Harold N.

    1979-01-01

    The role of laboratory experience in professional education is discussed. Although laboratory experiments are often expensive and demanding on faculty time, they can offer a unique experience to the veterinary medicine student. (BH)

  3. How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to day in a laboratory. The other two, sensitivity and specificity, deal with how well the test ... are frequently monitored by the professional laboratory personnel. Sensitivity and specificity data are determined by research studies ...

  4. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  5. Diagnosis and management of common acquired bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Nicole; Sarode, Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Acquired bleeding disorders (ABD) are commonly encountered in both inpatient and outpatient settings. ABD can occur due to consumption, decreased synthesis, or inhibition of coagulation factors and platelets. Clinical presentation may vary, ranging from mild bruising to life-threatening hemorrhage. The location, frequency, severity, and provocation of bleeding provide insight into the cause of ABD. Obtaining a good medical, surgical, family, social, and medication history is a crucial step in determining the underlying etiology. Basic laboratory parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet count, and D-dimer levels, aid in further elucidating the reason for bleeding. Optimal management depends on accurate interpretation of the history and laboratory values. Treatment options include administration of vitamin K; blood component transfusion, consisting of plasma, cryoprecipitate, and/or platelets; and blood derivatives, including single and multiple factor concentrates. These products should be used judiciously, due to potential infectious and noninfectious complications, including transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload. This article discusses the management of the more common causes of ABD. PMID:23390026

  6. Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, R.E.; Daley, J.G.; Roach, P.D.

    1986-06-01

    Stirling engine research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused at (1) development of mathematical models and analytical tools for predicting component and engine performance, and (2) experimental research into fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena occurring in Stirling cycle devices. A result of the analytical effort has been the formation of a computer library specifically for Stirling engine researchers and developers. The library contains properties of structural materials commonly used, thermophysical properties of several working fluids, correlations for heat transfer calculations and general specifications of mechanical arrangements (including various drive mechanisms) that can be utilized to model a particular engine. The library also contains alternative modules to perform analysis at different levels of sophistication, including design optimization. A reversing flow heat transfer facility is operating at Argonne to provide data at prototypic Stirling engine operating conditions under controlled laboratory conditions. This information is needed to validate analytical models.

  7. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  8. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  9. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodnight, Thomas W.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed for the support, simulation, and verification of the International Space Station microgravity environment. The MEL utilizes an inertial measurement system using acceleration emissions generated by various operating components of the space station. These emissions, if too large, could hinder the science performed on the space station by disturbing the microgravity environment. Typical test components are disk drives, pumps, motors, solenoids, fans, and cameras. These components will produce inertial forces, which disturb the microgravity on-orbit station environment. These components, usually housed within a station rack, must meet acceleration limits imposed at the rack interface for minimizing the onboard station-operating environment. The NASA Glenn Research Center developed this one-of-a-kind laboratory for testing components and, eventually, rack-level configurations. The MEL approach is to measure the component's generated inertial forces. This force is a product of the full diagonal mass matrix including the test setup (the center of gravity, mass moment of inertia, and weight) and the resolved diagonal rigid-body acceleration determined from measurements using the 10 apparatus accelerometers. The mass matrix can be test derived. The bifilar torsional pendulum method is used to measure the moment of inertia for the test component.

  10. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, R.

    1993-12-31

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5{mu}Sv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured.

  11. On modeling the common mode inductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nave, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The common mode inductor is the corner stone of filter design. One of the most important parameters of performance is leakage inductance. The role of leakage inductance in filter performance and current handling is discussed. It is demonstrated that leakage inductance is, in fact, desirable. Underlying physics of operation for the common mode inductor is reviewed. A model is presented which enables the designer to predict the leakage inductance of the common mode choke.

  12. Two Circles and Their Common Tangents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given two circles C 1 and C 2 in a plane such that neither one of the two circles is contained in the other, there are either four common tangents when the circles do not intersect at all or the circles have three common tangents when they touch each other externally or only two common tangents when the circles intersect exactly at two points. The…

  13. Validation of laboratory-developed molecular assays for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Burd, Eileen M

    2010-07-01

    Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

  14. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  15. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  16. Laboratory Materials: Affordances or Constraints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is critical to the understanding of biology and is a central piece of biological sciences instruction. Although much investigation has focused on the content of biology laboratory exercises, we contend that understanding the extent to which the laboratory materials can aid or limit experimental investigation is of equal…

  17. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist both the private and public sectors to locate and utilize technological expertise within the federal laboratories, this directory lists the federal laboratories and centers that are affiliated with the Federal Laboratory Consortium and describes the area of technological expertise they can make available to solve problems. This…

  18. Diversifying the Introductory Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.; Lessie, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Describes a two-semester laboratory program designed to motivate students. The program consists of computer-oriented modules and discovery approach laboratory exercises. Students complete similar computer/laboratory material during the first semester but elect one of three tracks during the second semester (computer, every-day life, and…

  19. Managing the Occupational Education Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, George

    This guide for occupational educators deals with laboratory and instructional management on an interdisciplinary basis within the broad field of occupational education. The principles discussed are intended to be applied at all levels and in all types of laboratories. The text suggests effective ways of organizing laboratories so that students can…

  20. Effect of analytical quality on establishing common reference intervals and their use.

    PubMed

    Rustad, P; Hyltoft Petersen, P

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP), reference intervals were established for 25 common clinical biochemical quantities. In the project, samples from more than 3000 reference individuals collected in the 102 participating laboratories from all five Nordic countries were analysed locally. In order to maintain a high level of analytical quality and to document this quality, a common calibrator/reference preparation (CAL) and a number of control samples were analysed together with the reference samples. All these materials were serum pools of unprocessed serum from many donors in order to obtain commutable materials. The CAL was used to harmonize the many different analytical procedures and calibrations by simple recalibration by the factor T/M where T is the target value based on reference methods and M is the mean of 10 replicate measurements of CAL in each laboratory. The analytical quality specifications (analytical goals) were based on specifications created directly for the purpose of sharing common reference intervals and only the bias criteria were used because bias is the dominating problem in transfer of reference intervals. These specifications were different for the evaluation of reference values to create common reference intervals and for the laboratories to use these common reference intervals (when established). An interesting outcome was that it was only for the biologically well-regulated quantities serum-sodium and serum-calcium that the selection of the best laboratories gave considerably narrower reference intervals. PMID:15223703

  1. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  2. Laboratory facility design and microbial indoor air quality in selected hospital laboratories.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kiennukul, Nuchanard; Vatthanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-05-01

    Hospital laboratory is one of workplace areas contaminated with a variety of biohazards. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbial air quality and facility design in the laboratories of four selected governmental hospitals (Hospitals A, B, C, and D) in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred eighty-eight indoor air samples were collected from 40 laboratory rooms to investigate bacterial and fungal counts using the Millipore air tester. Forty air samples were collected from the waiting areas of those laboratories, and 16 outdoor air samples were collected to use for comparison. Additionally, those laboratory facilities were assessed following biosafety facility design (10 items). Results indicated that the facility design of laboratory in the Hospital A met most of items of the biosafety facility criteria. The rest met only seven items of the criteria. Means +/- standard deviation (SD) of bacterial counts of 253.1 +/- 247.7 cfu/m3, 236.8 +/- 200.1 cfu/m3, 304.4 +/- 264.2 cfu/m3, and 146.7 +/- 127.0 cfu/m3, and fungal counts of 500.8 +/- 64.2 cfu/ m3, 425.0 +/- 21.2 cfu/m3, 357.0 +/- 121.2 cfu/m3, and 355.7 +/- 86.8 cfu/m3 were found in hospital laboratories A, B, C and D, respectively. The isolated colonies of bacteria and fungi were identified as group or genus. It was found that the most common bacteria was Staphylococcus spp (84.1%, 76.0%, 72.1% and 80.5%, respectively), whereas, the most common fungi were Aspergillus spp and septate hyphae fungi (42.0%, 37.5%, 39.5%, and 45.7%; vs 38.6%, 56.2%, 52.1%, and 37.2%, respectively). These data may be valuable to develop interventions to improve the microbial indoor air quality among hospital laboratories and for preventing the laboratory-acquired infections. PMID:24974659

  3. The occurrence of ataxia-telangiectasia and common variable immunodeficiency in siblings: case report.

    PubMed

    Osundwa, V M; Dawod, S T

    1994-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency and ataxia-telangiectasia with immunodeficiency are both well recognized syndromes which occur in children. The aetiological factors responsible for both these conditions have yet to be defined clearly. The clinical and laboratory features in two siblings, one with common variable immunodeficiency and the other with ataxia-telangiectasia, are presented. This is the first report of these two entities occurring in siblings. PMID:7516139

  4. Tochilinite Produced in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozerenko, S. V.; Organova, N. J.; Fadeev, V. V.; Magazina, L. O.; Kolpakova, N. N.; Kopneva, L. A.

    1996-03-01

    Tochilinite was firstly identified in the serpentinites from Voronezh region, Russia, in 1971. Later this mineral was recognized to be a major matrix phase of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM) where tochilinite as a mixed-layer structure occurs among serpentine group minerals, olivine, pyroxene, pyrrhotite etc. Terrestrial tochilinite has been suggested to result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of serpentinite. The origin of the chondritic tochilinite is still not known, partly because of failure to synthesis this mineral. As for as we know, since 1971, there was no publication about successful synthesis of tochilinite. Here we present results of the first laboratory synthesis of tochilinite as a product of interaction of Fe(II) hydroxides with H2S at 80 degrees C, and total concentration of reduced sulfur ions in solution lower than 10-4M at pH 7.8 and lower than 1M at pH 11.5.

  5. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  6. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  7. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  8. FORT Molecular Ecology Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stevens, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Fort Collins Science Center Molecular Ecology Laboratory is to use the tools and concepts of molecular genetics to address a variety of complex management questions and conservation issues facing the management of the Nation's fish and wildlife resources. Together with our partners, we design and implement studies to document genetic diversity and the distribution of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species. Information from these studies is used to support wildlife-management planning and conservation actions. Current and past studies have provided information to assess taxonomic boundaries, inform listing decisions made under the Endangered Species Act, identify unique or genetically depauperate populations, estimate population size or survival rates, develop management or recovery plans, breed wildlife in captivity, relocate wildlife from one location to another, and assess the effects of environmental change.

  9. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  11. Laminar laboratory rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizilles, Grégoire; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Éric; Métivier, François

    2014-05-01

    A viscous fluid flowing over fine plastic grains spontaneously channelizes into a few centimeters-wide river. After reaching its equilibrium shape, this stable laboratory flume is able to carry a steady load of sediments, like many alluvial rivers. When the sediment discharge vanishes, the river size, shape and slope fit the threshold theory proposed by Glover and Florey (1951), which assumes that the Shields parameter is critical on the channel bed. As the sediment discharge is increased, the river widens and flattens. Surprisingly, the aspect ratio of its cross section depends on the sediment discharge only, regardless of the water discharge. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these findings based on the balance between gravity, which pulls particles towards the center of the channel, and the diffusion of bedload particles, which pushes them away from areas of intense bedload.

  12. Computer integrated laboratory testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the integration of computers into the Engineering Materials Science Laboratory course, where existing test equipment is not computerized. The first lab procedure is to demonstrate and produce a material phase change curve. The second procedure is a demonstration of the modulus of elasticity and related stress-strain curve, plastic performance, maximum and failure strength. The process of recording data by sensors that are connected to a data logger which adds a time base, and the data logger in turn connected to a computer, places the materials labs into a computer integrated mode with minimum expense and maximum flexibility. The sensor signals are input into a spread sheet for tabular records, curve generation, and graph printing.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  14. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  15. Interaction between clinic and laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elina; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians order laboratory tests to diagnose, monitor, and screen for diseases, to evaluate or confirm previously abnormal results and to develop prognoses. The rigorous quality assurance programs, large automated processes and economic constraints may induce direct challenges to tailored diagnosis. Clinicians will have to gain an understanding of the underlying principles of laboratory technologies without losing their ability to practice 'the art of medicine' at their primary focus - the patient. Specialized laboratory services and expertise play especially important roles in coagulation hematology. Assays are technically demanding and often based on functional properties of proteins, producing results that are far more than plain numbers. Interpretation of laboratory data poses many challenges, such as pre-analytical and patient-dependent factors, of which the laboratory is often not well informed, but which the clinicians are required to take into account. The laboratory scientist needs to understand the multiple clinical circumstances causing variance or interference in the laboratory results. Direct interaction between clinic and laboratory is needed. When laboratory-specific issues are uncertain to the clinician, the laboratory scientist should become the clinician's primary consultant. The better the education and knowledge of both directions, the better the outcome. Regular multidisciplinary rounds by the clinicians and the laboratory scientists are of great benefit. This interaction at its best fosters research and development by identifying new mechanisms and tools. PMID:21193109

  16. [ISO 15189 medical laboratory accreditation].

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tsutomu

    2004-10-01

    This International Standard, based upon ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO 9001, provides requirements for competence and quality that are particular to medical laboratories. While this International Standard is intended for use throughout the currently recognized disciplines of medical laboratory services, those working in other services and disciplines will also find it useful and appropriate. In addition, bodies engaged in the recognition of the competence of medical laboratories will be able to use this International Standard as the basis for their activities. The Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (AB) and the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CCLS) are jointly developing the program of accreditation of medical laboratories. ISO 15189 requirements consist of two parts, one is management requirements and the other is technical requirements. The former includes the requirements of all parts of ISO 9001, moreover it includes the requirement of conformity assessment body, for example, impartiality and independence from any other party. The latter includes the requirements of laboratory competence (e.g. personnel, facility, instrument, and examination methods), moreover it requires that laboratories shall participate proficiency testing(s) and laboratories' examination results shall have traceability of measurements and implement uncertainty of measurement. Implementation of ISO 15189 will result in a significant improvement in medical laboratories management system and their technical competence. The accreditation of medical laboratory will improve medical laboratory service and be useful for patients. PMID:15624503

  17. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  18. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  19. A Learning Commons on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Deb; Bouchey, Heather; Nelson, Garet; Sherriff, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a Lyndon Learning Commons at Lyndon State College. The Commons model emphasizes the integration of a variety of academic support services, increasing both their proximity to one another and cross-unit collaboration, in order to make these services more visible, more accessible, and easier for students to…

  20. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  1. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    PubMed Central

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  2. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment. These…

  3. Fractions, Decimals, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    At grade 7, Common Core's content standards call for the use of long division to find the decimal representation of a rational number. With an eye to reconciling this requirement with Common Core's call for "a balanced combination of procedure and understanding," a more transparent form of long division is developed. This leads to the…

  4. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  5. Instructional Leadership and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Karla; Bennett-Schmidt, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    Following the 2012-13 administrators welcome back kick-off meeting, superintendent Pat highlighted the district's plan to roll-out of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), including integration of learning experiences that would prepare students for the new Common Core assessments from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC).…

  6. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  7. Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cheryl Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

  8. Commonality Analysis for the Regression Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Kavita

    Commonality analysis is a procedure for decomposing the coefficient of determination (R superscript 2) in multiple regression analyses into the percent of variance in the dependent variable associated with each independent variable uniquely, and the proportion of explained variance associated with the common effects of predictors in various…

  9. Building Common College-Ready Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati

    2010-01-01

    Many people in higher education were caught by surprise when the nation's governors and chief state school officers announced their intention to adopt common standards for American high schools that aim at college readiness. In this article, the author explores what this common standards is all about and how it can be helpful in college…

  10. Go Figure: Math and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this article about the Common Core State Standards and mathematics, the author wanted to point out what's familiar in these standards and to give teachers clear access to what's different about them. She wanted to emphasize what has made her passionate about the Common Core standards--which is their two-part structure: Standards for…

  11. Common Threads: Women, Mathematics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary

    Common Threads was the name of an exhibition that drew together a number of views on mathematics and displayed them operating in the activity deemed most devoid of them. It demonstrated and challenged both gender stereotypes with its evidence that needlework is full of mathematics. This book tries to place Common Threads and its influence within…

  12. The Not-So-Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, R. Bruce; McPherson, Carolyn M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolving common school is public, community-based, supported by public taxation, and a secular alternative available to parents and their children. The "not-so-common" school, an example of which is Mendel Catholic High School (Chicago, Illinois), features curriculum constructed by professionals, religious training, and determination to…

  13. Insights into The Commons on Flickr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Commons on Flickr, comprised of an international community of select libraries, museums, and archives, was a project initially launched in 2008 by the Library of Congress and Flickr. Primary goals of The Commons are to broaden exposure to rich cultural heritage photographs and to observe and participate in the communities of engagement and…

  14. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkus, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) was published in 2010 and includes a complete collection of standards that are published and reviewed as a "common core" in which math skills have been extensively adopted. The recommendations provided have been entirely or partially adapted by more than 47 states of the US.…

  15. Common Core in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  16. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  17. Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

  18. Organized Interests and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Among the notable aspects of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the diverse array of interest groups supporting them. These organizations must now apply the strategies they used so effectively in advancing the Common Core to stem mounting opposition to it. This article draws on theories of political and policy learning and interviews with…

  19. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  20. Commonality of Ground Systems in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shawn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront development and long-term operations and maintenance costs, success in real, large-scale engineering systems used to support launch operations is relatively unknown. A broad literature review conducted for this paper did not yield a single paper specifically addressing the application of commonality for ground systems at any launch site in the United States or abroad. This paper provides a broad overview of the ground systems, captures historical and current application of commonality at the launch site, and offers suggestions for additional research to further develop commonality approaches.

  1. Laboratory investigation of primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, Michael; Taylor, Paul J; Pimenta, Eduardo; Ahmed, Ashraf H Al-Asaly; Gordon, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    Availability and wider application of the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA) has led to the recognition that PA is the most common potentially curable and specifically treatable form of hypertension, possibly accounting for as many as 5-13% of patients. Aldosterone excess also has adverse cardiovascular consequences that go above and beyond hypertension development. These findings support the concept that PA plays an important role in cardiovascular disease states and should be systematically sought and specifically treated, and have led to the development of a US Endocrine Society clinical guideline for the detection, diagnosis and management of this condition. Reliable detection requires that interfering factors (including medications known to alter the ratio) are controlled before ARR measurement (or their effects taken into account), and reliable methods such as fludrocortisone suppression testing are used to confirm PA. Because computed tomography frequently misses aldosterone-producing adenomas yet demonstrates non-functioning nodules, adrenal venous sampling is the only dependable way to differentiate unilateral (surgically correctable) from bilateral (usually treated with aldosterone antagonist medications) forms of PA. For the glucocorticoid-remediable form of PA (familial hyperaldosteronism type I), genetic testing for the causative 'hybrid' 11beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone synthase gene has greatly facilitated detection. Laboratory assessment (including suppression testing post-operatively, and renin measurement during treatment with aldosterone antagonist medications) can assist in assessing therapeutic responses and in guiding ongoing management. Development of new, highly reliable high-throughput mass spectrometric methods for measuring aldosterone and renin should further enhance detection and reliability of diagnostic workup for PA. PMID:20498828

  2. Creating the laboratory`s future; A strategy for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    ``Creating The Laboratory`s Future`` describes Livermore`s roles and responsibilities as a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory and sets the foundation for decisions about the Laboratory`s programs and operations. It summarizes Livermore`s near-term strategy, which builds on recent Lab achievements and world events affecting their future. It also discusses their programmatic and operational emphases and highlights program areas that the authors believe can grow through application of Lab science and technology. Creating the Laboratory`s Future reflects their very strong focus on national security, important changes in the character of their national security work, major efforts are under way to overhaul their administrative and operational systems, and the continuing challenge of achieving national consensus on the role of the government in energy, environment, and the biosciences.

  3. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed. PMID:22509269

  4. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  5. OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS: MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND LABORATORY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussions are presented for (1) the mechanism of action of chemical dispersants for oil spills, (2) factors affecting performance of dispersants and its measurement, (3) some common laboratory methods that have been used to test dispersant performance, (4) a brief summary of di...

  6. Two Readily-Constructed Instruments for the Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Neil S.

    1983-01-01

    Reported are designs for a colorimeter (absorptiometer) and polarimeter, both of which may be constructed readily with average workshop facilities and whose performance is superior to many commercial instruments commonly used in teaching laboratories. Includes pertinent diagrams, operating instructions, and sample output. (JN)

  7. Idealization in Chemistry: Pure Substance and Laboratory Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-González, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of idealization in chemistry and the role played by pure substance and laboratory product. This topic has evident repercussions in the educational contexts that are applied to the science classroom, which are highlighted throughout the text. A common structure for knowledge construction is proposed for both…

  8. Student Arc Welding Noise Exposures in Agricultural Mechanics Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen M.

    1989-01-01

    A study surveyed noise levels in an agricultural mechanics educational laboratory while students completed common arc welds. It found that the time a student spent in the welding booth posed no threat to hearing. Maximum noise measured was well below the 140 dB(A) impulse level set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (JOW)

  9. COMPARISON OF FIELD AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION RATES TO LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is common to use bioventing as a polishing step for soil vapor extraction. It was originally planned to use soil vapor extraction and bioventing at a former landfill site in Delaware but laboratory scale biodegradation studies indicated that most of the volatile organic compou...

  10. Quantitative Imaging in Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of quantitative imaging, which is very commonly used in laboratory, is shown to be very useful for studying the fast kinetics and fluorescence quenching of many experiments. The imaging technique is extremely cheap and hence can be used in many absorption and luminescence experiments.

  11. Heteronuclear Multidimensional Protein NMR in a Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR techniques are commonly used to study protein structure, function, and dynamics, yet they are rarely taught at the undergraduate level. Here, we describe a senior undergraduate laboratory where students collect, process, and analyze heteronuclear multidimensional NMR experiments using an unstudied Ig domain (Ig2…

  12. Crystal Model Kits for Use in the General Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildahl, Nicholas J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic crystal model kits are described. Laboratory experiments in which students use these kits to build models have been extremely successful in providing them with an understanding of the three-dimensional structures of the common cubic unit cells as well as hexagonal and cubic closest-packing of spheres. (JN)

  13. Mother Earth Chemistry: A Laboratory Course for Nonmajors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a laboratory course that introduces students to chemistry using examples commonly encountered in the supermarket and on the dinner table. Acquaints students with simple chemical tasks that can be practiced at home, including the making of wine, ale, soap, cheese, and yogurt, and introduces them to the small-scale production of…

  14. Guide for Laboratory Animal Facilities and Care. Revised July 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    A useful common reference in providing professionally appropriate care of laboratory animals for scientific institutions is presented. Recommendations are based on scientific principles, expert opinion, and experience with methods and practices that have proved to be consistent with quality. A selected bibliography is included in periodicals and…

  15. Mentoring New Adjunct Faculty to Teach Science Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Delia Castro

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses mentoring and training strategies that enhance adjunct faculty members' teaching effectiveness in undergraduate science laboratories and foster a sense of common enterprise within the institutional environment. These strategies include the preparation of an "Adjunct Faculty Handbook", mentoring and peer-support programs, and…

  16. Investigations into the common ion effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdeavella, C. V.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    1994-09-01

    The molecular origins of the common ion effect and the salting out of nonpolar molecules from aqueous solutions are investigated. Thermodynamic stability criteria for a common ion mixture in a polar solvent are derived. Kirkwood-Buff statistical thermodynamics is used to make the connection with the microscopic pair correlation functions. The observed sensitivity of the compositional stability with respect to ionic strength indicates that a demixing transition is the primary cause of the instability for the common ion effect for our model Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb Hamiltonian.

  17. Laboratory development TPV generator

    SciTech Connect

    Holmquist, G.A.; Wong, E.M.; Waldman, C.H.

    1996-02-01

    A laboratory model of a TPV generator in the kilowatt range was developed and tested. It was based on methane/oxygen combustion and a spectrally matched selective emitter/collector pair (ytterbia emitter-silicon PV cell). The system demonstrated a power output of 2.4 kilowatts at an overall efficiency of 4.5{percent} without recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases. Key aspects of the effort include: (1) process development and fabrication of mechanically strong selective emitter ceramic textile materials; (2) design of a stirred reactor emitter/burner capable of handling up to 175,000 Btu/hr fuel flows; (3) support to the developer of the production silicon concentrator cells capable of withstanding TPV environments; (4) assessing the apparent temperature exponent of selective emitters; and (5) determining that the remaining generator efficiency improvements are readily defined combustion engineering problems that do not necessitate breakthrough technology. The fiber matrix selective emitter ceramic textile (felt) was fabricated by a relic process with the final heat-treatment controlling the grain growth in the porous ceramic fiber matrix. This textile formed a cylindrical cavity for a stirred reactor. The ideal stirred reactor is characterized by constant temperature combustion resulting in a uniform reactor temperature. This results in a uniform radiant emission from the emitter. As a result of significant developments in the porous emitter matrix technology, a TPV generator burner/emitter was developed that produced kilowatts of radiant energy. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Spectrometers beyond the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1996-11-01

    Two new types of miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) presently being built have enabled this technology to be taken out of the laboratory and into the field. Both designs are very rugged, use little power to run, and can be made extremely small and lightweight. They are excellent candidates for airborne use, both in aircraft and satellite applications. One, the Mcro FT, is a mass balanced linear reciprocating scan operating in the 1-2 scan per second speed range. The other, the Turbo FT, uses a rotary scan, enabling it to run at much higher speeds, from 10 to 1000 scans per second. Either type can be built in the visible, near K and thermal IR wavelength ranges, and provide spectral resolution of 1-2 wave-numbers. Results obtained in all these wavelength ranges are presented here. The rotary configuration is more suited to airborne and satellite survey type deployments, due mostly to its rapid scan rate. Either of these sensors will fit into a small, commercially available stabilized pod which can easily be attached to a helicopter or light plane. This results in a very economical flight spectrometer system. 11 figs.

  19. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  20. BNL Sources Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Graves, W.; Heese, R.; Johnson, E.D.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    The NSLS has a long-standing interest in providing the best possible synchrotron radiation sources for its user community, and hence, has recently established the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) to pursue research into fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources. A major element of the program includes development of a high peak power FEL meant to operate in the vacuum ultraviolet. The objective of the program is to develop the source, and experimental technology together to provide the greatest impact on UV science. The accelerator under construction for the SDL consists of a high brightness RF photocathode electron gun followed by a 230 MeV short pulse linac incorporating a magnetic chicane for pulse compression. The gun drive laser is a wide bandwidth Ti: Sapphire regenerative amplifier capable of pulse shaping which will be used to study non- linear emittance compensation. Using the compressor, 1 nC bunches with a length as small as 50 {mu}m sigma (2 kA peak current) are available for experiments. In this paper we briefly describe the facility and detail our plans for utilizing the 10 m long NISUS wiggler to carry out single pass FEL experiments. These include a 1 {mu}m SASE demonstration, a seeded beam demonstration at 300 nm, and a High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment at 200 mn. The application of chirped pulse amplification to this type of FEL will also be discussed.

  1. Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.; Sherva, B.

    1995-07-01

    The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

  2. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  3. Making Sense of Fear Testing - Validating Common Behavioral Tests used in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests to assess fear are commonly used in laboratory animals, such as mice and rats, when researchers wish to understand the implications of specific drugs, such as anxiolytics, or specific environments which may be used to house experimental animals. Researchers who study the welfare of livestock ...

  4. Current status and perspectives of unificiation of Glu-3 nomenclature systems in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) composition in common wheat is one of the critical determinants of gluten properties. However, the nomenclature of Glu-3 encoding LMW-GSs has not been consistent among laboratories, due to the complexity of the LMW-GSs and the distinct separation metho...

  5. Preferential predation of cool season grass seed by the common cricket (Acheta domesticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if there might be a seed predation preference among forage grasses a laboratory study was conducted using the common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.). Six cool-season grasses were selected and feeding studies were conducted over a three day period. The study was designed as a randomized ...

  6. Measuring meaningful learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Kelli R.

    The undergraduate chemistry laboratory has been an essential component in chemistry education for over a century. The literature includes reports on investigations of singular aspects laboratory learning and attempts to measure the efficacy of reformed laboratory curriculum as well as faculty goals for laboratory learning which found common goals among instructors for students to learn laboratory skills, techniques, experimental design, and to develop critical thinking skills. These findings are important for improving teaching and learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, but research is needed to connect the faculty goals to student perceptions. This study was designed to explore students' ideas about learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning was used as a guide for the data collection and analysis choices for this research. Novak's theory states that in order for meaningful learning to occur the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains must be integrated. The psychomotor domain is inherent in the chemistry laboratory, but the extent to which the cognitive and affective domains are integrated is unknown. For meaningful learning to occur in the laboratory, students must actively integrate both the cognitive domain and the affective domains into the "doing" of their laboratory work. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences within the context of conducting experiments in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the data generated by the MLLI were collected from multiple quantitative studies: a one semester study at one university, a one semester study at 15 colleges and universities across the United States, and a longitudinal study where the MLLI was administered 6 times during two years of general and organic chemistry laboratory courses. Results from

  7. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  8. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  9. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one-third of ICU ... among former ICU patients are three to four times higher than in the general population, according to ...

  10. Diagnosing and treating common oral pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dilley, D C; Siegel, M A; Budnick, S

    1991-10-01

    When the physician is confronted with an oral pathologic condition in a child, the adage "common things happen commonly" should be applied. Congenital lesions such as palatal and alveolar cysts occur in almost 50% of newborns. Developmental conditions such as Fordyce granules and retrocuspid papillae are found in most children. Localized soft-tissue enlargements commonly seen in young children include the parulis, mucocele, papilloma, and inflammatory gingival tumors. In addition, soft-tissue pathologies and discomfort associated with herpesvirus infections or recurrent aphthous ulcerations often present as a chief complaint. The physician's knowledge and treatment recommendations for common oral pathologies should be an integral component to the overall medical management of infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:1886744

  11. Taking the Common Ground: Beyond Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruffee, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, after 30 years of liberal education's focus on examining and celebrating diversity, the realities of contemporary social and civil life and global politics are prompting new interest in recognizing and affirming our genuine commonality. (EV)

  12. GenomicDataCommonsNewsNote

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is establishing the Genomic Data Commons to store, analyze and distribute cancer genomics data generated by NCI and other research organizations. The GDC will provide an interactive system for researchers to access data, with the goal of advancing the

  13. Common cold - how to treat at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... green snot, and sneezing Sore throat Treating your Cold Treating your symptoms will not make your cold ...

  14. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  15. Common misconceptions in contact dermatitis counseling.

    PubMed

    Katta, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    Both physicians and patients hold many misconceptions when it comes to allergen avoidance. Ten commonly held misconceptions are exposed, allowing more accurate approach to the individual with cutaneous allergies. PMID:18627724

  16. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... bumps”) on the vocal cord(s) alter vocal cord vibration and lead to hoarseness. The most common vocal ... repositions the vocal cord to improve contact and vibration of the paralyzed vocal cord with the non- ...

  17. Health Conditions Common in African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Return to top Health conditions common in African-American women Asthma Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Glaucoma and cataracts Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol HIV/AIDS Infant death Kidney disease Lupus Mental health ...

  18. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  19. Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159815.html Common Surgeries Raise Risk for Opioid Dependence: Study Doctors should explore alternatives for pain ... have an elevated risk of growing dependent on opioid painkillers, a new study finds. These prescription painkillers ...

  20. What Are Some Common Signs of Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications What are some common signs of pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The primary sign of pregnancy is missing a menstrual period or ...