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Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Pathologic findings in orthodontic radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Kuhlberg, Andrew J; Norton, Louis A

    2003-02-01

    Orthodontists routinely use radiography to diagnose malocclusions, plan treatment, and assess progress or the achievement of treatment goals. These films often contain evidence of oral or dentofacial pathology that require dental or medical consultation and treatment. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 396 orthodontic patients under treatment at a single time whose x-ray films were examined for pathologic findings by oral radiologists or treating clinicians. The results showed that more than 6% of these patients had significant findings, some with medical ramifications. PMID:12594425

  2. Primary Pulmonary Lymphoid Lesions: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, Arlene; Raparia, Kirtee; Lewis, Vanessa A; Franks, Teri J; Dhand, Sabeen; Galvin, Jeffrey R; White, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761531

  3. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Tae Sung

    2006-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities. PMID:16418244

  4. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain

  7. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  8. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,

  9. [Pathologic anatomical findings in 19 cats with idiopathic cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Kimman, T G; van der Molen, E J

    1984-02-15

    The pathological findings in nineteen cats with idiopathic cardiomyopathy are reported. The disease is marked by a usually short clinical course, often without the specific symptoms of heart failure. Some cats die suddenly. The heart usually shows dilatation, occasionally accompanied by hypertrophy. Histological findings include various degrees of degeneration, inflammation and fibrosis. Histological changes are absent in some cases. The pathogenesis is discussed. The aetiology has not been elucidated so far. PMID:6701881

  10. Orbital granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis): clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Muller, Karra; Lin, Jonathan H

    2014-08-01

    The pathology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly Wegener granulomatosis, typically features a granulomatous and sometimes necrotizing vasculitis targeting the respiratory tract and kidneys. However, orbital involvement occurs in up to 60% of patients and is frequently the first or only clinical presentation in patients with systemic or limited forms of GPA. Orbital GPA can cause significant morbidity and potentially lead to complete loss of vision and permanent facial deformity. Fortunately, GPA is highly responsive to medical treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide or, more recently, rituximab. Therefore, it is imperative for this disease to be accurately diagnosed on orbital biopsy and distinguished from other histologically similar orbital lesions. Herein, we review the clinical and pathologic findings of orbital GPA, focusing on the differentiation of this disease from other inflammatory orbital lesions. PMID:25076302

  11. Pathological findings in 165 patients explored for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, D; Kozak-Ribbens, G; Rodet, L; Aubert, M; Borsarelli, J; Cozzone, P J; Pellissier, J F

    1993-01-01

    The pathological findings in 165 patients explored for malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility are reported. The first group of 120 subjects were patients investigated for MH. These patients had suffered an attack of MH under anaesthetic or were members of families in which a subject had died of MH. In vitro contracture tests revealed 25 malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) subjects, with positive contracture tests for halothane and caffeine, 5 malignant hyperthermia subjects with reaction to caffeine only (MHC), 3 malignant hyperthermia subjects with reaction to halothane only (MHH) and 87 malignant hyperthermia negative (MHN) subjects with normal contracture tests. The second group of 45 subjects had exertional heat stroke. In vitro contracture tests performed at least 3 months after the exertional heat stroke revealed 11 MHS, 6 MHC, 2 MHH subjects and 26 MHN. In both groups, whatever the in vitro contracture test results, pathological findings were heterogeneous and revealed various changes: rhabdomyolysis, mitochondrial myopathy, denervation, type II atrophy, AMPase deficiency, non-specific findings or normal features. Central core myopathy was only observed in the first subgroup and was the only disease significantly associated with MH. In contrast to previous reports, this study demonstrates the absence of a specific malignant hyperthermia or exertional heat stroke myopathy. Furthermore, the discovery of MHS subjects among the EHS group of patients highlights the need for systematic exploration of all these patients. PMID:8186710

  12. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal studies provide the basis for the challenging translation endothelial nanomedicine into the clinical domain. PMID:26435455

  13. Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-04-01

    The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability. PMID:22441196

  14. Abdominopelvic actinomycosis: spectrum of imaging findings and common mimickers

    PubMed Central

    der Molen, Aart Van; Es, Ad CMG Van; Giannila, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease that may mimic other inflammatory conditions on imaging. Its invasive nature may lead to mass formation and atypical presentation thus making accurate diagnosis quite difficult. Purpose To describe the different aspects of abdominopelvic actinomycosis on cross-sectional imaging and indicate discriminative findings from other inflammatory or neoplastic diseases. Material and Methods In our study we analyzed 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; age range, 25–75 years; mean age, 50 years) with pathologically proved abdominopelvic actinomycosis. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) had been performed in all patients. Eleven patients had a history of using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Bowel site, wall thickness and enhancement degree, inflammatory infiltration, and features of peritoneal or pelvic mass were evaluated at CT. Results The sigmoid colon was most commonly involved. Most patients showed concentric bowel wall-thickening, enhancing homogenously and inflammatory infiltration of pericolonic fat was mostly diffuse. In 11 patients, one or more pelvic abscesses were revealed, while a peritoneal or pelvic mass adjacent to the involved bowel segment was seen in three cases. Infiltration into the abdominal wall was seen in three cases while in one case there was thoracic dissemination. Conclusion Actinomycosis is related not only to long-term use of intrauterine contraceptive devices and should be included in the differential diagnosis when cross-sectional imaging studies show concentric bowel wall-thickening, intense contrast enhancement, regional pelvic or peritoneal masses, and extensive inflammatory fat infiltration with abscess formation. PMID:24778807

  15. Correlation between Radiological and Pathological Findings in Patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Studies focused on the pathological–radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M) pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT). Major three correlations were summarized. (1) Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia. (2) Cellular bronchitis in the small airways accompanied with exudates or granulation tissue in the lumen revealed as centrilobular nodules on CT. (3) Neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen radiologically demonstrated as air-space consolidation or ground-glass opacities. In M. pulmonis-infected mice model, pathologic patterns are strikingly different according to host cell-mediated immunity (CMI) levels; treatment with interleukin-2 lead to marked cellular bronchitis in the small airways and treatment with prednisolone or cyclosporin-A lead to neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen. Patients with centrilobular nodules predominant radiologic pattern have a high level of CMI, measuring by tuberculin skin test. From these findings, up-regulation of host CMI could change radiological pattern to centrilobular nodules predominant, on the other hand down-regulation of host CMI would change radiological pattern to ground-glass opacity and consolidation. It was suggested the pathological features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia may be altered by the level of host CMI.

  16. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Jewells, Valerie; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts. PMID:26288757

  17. Suspicious Findings at Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Occult to Conventional Digital Mammography: Imaging Features and Pathology Findings.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kimberly M; Turner, Estella; Sickles, Edward A; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    To review the imaging and pathologic features of a series of lesions detected at digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which are occult to conventional digital mammography (DM). We retrospectively reviewed 268 consecutive breast imaging reporting and data system 4 and 5 lesions imaged with both DM and DBT at our facility from July 2012 through April 2013. For each lesion, we recorded the mammographic finding, breast density, mode of biopsy, and pathology results. A total of 19 lesions were identified at DBT that were occult to DM. Sixty three percent (12/19) of these lesions were identified in dense breasts. Architectural distortion was seen in 74% (14/19) of cases and spiculated masses accounted for the remaining 26% (5/19). The positive predictive value of biopsy was 53% (10/19). Seven cases were infiltrating ductal carcinomas and three were infiltrating lobular carcinomas. High-risk lesions accounted for 47% (9/19) of the lesions, the majority of which were radial scars 67% (6/9). Eighty four percent (16/19) of the lesions underwent ultrasound guided core biopsy while the remainder underwent magnetic resonance imaging guided core biopsy. DBT may demonstrate suspicious lesions that are occult to DM, particularly in women with dense breasts. Such lesions have a high likelihood of malignancy and warrant biopsy. PMID:26148173

  18. Transrectal electrical impedance tomography of the prostate: Spatially coregistered pathological findings for prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuqing; Borsic, Andrea; Heaney, John; Seigne, John; Schned, Alan; Baker, Michael; Wason, Shaun; Hartov, Alex; Halter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common malignancies and currently represents the second leading cancer-specific cause of death in men. The current use of single modality transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance has a limited sensitivity and specificity for accurately identifying cancerous lesions within the prostate. This study introduces a novel prostate cancer imaging method that combines TRUS with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and reports on initial clinical findings based on in vivo measurements. Methods: The ultrasound system provides anatomic information, which guides EIT image reconstruction. EIT reconstructions are correlated with semiquantitative pathological findings. Thin plate spline warping transformations are employed to overlay electrical impedance images and pathological maps describing the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, with the latter used as reference for data analysis. Clinical data were recorded from a total of 50 men prior to them undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment. Student's t-tests were employed to statistically examine the electrical property difference between cancerous tissue and benign tissue as defined through histological assessment of the excised gland. Results: Example EIT reconstructions are presented along with a statistical analysis comparing EIT and pathology. An average transformation error of 1.67% is found when 381 spatially coregistered pathological images are compared with their target EIT reconstructed counterparts. At EIT signal frequencies of 0.4, 3.2, and 25.6 kHz, paired-testing demonstrated that the conductivity of cancerous regions is significantly greater than that of benign regions ( p < 0.0304). Conclusions: These preliminary clinical findings suggest the potential benefits electrical impedance measurements might have for prostate cancer detection. PMID:23718610

  19. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, A.; Cesaretti, M.; Tirone, A.; Francioli, N.; Piccolomini, A.; Vuolo, G.; Verre, L.; Savelli, V.; Di Cosmo, L.; Carli, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  20. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, A; Cesaretti, M; Tirone, A; Francioli, N; Piccolomini, A; Vuolo, G; Verre, L; Savelli, V; Di Cosmo, L; Carli, A F

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  1. Skin Infections Common in High School Wrestlers, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157183.html Skin Infections Common in High School Wrestlers, Study Finds Germs on mats, helmets are ... likely to suffer skin infections than other U.S. high school athletes, new research shows. The study authors examined ...

  2. MRI findings and pathological features in early-stage glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Kajiwara, Koji; Goto, Hisaharu; Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Nomura, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Eiji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic tool for glioblastoma, with almost all cases showing characteristic imaging findings such as a heterogeneous-ring enhanced pattern associated with significant edema. However, MRI findings for early-stage glioblastoma are less clear. In this study, a retrospective review of MRI findings in five patients showed slight T2WI signal changes on initial scans that developed into typical imaging findings of a ring-like or heterogeneously enhanced bulky tumor within 6 months. The diagnoses based on initial MRI were low grade glioma in three cases, venous thrombosis in one case, and uncertain in one case. Four cases were treated with gross total resection, while one case underwent biopsy. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that two cases were p53-positive, and that all cases were IDH1 R132H-negative and had overexpression of EGFR. FISH analysis showed that all cases were 1p19q LOH-negative. De novo glioblastoma was the final diagnosis in all cases. Our results show that initial MRI findings in early-stage glioblastoma of small ill-defined T2WI hyperintense lesions with poor contrast develop to bulky mass lesions with typical findings for glioblastoma in as short a period as 2.5 months. The early MRI findings are difficult to distinguish from those for non-neoplastic conditions, including ischemic, degenerative or demyelinating processes. Thus, there is a need for proactive diagnosis of glioblastoma using short-interval MRI scans over several weeks, other imaging modalities, and biopsy or resection, particularly given the extremely poor prognosis of this disease. PMID:25939441

  3. Adrenal cytomegaly is a frequent pathologic finding in hemoglobin bart hydrops fetalis.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortical cytomegaly (AC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon but tends to occur in certain situations, including specific congenital anomalies and hydrops due to maternal-fetal Rhesus incompatibility. Because the pathology in the latter condition does not differ greatly from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart hydrops fetalis, we performed a retrospective review of fetal and perinatal autopsy cases with Hb Bart to determine the prevalence of AC in that condition. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010) at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, there were 16 hydropic cases confirmed to have Hb Bart. Adrenocortical cytomegaly was found in 13 cases (81%). For comparison, we determined the occurrence of AC in cases of hydrops fetalis not due to Hb Bart (n  =  33) and a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies (n  =  34). Adrenocortical cytomegaly was identified in only 1 case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and 2 cases of anencephaly. Thus, AC is a common finding in cases of Hb Bart, a finding not previously documented. Moreover, our study suggests that Hb Bart is one of the conditions most commonly associated with AC. The reasons for this are not known. The mean Hb levels for the hydrops cases with Hb Bart and those with other forms of anemia showed no significant difference (P  =  0.63), nor was there any significant difference in Hb levels between cases of Hb Bart with and without AC. Nonetheless, the consistency of AC in cases of Hb Bart suggests that further study of this particular group of patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of this poorly understood pathologic finding. PMID:22257311

  4. [Pathological findings in subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (Leigh's disease) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Barz, H; Henker, J

    1975-01-01

    About 8-years old boy with a brief clinical history and postmortem findings of a subactue encephalomyelopathy (Leigh-Syndrom) is reported. Pathohistological features were found to be of microcyst formation, vascular proliferation, proliferation of astrocytes, fibrillary gliosis, partial destruction of the myelin sheaths, relative preservation of the cell bodies of neurons. The lesions were symmetrical and involved the tegmentum mesencephali, the lamine quadrigemina, the substantia nigra, the tegmentum pontis, the tegmentum of the medulla oblongata, the basal protion of nucl. lentiformis, the ansa lenticularis, the thalamus, the hypothalamus and the gray matter of the spinal cord. Moderate changes were in the cerebellum. There was no marked histological changes in the cerebral cortex and white matter of the cerebrum, the mammillary bodies, the nervi and tracti optici and the peripheral nerves. PMID:1210838

  5. Genitourinary schistosomiasis: life cycle and radiologic-pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Shebel, Haytham M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Abou El Atta, Heba M; Elguindy, Yehia M; El-Diasty, Tarek A

    2012-01-01

    Genitourinary schistosomiasis is produced by Schistosoma haematobium, a species of fluke that is endemic to Africa and the Middle East, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality in those regions. It also may be seen elsewhere, as a result of travel or immigration. S haematobium, one of the five fluke species that account for most human cases of schistosomiasis, is the only species that infects the genitourinary system, where it may lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs. In the early stages, it primarily involves the bladder and ureters; later, the kidneys and genital organs are involved. It rarely infects the colon or lungs. A definitive diagnosis of genitourinary schistosomiasis is based on findings of parasite ova at microscopic urinalysis. Clinical manifestations and radiologic imaging features also may be suggestive of the disease, even at an early stage: Hematuria, dysuria, and hemospermia, early clinical signs of an established S haematobium infection, appear within 3 months after infection. At imaging, fine ureteral calcifications that appear as a line or parallel lines on abdominopelvic radiographs and as a circular pattern on axial images from computed tomography (CT) are considered pathognomonic of early-stage schistosomiasis. Ureteritis, pyelitis, and cystitis cystica, conditions that are characterized by air bubble-like filling defects representing ova deposited in the ureter, kidney, and bladder, respectively, may be seen at intravenous urography, intravenous ureteropyelography, and CT urography. Coarse calcification, fibrosis, and strictures are signs of chronic or late-stage schistosomiasis. Such changes may be especially severe in the bladder, creating a predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. Genital involvement, which occurs more often in men than in women, predominantly affects the prostate and seminal vesicles. PMID:22786992

  6. Pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons.

    PubMed

    Bonar, C J; Garner, M M; Weber, E S; Keller, C J; Murray, M; Adams, L M; Frasca, S

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective study of the pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons was performed on specimens submitted to 2 reference laboratories from 1994 to 2012 to determine the range and occurrence of diseases affecting aquarium-held populations. One hundred two and 94 total diagnoses were recorded in weedy and leafy seadragons, respectively. Two of the more common etiologic diagnoses in both species were mycobacteriosis and scuticociliatosis, whereas myxozoanosis was common in weedy seadragons. Metazoan parasite infections were less common etiologic diagnoses. There were no correlations between mycobacteriosis and ciliate protozoan infections in either species. Myxozoanosis was usually found in combination with other diseases and, except for 1 case, was restricted to weedy seadragons. Phaeohyphomycosis, nonmycobacterial bacterial infections, and trauma were also important but less frequent diagnoses. Intestinal coccidiosis was found in weedy but not leafy seadragons. Mineralization of the swim bladder was detected in 26 of 197 leafy seadragons and only 2 of 257 weedy seadragons. Although weedy and leafy seadragons share certain diseases of significance to exhibit populations, there are diseases unique to each species about which the veterinary pathologist, clinician, or diagnostician should be aware. PMID:23528940

  7. Two Cases of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia of Similar Appearance in Adult Monozygotic Twin: Pathology and Computed Tomographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Sun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is related to decreased lung function throughout life. However, the pathology and radiology pattern of BPD of adults are not documented well yet. In this case report, we present BPD case of an adult monozygotic twin showing nearly identical lesions on chest computed tomography (CT). CT images showed mixed areas of ground-glass and reticular opacities in both lungs. They had common histories of pneumonias requiring mechanical ventilations in period of infants. Pulmonary function test of one patient showed a pulmonary insufficiency with airway obstruction. Pathologic findings showed bronchiolar hyperplasia and peribronchiolar fibrosis which was similar to classic BPD patients. Our twin case report might help provide distinguishing pathology and radiology pattern of an adult pulmonary sequelaes of BPD. It might be reasonable to make close follow-up for BPD patients to evaluate the long-term outcomes of BPD survivors. PMID:25861348

  8. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging.

    PubMed

    Crary, John F; Trojanowski, John Q; Schneider, Julie A; Abisambra, Jose F; Abner, Erin L; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G; Bigio, Eileen H; Cairns, Nigel J; Dickson, Dennis W; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T; Hof, Patrick R; Hyman, Bradley T; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Kovacs, Gabor G; Knopman, David S; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A; Mackenzie, Ian R; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna H; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R; Toledo, Jonathan B; Troncoso, Juan C; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these "NFT+/Aβ-" brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  9. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  10. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T

    2015-09-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  11. The pathological findings seen in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory C; Reid, Andrew S; Brown, Ian S

    2016-04-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy specimens are increasingly common surgical specimens received for examination following bariatric surgery for weight loss. The spectrum of pathological changes seen in these cases is not well documented. Retrospective examination was undertaken of 1463 consecutive sleeve gastrectomy specimens received at Envoi Specialist Pathologists. Most cases showed no pathological changes (80.2%). The most common changes seen were non-specific, non-Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis (7.2%), Helicobacter associated gastritis (6.8%) and benign fundic gland polyps (4.0%). Other, rarer changes were lymphocytic gastritis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, hyperplastic polyps, pancreatic heterotopia, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and a leiomyoma. A wide range of pathological changes are seen in resection specimens following sleeve gastrectomies for weight loss. Many cases will require further treatment or ongoing investigation and surveillance. PMID:27020497

  12. Incidental Finding of a Rare Urachal Pathology: Urachal Mucinous Cystic Tumour of Low Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath; Tanny, Sharman Tan; Norris, Briony; Appu, Sree; Pan, David

    2016-01-01

    Urachal mucinous cystic tumours are rare pathological findings with only 23 previously reported cases in the literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidentally found urachal mucinous cystic tumour laparoscopically excised. With its known potential to cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete surgical excision is important. Long-term cystoscopic and radiological surveillance is also required. PMID:26881171

  13. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  14. Perinatal differential diagnosis of cystic kidney disease and urinary tract obstruction: anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, W; Vogel, M; Dimer, J S; Luttkus, A; Büscher, U; Dudenhausen, J W

    2000-04-01

    According to the classification of Osathanondh and Potter of cystic kidney diseases an antenatal differential diagnosis is presented, which is based on the anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings. Since the ultrasound evaluation influences the obstetric and neonatal management, each second and third trimester sonography should consider the most common malformations in pediatric autopsies. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPK), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPK), multicystic renal dysplasia, obstructive multicystic kidneys and cystic renal malformations found in other syndromes with genetic linkage are discussed in this review. PMID:10725570

  15. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  16. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  17. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients. PMID:25598674

  18. Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs could help identify what's adding to the stress, as well as help to remove barriers to mental health services, he said. The findings were published online recently in the journal Academic Medicine . SOURCE: Mayo Clinic, news release, March 14, ...

  19. Autism or autisms? Finding the lowest common denominator.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of a minicolumnopathy in autism. Minicolumnar abnormalities as well as certain migratory and proliferative defects, common to autism, may be rooted in the general mechanics of periventricular germinal cell division and maturation. Increased numbers of periventricular germinal cell/radial glia can be mimicked by a variety of different transgenic mouse models and environmental factors. These murine models and environmental factors illustrate how a fairly homogenous neuroanatomical phenotype can diverge at the genetic level. By first defining the lowest common denominator (i.e., the minicolumn) and then examining which pathways are vulnerable to involved genetic and environmental factors, we may gain a greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Autism Spectrum Conditions. PMID:21766543

  20. Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%–2.5% and 75%–96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time. PMID:15833980

  1. African horse sickness outbreaks in Namibia from 2006 to 2013: clinical, pathological and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Scacchia, Massimo; Molini, Umberto; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Maseke, Adrianatus; Bortone, Grazia; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Monacoo, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Pini, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector?borne viral disease of equids, endemic in Sub?Saharan Africa. This article reports the clinic?pathological and laboratory findings observed in the framework of passive surveillance during the AHS outbreaks which occurred in Namibia between 2006 and 2013. This study was conducted in the framework of the collaboration among the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (Teramo, Italy), the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry, and the Namibian National Veterinary Association. A total of 92 horses were investigated, showing different clinical form of AHS: peracute/acute (n = 43), sub?acute (n = 21) and mild AHS fever (n = 19). Clinical data were not available for 9 horses, because they were found dead. Pathological findings have been recorded for 35 horses. At necropsy, pulmonary and subcutaneous oedema, haemorrhages and enlargement of lymph nodes were mainly observed. Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory testing, AHS virus (AHSV) was isolated from 50 horses and the identified serotypes were: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The phylogenetic analysis of the S10 genome sequences segregated the Namibian AHSV strains in the same clusters of those circulating in South Africa in recent years. The description of AHS clinical, pathological, and laboratory features of AHS provided in this article is of value for differential diagnosis and control of AHS, especially in areas currently free from this disease. PMID:26129663

  2. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

  3. Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonner, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

  4. Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... help them gain money, protection, status or a sense of belonging they don't have in places such as home and school, the researchers said. But, "if you think of gang membership ... it's for protection, a sense of worth, whatever -- we're finding it actually ...

  5. Pathological findings of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in six dairy cattle cases

    PubMed Central

    OWAKI, Shigeo; KAWABUCHI, Saiko; IKEMITSU, Kosuke; SHONO, Haruhi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2015-01-01

    Six adult dairy cows clinically diagnosed as hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) were the subjects of this study. The involved intestinal lesions were fixed in formalin and examined macroscopically and histopathologically. Pathological examinations revealed large intramural hematomas with necrotic foci, resulting in luminal obstruction. The mucosal layer in the lesions was detached from the intestinal wall, and there were no hemorrhagic changes in the lumen. The intramural hematomas were sometimes covered with histologically intact mucosal layer. These pathological findings were not consistent with those of “intraluminal blood clots” reported previously. Gram-positive and anti-Clostridium antibody-positive short bacilli were found in hemorrhagic necrotic areas. However, the exact relationship between Clostridium spp. observed in the lesions and HBS remains unclear, because this bacterium is a normal inhabitant in cattle. PMID:25787849

  6. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  7. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K.; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  8. Common and uncommon histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: imaging spectrum with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Srinivasa R; Humphrey, Peter A; Catena, Jay R; Narra, Vamsi R; Srigley, John R; Cortez, Arthur D; Dalrymple, Neal C; Chintapalli, Kedar N

    2006-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 35,000 new cases and 12,480 deaths in the United States in 2003. Recent advances in imaging technology, pathology, urology, and oncology permit early diagnosis of RCC and facilitate optimal management. The 2004 World Health Organization classification for renal neoplasms recognizes several distinct histologic subtypes of RCC. These subtypes include clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, hereditary cancer syndromes, multilocular cystic RCC, collecting duct carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma-associated RCC, Xp11.2 translocation-TFE3 carcinoma, and unclassified lesions. Different histologic subtypes of RCC have characteristic histomorphologic and biologic profiles. Clear cell RCC is the most common subtype and has a less favorable prognosis (stage for stage) than do papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma are associated with aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis. PMID:17102051

  9. Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: From Common Pathologies to Potential New Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a major health risk in the United States, with over 20% of individuals over the age of 60 currently suffering from this disease and an additional 1.5 million new cases diagnosed in patients over 20 years of age in 2005. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease represents a major risk to the aging population, with recent statistics estimating up to 16 million people diagnosed by 2050 in the United States alone. As type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are now recognized as members of the broader class of amyloid diseases and because the pathologies of disease progression between these indications is similar, common strategies focused on the design of next-generation therapeutics can be envisioned and are discussed herein. PMID:19885123

  10. Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preoperative evaluation of perinephric fat invasion in patients with renal cell carcinoma: correlation with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; Elmi, Azadeh; Nadkarni, Nishad D; Cao, Kai; McDermott, Shaunagh; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in predicting perinephric fat invasion. Preoperative CT and MRI scans of 109 patients were assessed retrospectively by two radiologists focusing on perinephric fat invasion. Findings were correlated with histopathology. Perinephric fat involvement on imaging was reported in 55 cases, and postoperative pathology record confirmed it in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 82%, 63%, 48%, and 89%, respectively, with a P value of .001. To conclude, cross-sectional imaging techniques can reliably predict perinephric fat invasion in renal carcinomas preoperatively. PMID:23206613

  12. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Trachea: CT Findings with a Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Young Sup; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jae Ik

    2008-01-01

    We present the multidetector CT findings with a pathologic correlation for the case of a solitary fibrous tumor located in the trachea. The MDCT revealed a well-circumscribed intraluminal mass arising from the trachea, with strong nodular enhancement in the periphery of the mass. The enhancement pattern of the mass corresponded histopathologically to a focal hypocellular area in the center and prominent blood vessels along the periphery of the mass. We also present volume-rendered and virtual bronchoscopic images of this rare submucosal tracheal tumor. PMID:18525234

  13. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185

  14. Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes — is ... genetic factors and environmental factors could lead to celiac disease, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, or other ...

  15. Comparison of computed tomographic and pathologic findings in 17 dogs with primary adrenal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Tommaso; Mantis, Panagiotis; Benigni, Livia; Priestnall, Simon L; Lamb, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    The CT appearance of canine adrenal masses has been reported, but associations between imaging features and pathologic features of these lesions have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to test associations between different types of adrenal neoplasia and their CT and pathologic features. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of primary adrenal neoplasia, contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and surgical resection of the mass or necropsy examination. For all included dogs, CT images and histopathologic specimens were reviewed independently by two veterinary radiologists and a veterinary pathologist, respectively. Seventeen dogs met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in nine (53%) dogs, pheochromocytoma in five (29%) dogs, and adenoma in three (18%) dogs. Pheochromocytoma was associated with CT signs of vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.3-18.3, P = 0.03) and macroscopic vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.4-65.9, P = 0.02). There was excellent agreement between signs of vascular invasion in CT images and vascular invasion at surgery or necropsy (kappa = 0.86, P = 0.001). A peripheral contrast-enhancing rim in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with fibrous encapsulation of the tumor (kappa = 0.53, P = 0.05), and a heterogeneous pattern of contrast distribution in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with adrenal hemorrhage or infarction on histological examination (kappa = 0.45, P = 0.05). Findings indicated that CT enabled assessment of adrenal neoplasia features that reflected their biological behavior and pathological findings, however overlapping characteristics between tumor types limited the potential for reliably distinguishing them based on CT alone. PMID:25139015

  16. Pathologic findings in patients with targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate needle core biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Rachel L; Nour, Sherif G; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the routine (non-targeted) sampling approach of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-GB), targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies (TMRI-GB) target regions of the prostate suspicious for prostate cancer (PCa), based on findings on multiparametric MRI. We sought to examine the pathologic findings identified on TMRI-GB, due to the fact that there are limited studies on this in the Pathology literature. A search was made through our Urologic Pathology files for prostate needle core biopsies that were obtained via TMRI-GB. Forty-six patients were identified. Mean patient (PT) age was 62 years (range: 50-78 years). Twenty one of 46 PTs (46%) had a history of PCa, 10/46 PTs (22%) had a history of negative TRUS-GB and rising PSA, and the remaining 15/46 PTs (32%) had never undergone biopsy. Cancer detection rate on TMRI-GB was 57% for PTs with a prior diagnosis of PCa, 50% for PTs with a history of benign biopsy, and 67% who were biopsy naïve. An average of 3.16 cores were sampled from malignant lesions and an average of 2.74 were sampled from benign lesions (P=0.02). TMRI-GB has a higher cancer detection rate than TRUS-GB. TMRI-GB may have a critical role as a tool for active surveillance, tumor mapping, and primary detection of PCa, which will likely evolve as the ability to identify malignant lesions improve. The roles of pathologists and radiologists in the validation of this procedure will continue to be even more vital in the future. PMID:26617689

  17. Malignant lymphoma in ferrets: clinical and pathological findings in 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Erdman, S E; Moore, F M; Rose, R; Fox, J G

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in 19 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with malignant lymphoma are reviewed. Peripubescent ferrets had rapidly progressive stage IV high grade immunoblastic or small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. Adult ferrets had stage II or IV low grade diffuse small lymphocytic (DSL) lymphoma, stage IV high grade small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, or stage IV high grade immunoblastic polymorphous (IBP) lymphoma. Three ferrets had concurrent IBP and DSL lymphoma involving different organs. The IBP admixture of immunoblasts, large atypical lymphocytes, Reed-Sternberg-like cells, lymphoblasts and small lymphocytes has been associated with certain retrovirally associated lymphomas and nodal hyperplasias in man, non-human primates and cats. Aleutian disease, a parvovirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease, also involves clinical and histological features similar to certain lymphomas in ferrets. Seven ferrets tested were seronegative for feline leukaemia virus antigen. Only one of eight ferrets was positive for Aleutian parvovirus antibody. The clinical and pathological findings are suggestive of a viral aetiology for certain lymphomas in ferrets. PMID:1556256

  18. Systemic Inflammation: Methodological Approaches to Identification of the Common Pathological Process

    PubMed Central

    Zotova, N. V.; Chereshnev, V. A.; Gusev, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We defined Systemic inflammation (SI) as a “typical, multi-syndrome, phase-specific pathological process, developing from systemic damage and characterized by the total inflammatory reactivity of endotheliocytes, plasma and blood cell factors, connective tissue and, at the final stage, by microcirculatory disorders in vital organs and tissues.” The goal of the work: to determine methodological approaches and particular methodical solutions for the problem of identification of SI as a common pathological process. SI can be defined by the presence in plasma of systemic proinflammatory cell stress products—cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, and also by the complexity of other processes signs. We have developed 2 scales: 1) The Reactivity Level scale (RL)–from 0 to 5 points: 0-normal level; RL-5 confirms systemic nature of inflammatory mediator release, and RL- 2–4 defines different degrees of event probability. 2) The SI scale, considering additional criteria along with RL, addresses more integral criteria of SI: the presence of ≥ 5 points according to the SI scale proves the high probability of SI developing. To calculate the RL scale, concentrations of 4 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α) and C-reactive protein in plasma were examined. Additional criteria of the SI scale were the following: D-dimers>500ng/ml, cortisol>1380 or <100nmol/l, troponin I≥0.2ng/ml and/or myoglobin≥800ng/ml. 422 patients were included in the study with different septic (n-207) and aseptic (n-215) pathologies. In 190 cases (of 422) there were signs of SI (lethality 38.4%, n-73). In only 5 of 78 cases, lethality was not confirmed by the presence of SI. SI was registered in 100% of cases with septic shock (n-31). There were not significant differences between AU-ROC of CR, SI scale and SOFA to predict death in patients with sepsis and trauma. PMID:27153324

  19. Hepatic ultrasonography and pathological findings in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L S; Kirberger, R M; Nesbit, J W

    1995-01-01

    In dogs, hepatocutaneous syndrome (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) belongs to a group of syndromes in which cutaneous signs signal the presence of systemic disease. It is characterized by parakeratosis, superficial necrolysis, and basilar hyperplasia of the epidermis, in association with an unusual hepatopathy accompanied by certain metabolic derangements. Hepatocutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 3 dogs on the basis of typical dermatologic changes and clinicopathologic findings. Hepatic ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic network surrounding hypoechoic areas of parenchyma, resulting in a Swiss cheese-like appearance. The ultrasonographic image corresponded to the pathological findings. The liver had a nodular appearance, both grossly and microscopically; this was attributed to collapse of the areas of parenchyma surrounding the nodules, rather than to the cirrhosis and/or nodular hyperplasia reported previously. PMID:8558487

  20. Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    Simola, O; Wiberg, M; Jokela, J; Wahlsten, M; Sivonen, K; Syrjä, P

    2012-09-01

    A 3-year-old Cairn Terrier dog that had been in contact with sea water containing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was euthanized because of acute hepatic failure and anuria after a 5-day illness. Histologic findings included lytic and hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and renal tubular necrosis. The cyanotoxin nodularin was detected in liver and kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the algal species Nodularia spumigena. The intensity of algal blooms has increased during the past decades in the Baltic Sea region, thus increasing the risk for intoxications in domestic and wild animals. The authors describe the pathologic findings of cyanobacterial toxicosis in a dog with direct identification of the toxin from organ samples. PMID:21825312

  1. Pathological findings of saccular cerebral aneurysms-impact of subintimal fibrin deposition on aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Masaaki; Nakayama, Naoki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2015-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested that aneurysmal wall inflammation and laminar thrombus are associated with the rupture of saccular aneurysms, the mechanisms leading to the rupture remain obscure. We performed full exposure of aneurysms before clip application and attempted to keep the fibrin cap on the rupture point. Using these specimens in a nearly original state before surgery, we conducted a pathological analysis and studied the differences between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms to clarify the mechanism of aneurysmal wall degeneration. This study included ruptured (n = 28) and unruptured (n = 12) saccular aneurysms resected after clipping. All of the ruptured aneurysms were obtained within 24 h of onset. Immunostainings for markers of inflammatory cells (CD68) and classical histological staining techniques were performed. Clinical variables and pathological findings from ruptured and unruptured aneurysms were compared. Patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms did not differ by age, gender, size, location, and risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. The absence or fragmentation of the internal elastica lamina, the myointimal hyperplasia, and the thinning of the aneurysmal wall were generally observed in both aneurysms. The existence of subintimal fibrin deposition, organized laminar thrombus, intramural hemorrhage, neovascularization, and monocyte infiltration are more frequently observed in ruptured aneurysms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ruptured aneurysm was associated with presence of subintimal fibrin deposition and monocyte infiltration. These findings suggest that subintimal fibrin deposition and chronic inflammation have a strong impact on degeneration of the aneurysmal wall leading to their rupture, and this finding may be caused by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25860660

  2. Hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in goats naturally infection with Cysticercus tenuicollis.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj

    2014-03-01

    In Iran, Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic. The migration of this parasite causes traumatic hepatitis and death in young animals. The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in 50 goats infected with C. tenuicollis in comparison with 50 non-infected goats, as control group. This study was carried out as case-control. Blood and liver samples were taken from the goats, analyzed for hematology and biochemical parameters and liver samples were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further microscopic study in pathology laboratory. Significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total protein (P<0.05) and significant increase in white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in infected goats (P<0.05), compared with those in non-infected control group. The microscopic lesion in liver included large concentric foci of hemorrhage in migration stage and decreased number of hepatocytes, dilation of sinusoids, presence of inflammatory cells in portal areas and double layered parasitic cyst formation in chronic stages. In conclusion, various changes in parameters could have deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality of the herd. PMID:24505181

  3. Pathological findings in the x-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a morphometric and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Hahn, A F; Ainsworth, P J; Bolton, C F; Bilbao, J M; Vallat, J M

    2001-02-01

    Mutations in the connexin 32 gene (Cx 32) are associated with the x-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) and segregate with a CMT 1 phenotype. The gap junction protein Cx 32 is expressed in myelinating Schwann cells and has been localized to regions of non-compacted cytoplasm in paranodes and in Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Mutant Cx 32 myelin proteins are predicted to impair Schwann cell functions. We have studied the resulting pathology in motor and sensory nerves from the probands of 13 CMTX kindreds with precisely defined genotype. This report provides a detailed descriptive and morphometric analysis of 14 CMTX nerve biopsy samples, taken at various stages in the development of the neuropathy and studied by light and electron microscopic examination. Findings indicated unusually prominent changes in paranodal myelin with resulting widened nodes of Ranvier, but with segmental demyelination being less common. In parallel early axonal cytoskeletal abnormalities were noted, which were followed later by axonal atrophy, degeneration and loss of myelinated nerve fibers, occurring in a length-dependent fashion. Regenerative sprouting was also unusually prominent. Ultrastructural abnormalities included a frequent dilatation of the adaxonal spaces, prominence of the adaxonal Schwann cell cytoplasm and widening of the Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. We conclude that mutations in Cx 32 gap junction protein lead to a compromise of Schwann cell functions and to impaired Schwann cell-axon interactions with subsequent pathology in both myelin and axons. PMID:11271367

  4. Cutaneous, multilocular T-cell lymphosarcoma in a horse--clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Kbber-Heiss, A; Schilcher, F

    1998-02-01

    Clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings of a cutaneous, multilocular T-cell lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma) in a 13-year-old, brown Austrian warmblood mare are reported. The horse was under clinical observation, and the tumours were sonographically monitored over an 8 month period, revealing worsening of body condition, weight loss, lameness of the left hindlimb and a slight increase in the tumours size. Most of the tumours were covered by normal skin, one showed ulceration. Ultrasonography of the tumours allowed accurate anatomical localization in relation to the adjoining tissue, assessment of their internal structure, of involvement of adjacent muscles and of a regional lymph node, and it facilitated the percutaneous fine-needle aspiration. Necropsy confirmed muscular infiltration in three locations. Light microscopy and immunohistology led to the diagnosis of a T-cell lymphosarcoma. PMID:9557123

  5. Characteristics of lung dusts and their relation to dust exposure and pathological findings in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, M; Burilkov, T; Kolev, K; Lalova, P

    1975-09-01

    Lung dusts were investigated, post-mortem, in twenty-five miners from mixed metal mines, tunnels, and quarries who had exposed to high concentrations of mixed dust containing about 20-25% free crystalline silica. The character of the relations found between the amount of quartz per 100 g dry tissue and the clinical, X-ray and pathological findings is similar to that established in coal miners. The difference lies in the fact that with equal amounts of quartz per 100 g dry tissue, there is less silicosis in coal miners than in our cases; the average residence time of retained dust is longer in coal miners, but its quartz per cent is lower. PMID:198369

  6. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    PubMed

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. PMID:25209917

  7. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

  8. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  9. MRI of common and uncommon pathologies involving the periportal space: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine U; Glockner, James F

    2016-01-01

    Imaging detection and differential diagnoses of pathology involving the periportal space can be challenging. MRI is a useful technique for assessment of the periportal space since it readily distinguishes normal and abnormal vascular and biliary anatomy, and the excellent soft tissue discrimination allows for detection of subtle lesions. This pictorial essay describes the anatomy of the periportal space and illustrates the MRI appearance of a variety of pathologies that can affect this region. PMID:26830621

  10. Sensitization, pathologic, and imaging findings comparing symptomatic and quiescent failed renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Feld, Rick I; Colombe, Beth W; Farber, John L; Herman, Jay H; Gulati, Rakesh; Maley, Warren R; Frank, Adam M

    2014-12-01

    Late allograft failure (LAF) is a common cause of end stage renal disease. These patients face interrelated challenges regarding immunosuppression management, risk of graft intolerance syndrome (GIS), and sensitization. This retrospective study analyzes sensitization, pathology, imaging, and transfusion requirements in 33 LAFs presenting either with GIS (22) or grafts remaining quiescent (11). All patients underwent immunosuppression weaning to discontinuation at LAF. Profound increases in sensitization were noted for all groups and occurred in the GIS group prior to transplant nephrectomy (TxN). Patients with GIS experienced a major upswing in sensitization at, or before the time of their symptomatic presentation. For both GIS and quiescent grafts, sensitization appeared to be closely linked to immunosuppression withdrawal. Most transfusion naïve patients became highly sensitized. Fourteen patients in the GIS group underwent TxN which revealed grade II acute cellular rejection or worse, with grade 3 chronic active T-cell-mediated rejection. Blinded comparisons of computed tomography scan of GIS group revealed swollen allografts with fluid collections compared with the quiescent allografts (QAs), which were shrunken and atrophic. The renal volume on imaging and weight of explants nearly matched. Future studies should focus on interventions to avoid sensitization and GIS. PMID:25297845

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS) IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Garner, Michael M; Bonar, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. PMID:26667536

  12. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Pancreatic Carcinoma: Correlation with Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Kun; Fan, Zhihui; Sun, Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We concluded that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has clinical value in identifying the pathologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas. Forty-three patients diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma through surgery were retrospectively investigated. CEUS examinations were performed on all patients before surgery. Enhancement patterns on CEUS were observed. Time-intensity curves of CEUS were generated for the regions of interest in the pancreas, and quantitative parameters were obtained. Resected cancer specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis, and the microvascular density (MVD) of the specimens was determined by CD34 immunohistochemical staining. Enhancement patterns of CEUS were compared with histopathologic findings in pancreatic carcinomas. Correlations between time-intensity curve parameters and microvascular density were analyzed. Twenty cases manifested centripetal enhancement, and 23 cases, global enhancement. The amount of tumor necrosis or mucus in the centripetally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas was greater than that in the globally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas (p = 0.027). Thirty-eight of 43 (88.4%) pancreatic carcinomas manifested hypo-enhancement with a maximum intensity (IMAX) <90%. Contrast arrival time in pancreatic carcinoma was longer than that in adjacent pancreatic tissue (p < 0.05). IMAX was positively correlated with microvascular density (r = 0.577, p < 0.05). We concluded that CEUS manifestations could reflect the histologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas and CEUS can be used to evaluate blood perfusion of tumors, as IMAX is positively correlated with microvascular density. PMID:26806440

  14. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats.

    PubMed

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg(-1), daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  15. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theu, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection. PMID:24920091

  16. MR imaging of renal masses: correlation with findings at surgery and pathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ivan; Sun, Maryellen R; Spencer, Matthew; Genega, Elizabeth M; Olumi, Aria F; Dewolf, William C; Rofsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful in the characterization of renal masses. The MR imaging manifestations and pathologic diagnoses of 82 renal masses were reviewed and correlated. The MR imaging appearance of clear cell type renal cell carcinoma varies depending on the presence of cystic components, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Papillary renal cell carcinomas appear as well-encapsulated masses with homogeneous low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and homogeneous low-level enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast material, or as cystic hemorrhagic masses with peripheral enhancing papillary projections. Transitional cell carcinoma may be seen as an irregular, enhancing filling defect in the pelvicaliceal system or ureter. Lymphomatous masses are usually hypointense relative to the renal cortex on T2-weighted images and enhance minimally on delayed gadolinium-enhanced images. Bulk fat is a distinguishing feature of angiomyolipoma. Oncocytoma has a variable and nonspecific appearance at MR imaging. MR imaging findings may allow the characterization of various renal masses and can provide valuable information for their clinical management. PMID:18635625

  17. Stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome: preliminary pathological, microbiological and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Smyth, J A; McNamee, P T; Kennedy, D G; McCullough, S J; Logan, E F; Ellis, W A

    1992-03-21

    Microbiological, biochemical and pathological data collected from 293 calves which were either stillborn, or born alive and either failed to breathe or failed to breathe for more than about 10 minutes are presented. No bacteria were recovered from 96 of the calves (32.7 per cent), and bacteria which were considered significant were isolated from only four (1.4 per cent). Evidence of leptospiral infection was found in 75 calves (25.5 per cent). Of 64 calves examined for bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) antigens, two were positive for BVD virus and none for IBR virus. The mean (+/- sd) liver vitamin E and kidney selenium concentrations, determined in 148 of the calves, were 2.0 +/- 0.76 micrograms/g wet matter and 0.47 +/- 0.17 micrograms/g wet matter, respectively. The thyroid iodine concentration in 15 of 71 calves (21 per cent) was less than 300 micrograms/g wet matter and the mean (+/- sd) thyroid weight of 266 of the calves was 18.5 +/- 11.6 g. Evidence of severe trauma was found in 19 of the calves (6.5 per cent). Histological findings included thyroid epithelial hyperplasia, hepatic haemosiderosis, erythrophagocytosis in the spleen, perivascular haemorrhage in brain and adrenal glands, and accumulation of leucocytes in blood vessels. PMID:1514226

  18. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  19. Sarcoidosis in Native and Transplanted Kidneys: Incidence, Pathologic Findings, and Clinical Course

    PubMed Central

    Bagnasco, Serena M.; Gottipati, Srinivas; Kraus, Edward; Alachkar, Nada; Montgomery, Robert A.; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Arend, Lois J.

    2014-01-01

    Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in native and transplanted kidneys classically presents as non caseating granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, the incidence of sarcoidosis in native and transplant kidney biopsies, its frequency as a cause of end stage renal disease and its recurrence in renal allograft are not well defined, which prompted this study. The electronic medical records and the pathology findings in native and transplant kidney biopsies reviewed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1/1/2000 to 6/30/2011 were searched. A total of 51 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis and renal abnormalities requiring a native kidney biopsy were identified. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis, consistent with renal sarcoidosis was identified in kidney biopsies from 19 of these subjects (37%). This is equivalent to a frequency of 0.18% of this diagnosis in a total of 10,023 biopsies from native kidney reviewed at our institution. Follow-up information was available in 10 patients with biopsy-proven renal sarcoidosis: 6 responded to treatment with prednisone, one progressed to end stage renal disease. Renal sarcoidosis was the primary cause of end stage renal disease in only 2 out of 2,331 transplants performed. Only one biopsy-proven recurrence of sarcoidosis granulomatous interstitial nephritis was identified. Conclusions Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in the form of granulomatous interstitial nephritis was a rare finding in biopsies from native kidneys reviewed at our center, and was found to be a rare cause of end stage renal disease. However, our observations indicate that recurrence of sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may occur in the transplanted kidney of patients with sarcoidosis as the original kidney disease. PMID:25329890

  20. CT findings of the main pathological conditions associated with horseshoe kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Schiappacasse, G; Soffia, P; Silva, C S; Zilleruelo, N

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion anomaly, with a prevalence of 0.25% among the general population. It consists of kidney fusion across the midline. HSK can be present as an isolated condition in 30%, but there is a wide variety of associated abnormalities. The most frequent include ureteropelvic obstruction, lithiasis and infections. There is also a higher risk of kidney lesions in trauma and an increased incidence of malignancies. Awareness of embryology and anatomy is essential to assess and understand the complications affecting HSK. CT is an excellent method for identification of its main findings. PMID:25375751

  1. Nonpalpable BI-RADS 4 breast lesions: sonographic findings and pathology correlation

    PubMed Central

    Elverici, Eda; Barça, Ayşe Nurdan; Aktaş, Hafize; Özsoy, Arzu; Zengin, Betül; Çavuşoğlu, Mehtap; Araz, Levent

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate ultrasonography (US) findings for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4 lesions using BI-RADS US lexicon and determine the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of US with respect to biopsy results. METHODS Sonograms of 186 BI-RADS 4 nonpalpable breast lesions with a known diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. The morphologic features of all lesions were described using BI-RADS lexicon and the lesions were subcategorized into 4A, 4B, and 4C on the basis of the physician’s level of suspicion. Lesion descriptors and biopsy results were correlated. Pathologic results were compared with US features. PPVs of BI-RADS subcategories 4A, 4B, and 4C were calculated. RESULTS Of 186 lesions, 38.7% were malignant and 61.2% were benign. PPVs according to subcategories 4A, 4B, and 4C were 19.5%, 41.5%, and 74.3%, respectively. Microlobulated, indistinct, and angular margins, posterior acoustic features, and echo pattern were nonspecific signs for nonpalpable BI-RADS 4 lesions. Typical signs of malignancy were irregular shape (PPV, 66%), spiculated margin (PPV, 80%) and nonparallel orientation (PPV, 58.9%). Typical signs of benign lesions were oval shape (NPV, 77.1%), circumscribed margin (NPV, 67.5%), parallel orientation (NPV, 70%), and abrupt interface (NPV, 67.6%). CONCLUSION BI-RADS criteria are not sufficient for discriminating between malignant and benign lesions, and biopsy is required. Subcategories 4A, 4B, and 4C are useful in predicting the likelihood of malignancy. However, objective and clear subclassification rules are needed. PMID:25835079

  2. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, İbrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  3. CT findings of thoracic manifestations of primary Sjgren syndrome: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Ryoko; Kondo, Tetsuya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Yakushiji, Mai; Yamasaki, Fumio; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Primary Sjgren syndrome is an immune-mediated exocrinopathy characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Various systemic extraglandular disorders are associated with primary Sjgren syndrome, and the thorax is commonly affected. The pulmonary manifestations of primary Sjgren syndrome may be categorized as airway abnormalities, interstitial pneumonias, and lymphoproliferative disorders; in each category, bronchiectasis or centrilobular nodules, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia are common. These manifestations do not usually occur in isolation; they are concomitantly seen with other types of lesions. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and amyloidosis are key components of lymphoproliferative disorders, and MALT lymphoma should always be considered because its morphologic characteristics are similar to those of benign lymphoproliferative disorders. Amyloidosis is rare but important because it carries a risk for underlying MALT lymphoma or plasmacytoma, and it may lead to hemoptysis during biopsy. In addition, thin-walled air cysts are characteristic of primary Sjgren syndrome, irrespective of the main pulmonary manifestations. Lymphadenopathy and multilocular thymic cysts may be seen in the mediastinum. During the follow-up period, there is a risk for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and development of malignant lymphoma. Often, primary Sjgren syndrome is subclinical, but there are various underlying risks. Thus, imaging findings are important. In addition to the various types of interstitial pneumonia and airway abnormalities, air cysts and mediastinal manifestations may help diagnose primary Sjgren syndrome. PMID:24224588

  4. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  5. Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam T. W.; Schroer-Joosten, Dianne P. H.; Fid-Fourkour, Aicha; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Debyser, Isolde; Moulin, Véronique; Moormann, Rob J. M.; de Smit, Abraham J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43%) from 5 ewes (56%). %). BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82%) from 6 ewes (67%). Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology. PMID:24358112

  6. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  7. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis, a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo Y.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the NCI (19952010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%) with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%) followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared to grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders based on the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

  8. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Seth H; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Roy, Chad J

    2015-06-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  9. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  10. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Varki, Nissi; Anderson, Dan; Herndon, James G; Pham, Tho; Gregg, Christopher J; Cheriyan, Monica; Murphy, James; Strobert, Elizabeth; Fritz, Jo; Else, James G; Varki, Ajit

    2009-02-01

    Heart disease is common in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and analysis of literature indicate that sudden death in chimpanzees (and in gorillas and orangutans) is commonly associated with diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis of unknown cause. In contrast, most human heart disease results from coronary artery atherosclerosis, which occludes myocardial blood supply, causing ischemic damage. The typical myocardial infarction of humans due to coronary artery thrombosis is rare in these apes, despite their human-like coronary-risk-prone blood lipid profiles. Instead, chimpanzee 'heart attacks' are likely due to arrythmias triggered by myocardial fibrosis. Why do humans not often suffer from the fibrotic heart disease so common in our closest evolutionary cousins? Conversely, why do chimpanzees not have the kind of heart disease so common in humans? The answers could be of value to medical care, as well as to understanding human evolution. A preliminary attempt is made to explore possibilities at the histological level, with a focus on glycosylation changes. PMID:25567850

  11. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  12. Pathology and immunohistochemical findings of west nile virus infection in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Franca, M; Uzal, F; Anderson, M; Barr, B; Woods, L; Moore, J; Woolcock, P; Shivaprasad, H L

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 38 psittacine birds based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rosellas (Platycercus spp, n = 13), conures (Enicognathus, Aratinga, and Nandayus spp, n = 6), and lorikeets (Trichoglossus spp, n = 6) represented the most commonly affected species. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy, ruffled feathers, anorexia, and weight loss in most birds to sudden death in others. Except for mild to moderate enlargement of liver and spleen, there were no significant gross lesions at necropsy. Histopathologic findings included lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, splenitis, enteritis, pancreatitis, and occasionally, encephalitis. Viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in 34 of 35 hearts (97.1%), 29 of 32 pancreata (90.6%), 33 of 37 kidneys (89.2%), 31 of 35 intestines (88.6%), 27 of 33 gizzards (81.8%), 8 of 10 ovaries (80%), 27 of 34 spleens (79.4%), 30 of 38 livers (78.9%), 23 of 32 lungs (71.9%), 21 of 31 proventriculi (67.7%), 14 of 21 adrenals (66.7%), 10 of 16 testes (62.5%), 17 of 30 brains (56.7%), 15 of 27 skins (55.5%), 3 of 6 oviducts (50%), 15 of 34 skeletal muscles (44.1%), 11 of 27 crop or esophagus (40.7%), and 1 of 6 thymuses (16.7%). Kidney was positive for WNV by RT-PCR in all the cases tested. In conclusion, Psittaciformes are susceptible to West Nile virus infection, and WNV infections are often associated with nonspecific clinical signs and widespread viral distribution in this order of birds. PMID:21160024

  13. Extra-nigral pathologies are common in Parkinson disease with freezing of gait: an in vivo PET study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Frey, Kirk A.; Studenski, Stephanie; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Constantine, Gregory M.; Scott, Peter J.H.; Albin, Roger L.; Müller, Martijn L.T.M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cholinergic denervation has been associated with falls and slower gait speed and β-amyloid deposition with greater severity of axial motor impairments in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the association between the presence of extra-nigral pathologies and freezing of gait (FoG). METHODS Patients with PD (n=143; age 65.5±7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.4±0.6, Montreal Cognitive Assessment score 25.9±2.6) underwent [11C]methyl-4-pi-peridinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine dopaminergic PET imaging, and clinical, including FoG, assessment in the dopaminergic “off” state. A subset of subjects (n=61) underwent [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B β-amyloid PET imaging. Normative data were used to dichotomize abnormal β-amyloid uptake or cholinergic deficits. RESULTS FoG was present in 20 patients (14.0%). Freezers had longer duration of disease (P=0.009), more severe motor disease (P<0.0001) and lower striatal dopaminergic activity (P=0.013) compared to non-freezers. FoG was more common in patients with diminished neocortical cholinergic innervation (23.9%, χ2=5.56, P=0.018) but not in the thalamic cholinergic denervation group (17.4%, χ2=0.26, P=0.61). Subgroup analysis showed higher frequency of FoG with increased neocortical β-amyloid deposition (30.4%, Fisher Exact test: P = 0.032). FoG frequency was lowest with absence of both pathology (4.8%), intermediate in subjects with single extra-nigral pathology (14.3%) and highest with combined neocortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy (41.7%; Cochran-Armitage trend test Z=2.63, P=0.015). Within the group of freezers, 90% had at least one of the two extra-nigral pathologies studied. CONCLUSIONS Extra-nigral pathologies, in particular the combined presence of cortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy, are common in PD with FoG and may contribute to its pathophysiology. PMID:24909584

  14. Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

  15. Regulation of Energy Balance by Inflammation: Common Theme in Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that less energy supply to immune cells, which favors energy saving in the body under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  16. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: common theme in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immune cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  17. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  18. A matrix method for finding last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Si, Bingfeng; Yang, Xiaobao; Sun, Huijun; Gao, Ziyou

    2012-01-01

    Many algorithms have been presented to solve the traffic assignment problem. Recently, Bar-Gera introduced the concept of “last common node” into an origin-based algorithm to solve the traffic assignment problem. However, how to find the last common nodes has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we present a matrix method for finding the last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem. In an acyclic network, the power of binary adjacency matrix (A) will record the number of directed simple routes of length k. Taking this feature into consideration, Sp, the total number of the simple routes related to an origin node p in the subnetwork Gp, is counted by Sp=∑kApk=(. Then, every common node for OD pair pq is picked out by comparing (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pr×(mathvariant="bold">Sp)rq and (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pq, and the last common node for OD pair pq is filtered out according to the topological order l(r). Our method is implemented to find out all LCNs for all n∗(n-1) OD pairs, then tested on three kinds of model networks and four urban transportation networks. We find that the overall computing time T and the size of network n, has a relation like T∼O(n3), which is better than the theoretical estimation O(n4).

  19. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. PMID:25107460

  20. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  1. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  2. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  3. Multilocular Radicular Cyst – A Common Pathology with Uncommon Radiological Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ankur; Haidry, Naqoosh; Yadav, Monu; Shankarnarayan, Lata

    2016-01-01

    Radicular cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst of inflammatory origin. It is almost all the times associated with pulpal necrosis leading to inflamed periapical tissues. The cyst is usually asymptomatic unless infected. Radiographically, it presents as a well defined unilocular radiolucency. Although, multilocular radiolucent radicular cysts have also been reported, which is extremely rare and there are very few reported cases. Here, we present a rare case of radicular cyst periapical to the first molar of third quadrant, presenting clinically as a painless, bony hard swelling and radiographically presented as a multilocular radiolucency. PMID:27135015

  4. Role of histological findings and pathologic diagnosis for detection of human papillomavirus infection in men.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nikki S; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Mathew, Rahel; Abrahamsen, Martha; Van der Kooi, Kaisa; Jukic, Drazen M; Stoler, Mark H; Villa, Luisa L; da Silva, Roberto Carvalho; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Sirak, Bradley A; Ingles, Donna J; Giuliano, Anna R; Messina, Jane L

    2015-10-01

    Early HPV infection in males is difficult to detect clinically and pathologically. This study assessed histopathology in diagnosing male genital HPV. External genital lesions (n = 352) were biopsied, diagnosed by a dermatopathologist, and HPV genotyped. A subset (n = 167) was diagnosed independently by a second dermatopathologist and also re-evaluated in detail, tabulating the presence of a set of histopathologic characteristics related to HPV infection. Cases that received discrepant diagnoses or HPV-related diagnoses were evaluated by a third dermatopathologist (n = 163). Across dermatopathologists, three-way concordance was fair (k = 0.30). Pairwise concordance for condyloma was fair to good (k = 0.30-0.67) and poor to moderate for penile intraepithelial neoplasia (k = -0.05 to 0.42). Diagnoses were 44-47% sensitive and 65-72% specific for HPV 6/11-containing lesions, and 20-37% sensitive and 98-99% specific for HPV 16/18. Presence of HPV 6/11 was 75-79% sensitive and 35% specific for predicting pathologic diagnosis of condyloma. For diagnosis of penile intraepithelial neoplasia, HPV 16/18 was 95-96% specific but only 40-64% sensitive. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with HPV 6/11. Dysplasia was significantly (P = 0.001) associated with HPV 16/18. Dermatopathologists' diagnoses of early male genital HPV-related lesions appear discordant with low sensitivity, while genotyping may overestimate clinically significant HPV-related disease. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels may help establish diagnosis of early condyloma. PMID:25945468

  5. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Lindsay, Scott A.; Krockenberger, Mark; Phalen, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. In recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the N. caninum life cycle and many have been implicated as intermediate hosts. However, in many instances these studies have utilized serological and molecular techniques to detect infection in clinically normal animals, and investigation of possible associated morbidity, mortality, and pathology has been neglected. As such, the occurrence and importance of Neospora-associated disease in wildlife species are unknown. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of N. caninum infection in nondomestic species, the present review provides an up-to-date summary of clinical neosporosis and N. caninum-associated pathologic lesions in naturally and experimentally infected wildlife species. We provide a list of all free-ranging and captive wildlife species identified with N. caninum infection to date using currently available diagnostic tools. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic methods in wildlife are addressed in order to recommend optimal diagnosis of confirming N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species. Although current data would suggest that N. caninum infection does not adversely impact wildlife populations, there is a need for greater international uniformity in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species in order to assess the true consequences of parasite infection. PMID:25973393

  6. Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Rüegg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population. PMID:17323569

  7. Role of Histological Findings and Pathologic Diagnosis for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nikki S.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Mathew, Rahel; Abrahamsen, Martha; Van der Kooi, Kaisa; Jukic, Drazen M.; Stoler, Mark H.; Villa, Luisa L.; da Silva, Roberto Carvalho; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Messina, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Early HPV infection in males is difficult to detect clinically and pathologically. This study assessed histopathology in diagnosing male genital HPV. External genital lesions (n = 352) were biopsied, diagnosed by a dermatopathologist, and HPV genotyped. A subset (n = 167) was diagnosed independently by a second dermatopathologist and also re-evaluated in detail, tabulating the presence of a set of histopathologic characteristics related to HPV infection. Cases that received discrepant diagnoses or HPV-related diagnoses were evaluated by a third dermatopathologist (n = 163). Across dermatopathologists, three-way concordance was fair (k = 0.30). Pairwise concordance for condyloma was fair to good (k = 0.30–0.67) and poor to moderate for penile intraepithelial neoplasia (k = −0.05 to 0.42). Diagnoses were 44–47% sensitive and 65–72% specific for HPV 6/ 11-containing lesions, and 20–37% sensitive and 98–99% specific for HPV 16/18. Presence of HPV 6/ 11 was 75–79% sensitive and 35% specific for predicting pathologic diagnosis of condyloma. For diagnosis of penile intraepithelial neoplasia, HPV 16/18 was 95–96% specific but only 40–64% sensitive. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with HPV 6/11. Dysplasia was significantly (P= 0.001) associated with HPV 16/18. Dermatopathologists’ diagnoses of early male genital HPV-related lesions appear discordant with low sensitivity, while genotyping may overestimate clinically significant HPV-related disease. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels may help establish diagnosis of early condyloma. PMID:25945468

  8. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  9. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  10. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  11. Acute toxicological studies on paraquat: pathological findings in beagle dogs following single subcutaneous injections.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Kono, I; Masaoka, T; Akahori, F

    1992-04-01

    Sixteen beagles were allocated into 4 groups, each group consisting of 2 males and 2 females, which were injected sc with 1,3,5 or 7 mg paraquat/kg. The beagles were observed for 2 w after the administration. At the end of the observation period all the dying and surviving dogs were studied pathologically. The LD50 was calculated as 1.8 (1.0-6.1) in males and 3.5 (2.4-10.1) mg/kg in females. Clinical laboratory tests showed increases in segmented neutrophils and monocytes, decreases in lymphocytes, slight decreases in chloride, moderate increases in BUN, GOT, GPT and phospholipids, slight increases in uric acid, total protein, creatine, total cholesterol and total bilirubin, and prolonged prothrombin times. Marked edema, congestion and hemorrhage of lungs, as well as slight congestion in various organs, were observed grossly. In histopathological examination, marked pulmonary hemorrhage and congestion, fibroblast-like cells in alveolar septa, breakdown of alveolar walls, thickening of alveolar walls and pleura, mild congestion and degeneration of the liver, and mild degeneration of renal tubules were observed. The cause of death was respiratory distress and renal failure. The surviving animals had mild atelectasis of the lungs. Electromicroscopic examination on the surviving animals revealed the appearance of spindle-shaped cells, proliferation of type II alveolar cells and fibroblasts, mitosis of fibroblasts, and abundant collagen fiber in the lung, calcium deposition, stratification and thickening of basement membranes, and localized necrotic epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of kidneys, and stratification of intramitochondrial cristae of the liver. Pulmonary fibrosis in the switchover stage was present with participation from type II alveolar cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. PMID:1509667

  12. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses. PMID:26045798

  13. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas: computed-tomographic, sonographic, and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfman, N.T.; Karstaedt, N.; Kawamoto, E.H.

    1985-02-01

    The authors present a series of eight cases of pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas, an uncommon lesion that contains bizarre giant cells and resembles sarcoma histologically. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described in the radiological literature. Clinical symptoms are similar to those of the usual pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma, but at presentation the primary tumor mass is usually large, and widespread metastatic disease is present. The most striking finding is massive lymphadenopathy, which may mimic lymphoma. A combination of clinical history, imaging findings, and results of percutaneous biopsy should lead to the proper diagnosis and may help to differentiate this entity from others that may affect lymph nodes.

  14. Scurvy in a child with autism: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tetsu; Aida, Noriko; Tanaka, Yukichi; Tanaka, Mio; Shiomi, Masae; Machida, Jiro

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of scurvy in a 6-year-old boy with autism and an unbalanced diet. The patient was admitted with difficulties in walking. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the thigh showed diffuse signal abnormality in the bone marrow, periosteum, and the femoral muscle. A biopsy specimen of the femur showed hematoma, proliferative fibroblasts, and few collagen fibers, which suggested a deficiency of vitamin C. Although recurrent periosteal hematoma may be suggestive of scurvy, this finding was subtle in the current case. It is important to be aware of this rare disease because it is easily cured with vitamin C supplementation. PMID:22258350

  15. Clinical, Radiographic, and Pathologic Findings in Patients Undergoing Reoperation Following Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Susannah; Ye, Xiaobu; Grossman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) frequently deteriorate clinically and radiographically after chemoradiation and may require repeat surgical intervention. We attempted to correlate pathologic findings with preoperative clinical characteristics and survival in patients undergoing reoperation for GBM. Materials and Methods Patients eligible for this retrospective analysis had pathologically confirmed GBM diagnosed between 2005 and 2010, received standard radiation and temozolomide, and underwent repeat resection within 18 months of diagnosis. Results Thirty-eight patients were identified. Median age was 56 years (range, 30 to 80 y), 55% were male, and 66% had baseline performance status ≥90%. Median survival was 16.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.3–19.8) from initial surgery. At reoperation, 21% of patients had no pathologically evident tumor. Median time from initial diagnosis to second surgery was similar in patients with and without evident tumor (8.5 vs. 8.8 mo, respectively). Patients without evident tumor tended to have a worse performance status. Median overall survival from second surgery was 7 months (95% CI, 4.2–10.1) and 9.1 months (95% CI, 2.1–25.3) for patients with and without evident tumor, respectively. Multivariate proportional hazards analysis showed a hazard ratio for death of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.25–1.49) for patients without evident tumor after adjusting for Karnofsky performance status and second surgical procedure. Conclusions GBM patients with and without disease recurrence have similar clinical characteristics at the time of second surgical resection. Pathologic outcomes were not correlated with specific clinical or radiologic characteristics, including the time from diagnosis to reoperation. There was a trend toward improved overall survival among patients without evident tumor at reoperation. PMID:26491903

  16. Extrauterine Pelvic Serous Carcinomas: Current Update on Pathology and Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Amanullah, Farhan S; Menias, Christine O; Chen, Melissa M; Valente, Philip T; Chintapalli, Kedar N; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas includes ovarian serous carcinoma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, and primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasm, consists of two distinct entities: high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and primary fallopian tube carcinoma are rare malignancies that share many characteristics of high-grade serous carcinomas. Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of gynecologic cancers have suggested a common origin of many extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas from fallopian tube epithelium. With the exception of low-grade serous carcinomas, which arise from cortical inclusion cysts lined by tubal epithelium, most extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas are believed to originate from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and show similar clinical-biologic behaviors and natural histories. Indeed, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Committee on Gynecologic Oncology recently recognized that these cancers should be considered collectively, with a common system of staging and management strategies for ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers. A paradigm shift has occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas that has the potential to change current strategies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and management. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and combined positron emission tomography and CT are pivotal in screening, initial diagnosis, and treatment follow-up; however, because of this paradigm shift, new radiologic techniques, such as contrast material-enhanced US and molecular US imaging, and various optical imaging techniques are being investigated as important screening and diagnostic tools. Because of evolving knowledge of genetic and molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas, new targeted therapies are being developed to improve patient prognosis. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163599

  17. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  18. Clinical and pathologic findings of Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz tumors with ALK fusions.

    PubMed

    Busam, Klaus J; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Wiesner, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Spitz tumors represent a group of melanocytic neoplasms that typically affect young individuals. Microscopically, the lesions are composed of cytologically distinct spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, with a range in the architectural display or the cells, their nuclear features, and secondary epidermal or stromal changes. Recently, kinase fusions have been documented in a subset of Spitz tumors, but there is limited information on the clinical and pathologic features associated with those lesions. Here, we report a series of 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) with spitzoid neoplasms showing ALK fusions (5 Spitz nevi and 12 atypical Spitz tumors). The patients' ages ranged from 2 years to 35 years (mean=17 y; median=16 y). Most lesions were located on the lower extremities and presented clinically as polypoid nodules. All tumors were compound melanocytic proliferations with a predominant intradermal growth. Tumor thickness ranged from 1.1 to 6 mm (mean=2.9 mm; median=2.5 mm). The most characteristic histopathologic feature of the tumors (seen in all but 2 lesions) was a plexiform dermal growth of intersecting fascicles of fusiform melanocytes. All but 2 tumors were amelanotic. All tumors were strongly immunoreactive for ALK. The ALK rearrangements were confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the fusion partner was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) in 11 cases and DCTN1 (dynactin 1) in 6 cases. None of the 8 tumors that were analyzed by FISH for copy number changes of 6p, 6q, 9p, or 11q met criteria for melanoma. Two patients underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and in both cases melanocyte nests were found in the subcapsular sinus of the node. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these 2 tumors revealed no chromosomal gains or losses. In conclusion, our study revealed that Spitz nevi/tumors with ALK rearrangement show a characteristic plexiform morphology and that ALK immunohistochemistry and FISH enable the accurate identification of this morphologic and genetic distinct subset of spitzoid neoplasms. PMID:24698967

  19. The pathologic findings of skin, lymph node, liver, and bone marrow in patients with adult-onset still disease: a comprehensive analysis of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Kwon, Jee Eun; Yim, Hyunee; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju-Yang; Han, Jae Ho

    2015-05-01

    Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is characterized by fever, skin rash, and lymphadenopathy with leukocytosis and anemia as common laboratory findings. We investigated the characteristic pathologic findings of skin, lymph node, liver, and bone marrow to assist in proper diagnosis of AOSD.Forty AOSD patients were included in the study. The skin (26 patients), lymph node (8 patients), liver (8 patients), or bone marrow biopsies (22 patients) between 1998 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. AOSD patients were diagnosed according to the Yamaguchi criteria after excluding common infections, hematological and autoimmune diseases. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization were performed.Most skin biopsies revealed mild lymphocytic or histiocytic infiltration in the upper dermis. Nuclear debris was frequently found in the dermis in 14 cases (53.8%). More than half of the cases (n = 14, 53.8%) showed interstitial mucin deposition. Some cases showed interface dermatitis with keratinocyte necrosis or basal vacuolization (n = 10; 38.5%). The lymph node biopsies showed a paracortical or diffuse hyperplasia pattern with immunoblastic and vascular proliferation. The liver biopsies showed sparse portal and sinusoidal inflammatory cell infiltration. All cases showed various degrees of Kupffer cell hyperplasia. The cellularity of bone marrow varied from 20% to 80%. Myeloid cell hyperplasia was found in 14 out of the 22 cases (63.6%). On immunohistochemistry, the number of CD8-positive lymphocytes was greater than that of CD4-positive lymphocytes in the skin, liver, and bone marrow, but the number of CD4-positive lymphocytes was greater than that of CD8-positive lymphocytes in the lymph nodes.The relatively specific findings with respect to the cutaneous manifestation of AOSD were mild inflammatory cell infiltration in the upper dermis, basal vacuolization, keratinocyte necrosis, presence of karyorrhexis, and mucin in the dermis. In all cases, pathologic findings in the lymph nodes included paracortical hyperplasia with vascular and immunoblastic proliferation. Skin and lymph node pathology in addition to clinical findings can aid in the diagnosis of AOSD. PMID:25929927

  20. Image findings of cranial nerve pathology on [18F]-2- deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET/CT): a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Osama A; Muzaffar, Razi; Shetty, Vilaas; Osman, Medhat M

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to increase awareness about the utility of (18)F -FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of cranial nerve (CN) pathology. We discuss the clinical implication of detecting perineural tumor spread, emphasize the primary and secondary (18)F -FDG-PET/CT findings of CN pathology, and illustrate the individual (18)F -FDG-PET/CT CN anatomy and pathology of 11 of the 12 CNs. PMID:26634826

  1. Submandibular gland surgery: an audit of clinical findings, pathology and postoperative morbidity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, W. P.; Peters, W. J.; Markus, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    A series of 86 patients who underwent submandibular gland surgery were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 92 glands excised, non-neoplastic disease accounted for 96% of cases. Preoperative clinical findings were inconsistent such that early surgery should be considered for an enlarged non-tender submandibular gland. The incidence of temporary paresis of the lower branches of the facial nerve was 36% with full recovery, on average, 4 months after surgery. The low 'non-identification' approach to the submandibular gland appears to be the technique which offers the least likelihood of permanent damage to the lower branches of the facial nerve. PMID:8323209

  2. Pathologic findings of follow-up surgical excision for radial scar on breast core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaibo; Ranade, Aditi; Zhao, Chengquan

    2016-02-01

    The data regarding radial scar (RS) as a risk factor for breast cancer are conflicting, and it is unclear whether an excision is warranted for patients with RS identified on core needle biopsy (CNB). In this study, we investigated the follow-up excisional results for patients with RS on CNB with no history of or concurrent breast cancer or atypical proliferative lesions. The study cohort was composed of 403 such cases, and follow-up excision (FUE) was performed in 220 (54.6%). There was no significant difference in the radiologic findings in cases with and without FUE. Of the 220 cases with FUE, only 2 (0.9%) were upgraded to malignancy (1 invasive carcinoma and 1 ductal carcinoma in situ), whereas 44 cases (20.0%) were upgraded to atypical ductal hyperplasia and 13 cases (5.9%) to lobular neoplasia. Upgrades were associated with greater age but not with any other variable. This is one of the largest studies to evaluate excisional findings in patients with RS identified on CNB but no history of or concurrent breast cancer or atypical proliferative lesions, and the extremely low malignancy-upgrade rate indicates that conservative follow-up with imaging rather than surgical excisions may be more appropriate for these patients. PMID:26772402

  3. Structures and Molecular Mechanisms for Common 15q13.3 Microduplications Involving CHRNA7: Benign or Pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Schaaf, Christian P.; Person, Richard E.; Gibson, Ian B.; Xia, Zhilian; Mahadevan, Sangeetha; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema; Potocki, Lorraine; Kang, Sung-Hae; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Probst, Frank J.; Graham, Brett H.; Shinawi, Marwan; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated four ~1.6-Mb microduplications and 55 smaller 350–680-kb microduplications at 15q13.2–q13.3 involving the CHRNA7 gene that were detected by clinical microarray analysis. Applying high-resolution array-CGH, we mapped all 118 chromosomal breakpoints of these microduplications. We also sequenced 26 small microduplication breakpoints that were clustering at hotspots of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). All four large microduplications likely arose by NAHR between BP4 and BP5 LCRs, and 54 small microduplications arose by NAHR between two CHRNA7-LCR copies. We identified two classes of ~1.6-Mb microduplications and five classes of small microduplications differing in duplication size, and show that they duplicate the entire CHRNA7. We propose that size differences among small microduplications result from preexisting heterogeneity of the common BP4–BP5 inversion. Clinical data and family histories of 11 patients with small microduplications involving CHRNA7 suggest that these microduplications might be associated with developmental delay/mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, we conclude that these microduplications and their associated potential for increased dosage of the CHRNA7-encoded α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are of uncertain clinical significance at present. Nevertheless, if they prove to have a pathological effects, their high frequency could make them a common risk factor for many neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:20506139

  4. DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariët J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background In systems biology it is common to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological processes underlying the data and to disentangle therein processes common to all data sources and processes distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to common and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-processing and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological processes underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for finding common and distinctive processes in multisource data. Open source code for both methods is provided. PMID:22693578

  5. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, Terje D; Srensen, Karen K; Mrk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

    2007-01-01

    Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases. PMID:17903247

  6. Pathological findings in hanging and wedging deaths in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Byard, R W

    1993-12-01

    Records of the Adelaide Children's Hospital Histopathology Department were reviewed for cases of deaths resulting from hanging or wedging occurring in early childhood and infancy. The 14 cases identified were analyzed with respect to age, sex, circumstances of death, and postmortem findings. The mean age at death was 14 months (range, 6-36 months) and the male to female ratio was 9:5. In one case, death occurred in a baby car seat, another in a pram/stroller, and in another a curtain cord was responsible. In the remaining 11 cases, death occurred in the baby's crib. In eight cases the mechanism of death was hanging with partial suspension, including six cases in which part of the infant's clothing became caught on the crib. Petechial hemorrhages on the face were found in all of the hanging deaths whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in only two cases. Only one of the wedging deaths showed facial petechiae whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in four of the six cases. Conjunctival hemorrhages were only recorded in only two of the 14 cases. PMID:8116587

  7. Pathological findings of slaughtered camels’ (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed. PMID:25568724

  8. Pathologic findings in malignant hyperthermia: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Lydia R; Collins, Kim A

    2004-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, potentially lethal disorder of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis characterized by muscle contracture and life-threatening hypermetabolic crisis following exposure to halogenated anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants. Susceptibility to MH results from mutations in calcium channel proteins that mediate excitation-contraction coupling, with the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel (RyR1) representing the major locus. The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. The authors report the death of a 60-year-old white male with a history of low back pain. He had undergone 2 back surgeries previously, the first occurring 10 years prior to his current presentation. Both previous procedures were done under generalized anesthetic with no complications. Recently, he developed stenosis and presented for fusion of vertebrae L3 and L4. The procedure was performed under general anesthetic including sevoflurane, with no intraoperative complications. The anesthesiologist noted that, near the end of the 2-hour procedure, the decedent's CO2 levels were slightly elevated. After the procedure, the decedent was extubated, the temperature probe which had been recording normal values was removed, and he was rolled from ventral to dorsal position. He immediately became hypotensive and bradycardic. Lifesaving interventions were begun. Subsequently, he went into cardiac arrest, at which time the temperature probe was reinserted into the trachea, where it read a body temperature of 109 degrees F. Malignant hyperthermia protocol was initiated, and interventions continued for over 2 hours, at which time they failed. At autopsy, the abdomen contained 1800 mL of blood, and bilateral hematomas were present in the psoas muscles. The authors present this case of clinically apparent malignant hyperthermia, discuss how to approach such a case, the gross and microscopic findings, ancillary studies, and a review of the literature. PMID:15577523

  9. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  10. Rethinking metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 pathological findings in psychiatric disorders: implications for the future of novel therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is of marked interest as a novel therapeutic mechanism to treat schizophrenia and major depression. However, the status of mGluR5 in the pathophysiology of these disorders remains unknown. Discussion The majority of studies in the schizophrenia post-mortem brain indicate that total mGluR5 expression is unaltered. However, close examination of the literature suggests that these findings are superficial, and in actuality, a number of critical factors have not yet been considered; alterations may be highly dependent on brain region, neuronal population or molecular organisation in specific cellular compartments. A number of genetic knockout studies (mGluR5, Norbin, Homer1 etc.) continue to lend support to a role of mGluR5 in the pathology of schizophrenia, providing impetus to explore the regulation of mGluR5 beyond total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels. With regards to major depression, preliminary evidence to date shows a reduction in total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels; however, as in schizophrenia, there are no studies examining mGluR5 function or regulation in the pathological state. A comprehensive understanding of mGluR5 regulation in major depression, particularly in comparison to schizophrenia, is crucial as this has extensive implications for mGluR5 targeting novel therapeutics, especially considering that opposing modulation of mGluR5 is of therapeutic interest for these two disorders. Summary Despite the complexities, examinations of post-mortem human brain provide valuable insights into the pathologies of these inherently human disorders. It is important, especially with regards to the identification of novel therapeutic drug targets, to have an in depth understanding of the pathophysiologies of these disorders. We posit that brain region- and cell type-specific alterations exist in mGluR5 in schizophrenia and depression, with evidence pointing towards altered regulation of this receptor in psychiatric pathology. We consider the implications of these alterations, as well as the distinction between schizophrenia and depression, in the context of novel mGluR5 based therapeutics. PMID:24472577

  11. Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing--a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Jeng, Linda Jo Bone; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories. PMID:25684271

  12. Pseudogout in the temporomandibular joint with imaging, arthroscopic, operative, and pathologic findings. Report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Laviv, Amir; Sadow, Peter M; Keith, David A

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a destructive painful condition in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that proved to be calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposits at subsequent biopsy examination. The patient presented with the chief complaints of pain and limitation that had not resolved with splint therapy, medications, and habit control. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed internal derangement without reduction. Right TMJ arthroscopy with manipulation of the jaw under anesthesia showed unique findings of fronds of synovial tissue in the posterior joint space and areas of white matter. Because there was no long-term improvement in her clinical symptoms, she subsequently underwent arthroplasty of the right joint, with the white material clearly seen at surgery, and the biopsy examination confirmed the clinical and arthroscopic impression of pseudogout. The presentation, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of pseudogout of the TMJ are discussed. PMID:25843817

  13. Pathological findings in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead at Guafo Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Paredes, E; Pavés, H; Molina, R; Henríquez, F; De Groote, F; Schlatter, R

    2011-01-01

    During four breeding seasons (2004-2008), 78 necropsy examinations were performed on South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead on Guafo Island, southern Chile (43°36'S, 74°43'W). Tissue samples from 65 pups were examined microscopically. The primary causes of death were enteritis with microscopical lesions of bacteraemia (28.2%), starvation (23.1%), drowning (21.8%), trauma (19.2%) and stillbirth (2.6%). Those pups with enteritis and microscopical lesions of bacteraemia had haemorrhagic enteritis (100%), interstitial pneumonia (86%), periportal hepatitis (73%) and vasculitis (18%). The pups that died from starvation had atrophy of hepatocytes (61%) and cholestasis (61%). The pups that drowned had bronchoalveolar oedema (65%) and foreign bodies in the airways (65%). In animals that died from trauma, the main lesions were skull fractures (67%). This range of pathological findings is within what would be expected in a healthy otariid breeding colony. PMID:21396659

  14. Pathological and biophysical findings associated with silicone breast implants: a study of capsular tissues from 86 cases.

    PubMed

    Luke, J L; Kalasinsky, V F; Turnicky, R P; Centeno, J A; Johnson, F B; Mullick, F G

    1997-11-01

    Breast implant capsular tissues from 86 cases were studied to characterize the relationship between capsular findings and the type of implant used. Tissues were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared, and Raman microspectroscopy. Capsular pathology was influenced by the structure and composition of the implant. A pseudoepithelium at the inner capsular surface (synovial metaplasia) was noted with silicone gel-filled, saline-filled, and polyurethane-coated implants, and disproportionatelywith textured surface implants. Immunohistochemical studies of pseudoepithelium supported a macrophage/histiocyte cellular origin. Talc was identified intracellularly within macrophages in 42 cases. Capsular calcification was strongly associated with the presence of implant stabilization patch material. Infrared spectra were used to identify silicone, talc, Dacron, and two different types of polyurethane in capsular tissues. Micropapillary structures identified at the pseudoepithelial surface have, to the authors' knowledge, not been previously described. PMID:9385972

  15. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  16. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  17. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma in a Tertiary Referral Center: Clinical Characteristics, CT, and 18F-FDG PET Findings, With Pathologic Correlations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun Ha; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patient characteristics, computed tomography (CT) and F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings, and clinical outcomes of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS), together with their pathologic correlations. The medical records of 14 patients with pathologically proven PPSS in a tertiary hospital from January 1997 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were evaluated. The maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the tumors was obtained, and clinical outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence and mortality were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median tumor size was 10.2 cm and the most common anatomic location was the lung followed by the pleura/chest wall and mediastinum. Most of the tumors appeared as single lesions and had circumscribed margins. All the cases showed heterogeneous enhancement with necrotic or cystic portions, and intratumoral vessels were frequently seen. Half of the tumors had intratumoral calcifications, and tumor rupture, pleural/chest wall extension, and pleural effusion occurred frequently. However, lymph node enlargement was rare. The median maxSUV of the tumors was 4.35. Patient outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence (n = 8, 57.1%) and death (n = 3, 21.4%) were poor despite their young age, and the mean follow-up period was 28.5 months.In conclusion, PPSS usually occurs in young adults, generally in the lung, presents as a large, circumscribed mass, and tumor rupture or extension of the pleura/chest wall may occur. The tumors often contain calcifications and vessels; they may exhibit triple attenuation on enhanced CT images, and clinical outcomes are poor. PMID:26313782

  18. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma in a Tertiary Referral Center: Clinical Characteristics, CT, and 18F-FDG PET Findings, With Pathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun Ha; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the patient characteristics, computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings, and clinical outcomes of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS), together with their pathologic correlations. The medical records of 14 patients with pathologically proven PPSS in a tertiary hospital from January 1997 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were evaluated. The maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the tumors was obtained, and clinical outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence and mortality were assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis. The median tumor size was 10.2 cm and the most common anatomic location was the lung followed by the pleura/chest wall and mediastinum. Most of the tumors appeared as single lesions and had circumscribed margins. All the cases showed heterogeneous enhancement with necrotic or cystic portions, and intratumoral vessels were frequently seen. Half of the tumors had intratumoral calcifications, and tumor rupture, pleural/chest wall extension, and pleural effusion occurred frequently. However, lymph node enlargement was rare. The median maxSUV of the tumors was 4.35. Patient outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence (n = 8, 57.1%) and death (n = 3, 21.4%) were poor despite their young age, and the mean follow-up period was 28.5 months. In conclusion, PPSS usually occurs in young adults, generally in the lung, presents as a large, circumscribed mass, and tumor rupture or extension of the pleura/chest wall may occur. The tumors often contain calcifications and vessels; they may exhibit triple attenuation on enhanced CT images, and clinical outcomes are poor. PMID:26313782

  19. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  20. Finding Common Ground: Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competencies in Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model is predicated on interprofessional collaborative practice and team-based care. While information on the roles of various providers is increasingly woven into the literature, the competencies of those providers have been generally profession-specific. In 2011, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative comprising the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Dental Education Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the Association of Schools of Public Health sponsored an expert panel of their members to identify and develop 4 domains of core competencies needed for a successful interprofessional collaborative practice: (1) Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice; (2) Roles/Responsibilities; (3) Interprofessional Communication; and (4) Teams and Teamwork. Their findings and recommendations were recorded in their Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel. This article explores these 4 domains and how they provide common ground for team-based care within the context of the medical home model approach to patient-centered primary care. PMID:26938181

  1. Low bone mineral density is a common finding in patients with homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Weber, David R; Coughlin, Curtis; Brodsky, Jill L; Lindstrom, Kristin; Ficicioglu, Can; Kaplan, Paige; Freehauf, Cynthia L; Levine, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Homocystinuria (HCU) due to deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthetase is associated with increased plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual impairment, ocular defects, thromboembolism and skeletal abnormalities. HCU has been associated with increased risk for osteoporosis in some studies, but the natural history of HCU-related bone disease is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a multi-center, retrospective cohort of children and adults with HCU. We identified 19 subjects (9 males) aged 3.5 to 49.2years who had DXA scans performed as a part of routine clinical care from 2002-2010. The mean lumbar spine (LS) BMD Z-score at the time of first DXA scan in this cohort was -1.2 (±SD of 1.3); 38% of participants had low BMD for age (as defined by a Z-score≤-2). Homocysteine and methionine were positively associated with LS BMD Z-score in multiple linear regression models. Our findings suggest that low BMD is common in both children and adults with HCU and that routine assessment of bone health in this patient population is warranted. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between HCU and BMD. PMID:26689745

  2. Clinical and pathological findings of fatal 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Tamme, Kadri; Minajeva, Ave; Adamson, Vivika; Ristmägi, Kaarina; Põder, Jaak; Lutsar, Irja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze all deaths from A (H1N1) in Estonia during the 2009-2010 epidemic to find out the reasons of high mortality and optimize management strategies for future influenza epidemics. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A retrospective review of medical records, autopsy reports, and reassessment of autopsy slides of all fatal cases of proven A (H1N1) influenza in Estonia from October 2009 to May 2010 was carried out. RESULTS. There were a total of 21 proven fatal cases (median age, 57 years); the population mortality rate of 1.56 per 100 000 inhabitants was one of the highest in the world. Altogether, 18 of the 21 patients had known risk factors for influenza, and 3 patients were previously healthy children. Three decedents had received antiviral treatment, and none had been immunized. There were 19 decedents autopsied, with viral pneumonia (58%) being the most frequent pathological finding; 40% had evidence of bacterial superinfection. In 4 cases, influenza was not clinically suspected and was diagnosed postmortem. Influenza was the primary cause of death in 15 decedents, while in 9 cases, comorbidities played a significant role in fatal outcome. In the remaining 4 cases, another illness was considered the primary cause of death with influenza as an accompanying factor. CONCLUSIONS. High autopsy rate and liberal postmortem PCR testing enables the detection of additional A (H1N1) influenza cases, yet it might lead to overestimation of the population mortality rates, especially in a small population with low number of events. Increased vaccine coverage, vigilant diagnosing including wide PCR testing, and early more liberal use of antiviral medications during the influenza A (H1N1) epidemic may hold the potential of lowering population mortality. PMID:22370505

  3. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  4. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2005-06-01

    The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the antigen distribution in the various organs, and the amount of antigen varied among both species. Therefore, the diagnostician may choose organs for histology and immunohistochemistry as well as RT-PCR depending on the investigated species in order to avoid false-negative results. PMID:16094831

  5. Finding common ground in the study of child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Pinderhughes, Howard

    2004-03-01

    For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issue's etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the literature suggests a number of commonalities across these forms of violence. As such, it seems timely and prudent to craft a research framework that facilitates the identification and dissemination of practice and policy innovations that can address all three concerns. This article articulates an overarching framework to guide researchers in better identifying common avenues of study. After summarizing the commonalities found across the three areas, the authors identify cross-cutting issues that have particular relevance for advancing our understanding of violence and its effects on personal and social interactions. PMID:15005993

  6. FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

  7. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four herds the following case-definition of NNPDS was suggested: Non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first week of life, without detection of known infectious pathogens, characterized by milk-filled stomachs and flaccid intestines at necropsy. PMID:24119974

  8. [CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE RISKS OF COMMON PATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN MERCURY PRODUCTION WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Katamanova, E V; Popkova, O V; Masnavieva, L B

    2015-01-01

    The occupational factors are assigned one out of main parts to the development of occupational and comorbid pathology. At the same time the social aspects of labor relations act as the most important factors influencing on the workers' self-assessment of health status. Quantitative risk assessment of the common pathological syndromes has identified the excess of share of persons with a minimum level of risk over the medium and high. In the structure of risks of common pathological syndromes there are prevailed risks for disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems and borderline mental disorders, which is a response to the impact of not only industrial, but also psychosocial factors. The results of self-assessment of health status and clinical examination of employees in conditions of mercury exposure show the similarity of the structure of diseases in these cases. In either event there are dominated diseases of the nervous and mental sphere, and from the comorbid pathology disorders of the cardiovascular system are prove to be important. Clinical manifestations of the mercury exposure, ranging from pre-clinical manifestations to marked changes from the side of the nervous system in toxic encephalopathy, are characterized by the presence of hyperkinetic syndrome. For pre-clinical and early forms of mercury poisoning there is also typical the presence of asthenic (emotional lability) disorders with autonomic dysfunction. Comorbidities in an internship working was manifested primarily by diseases of visual organs, cardiovascular system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Observed disorders of the nervous system and psycho-emotional sphere are caused, inter alia disturbances of the balance of catecholamines (the rise of norepinephrine in dynamics with a concomitant increase in the coefficient reflecting the degree of its metabolism: norepinephrine/epinephrine and norepinephrine/(adrenaline + Normetanephrine)) in the body. PMID:26856145

  9. Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

    2013-01-01

    Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma. PMID:23936651

  10. Finding Common Ground: Democracy, Critical Literacy, and Technology in Four Diverse Learning Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoogd, Glenn; Patterson, Leslie; Baldwin, Sheila; Brenz, Susan; Hirtle, Jeannine

    1998-01-01

    Synthesizes findings of four case studies that examine technology-rich environments and how they might promote democratic learning. Discusses experiences of each via a matrix of four domains of democratic learning environments (power and voice; beliefs about knowledge and learning; modes of thinking and expression; and perspective on instructional…

  11. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care. PMID:25410820

  12. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  13. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Park, Minho; Park, Ji Seon; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  14. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  15. Extra-nigral pathological conditions are common in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: an in vivo positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Frey, Kirk A; Studenski, Stephanie; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Constantine, Gregory M; Scott, Peter J H; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M

    2014-08-01

    Cholinergic denervation has been associated with falls and slower gait speed and β-amyloid deposition with greater severity of axial motor impairments in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the association between the presence of extra-nigral pathological conditions and freezing of gait (FoG). Patients with PD (n = 143; age, 65.5 ± 7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.4 ± 0.6; Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, 25.9 ± 2.6) underwent [(11) C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase and [(11) C]dihydrotetrabenazine dopaminergic PET imaging, and clinical, including FoG, assessment in the dopaminergic "off" state. A subset of subjects (n = 61) underwent [(11) C]Pittsburgh compound-B β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Normative data were used to dichotomize abnormal β-amyloid uptake or cholinergic deficits. Freezing of gait was present in 20 patients (14.0%). Freezers had longer duration of disease (P = 0.009), more severe motor disease (P < 0.0001), and lower striatal dopaminergic activity (P = 0.013) compared with non-freezers. Freezing of gait was more common in patients with diminished neocortical cholinergic innervation (23.9%, χ(2)  = 5.56, P = 0.018), but not in the thalamic cholinergic denervation group (17.4%, χ(2)  = 0.26, P = 0.61). Subgroup analysis showed higher frequency of FoG with increased neocortical β-amyloid deposition (30.4%, Fisher Exact test: P = 0.032). Frequency of FoG was lowest with absence of both pathological conditions (4.8%), intermediate in subjects with single extra-nigral pathological condition (14.3%), and highest with combined neocortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy (41.7%; Cochran-Armitage trend test, Z = 2.63, P = 0.015). Within the group of freezers, 90% had at least one of the two extra-nigral pathological conditions studied. Extra-nigral pathological conditions, in particular the combined presence of cortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy, are common in PD with FoG and may contribute to its pathophysiology. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:24909584

  16. APOε2 and education in cognitively normal older subjects with high levels of AD pathology at autopsy: findings from the Nun Study

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Diego; Zandi, Peter; Gross, Myron; Markesbery, William R.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (ASYMAD) subjects are individuals characterized by preserved cognition before death despite substantial AD pathology at autopsy. ASYMAD subjects show comparable levels of AD pathology, i.e. β-amyloid neuritic plaques (Aβ-NP) and tau-neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), to those observed in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and some definite AD cases. Previous clinicopathologic studies on ASYMAD subjects have shown specific phenomena of hypertrophy in the cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and other cerebral areas. Since it is well established that the allele APOε4 is a major genetic risk factor for AD, we examined whether specific alleles of APOE could be associated with the different clinical outcomes between ASYMAD and MCI subjects despite equivalent AD pathology. A total of 523 brains from the Nun Study were screened for this investigation. The results showed higher APOε2 frequency (p < 0.001) in ASYMAD (19.2%) vs. MCI (0%) and vs. AD (4.7%). Furthermore, higher education in ASYMAD vs. MCI and AD (p < 0.05) was found. These novel autopsy-verified findings support the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of APOε2 and education, both which seem to act as contributing factors in delaying or forestalling the clinical manifestations of AD despite consistent levels of AD pathology. PMID:26101858

  17. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima).

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Wells-Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, Daniel L; Flint, Paul L; Hollmén, Tuula

    2007-05-15

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds. PMID:17454562

  18. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  19. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  20. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model Seen on a 7 Tesla Animal MR Scanner: Comparison of ADC Values and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dae Chul; Seo, Jin Won; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, In Hoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and pathologic measures of a tumor using a prostate cancer xenograft model. Materials and Methods Eighteen athymic nude mice with 36 PC-3-induced tumors were sacrificed to obtain specimens immediately after MR imaging in order to compare the findings on MR images with those seen on pathological specimens. Using a high-field small-animal MR scanner, T1- and T2-weighted imaging and DW MR imaging was performed. Tumors were then processed for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining to evaluate tumor cellularity, intratumoral necrosis and immunostaining using antibodies directed against CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to determine the levels of microvessel density (MVD). Mean ADC values that were measured on the solid portion within each tumor were compared with tumor volume, cellularity, degree of necrosis, VEGF expression, and MVD in the corresponding section of the pathological specimen. Results Mean ADC values of the solid portion within the PC-3-induced high-grade tumors were significantly correlated with the degree of intratumoral necrosis (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and MVD (r = -0.44, p = 0.008) on pathologic slides. The ADC values were not significantly correlated with tumor cellularity, VEGF expression, or tumor volume in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion In the xenografted prostate cancer model, the ADC values of the solid portion of the tumors are significantly correlated with tumor necrosis and MVD of the pathologic specimens. The ADC values may be utilized as surrogate markers for the noninvasive assessment of tumor necrosis and MVD in high-grade prostate cancer. PMID:22247640

  1. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang; Ung, Yee C.; Hornby, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  2. Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Han, Boo-Kyung; Rhee, Sun Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Park, Hyojung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation. Methods Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status. Conclusion BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed. PMID:24155760

  3. Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Bolon, Brad; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main features proposed to delineate the presence of ARDS in laboratory animals. These should include histological changes in parenchymal tissue, altered integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier, inflammation, and abnormal pulmonary function. Murine ARDS models typically are defined by such features as pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in cytological preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung sections. Common pathophysiological indicators of ARDS in mice include impaired pulmonary gas exchange and histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates into the lung. Thus, morphological endpoints remain a vital component of data sets assembled from animal ARDS models. PMID:26296628

  4. Cardiac injury is a common postmortem finding in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura patients: is empiric cardiac monitoring and protection needed?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Larry; Berg, Aaron; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Raval, Jay S

    2015-02-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and potentially fatal disease. Early implementation of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has decreased the mortality rate from >90% to <10%. However, fatalities still occur in these patients. The goal of this study was to characterize the causes of death and related postmortem findings in patients with TTP in the current era of emergent TPE to identify possible areas for improvement in the care of these patients. We analyzed clinical history, laboratory and histopathologic findings, and causes of death of patients with active TTP or TTP in clinical remission autopsied at our institution over 22 years. Of 18 patients, 15 had TTP judged to be a cause of death: it was an underlying cause of death in five cases, intermediate in three, and contributing in seven. The most common immediate causes of death were cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction. The most common TTP-related findings at autopsy were thrombi/emboli in heart (9), lung (11), brain (3), kidney (7), followed by hemorrhages in heart (7), lung (8), brain (2), kidney (7), and infarcts in heart (5), lung (4), brain (6) and kidney (3). Analysis of the cases with TTP as a cause of death suggests that the mechanism of death is commonly cardiac in origin. Proactive measures to monitor and protect the heart may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:25196220

  5. High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

    2010-07-01

    Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. PMID:20398945

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  7. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  8. Discrepancy between Clinical and Final Pathological Evaluation Findings in Early Gastric Cancer Patients Treated with Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Hyoung Sang; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early gastric cancer cases that are estimated to meet indications for treatment before endoscopic submucosal resection are often revealed to be out-of-indication after the treatment. We investigated the short-term treatment outcomes in patients with early gastric cancer according to the pretreatment clinical endoscopic submucosal resection indications. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with early gastric cancer that met the pretreatment endoscopic submucosal resection indications, from 2004 to 2011. Curative resection rate and proportion of out-of-indication cases were compared according to the pre-endoscopic submucosal resection indications. Pre-endoscopic submucosal resection factors associated with out-of-indication in the final pathological examination were analyzed. Results Of 756 cases, 660 had absolute and 96 had expanded pre-endoscopic submucosal resection indications. The curative resection rate was significantly lower in the patients with expanded indications (64.6%) than in those with absolute indications (81.7%; P<0.001). The cases with expanded indications (30.2%) were revealed to be out-of-indication more frequently than the cases with absolute indications (13.8%; P<0.001). Age of >65 years, tumor size of >2 cm, tumor location in the upper-third segment of the stomach, and undifferentiated histological type in pre-endoscopic submucosal resection evaluations were significant risk factors for out-of-indication after endoscopic submucosal resection. Conclusions Non-curative resection due to out-of-indication occurred in approximately one-third of the early gastric cancer cases that clinically met the expanded indications before endoscopic submucosal resection. The possibility of additional surgery should be emphasized for patients with early gastric cancers that clinically meet the expanded indications. PMID:27104025

  9. Experimental infection of lambs with C and S-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: immunological and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The two main genotypes of recognized isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) are cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains. An experimental infection was conducted to establish the effect of Map strain on the pathogenesis of ovine paratuberculosis. Twenty-four out of thirty 1.5-month-old Assaf lambs were divided into 4 groups of 6 and infected orally with three low passage field isolates, two of S- (22G and the pigmented Ovicap49) and one of C– (764) type, and the reference K-10 strain (C type). The remaining six animals were unchallenged controls. Animals were euthanized at 150 and 390 days post-infection (dpi). Throughout the experiment, the peripheral immune response was assessed and histological and molecular (PCR) studies were conducted on samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue. Specific antibody and IFN-γ production was significantly higher in animals infected with the C strains, while no consistent IFN- γ responses were observed in the S-type strain infected groups. A positive intradermal skin test response was detected in all infected groups. Lambs infected with S-type strains had granulomatous lesions restricted to the lymphoid tissue with no differences in the lesion intensity over time. In both C–type strain groups, lesions were more severe at 150 dpi while at 390 dpi lesions, characterized by well-demarcated granulomas with fibrosis, decreased in severity. Only infected lambs were positive to PCR. These results suggest that the strain of Map has a strong influence over the immune and pathological responses developed by the host. Lesions induced by C–type strains in lambs show a regressive character and tend to decrease as the infection progresses. PMID:24428881

  10. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in a fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly. Report of a case diagnosed by genetic analysis, and correlation with pathological andradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Peraita-Ezcurra, Milena; Martínez-García, Mónica; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, María Eugenia; Fenollar-Cortés, María; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Ramos-Corrales, Carmen; Pastor, Ignacio; Santonja, Carlos; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

    2012-05-10

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly characterized by a disproportionate limb dwarfism, chondroectodermal dysplasia, congenital heart disease, postaxial polydactyly, and dysplastic fingernails and teeth. Only 300 cases have been published worldwide. We report a 21-week fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly detected. Gross photographs, radiologic studies and pathological study were performed leading to the clinico-pathological suspicion of EvC. DNA from fresh fetal tissue was extracted for sequencing the EVC and EVC2 genes. p.W215X and p.R677X mutations were identified in the EVC2 gene in the fetal sample. Parental sample analysis showed the p.W215X mutation to be inherited from the mother and the p.R677X mutation from the father. The clinical information is essential not only to arrive at a correct diagnosis in fetuses with pathologic ultrasound findings, but also to offer a proper genetic counseling to the parents and their relatives. PMID:22406498

  11. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  12. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  13. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population. PMID:25703136

  14. Type, Duration, and Incidence of Pathologic Findings after Retroorbital Bleeding of Mice by Experienced and Novice Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Joanna H; Worth, David B; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Retroorbital blood collection is a common technique in laboratory rodents due to the ease with which it can be performed and the sample volumes obtained for subsequent blood analyses. However, its use has been discouraged recently due to aesthetic discomfort and anecdotal reports of potential for ocular injury during blood collection. We hypothesized that a single standardized session of in-person training would be sufficient to learn the appropriate technique and minimize the likelihood for adverse outcomes. Experienced instructors (n = 2) conducted hands-on training classes to teach novice personnel (n = 40) to perform this procedure. Blood was collected from anesthetized mice (n = 40) via a capillary tube first placed at the medial canthus of the right eye and then advanced into the retroorbital space; the left retroorbital spaces served as unmanipulated controls. For comparison, the experienced instructors similarly collected blood from 40 additional mice. The tube could be inserted only once in each mouse, with the goal of obtaining 50 to 100 μL blood. Overall, 79 of 80 mice (98.8%) showed normal body condition, posture, and behavior throughout the 14-d study. Thus, any clinical observation scores pertained specifically to ocular lesions, which occurred at least once after sampling in 43 (53.8%) of the mice. Clinical and histopathologic scores of mice after bleeding did not differ between experienced and novice personnel. We conclude that a coordinated hands-on training program can provide consistent and sufficient instruction for research personnel to conduct retroorbital blood collection with competence in anesthetized laboratory mice. PMID:26045459

  15. Pathological Laughing: Brain SPECT Findings.

    PubMed

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Blondet, Cyrille; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old man consulting for uncontrollable episodes of laughing related to emotional lability and not systematically linked to feelings of happiness. Seven months earlier he had presented a pontine ischemic stroke related to an occlusion of the basilar and left vertebral arteries. No epileptic activity or new MRI brain lesions were found. Brain perfusion SPECT performed showed marked hypoperfusion in the right frontal inferior and temporoinsular regions, suggesting a diaschisis phenomenon caused by pontine lesions and highlighted laughing regulation pathways. The patient was successfully treated with a serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. PMID:25899595

  16. [Specific pathological findings in trabeculectomy].

    PubMed

    Gloor, B P; Piffaretti, J M

    1975-01-01

    A quick embedding method for trabeculectomy specimens is desirable. It allows a comparison between the observations made during surgery and the histological material as long as the facts are remembered by the surgeon. Embedding by butoxy-ethanol-glycol-methacrylate proved to be adequate. It allows 1- to 2-mu thick sections. 39 trabeculectomy specimens were investigated in regard of topographical origin. In 26 of them, an exact localization was possible. Only 8 pieces contained Schlemm's canal or major parts of it. The others where cut more anteriorly and contained cornea and parts of the trabecular meshwork. The different topographical localization of the ectomized pieces did not influence the regulation of the intraocular tension in the early follow-up period. It is suggested that trabeculectomy does not give direct access to the aqueous to the cut ends of Schlemm's canal and to collector channels but rather by letting filter the aqueous externally along the scleral openings. PMID:1134721

  17. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  18. Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. PMID:25119440

  19. ["Hic gaudet mors succurere vitae", autopsy findings of the Mainz Institute of Pathology 1971-2010. An analysis on the occasion of the 100 year jubilee].

    PubMed

    Hansen, T; Hring, S; Rosendahl, F; Dusolt, M; Kempe, C; Hechtner, M; Sommer, C; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2014-07-01

    In the past numerous analyses have studied several aspects of autopsies in particular with regard to the decline of frequency; however, long-term studies spanning more than one decade have rarely been published, especially in recent years. On the occasion of the 100 year jubilee the archive data of the Institute of Pathology of the University of Mainz were analyzed for autopsies performed between 1971 and 2010. In this cohort, we focused on patients over?14 years old (n?=?14,724) who died in the University hospital. We compared the number of autopsies with the total number of deceased patients and, in addition, studied several epidemiological aspects with special relevance for the cause of death (COD). In 1973 the peak autopsy frequency was reached with a value of 73.4?% followed by a decrease to 49.1?% in 1980. In the following decade a relatively steady state was achieved (frequency 53.3?% in 1985, and 43.2?% in 1990), followed by a remarkable decline after the 1990s (1997: 26.4?%, 1998: 15.9?% and 2010: 5.6?%). The mean overall age increased during the observation period (59.1 years in 1971 and 67.5 years in 2008). Among the COD groups cardiovascular diseases were predominantly recorded (between 35?% in the 1970s and 39?% in 1995-2010), followed by infectious diseases (between 20 and 25?%). Malignancies represented the third most common COD group with an increase in frequency from approximately 10.5?% in the 1970s to 17?% observed in the last decade. Among the single specific CODs, pulmonary embolism was most often encountered in the 1970s (about 11.5?%), while in the following decades myocardial infarction predominated (up to 15.8?% between 1995 and 2010). In the overall period, lung cancer was the single most common malignancy of the CODs (between 2.5 and 3.9?%). These data confirmed previous studies showing that in Germany the autopsy frequency began to decline remarkably in the 1990s. Besides general aspects, the specific local causes for these phenomena are discussed. PMID:24957867

  20. Quantitative analysis of lung elastic fibers in idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE): comparison of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The amount of elastic fibers (EF) and detailed differences between IPPFE and IPF have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to quantify the EF and identify the differences between IPPFE and IPF. Methods We evaluated six patients with IPPFE and 28 patients with IPF who underwent surgical lung biopsy or autopsy. The patients’ clinical history, physical findings, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathological features of lung specimens were retrospectively evaluated. The amounts of EF in lung specimens were quantified with Weigert’s staining using a camera with a charge-coupled device and analytic software in both groups. Results Fewer patients with IPPFE than IPF had fine crackles (50.0% vs. 96.4%, p = 0.012). Patients with IPPFE had a lower forced vital capacity (62.7 ± 10.9% vs. 88.6 ± 21.9% predicted, p = 0.009), higher consolidation scores on HRCT (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p < 0.0001), lower body mass indices (17.9 ± 0.9 vs. 24.3 ± 2.8, p < 0.0001), and more pneumothoraces than did patients with IPF (66.7 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.002). Lung specimens from patients with IPPFE had more than twice the amount of EF than did those from patients with IPF (28.5 ± 3.3% vs. 12.1 ± 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The amount of EF in the lower lobes was significantly lower than that in the upper lobes, even in the same patient with IPPFE (23.6 ± 2.4% vs. 32.4 ± 5.5%, p = 0.048). However, the amount of EF in the lower lobes of patients with IPPFE was still higher than that of patients with IPF (23.6 ± 2.4% vs. 12.2 ± 4.4%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion More than twice the amount of EF was found in patients with IPPFE than in those with IPF. Even in the lower lobes, the amount of EF was higher in patients with IPPFE than in those with IPF, although the distribution of lung EF was heterogeneous in IPPFE specimens. PMID:24886550

  1. Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harper, Hazel J

    2003-01-01

    Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into underserved communities to deliver the oral health message. Involvement and participation on all levels, with diverse and non-traditional partners will make a difference. The National Dental Association applauds the commitment of the American Dental Assistants Association to form alliances that address the issues of access and disparities. Groups working together for a common good are linked together by one common notion: Caring Counts. PMID:12861781

  2. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija; Kemiläinen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A; Webb, P; Green, A.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Webb, P.; Whiteman, D.; Fung, Annie; Yashiki, June; Peuteman, Gilian; Smeets, Dominiek; Brussel, Thomas Van; Corthouts, Kathleen; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Olchers, Til; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Maniscalco, Angela; Rossi, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Tranchant, Martine; Valois, Marie-France; Turgeon, Annie; Heguy, Lea; Sze Yee, Phuah; Kang, Peter; Nee, Kang In; Mariapun, Shivaani; Sook-Yee, Yoon; Lee, Daphne; Ching, Teh Yew; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Otsukka, Meeri; Mononen, Kari; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; staff, OFBCR; Krol-Warmerdam, E.; Molenaar, J.; Blom, J.; Brinton, Louise; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata; Zatonski, Witold; Chao, Pei; Stagner, Michael; Bos, Petra; Blom, Jannet; Crepin, Ellen; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Heemskerk, Annette; Higham, Sue; Cross, Simon; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Brock, Ian; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Chua, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  3. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  4. Social pathologies in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bah, S M

    1993-10-01

    This paper looks at the trend of social pathologies (diseases and cause of death which are more social in origin than biological) in Zimbabwe over the past decade. The rate of increase was found to be very high, even by international standards. In order to find plausible explanations for this rapid rise, the Zimbabwean situation was compared to two different populations; the Navajo Indians in the United States whose rate of social pathologies was also high and the Island of Mauritius whose level of socio-economic development was similar to that Zimbabwe but whose rate of social pathologies was very low. It was concluded that the reason for the rise in social pathologies in Zimbabwe was due to both socio-economic development and excess alcohol consumption. Efforts to combat social pathologies, however, should first be directed towards the problem of excess alcohol consumption which is more directly related to social pathologies than socioeconomic development. PMID:8020074

  5. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  6. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael; Smith, Milton R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  7. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  8. Incidental Findings on Brain MR Imaging in Older Community-Dwelling Subjects Are Common but Serious Medical Consequences Are Rare: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandeman, Elaine M.; Hernandez, Maria del Carmen Valdes; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Corley, Janie; Henderson, Ross; Deary, Ian J.; Starr, John M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Incidental findings in neuroimaging occur in 3% of volunteers. Most data come from young subjects. Data on their occurrence in older subjects and their medical, lifestyle and financial consequences are lacking. We determined the prevalence and medical consequences of incidental findings found in community-dwelling older subjects on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Design Prospective cohort observational study. Setting Single centre study with input from secondary care. Participants Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, a study of cognitive ageing. Main Outcome Measures Incidental findings identified by two consultant neuroradiologists on structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years; resulting medical referrals and interventions. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Prevalence of incidental findings by individual categories: neoplasms, cysts, vascular lesions, developmental, ear, nose or throat anomalies, by intra- and extracranial location; visual rating of white matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy. Results There were 281 incidental findings in 223 (32%) of 700 subjects, including 14 intra- or extracranial neoplasms (2%), 15 intracranial vascular anomalies (2%), and 137 infarcts or haemorrhages (20%). Additionally, 153 had moderate/severe deep white matter hyperintensities (22%) and 176 had cerebral atrophy at, or above, the upper limit of normal (25%) compared with a normative population template. The incidental findings were unrelated to white matter hyperintensities or atrophy; about a third of subjects had both incidental findings and moderate or severe WMH and a quarter had incidental findings and atrophy. The incidental findings resulted in one urgent and nine non-urgent referrals for further medical assessment, but ultimately in no new treatments. Conclusions In community-dwelling older subjects, incidental findings, including white matter hyperintensities and atrophy, were common. However, many findings were not of medical importance and, in this age group, most did not result in further assessment and none in change of treatment. PMID:23967214

  9. [Intersexuality in hornless XX-goats: pathological findings in 2 young pseudobucks, 3 young bucks with urethral diverticula and 2 pseudohermaphroditic kids].

    PubMed

    König, H; Elmiger, B; Stranzinger, G

    1992-01-01

    Dealing with the subject "polled goats intersexuality", whose problems are discussed, we studied the pathology of 7 3-month old XX-kids: 2 pseudomales, 3 males with urethral diverticulum (1 animal with 2 U.D.), and 2 testicular pseudohermaphrodites. Four horned male kids of comparable age were used as control. Urethral diverticula, seen now and then in local breeds, i.e. in "chamois-colored" mountain goats, Saanen, and Toggenburg goats, are rather unknown and only sporadically reported abroad. In agreement with previous histological studies, the testes were hypoplastic, the spermatogonia absent. In no case ovarian tissue was found. The Leydig cells appeared to be functionally active. The selection of an experimental flock of intersex-free polled goats is proposed. PMID:1609259

  10. Pathology Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pathology report may include the results of molecular diagnostic and cytogenetic studies. Such studies investigate the ... or absence of malignant cells, and genetic or molecular abnormalities in specimens. What information about the genetics ...

  11. Pathological gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... know about their problem. The American Psychiatric Association defines pathological gambling as having five or more of ... may include: Alcohol and drug abuse problems Anxiety Depression Financial, social, and legal problems (including bankruptcy, divorce, ...

  12. Pathologic Findings and Trends in Mortality in the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Population of the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada, From 1983 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lair, S; Measures, L N; Martineau, D

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. This population has failed to recover despite the prohibition of hunting >30 years ago, suggesting the presence of other limiting factors. The authors summarize the reported causes of death and propose risk factors to explain the lack of recovery of this population. From 1983 to 2012, a total of 472 beluga were found stranded. Complete necropsies were carried out on 222 beluga, including 178 adults, 25 juveniles, and 19 newborn calves. Infectious diseases, the most prevalent cause of mortality in this population, accounted for the death of one-third of all beluga (32%). Verminous pneumonia was the cause of mortality of 13 juvenile beluga (52% of juvenile beluga). A total of 39 malignant neoplasms, diagnosed in 35 beluga, caused the death of 31 beluga (20% of beluga >19 years old). Median age at diagnosis of cancer was 48 years (range, 30-61 years). Dystocia and postpartum complications were the cause of death in 18 beluga, accounting for 19% of the females >19 years old examined. The occurrence of parturition-associated complications, as well as mortality of calves <1 year old, have increased recently in this population and may be the probable cause of the recent decrease in the size of this population. One of the hypotheses proposed to explain the unusually high occurrence of some of the pathologic conditions observed in this population is chronic exposure to environmental contaminants. PMID:26374277

  13. Image-Guided Cryoablation of the Spine in a Swine Model: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings with Light and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de Andrade, Celi Santos Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Ferreira, Lorraine Braga Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Cury, Patrícia Maluf

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to present the feasibility of an in vivo image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the porcine vertebral body.MethodsThe institutional animal care committee approved this study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided vertebral cryoablations (n = 22) were performed in eight pigs with short, 2-min, single or double-freezing protocols. Protective measures to nerves included dioxide carbon (CO{sub 2}) epidural injections and spinal canal temperature monitoring. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data with light (n = 20) or transmission electron (n = 2) microscopic analyses were evaluated after 6 days of clinical follow-up and euthanasia.ResultsCBCT/fluoroscopic-guided transpedicular vertebral body cryoprobe positioning and CO{sub 2} epidural injection were successful in all procedures. No major complications were observed in seven animals (87.5 %, n = 8). A minor complication was observed in one pig (12.5 %, n = 1). Logistic regression model analysis showed the cryoprobe-spinal canal (Cp-Sc) distance as the most efficient parameter to categorize spinal canal temperatures lower than 19 °C (p < 0.004), with a significant Pearson’s correlation test (p < 0.041) between the Cp-Sc distance and the lowest spinal canal temperatures. Ablation zones encompassed pedicles and the posterior wall of the vertebral bodies with an inflammatory rim, although no inflammatory infiltrate was depicted in the surrounding neural structures at light microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses evidenced myelin sheath disruption in some large nerve fibers, although neurological deficits were not observed.ConclusionsCBCT-guided vertebral cryoablation of the porcine spine is feasible under a combination of a short freezing protocol and protective measures to the surrounding nerves. Ultrastructural analyses may be helpful assess the early modifications of the nerve fibers.

  14. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. PMID:24342092

  15. Toxicological consequences of Aroclor 1254 ingestion by female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys and their nursing infants. Part 3: post-reproduction and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D L; Nera, E A; Stapley, R; Bryce, F; Fernie, S; Tolnai, G; Miller, D; Hayward, S; Campbell, J S; Greer, I

    1997-12-01

    A group of 80 menstruating rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys were randomly allocated to four similar rooms (20 monkeys/room) and then to one of five dose groups (four females/dose group/room). Each day the monkeys self-ingested capsules containing doses of 0, 5, 20, 40 or 80 microg Aroclor 1254/kg body weight. After 25 months of continuous dosing, approximately 90% of the treated females had attained a qualitative pharmacokinetic steady state with respect to the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in their nuchal fat pad. Concurrently, sebaceous glands were being examined for changes analogous to chloracne. Subsequently, the females were paired with untreated males. The infants' blood PCB levels at birth were not correlated with its dam's dose or blood PCB level. However, there was an association between an infants preweaning blood PCB levels and its dam's dose and PCB milk levels. After weaning, the infants were not dosed with PCB. The half-life for the PCB in the infants' blood was determined and found to be slightly more than 15 wk. After 6 yr on test, three monkeys from the 0, 5, 20 and 40 microg dose groups were randomly allocated to a depletion study to ascertain the half-lives of specific PCB congeners (Mes et al., Chemosphere 1995, 30, 789-800). Concurrently, necropsies began of the remaining females, and of seven infants from the treated dams and four infants from the control dams, which had attained an age of 2 yr. Approximately 3 yr later, the depletion monkeys were necropsied. The only statistically significant treatment-related pathological changes found during the study were in the adult females, in which an involution of the sebaceous glands and a dose related increase in liver weight due to hyperplasia were evident. PMID:9449225

  16. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, María Victoria; Pérez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Tuñon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, María Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and β-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=20, mean age 82.1 years). Relative proteome abundance measurements have revealed protein interaction networks progressively disturbed across AD stages suggesting an early imbalance in splicing factors, subsequent interrupted cycling of neurotransmitters, alteration in toxic and protective mechanisms of β-amyloid, and finally, a mitochondrial dysfunction together with disturbance in neuron-neuron adhesion. We also present novel molecular findings in the OB in an autopsy cohort composed by Lewy body disease (LBD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), mixed dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases (n = 41, mean age 79.7 years). Olfactory mediators deregulated during the progression of AD such as Visinin-like protein 1, RUFY3 protein, and Copine 6 were also differentially modulated in the OB in LBD, FTLD, and mixed dementia. Only Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 showed a specific down-regulation in AD. However, no differences were observed in the olfactory expression of this protein panel in PSP subjects. This study demonstrates an olfactory progressive proteome modulation in AD, unveiling cross-disease similarities and differences especially for specific proteins involved in dendritic and axonic distributions that occur in the OB during the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26517091

  17. Unusual malignant breast lesions: imaging-pathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Karan, Belgin; Pourbagher, Ayşin; Bolat, Filiz Aka

    2012-01-01

    This pictorial essay presents the common radiological (mammography and/or ultrasonography) and pathological findings observed in unusual malignant breast lesions, which include well-differentiated subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (tubular, mucinous, papillary, and medullary carcinomas), metaplastic carcinoma, and metastases. This study also includes unusual ultrasonographic appearances of a plasmacytoma. PMID:21948695

  18. Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677

  19. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  20. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Segal, Y; Segal, L; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T; Sasson, E; Poliansky, V; Loeb, E; Levy, A; Alter, A; Bregman, N

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  1. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Y.; Segal, L.; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T.; Sasson, E.; Poliansky, V.; Loeb, E.; Levy, A.; Alter, A.; Bregman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  2. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Vestibular Schwannoma as the Most Common Cause of MRI Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL.A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed.In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1-2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient.The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC. PMID:27124066

  3. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V.; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  4. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. Conclusions A novel framework for developing Common Ground to manage conflicts during end-of-life decision-making discussions may assist in achieving a “good death”. These results could aid in educating physicians, learners, and the public on how to achieve productive collaborative relationships during end-of-life decision-making for dying patients, and ultimately improve their deaths. PMID:23339822

  5. Pathology of radiation myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images PMID:4647860

  6. Intraoperative findings in revision chronic otitis media surgery.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Abolhassan; Motasaddi-Zarandy, Masoud; Khorsandi, Mohammad-Taghi

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we reviewed the surgical findings in a series of revision tympanomastoidectomy to determine the most common causes of failure in chronic otitis media surgery. The intraoperative findings at revision mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty of 116 patients were analyzed. The most common sites of pathologic tissue at revision surgery (with cholesteatoma and/ or granulation tissue) were unexenterated cells of the sinodural angle. The most common mechanical cause of retention of debris in canal wall down procedures was facial ridge. PMID:18298298

  7. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  8. Beyond appendicitis; radiologic review of unusual and rare pathology of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Hines, John J; Paek, Gina K; Lee, Peter; Wu, Loraine; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    Appendicitis is a very common cause of acute abdominal pathology, however, many other pathologic conditions of the appendix can be diagnosed utilizing CT. Examples of these conditions include primary appendiceal neoplasms, secondary inflammation of the appendix, stump appendicitis, endometriosis, appendicitis within a hernia, appendiceal diverticulosis and intussusception and intraluminal foreign bodies. The purpose of this article is to review appendiceal pathology outside of acute appendicitis, describe corresponding imaging findings on CT, and to illustrate various CT findings of appendiceal disease with representative cases. PMID:27039327

  9. Pulmonary pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, D.H.; Hammar, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 34 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiographic correlation; Pleural neoplasms; Cytologic correlations; Hypertension and low-flow states; Common neoplasms; Lymphoproliferative diseases; and Uncommon tumors.

  10. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  11. Lone atrial fibrillation: Pathologic or not?

    PubMed

    Chambers, Patrick William

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation risk has been strongly associated with increasing age and visceral obesity. These characteristics are strongly associated with diabetes, decreased heart rate variability, and chronic inflammation. Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) on the other hand exhibits a predilection for the physically fit and the middle aged, especially males. Given these opposing features it is postulated that pathologic AF is due to cardiac fibrosis and other age related changes while LAF is due to physiologic neurohormonal changes related to autonomic tone, insulin sensitivity, and electrolyte imbalance and that pathologic AF and LAF can be reliably differentiated via an anthropometric approach using weight, height, hip, and waist measurements. An anthropometric study is undertaken from an LAF database to test this hypothesis. Such individuals in addition to being younger and predominantly male appear to be taller with less central adiposity vs. those with pathologic AF. The ramifications of these findings with respect to insulin resistance, sympathetic tone, inflammation and hypertension, often associated with pathologic atrial fibrillation, are discussed. Speculation is drawn about possible etiologic link with mitral valve prolapse, which is commonly encountered in the tall and thin and which shares multiple clinical features with LAF. PMID:17005327

  12. Finding common ground: how public health can work with organized labor to protect workers from environmental tobacco smoke. National Association for Public Health Policy.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco is not and does not have to be a high priority for all segments of organized labor, but public health advocates should continue to promote the issue and find segments which are open to collaborative efforts to protect workers' health. Even in those unions representing workers for whom smoking and ETS pose a lower health risk relative to other workplace toxins, smoking policy remains a strategic issue for at least two reasons. First, supporting efforts to control ETS exposure sure is an issue of service to non-smoking union members, and like-wise, bargaining for smoking cessation programs is a service to members who smoke. Second, it is in the union's interest to engage with management through collective bargaining to develop smoking policies, rather than to allow management to unilaterally propose and/or implement policies. To remain a strong voice in the worksite, labor needs to defend its unions and members from misdirected and overzealous actions. Within the context of the diversity of opinions from within labor and public health, this policy statement aims to identify our common ground and recommend ways to collaborate in protecting worker health. Specifically, we recommend that the public health community take the following actions: I) assist unions with smoking cessation services that meet the needs of labor, 2) support labor's efforts to negotiate smoking policies within the context of collective bargaining, 3) include labor in tobacco control coalitions, 4) advocate for regulatory initiatives that include ETS as part of an overall indoor air quality strategy, 5) focus attention on preventing smoking among children of union members, and 6) develop strategies with labor to benefit from savings that employers achieve under smoking restrictions or bans. Smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke represent a threat to the health of workers. Given that the public health and labor movements have a mutual interest in protecting worker health, it makes sense for these two groups to join together on tobacco control policy-making in the worksite. PMID:9519620

  13. Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

    2011-01-01

    Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (microtubule-associated protein tau mutations); strongly asymmetric, distributed atrophy (Pick's disease); relatively symmetric, predominantly extratemporal atrophy (corticobasal degeneration, fused-in-sarcoma pathology). TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with substantial individual variation; however, within this group progranulin mutations were associated with strongly asymmetric, distributed hemispheric atrophy. We interpret the findings in terms of emerging network models of neurodegenerative disease: the neuroanatomical specificity of particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathologies may depend on an interaction of disease-specific and network-specific factors. PMID:21908872

  14. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  15. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  16. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these…

  17. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these

  18. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Common Mental Disorders Among Workers: Findings From the EMPIRIC Study of Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen; McKenzie, Kwame; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James; Weich, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We measured perceived discrimination and its association with common mental disorders among workers in the United Kingdom. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of a national sample of 6 ethnic groups (n=2054). Discrimination was measured as reports of insults; unfair treatment at work; or job denial stemming from race, religion, or language. The outcome assessed was presence of common mental disorders. Results. The risk of mental disorders was highest among ethnic minority individuals reporting unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 3.2) and racial insults (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.6). The overall greatest risks were observed among Black Caribbeans exposed to unfair treatment at work (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.2, 7.3) and Indian (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.4, 7.2), Bangladeshi (OR=32.9; 95% CI=2.5, 436.0), and Irish (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.1, 7.6) individuals reporting insults. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic discrimination shows strong associations with common mental disorders. PMID:15727983

  19. [Apoptosis in toxicologic pathology].

    PubMed

    Ferencić, Zeljko

    2009-10-01

    Toxicologic pathology provides expertise to the interpretation of the toxicity and safety of pharmaceuticals, biological agents, human and animal food aditives, environmental and industrial chemicals, and medical devices in animal studies. The histopathology findings are integrated with other study data (clinical and biochemistry data, autopsy) providing a comprehensive report on efficacy and safety of a chemical, device or material and the relationship of toxicity to exposure. Since its discovery, apoptosis emerged as a molecular control point in the regulation of physiological processes, toxic insults and diseases by means of a programmed cell death. Numerous factors include chemicals, oxidative stress, anoxia, and irradiation. Suppression, overexpression or mutation of a number of genes which orchestrate the apoptotic process are associated with disease. Also, the disbalance in apoptosis processes is documented in viral, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in tumors. Research in the pharmacologic industry is driven toward developing new drugs for treatment schedules for these and other diseases. Toxicologic pathology findings of apoptosis should assist regulatory agencies in understanding the potential hazard or benefit of the tested substance (is the finding of apoptosis normal variation, spontaneous event or provoked by tested drug). Since the great majority of initial histopathological examinations made on toxicity studies and animal disease models are done on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, the morphology alone is sufficient for accurate and adequate identification of apoptosis. PMID:19999544

  20. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  1. Validation of natural language processing to extract breast cancer pathology procedures and results

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Arika E.; Bowles, Erin J. A.; Cronkite, David; Wernli, Karen J.; Gao, Hongyuan; Carrell, David; Buist, Diana S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathology reports typically require manual review to abstract research data. We developed a natural language processing (NLP) system to automatically interpret free-text breast pathology reports with limited assistance from manual abstraction. Methods: We used an iterative approach of machine learning algorithms and constructed groups of related findings to identify breast-related procedures and results from free-text pathology reports. We evaluated the NLP system using an all-or-nothing approach to determine which reports could be processed entirely using NLP and which reports needed manual review beyond NLP. We divided 3234 reports for development (2910, 90%), and evaluation (324, 10%) purposes using manually reviewed pathology data as our gold standard. Results: NLP correctly coded 12.7% of the evaluation set, flagged 49.1% of reports for manual review, incorrectly coded 30.8%, and correctly omitted 7.4% from the evaluation set due to irrelevancy (i.e. not breast-related). Common procedures and results were identified correctly (e.g. invasive ductal with 95.5% precision and 94.0% sensitivity), but entire reports were flagged for manual review because of rare findings and substantial variation in pathology report text. Conclusions: The NLP system we developed did not perform sufficiently for abstracting entire breast pathology reports. The all-or-nothing approach resulted in too broad of a scope of work and limited our flexibility to identify breast pathology procedures and results. Our NLP system was also limited by the lack of the gold standard data on rare findings and wide variation in pathology text. Focusing on individual, common elements and improving pathology text report standardization may improve performance. PMID:26167382

  2. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  3. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users’ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists’ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems. PMID:23243553

  4. Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a common acanthocephalan of anuran and urodelan amphibians in Hokkaido, Japan, with a finding of its intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The Ezo brown frog (Rana pirica) and the Ezo salamander (Hynobius retardatus) are endemic species of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Intestinal adult acanthocephalans are common in these amphibians. A molecular identification based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers demonstrated that the parasites from the anuran and the urodelan are the same species. In the neighboring Honshu island, another acanthocephalan from ranid frogs (e.g. Rana japonica and Rana ornativentris) has been identified as Acanthocephalus lucidus. The counterpart species from the amphibians of Hokkaido was morphologically indistinguishable from A. lucidus. However, clear genetic distinctiveness between the two allopatric populations (separated by islands) indicated the entity of a cryptic species. A phylogenetic tree inferred from sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA showed that the acanthocephalans from Honshu and Hokkaido belong to the genus Pseudoacanthocephalus. Therefore, Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. is proposed for the cryptic species in Hokkaido, together with the transfer of A. lucidus in Honshu to Pseudoacanthocephalus lucidus comb. nov. The present field survey further demonstrated Ligidium japonicum, an isopod crustacean living in the litter layer of forests, to be an intermediate host of the new species. PMID:27067227

  5. Radiographic and Pathologic Manifestations of Uncommon and Rare Pulmonary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Mian, Ali; Adebowale, Adeniran; Alomari, Ahmed; Kalra, Vivek; Krejci, Elise; Shin, Myung Soo

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary opacities/nodules are common findings on computed tomography examinations, which may represent an underlying infections or malignancy. However, not every pulmonary nodule or opacity represents malignancy or infection. We present a pictorial essay illustrating common as well as obscure noninfectious, nonmalignant pulmonary lesions. Lesions discussed include organizing pneumonia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, pulmonary amyloidosis, hyalinizing granuloma, tumourlet (benign localized neuroendocrine cell proliferations), atypical alveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, papillary alveolar adenoma, plasma cell granuloma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and sclerosing hemangiomas. We discuss the clinical presentation, prevalence, radiographic clues, pathology, and diagnostic pitfalls of these rare lesions. PMID:26690551

  6. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  7. [Cystic renal pathology].

    PubMed

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  8. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  9. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success. PMID:23230541

  10. Rare, but clinically significant cases of abnormalities of coronary arteries: "pathological valves".

    PubMed

    Alekhin, D I; Koudrina, A V; Goloshchapova, J A; Kokorishvili, M A; Vlasko, A A

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly occurring pathology of carotid arteries (CAs) is an atherosclerotic stenosing lesion thereof (accounting for up to 80% of all cases), to be immediately followed by pathological tortuosity of carotid arteries. Of much less frequent occurrence are vasculitides, vasculopathies and thrombotic lesions [1-4]. The authors revealed rarely encountered, yet clinically significant abnormalities of the CA structure, which we called "pathological valves" (PVs). However, we failed to find any published reports describing the pathology concerned in the available literature dedicated to ultrasonographic, roentgenological diagnosis or surgical management, hence our article. The present study was aimed at investigating the structure of the wall of the common carotid artery in the area of its bifurcation in the presence of blood flow obstruction caused by nonatherosclerotic alterations detected during ultrasonographic examination and confirmed by angiography. The obtained results were then compared with the findings of clinical studies and the morphological picture of the operative material. There were twenty-six cases of the so-called "pathological valves" amongst more than six thousand ultrasonographic examinations of the brachiocephalic arteries we performed. All the patients operated on turned out to have a history of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) or degree I-II cerebral infarctions in the respective carotid basin. Both morphological and histological examinations revealed that the "pathological valves" consisted of the interrupted, not forming an entire, solid layer, collagenous and elastic ribles covered with the endothelium similar in the morphological structure to that of the tunica intima of the artery. PMID:20977140

  11. Clinical and Pathological Features of Korean Patients with DNM2-Related Centronuclear Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Eun; Choi, Young-Chul; Bae, Jong-Suk; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyang-Suk; Shin, Jin-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is characterized by the presence of central nuclei within a large number of muscle fibers. Mutations of the dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) are common causes of autosomal dominant or sporadic CNM. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and pathological features of CNM relative to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Methods Six patients with clinical and pathological features of CNM were recruited. Detailed clinical and pathological findings were analyzed according to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Results We detected DNM2 mutations in four of the six sporadic CNM patients, and identified the following distinct clinical and pathological features in those patients with DNM2 mutations: preferential involvement of the distal lower limbs, typical nuclear centralization, and radially distributed sarcoplasmic strands in muscle pathology. In contrast, those without DNM2 mutations exhibited rather diffuse muscular involvement, and nuclear internalization and myofibrillar disorganization were more pronounced features of their muscle pathology. Conclusions These findings suggest the presence of specific features in Korean CNM patients. A detailed clinical and pathological examination of CNM patients would be helpful for molecular genetic analyses of this condition. PMID:24465259

  12. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. PMID:26769165

  13. Physician-assisted suicide. Finding common ground.

    PubMed Central

    McGough, P; Back, A L; Colley, J

    1997-01-01

    In Washington state, practicing physicians have been forced to confront the emotional, complex issue of physician-assisted suicide sooner than physicians elsewhere in the US. The Washington State Medical Association has struggled at length with the issue and ultimately delineated a policy on safeguards for physician-assisted suicide. The Washington experience may prove instructive to other professional physician organizations even before the US Supreme Court rules on the issue. PMID:9217451

  14. Finding Common Ground: A Brief Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton

    1997-01-01

    Responds to critiques of an earlier article (CE 531 145) by discussing the implementation problem, pedagogical reform, the new vocationalism as a compromise, critical pedagogy, and postsecondary occupational education. (SK)

  15. Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

  16. Finding Common Ground: Creating Local Governance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.; And Others

    As federal, state, and local policy makers attend to the economic, educational, social, and health-related needs of children, they are beginning to share a vision of a "seamless web" of high-quality, comprehensive, continuous services for children and their families. It remains a challenging goal because of the complexity of children's needs and…

  17. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.

  18. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  19. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Consolato M

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular biological tools. PMID:26838800

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular biological tools. PMID:26838800

  1. Structural basis for pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Weber, K T; Brilla, C G

    1993-05-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major risk factor associated with the emergence of symptomatic congestive heart failure. Cardiac myocyte excitation-contraction coupling has been the biochemical focus in the search for insights into the impaired contractility, relaxation, and stiffness of the hypertrophied myocardium. Although hypertrophied myocytes are the hallmark of LVH, other aspects of myocardial structure may be altered to impair pump function--specifically an abnormal accumulation of connective tissue (interstitial fibrosis). Cardiac fibroblasts, which are nonmyocyte cells of the cardiac interstitium, synthesize and degrade collagen and, therefore, represent an important determinant of pathologic LVH. Significantly, this reactive fibrosis has been found not only in the pressure-overloaded hypertrophied left ventricle but also in the normotensive, nonhypertrophied right ventricle of animals with experimental hypertension. These findings suggest the involvement of a circulating substance that has access to the coronary circulation common to both ventricles. Based on in vivo studies that examined this hypothesis, it can be concluded that chronic elevation of circulating aldosterone, relative to sodium intake, is associated with myocardial fibrosis, which initially adversely alters diastolic function and ultimately systolic ventricular function. The mechanisms by which fibroblast collagen metabolism is invoked in this setting are under investigation. Elucidation of these mechanisms may prepare the way to the prevention as well as the reversal of myocardial fibrosis and, in turn, of pathologic LVH. PMID:8504584

  2. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for <2% of all bone tumors. The calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  3. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical

  4. Pathological narcissism in childhood.

    PubMed

    Egan, J; Kernberg, P F

    1984-01-01

    Matt's analysis yields a number of theoretical and clinical implications. It demonstrates that narcissistic character pathology can exist in childhood and shows how family dynamics may contribute. The clearly defensive function of Matt's pathology and his later progress through normal infantile narcissism toward further development suggest that the pathogenesis of narcissistic pathology resides neither in regression to an infantile position nor in untamed infantile narcissism. Rather, as the case demonstrates, narcissistic pathology actually reflects a pathological formation of the self used for defensive purposes. Matt's analysis also shows how such pathology in children may be effectively resolved through interpretation. Finally, the analysis demonstrates the peculiarities of the countertransference in such cases and how they may be pivotal in the course of treatment. PMID:6707434

  5. [Update of pathological diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor].

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Teng; Ming, Zhao; Maode, Lai

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are common in pathological practice and its pathological classification and histological grading are not exactly the same as that of those in the digestive tract and pancreas. In 2015 edition of World Health Organization classification, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are classified as carcinoid tumors (including typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid), small cell lung carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and precursor lesion diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; each category has distinctive morphological and immunohistochemical features. The morphologic features including growth patterns and cytological appearances are keys for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor, and immunohistochemical findings are also critical for its diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria vary for different types of specimen. In this article, we present a concise review and summary of the update of clinicopathological characterizations of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor, with an emphasis on its diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis. PMID:27045239

  6. Development of ovarian pathology after hysterectomy without oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    Plöckinger, B; Kölbl, H

    1994-06-01

    This study was done to determine the occurrence of disease in retained ovaries after hysterectomy. A retrospective analysis of patient charts was performed, comparing the patient reports of women who had secondary ovarian lesions with those whose ovaries showed no pathologic findings during the ten year period of observation (1980 to 1990). The study included 1,265 women with at least one ovary saved after hysterectomy for benign indications. Main outcome measures were ovarian pathologic findings after hysterectomy requiring repeat operation. The overall incidence of lesions in retained ovaries was 3.95 percent. There was a 3 percent risk of having secondary ovarian pathologic findings within three years after hysterectomy, with a decreased risk for the following seven years (mean follow-up time of 60 months, range of three to 120 months). Histologic findings at reoperation included common benign conditions of the ovary. No instance of carcinoma of the ovary was found. The risk of having pathology in the retained ovaries after hysterectomy was significantly higher in women who had only one ovary saved, compared with those who had both ovaries saved (7.63 versus 3.47 percent; p < 0.05). The mean age at hysterectomy was significantly lower in women who had ovarian disorders subsequent to hysterectomy than in those who did not (39.3 versus 43.9 years; p < 0.001). In the group of women with secondary ovarian lesions, mean parity was significantly lower than in those without reoperation (1.22 versus 1.94; p < 0.0001). Women with unilateral oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy had twice the risk of secondary ovarian lesions, compared with those without oophorectomy at hysterectomy. Determinants, such as age, parity and gravidity must be considered when deciding whether or not to perform oophorectomy at hysterectomy. PMID:8193751

  7. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  8. Spontaneous Gallbladder Pathology in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Slingluff, J.L.; Williams, J.T.; Blau, Lance; Blau, Adam; Dick, E.J.; Hubbard, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gallbladder pathology (GBP) is a relatively uncommon, naturally occurring morbidity in both baboons and humans. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 7,776 necropsy reports over a twenty year period to determine the prevalence of baboon GBP. Results Ninety-seven cases of GBP were identified, yielding a twenty year population prevalence of 1.25%. GBP is more common in adult female baboons, occurring with a female to male ratio of nearly 2:1. Among gallbladder pathologies, cholecystitis (35.1%) and cholelithiasis (29.9%) were the most prevalent abnormalities, followed by hyperplasia (16.5%), edema (15.5%), amyloidosis (5.2%), fibrosis (4.1%), necrosis (4.1%, and hemorrhage (1.0%). Conclusion Many epidemiologic similarities exist between GBP in baboons and humans suggesting that the baboon may serve as a reliable animal model system for investigating GBP in humans. PMID:19793177

  9. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  10. Pathology annual. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

  11. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  12. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  13. Pathologic diagnosis of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia on horizontal sections.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-11-01

    The pathologic findings in Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) have not been studied systematically in horizontal sections. Our objective was to establish the pathologic features, and their frequency in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies obtained from patients with clinically and histologically proven CCCA. Serial horizontal sections of 51 cases were evaluated retrospectively. All biopsies were assessed at 4 levels and at least on 24 horizontal sections. The most common pathologic findings were follicular miniaturization (81% of the cases); premature desquamation of the inner root sheath (96%), focal preservation of the sebaceous glands (94%), which in most of these cases appeared as surrounding "in a hug" an intact vellus follicle; compound follicular structures with perifollicular fibrosis and/or inflammation (89%), lamellar hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis in the hair canal (79%), absent or mild inflammation (77%), and naked hair shafts (68%). Horizontal sections are useful in CCCA to identify early or focal disease and to provide the clinician with better information on the presence of follicular miniaturization, inflammation, and scarring, which can be used to tailor the treatment to the individual patient. PMID:25222198

  14. Analysis of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Morbidity of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic T3 Disease or Positive Surgical Margins After Radical Prostatectomy Using National Cancer Institute Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Pearse, Maria; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 or positive surgical margins after RP were treated with RT plus 2 years of androgen suppression, according to a Phase II study. Acute and late GI and GU toxicity was prospectively assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was estimated using a cumulative incidence method. A Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive factors for late toxicity. Results: The median patient age was 61 years at RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. The median follow-up was 42.4 months. Of the 78 patients, 76 and 74 were available for the acute and late toxicity analysis, respectively. Of these patients, 66%, 29%, and 1% experienced Grade 1, 2, and 3 acute GI or GU toxicity, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GI toxicity at 36 months was 8.1% and 0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GU toxicity at 36 months was 16.4% and 2.7%, respectively. None had Grade 4 or greater late toxicity. The severity of acute GU toxicity (less than Grade 2 vs. Grade 2 or greater) was a significant predictor factor for Grade 2 or greater late GU toxicity after adjusting for pre-existing GU dysfunction. Conclusions: Postoperative RT was generally well tolerated. Grade 3 or greater late GI or GU toxicity was uncommon.

  15. Pathological fractures in children: Diagnosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Canavese, F; Samba, A; Rousset, M

    2016-02-01

    A fracture is defined as pathological when it arises in a bone tissue that has been modified and reshaped by a local or systemic pathological process. In children, pathological fractures can be secondary to several conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases to tumors, infections or neuromuscular pathologies. History, clinical examination and radiologic assessment are essential to making a diagnosis, to identifying the underlying cause and to planning the right treatment of a pathological fracture. Treatment must be tailored to both the fracture and the underlying cause. The objective of this work is to present the diagnostic approach and the course to follow when a child presents with a pathological fracture. The most common causes of pathological fractures, as well as their characteristics, will be described. Pathological fractures occurring in osteogenesis imperfecta and in abused children as well as stress fractures will not be discussed. PMID:26774903

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    PubMed Central

    Franz, D.; Esposito, I.; Kapp, A.-C.; Gaa, J.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement. PMID:26937427

  17. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  18. Empiric Refinement of the Pathologic Assessment of Lewy Related Pathology in the Dementia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, James B.; Hamilton, Ronald; Tsuang, Debby W.; Schantz, Aimee; Vavrek, Darcy; Larson, Eric B.; Kukull, Walter A.; Lopez, Oscar; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Kaye, Jeffrey; Woltjer, Randall; Clark, Christopher; Trojanowski, John Q.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Lewy related pathology (LRP) is a common pathologic finding at autopsy in dementia patients. Recently criteria for categorizing types of LRP in dementia patients were published, though these criteria have yet to be systematically applied to large dementia samples. We examined a large (N = 208) referral-based autopsy sample for LRP, and applied the published criteria for LRP categorization to these cases. We found almost half (49%) of LRP positive cases from this sample were not classifiable. However, modifying the published criteria by reducing the number of regions requiring examination, allowing more variability in LRP severity scores within specific brain regions, and adding an amygdala predominant category permitted classification of 97% of LRP positive cases from the referral-based sample. Application of the modified criteria to an unrelated community-based autopsy sample (N = 226) allowed classification of 96% of LRP positive cases. Modest modifications in the published criteria permit a significantly greater number of dementia cases with LRP to be classified. In addition, this modification allows for more limited sampling of brain regions for classification of LRP. We propose that these modified criteria for the categorization of LRP be utilized in patients with a history of dementia. PMID:18241240

  19. Applied Molecular Pathology Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    The Applied Molecular Pathology Laboratory (AMPL) was dual division effort between the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). The effort was halted in 2014, however ongoing studies continue to utilize

  20. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  1. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Irvine MA; Worbe Y; Bolton S; Harrison NA; Bullmore ET; Voon V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.METHODS: Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.RESULTS: In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.CONCLUSIONS: We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  2. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  3. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  4. Screen-detected breast carcinoma with macroscopic dystrophic calcification: A pictorial essay with radiolological pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Lamya; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Metcalf, Cecily; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Breast calcifications are among the most common abnormal radiographic findings detected at screening mammography. This essay illustrates the clinico-pathological features of nine screen-detected breast carcinomas, which had benign-appearing macrocalcifications, as a radiographically dominant presenting feature. We aimed to demonstrate that benign-appearing calcifications within a breast lesion are not diagnostic of a benign process if the other imaging characteristics of the lesion are suspicious of malignancy. PMID:26748440

  5. Clinical and pathological correlations in endometrial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bohl?ea, RE; Sajin, M; Furtunescu, F; Bohl?ea, LC; Mihart, A; Baros, A; Anca, AF

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of endometrial cancer has been registering an increasing trend both in Romania and in the whole world. The papers aim is to analyze the diagnostic approach of endometrial pathology in the University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, on a four years period. The medium age of the patients was of 50.51 10.924 years, and the median age was of 48 years. The youngest patient suffering from endometrial cancer was of 30 years. Dilation and uterine curettage represent the main method used in the performance of endometrial biopsy, based on which the certitude etiologic histopathologic diagnosis was established in 68.4% of the patients with endometrial pathology. Hyperplasias represented half of the pathology (54.9%), most of them being without atypias. Endometrial carcinoma was identified in 19% of the patients. The diagnosis of the disease in IA stage represents 5.5% of the total endometrial cases and the diagnosis of the disease in the stage of its limitation to the uterus (stage IA, IB and IC) was of 64.2%. The endometrioid adenocarcinoma represents the most encountered histopathological form and the degree of tumor differentiation established for 68,15% of the cases was predominantly 1 and 2 (88%). The main symptom, which determines the patients decision to go to the physician, is the abnormal uterine bleeding. 66% of the cases of endometrial cancer in the stage of the disease limited to the uterus are diagnosed in Romania based on the abnormal uterine bleeding. However, 34% of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, presenting a significantly low life expectancy. PMID:26664489

  6. Pathologic Review of Cystic and Cavitary Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions caused by diverse etiologies are commonly encountered in chest imaging. The terms "cyst" and "cavity" are used to describe air-filled regions in the center of a nodule or consolidation of the lung. To date, only radiologic aspects of these lesions have been addressed. The morphologies of pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions exhibit a broad spectrum, ranging from benign to malignant pulmonary diseases of acquired or congenital origin, including variable infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the differential diagnosis of pathological entities to provide pathologists and radiologists with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions in adults and children. The results showed slightly different patterns in the distribution of the diseases in the two groups. The most common causes of cavitary lesions include malignancy and infection in adults, and congenital malformation in children. Therefore, identification of pathologic entities correlating with the radiologic findings, clinical course, and location of the lesion is important in the evaluation of cystic and cavitary lung lesions in order to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures or delayed treatment. PMID:23136566

  7. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the liver: Findings at US, CT, and MRI, with histopathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ho; Stelling, Adam; Kuramoto, Alan; Patel, Chirag; Keller, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors are aggressive malignancies that can rarely present as hepatic masses in the pediatric population. The imaging findings are often nonspecific and usually suggest other more common hepatic tumors. We report the radiologic appearance of malignant rhabdoid tumor in a 3-month-old female with pathologic correlation. PMID:27141240

  8. Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bamburg, James R.; Bloom, George S.

    2009-01-01

    The histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are the extracellular amyloid plaques, composed principally of the amyloid beta peptide, and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of paired helical filaments of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Other histopathological structures involving actin and the actin-binding protein, cofilin, have more recently been recognized. Here we review new findings about these cytoskeletal pathologies, and, emphasize how plaques, tangles, the actin-containing inclusions and their respective building blocks may contribute to Alzheimer pathogenesis and the primary behavioral symptoms of the disease. PMID:19479823

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-β Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A.; Ghosh, Joy G.; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Robb, Richard M.; Kuszak, Jer R.; Clark, John I.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Hunter, David G.; Goldstein, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Aβ pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Aβ aggregates (∼5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Aβ in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Aβ with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Aβ accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

  10. Pathologic Evaluation of Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cheol Keun; Jung, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in women, has various treatment modalities. Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) has been used in many clinical trials because it is easy to evaluate the treatment response to therapeutic agents in a short time period; consequently, NAT is currently a standard treatment modality for large-sized and locally advanced breast cancers, and its use in early-stage breast cancer is becoming more common. Thus, chances to encounter breast tissue from patients treated with NAT is increasing. However, systems for handling and evaluating such specimens have not been established. Several evaluation systems emphasize a multidisciplinary approach to increase the accuracy of breast cancer assessment. Thus, detailed and systematic evaluation of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings is important. In this review, we compare the major problems of each evaluation system and discuss important points for handling and evaluating NAT-treated breast specimens. PMID:27068026

  11. [Acute appendicitis: is this common pathology still of interest?].

    PubMed

    D'Abbicco, Dario; Amoruso, Michele; Notarnicola, Annarita; Casagranda, Biagio; Epifania, Barbara; Margari, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Despite the indisputable progress of technology (laboratory analyses, scintigraphy, ultrasonography, computed tomography), the diagnosis of acute appendicitis often remains uncertain, with a rate of useless appendectomies amounting to almost 20% of cases. The ideal diagnostic test has yet to be discovered and, in any case, clinical observation remains the cornerstone of any decision-making algorithm. Thus, acute appendicitis continues to offer food for thought in relation to the aetiology of the condition, which is still unknown, the primacy of the clinical diagnosis, and the learning of the surgical skills required. In the present study, the authors compare their personal experience with the relevant data in the international literature, emphasising a number of issues such as the problem of diagnosis, acute appendicitis in pregnancy, laparoscopic therapy, and the so-called "useless appendectomies" and presenting their own point of view. PMID:17500172

  12. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Celebrating the Centennial Through the Lens of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology Records

    PubMed Central

    De Remigis, Alessandra; Chuang, Kelly; Dembele, Marieme; Iwama, Akiko; Iwama, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is now considered the most prevalent autoimmune disease, as well as the most common endocrine disorder. It was initially described in 1912, but only rarely reported until the early 1950s. To celebrate this centennial, we reviewed the surgical pathology archives of the Johns Hopkins hospital for cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, spanning the period from May 1889 to October 2012. Approximately 15,000 thyroidectomies were performed at this hospital over 124 years. The first surgical case was reported in 1942, 30 years after the original description. Then, 867 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were seen from 1942 to 2012, representing 6% of all thyroidectomies. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was the sole pathological finding in 462 cases; it accompanied other thyroid pathologies in the remaining 405 cases. The most commonly associated pathology was papillary thyroid cancer, an association that increased significantly during the last two decades. The most common indication for thyroidectomy was a thyroid nodule that was cytologically suspicious for malignancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis remains a widespread, intriguing, and multifaceted disease of unknown etiology one century after its description. Advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis and preoperative diagnosis will improve recognition and treatment of this disorder, and may one day lead to its prevention. PMID:23151083

  13. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOEε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and 95 years for ε2ε3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462

  14. Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

    2014-10-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

  15. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  16. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

  17. Pathology of Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Montone, Kathleen T

    2016-03-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) comprises a spectrum of disease processes that vary in clinical presentation, histologic appearances, and biological significance. FRS can be acute or chronic and is most commonly classified as non-invasive or invasive based on whether fungi have invaded into tissue. This manuscript will review the pathologic classification of FRS. PMID:26830404

  18. Anatomic pathology laboratory information systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-03-01

    The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836

  19. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate subcortical white matter have been assumed to be due to trauma but factors specific to this age group offer other explanations. Finally, examples of the most common causes of the triad encountered in clinical diagnostic and forensic practice are briefly annotated. PMID:21947257

  20. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

  1. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2016-03-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26851665

  2. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  3. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  4. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care. PMID:26677179

  5. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  6. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  7. Pathology of trauma.

    PubMed

    Valsamis, M P

    1994-01-01

    The major unifying concept of the effect of trauma on the central nervous system is the application of force to the brain. The mode of delivery of energy and its dissipation result in the varying pathologic manifestations of hemorrhage, contusions, or tears. Topics discussed in this article include inner cerebral trauma, gunshot wounds, contusions and lacerations, hemorrhages, fractures, and spinal cord trauma. PMID:8124090

  8. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  9. Pathologic correlates of dementia in individuals with Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Joshua A; Postupna, Nadia; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Rose, Shannon E; Montine, Kathleen S; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Thomas J

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia are more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than age-matched controls and appear to become more frequent as PD progresses. However, estimates of dementia in patients with PD have varied widely, likely due in part to differences in case definition, case ascertainment and methodology. First, we review investigations of usual pathologic correlates of dementia in patients with brainstem (b) Lewy Body Disease (LBD) and report our findings from the initial 266 brain autopsies from a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia. Our results showed that 2.6% of subjects were diagnosed with PD during life but that 20% had bLBD at autopsy. Seventy percent of individuals with bLBD had high level of one or more cerebral pathologic changes significantly associated with dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral (c) LBD or microvascular brain injury (microVBI); these were commonly co-morbid. Next we consider proposed contributors to cognitive impairment and dementia in the approximately 30% of patients with only bLBD, including regionally selective dendritic degeneration of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. Diseases contributing to cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with bLBD are heterogeneous, providing diagnostic challenges as well as multiple opportunities for successful intervention in patients with PD. PMID:20522091

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  11. Extraosseous osteogenic sarcoma of the breast: mammographic and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, A.C.; Haggar, A.M.; Krasicky, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    An unusual primary extraosseous osteogenic sarcoma is described. The tumor's mammographic appearance was highly suggestive of the correct histologic diagnosis. This case supports the theory that these tumors originate from a totipotent cell.

  12. Correlation between MRI and Arthroscopy in Diagnosis of Shoulder Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bhonsle, Sachin; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain can cause significant pain, discomfort and reduce the ability to perform activities of daily living, thus making it the third most common cause of musculoskeletal consultation. The current gold standard diagnostic investigation is arthroscopy. MRI is a proved sensitive and accurate non-invasive tool in investigating shoulder pathology, but false and misleading results are equally reported. Aim The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of MRI in diagnosing shoulder pathologies in comparison to arthroscopy, considering arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and Methods Thirty nine consecutive patients, between 18-80 years of age, presenting with chronic shoulder pain or instability of more than 6 weeks, or with clinical signs of impingement or tear were included in the study. MRI of the shoulder joint was done followed by shoulder arthroscopy. The data collected was analysed for the significant correlation between MRI of shoulder and arthroscopic findings by kappa statistics. Results Out of 39 patients, Rotator cuff (RC) tear was the most common pathology. MRI showed excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (0.91) and osteochondral defects (OCD), very good sensitivity for Bankart’s lesion (0.8) and had poor sensitivity to detect SLAP tear (0.15). MRI was specific for all shoulder pathologies. MRI detected RC tears with kappa score of 0.73, Bankart’s tear and OCD’s with kappa score of 0.83 and 1.0 respectively and SLAP lesion with kappa score of 0.14. The accuracy of MRI was highest in diagnosing OCD’s (1.0), followed by RC tear (0.9), Bankart’s tear (0.9) and accuracy was least in diagnosing SLAP lesion (0.7). False negative results were more than false positives. Conclusion The present study supports that MRI is effective in diagnosing rotator cuff tears, Bankart’s tear and ostechondral defects but was not found to be helpful in diagnosing SLAP lesions. MRI and arthroscopy have complimentary roles in the diagnosis of shoulder pathology. PMID:27042543

  13. Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Nepomuceno, Andrew R.B.; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.; Bliss, Tonya M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  14. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  15. Urologic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Someren, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the kidneys, urinary passages, renal transplantation, male genitalia, and adrenal glands. Each chapter has the same format: congenital conditions are discussed then, inflammatory and nonneoplastic disorders; and, finally, neoplasms. For each disease process, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  16. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  17. A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

    2014-06-01

    The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak. PMID:24447163

  18. Eating pathology in East African women: the role of media exposure and globalization.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Hennessey, Moira; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2007-03-01

    Eating disorder (ED) pathology and its relation to media exposure and globalization were assessed in a sample of young Tanzanian females (N = 214; 19.4 years +/- 3.8 years). Participants completed Kiswahili versions of a DSM-IV ED symptom clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and a media exposure/globalization questionnaire. One third endorsed cognitive ED symptoms; bingeing (10%) and purging (5%) were less common. Four women (1.9%) met modified criteria for anorexia nervosa, one for bulimia nervosa, and 10 (4.7%) reported clinically significant ED pathology consistent with an ED not otherwise specified diagnosis. Media exposure and Western exposure (e.g., travel abroad) were positively associated with ED symptoms. The intended factor structure of the EDI was not supported. Eating pathology is present in this developing nation and is most common in subpopulations with increased exposure to Western culture. Future research should replicate these findings to clarify the role of Western media in the development of ED pathology. PMID:17468678

  19. Clinical and multimodal biomarker correlates of ADNI neuropathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autopsy series commonly report a high percentage of coincident pathologies in demented patients, including patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). However many clinical and biomarker studies report cases with a single neurodegenerative disease. We examined multimodal biomarker correlates of the consecutive series of the first 22 Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative autopsies. Clinical data, neuropsychological measures, cerebrospinal fluid Aβ, total and phosphorylated tau and α-synuclein and MRI and FDG-PET scans. Results Clinical diagnosis was either probable DAT or Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-type mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at last evaluation prior to death. All patients had a pathological diagnosis of AD, but only four had pure AD. A coincident pathological diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), medial temporal lobe pathology (TDP-43 proteinopathy, argyrophilic grain disease and hippocampal sclerosis), referred to collectively here as MTL, and vascular pathology were present in 45.5%, 40.0% and 22.7% of these patients, respectively. Hallucinations were a strong predictor of coincident DLB (100% specificity) and a more severe dysexecutive profile was also a useful predictor of coincident DLB (80.0% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). Occipital FDG-PET hypometabolism accurately classified coincident DLB (80% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Subjects with coincident MTL showed lower hippocampal volume. Conclusions Biomarkers can be used to independently predict coincident AD and DLB pathology, a common finding in amnestic MCI and DAT patients. Cohorts with comprehensive neuropathological assessments and multimodal biomarkers are needed to characterize independent predictors for the different neuropathological substrates of cognitive impairment. PMID:24252435

  20. Relapse in pathological gamblers: A pilot study on the predictive value of different impulsivity measures.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Bieke; Goudriaan, Anneke; Sabbe, Bernard; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dom, Geert

    2013-03-01

    Backgrounds and aims Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining the role of self-report and neurocognitive measures on relapse in substance dependent patients, the present pilot study was executed. Methods Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 31 healthy controls took part in this research. They filled in self-report questionnaires measuring impulsive personality (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires) and performed neurocognitive tasks measuring impulsivity, decision-making and attentional bias (Iowa Gambling Task, Delay Discounting Task, Stroop Gambling Task). Twelve months later gambling activity was re-examined. Results Analyses showed that PGs who relapsed (n = 13) did not differ on self-report and neurocognitive measures of impulsivity with PGs who did not relapse (n = 9). However, both groups did differ in age at onset. Finally, healthy controls and PGs differed in some (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Stroop Gambling Task), but not all impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting Task, Iowa Gambling Task, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires). Conclusions One-year relapse in pathological gamblers is not predicted by self-report and or neurocognitive measures of impulsivity and decision-making. The similarities in performances between pathological gamblers and healthy controls illustrate the relative health of the examined pathological gamblers. This last finding supports the idea that subtypes of pathological gamblers exist so that different treatment strategies might be necessary. PMID:26165768

  1. Common Chuckwalla

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  2. Computational Pathology: A Path Ahead.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B; Dighe, Anand S; Pfeifer, John D; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E; Gilbertson, John R; Sinard, John H; Gerber, Georg K; Galli, Stephen J; Golden, Jeffrey A; Becich, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Context .- We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective .- To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources .- A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions .- The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and nonpathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  3. Clinical and pathological features of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susanne A; Obeso, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is, after Alzheimer's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-1% among persons 65-69 years of age, rising to 1-3% among persons 80 years of age and older. Pathologically, PD is characterized by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and by the presence of eosinophilic protein deposits (Lewy bodies) in this region, in other aminergic nuclei and in cortical and limbic structures. Moreover, it has now been shown that pathology also involves the peripheral nervous system. Braak and colleagues suggested a thread of pathology starting from the vagal nerve to progress to the brainstem, and eventually to limbic and neocortical brain regions. This progression of pathology may account for the clinical evolution of PD toward a composite symptomatology. However, this hypothesis has been criticized by others. In this chapter, we review the clinical features of PD (motor and nonmotor) and their pathological correlates. PMID:24850081

  4. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  5. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  6. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  7. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26065794

  8. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  9. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  10. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  11. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  12. Cancer: pathological nuclear reprogramming?

    PubMed

    Goding, Colin R; Pei, Duanqing; Lu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    The ability of stem cells to self-renew and generate different lineages during development and organogenesis is a fundamental, tightly controlled, and generally unidirectional process, whereas the 'immortality' of cancer cells could be regarded as pathological self-renewal. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are remarkably similar to those that are deregulated in cancer - so much so that aberrant reprogramming is tumorigenic. The similarities also suggest that mutations in genes implicated in DNA methylation dynamics might represent a hallmark of cancers with a stem cell origin, and they highlight an alternative view of cancer that may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25030952

  13. Pathological aspects of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Soetrisno, E; Tjahjadi, G

    2000-05-01

    Brain tumors based on their histogenesis, consist of all tumors, derive from the entirely tissue in the intracranial space, both from the neuro-ectodermal/neuro-epithelial tissue and the mesenchymal tissue. By their location they can be divided into infratentorial or supratentorial, and further into deep vs. superficial. The interesting and unique, there are age distribution or location-sex specificity of some brain tumors (BT). WHO Histopathological Typing of Tumors by the CNS, also showing progress on both of their members and new special types of some BT, especially for the meningiomas and neuro-epithelial/neuroglial type. Periodic investigations by the Department of Anatomic Pathology, the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia did not show major changes in their BT types, but there was on their tumors ranging. Astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforma) for a while was replaced by meningioma as the most common CNS/Intracranial tumor. There are some techniques for the handling of CNS specimens depending on further purposes through on biomolecular activities or defects. The routine technique using light microscope examination was the most useful one for daily diagnosis for many years. Some immunohistochemistry techniques are needed for difficult cases, e.g., GFAP, NE 14, NSE, S100, and MBP. Diagnostic problems could be caused by tissue- or cell-sampling errors, which are influenced by the tumor location itself. Thus, neurosurgeons encounter problems to pick biopsy intraoperative, or by mishandling by the laboratory of anatomic pathology. Formerly, as final diagnosis, grading of CNS tumors must be put according to the Clinical interest for further management of the patient. CNS grading ranges from grade I (benign looking) to IV (malignant). Morphological grading is based on Kernohan and Adson (1949), or Kernohan and Sayre (1952). PMID:10895165

  14. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter. PMID:20347243

  15. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  16. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  17. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  18. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Aage R.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  19. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies.

    PubMed

    Møller, Aage R

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  20. Histopathologic findings in breast reduction specimens.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Tasli, Funda Alkan; Yagcı, Ayse; Sır, Emin; Canpolat, Selin; Vardar, Enver

    2014-04-01

    Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly performed operation for treatment of breast hypertrophy. It allows examination of specimens from a seemingly healthy population. Although there are many publications reporting the incidence of occult breast carcinomas, only a few studies have specifically examined the incidence of other breast lesions in reduction mammaplasty specimens. The authors conducted a single-centre retrospective chart review examining the incidence of benign and precancerous lesions in breast reduction specimens. Both age and the number of tissue sections were evaluated for the association with important pathologic findings. Of the 95 patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty, eight patients (8.4%) had atypical lesions. Fourteen patients (15%) had proliferative and 54 patients (57%) had non-proliferative breast lesions. No occult invasive breast cancer was identified in the breast reduction specimens. The existence of significant pathologic findings was not associated with age (p = 0.231, student t-test). On the other hand, it was found to be associated with the number of tissue sections (p = 0.046, Mann-Whitney U-test). This study reveals that breast reduction specimens should be analyzed histologically since a considerable amount of patients have breast lesions with increased cancer risk. Therefore, this analysis would guide the management of these patients in the follow-up period. PMID:23879776

  1. Bone marrow lesions and subchondral bone pathology of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kon, Elizaveta; Ronga, Mario; Filardo, Giuseppe; Farr, Jack; Madry, Henning; Milano, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) around the knee are a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. However, despite the growing interest on BMLs in multiple pathological conditions, they remain controversial not only for the still unknown role in the etiopathological processes, but also in terms of clinical impact and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of conditions: traumatic contusion and fractures, cyst formation and erosions, hematopoietic and infiltrated marrow, developmental chondroses, disuse and overuse, transient bone marrow oedema syndrome and, lastly, subchondral insufficiency fractures and true osteonecrosis. Regardless the heterogeneous spectrum of these pathologies, a key factor for patient management is the distinction between reversible and irreversible conditions. To this regard, MRI plays a major role, leading to the correct diagnosis based on recognizable typical patterns that have to be considered together with coexistent abnormalities, age, and clinical history. Several treatment options have been proposed, from conservative to surgical approaches. In this manuscript the main lesion patterns and their management have been analysed to provide the most updated evidence for the differential diagnosis and the most effective treatment. PMID:27075892

  2. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  3. Alcohol's effects on video lottery terminal (VLT) play among probable pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H; Loba, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether alcohol increases behaviors associated with video lottery terminal (VLT) play, particularly among probable pathological gamblers. Forty-four regular VLT players were designated either probable pathological gamblers or non-pathological gamblers on the basis of scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS); [Lesieur & Blume (1997). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188] Gamblers from each SOGS category were randomly assigned to either a moderately intoxicating alcohol dose or a control beverage condition (n = 11 per cell in the 2 x 2 between-subjects design). Following beverage consumption and absorption, participants played a video poker VLT game for up to 30 minutes. Four behaviors were measured: "power-bets" (doubling bet after viewing only two cards of the five-card poker hand); total money spent; mean bet magnitude; and number of minutes played. Alcohol increased time spent playing and rate of power-bets, particular among the probable pathological gamblers. Post hoc analyses revealed that alcohol also influenced the proportion of losing hands played--increasing them among the probable pathological gamblers while decreasing them among the non-pathological gamblers. Clinical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:16134010

  4. The pathology of Japanese encephalitis*

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masashi

    1964-01-01

    In his review of pathological studies on Japanese encephalitis conducted in Japan over the past 40 years, the author first discusses the findings obtained from post-mortem examinations of persons who had died of the disease, and, secondly, summarizes experimental research carried out on monkeys, horses and mice. He stresses that, although a great deal has been learned from these studies, much research is still needed, in which modern laboratory techniques give good hopes of success. This review suggests that before the Second World War the histopathological findings in Japanese encephalitis resembled those of eastern equine encephalitis but that since the war they have been more like those of western equine encephalitis, although no definitive explanation of this phenomenon can yet be offered. ImagesFIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14153404

  5. [Pathology of Vasculitic Neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Prompt diagnosis of vasculitis is necessary because neuropathy may be the first symptom of vasculitic syndrome, and it is crucial for the management of patients. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, rheumatoid vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren's syndrome, and non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy are disorders frequently associated with vasculitic neuropathy. Pathological features such as the size of the involved vessels and the type of inflammatory cells, combined with general symptoms and laboratory data, may contribute to the specific diagnosis. ANCA may be involved in the pathogenesis of microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic toxins may injure the nerve fibers in some patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. We detected B-cell follicle-like structures adjacent to the inflamed vessels in rheumatoid vasculitis, which may be associated with the pathogenesis. PMID:27001771

  6. Preoperative easily misdiagnosed telangiectatic osteosarcoma: clinical–radiologic–pathologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen-Hua; Yin, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei; Meng, Quan-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics and diagnostic methods of telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) for improving the diagnostic level. Materials and methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed patient demographics, serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) levels, preoperative biopsy pathologic reports, pathologic materials, imaging findings, and treatment outcomes from 26 patients with TOS. Patient images from radiography (26 cases) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (22 cases) were evaluated by 3 authors in consensus for intrinsic characteristics. There were 15 male and 11 female patients in the study, with an age of 9–32 years (mean age 15.9 years). Results: Eighteen of 26 patients died of lung metastases within 5 years of follow-up. The distal femur was affected more commonly (14 cases, 53.8%). Regarding serum AKP, normal (8 cases) or mildly elevated (18 cases) levels were found before preoperative chemotherapy. Radiographs showed geographic bone lysis without sclerotic margin (26 cases), cortical destruction (26 cases), periosteal new bone formation (24 cases), soft-tissue mass (23 cases), and matrix mineralization (4 cases). The aggressive radiographic features of TOS simulated the appearance of conventional high-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma, though different from aneurysmal bone cyst. MR images demonstrated multiple big (16 cases) or small (6 cases) cystic spaces, fluid-fluid levels (14 cases), soft-tissue mass (22 cases), and thick peripheral and septal enhancement (22 cases). Nine of 26 cases were misdiagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts by preoperative core-needle biopsy, owing to the absence of viable high-grade sarcomatous cells in the small tissue samples. Conclusion: The aggressive growth pattern with occasional matrix mineralization, and multiple big or small fluid-filled cavities with thick peripheral, septal, and nodular tissue surrounding the fluid-filled cavities are characteristic imaging features of TOS, and these features are helpful in making the correct preoperative diagnosis of TOS. PMID:24334494

  7. Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, N A

    1991-01-01

    When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

  8. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van't Veer, Laura J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Gantcev, Shamil Hanafievich; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Collée, J Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  9. Pathological and Molecular Evaluation of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Arvind; Goggins, Michael; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous and include wide variety of neoplasms ranging from benign to malignant with an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our understanding of these pancreatic neoplasms has improved significantly with recent advances in cancer sequencing. Awareness of molecular pathogenesis brings in new opportunities for early detection, improved prognostication, and personalized gene-specific therapies. Here we review the pathological classification of pancreatic neoplasms from their molecular and genetic perspective. All of the major tumor types that arise in the pancreas have been sequenced, and a new classification that incorporates molecular findings together with pathological findings is now possible (Table 1). This classification has significant implications for our understanding of why tumors aggregate in some families, for the development of early detection tests, and for the development of personalized therapies for patients with established cancers. Here we describe this new classification using the framework of the standard histological classification. PMID:25726050

  10. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia() hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology." PMID:24705882

  11. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Continuum model of tendon pathology where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

  13. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  14. UROBILIN PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Robert; McMaster, Philip D.

    1925-01-01

    Further evidence is presented, in addition to that of our previous papers, that the intestinal tract is, under ordinary circumstances, the sole place of origin of urobilin. So long as the biliary tract remains sterile the presence of the pigment in bile and urine is entirely dependent upon the passage of bile to the intestine. Animals rendered urobilin-free by the collection of all the bile from the intubated, uninfected common duct, remain urobilin-free during and after extensive blood destruction caused by intravenous injections of distilled water, as also after reinjections of the animal's own blood, hemolyzed in vitro. No urobilin appears in the bile, urine, or feces of animals so intubated when blood destruction has been caused by sodium oleate, or by an agent, toluylenediamine, which damages the liver as well as the blood. On the other hand, when bile flow into the intestine is uninterrupted, urobilinuria occurs during blood destruction caused in any of the ways mentioned and it parallels, both in severity and duration, the destructive process. Merely increasing the amount of bilirubin within the intestines of healthy dogs by feeding urobilin-free bile, will lead to marked urobilinuria. The extravasation of blood into the tissues, resulting from the trauma of an operation for intubation of a bile duct, does not lead to urobilinuria in animals losing all of the bile after this operation, but may do so when only a small fraction of the bile is drained, while the remainder reaches the intestine as usual. The production of artificial hematomas, without operation, is not followed by urobilinuria, under the circumstances last mentioned, but merely by an increase in the bilirubin of the bile. The effect on the liver of the anesthetic employed during the intubation may be responsible for the difference in the two cases. During the course of certain intercurrent infections affecting some of the intubated animals, notably distemper, there was a drop in the hemoglobin percentage of the circulating blood, accompanied by an increased output of bile pigment or further by urobilinuria, when the conditions were such that bile still reached the intestine. The findings pointed to increased blood destruction as a factor in the urobilinuria. The evidence presented, taken with that of our previous papers, suffices to demonstrate, that urobilinuria, occurring during blood destruction, is primarily the result of an increased excretion of bilirubin from which, in turn, an unusually large quantity of urobilin is formed within the intestine. The liver fails to remove from the portal blood all of the latter pigment which is resorbed and consequently some of it reaches the kidneys and urine. Our work has been carried out on animals with uninfected biliary tracts and livers, save for one case which has special mention. The influence of infection of the biliary tract on the place of formation of urobilin and the development of urobilinuria will be discussed in a succeeding communication. PMID:19869078

  15. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  16. Transgenerational inheritance of stress pathology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen G; Phillips, David I

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that maternal exposure to adversity during pregnancy leads to life-long effects in offspring. While there appears to be some commonality in the effects of maternal stress on endocrine and behavioral outcomes in the first generation offspring, it is clear that effects are highly dependent on species, sex and age, as well as on the time in pregnancy when stress is experienced. Recent studies have identified that the effects of maternal stress are not confined to the first generation and that they can extend over multiple generations. These effects are also evident in humans. While our understanding of the potential mechanisms by which transgenerational programming of the stress response occurs remain largely undetermined, recent studies have begun to identify potential mechanisms of transfer. These include modified maternal adaptations to pregnancy, altered maternal behavior and transgenerational epigenetic programming. Such transgenerational programming of stress responses and pathologies has important societal consequences as it could provide a biological explanation for the generational persistence of human behaviors in populations exposed to adversity. PMID:21281632

  17. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  18. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al.(1) compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans.(2) In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  19. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10−5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10−3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  20. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  1. miRNAs Participate in MS Pathological Processes and Its Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Chen, Guangjie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is believed that the increased migration of autoreactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be responsible for axonal demyelination of neurons. In this review, we discuss microRNAs participating in the pathological processes of MS, including periphery inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and CNS lesions, and in its therapeutic response, in order to find biomarkers of disease severity and to predict the response to therapy of the diseases. PMID:27073296

  2. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies. PMID:26210152

  3. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  4. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  5. Pathological tau deposition in Motor Neurone Disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Roya; Liu, Xiawei; Wu, Dongyue; Robinson, Andrew C; Tanaguchi-Watanabe, Sayuri; Rollinson, Sara; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Hamdalla, Hisham H M; Ealing, John; Richardson, Anna; Jones, Matthew; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Davidson, Yvonne S; Strong, Michael J; Hasegawa, Masato; Snowden, Julie S; Mann, David M A

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with motor neurone disease (MND) and those with MND combined with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (ie FTD + MND) or with FTD alone might exist on a continuum based on commonalities of neuropathology and/or genetic risk. Moreover, it has been reported that both a neuronal and a glial cell tauopathy can accompany the TDP-43 proteinopathy in patients with motor neurone disease (MND) with cognitive changes, and that the tauopathy may be fundamental to disease pathogenesis and clinical phenotype. In the present study, we sought to substantiate these latter findings, and test this concept of a pathological continuum, in a consecutive series of 41 patients with MND, 16 with FTD + MND and 23 with FTD without MND. Paraffin sections of frontal, entorhinal, temporal and occipital cortex and hippocampus were immunostained for tau pathology using anti-tau antibodies, AT8, pThr(175) and pThr(217), and for amyloid β protein (Aβ) using 4G8 antibody. Twenty four (59 %) patients with MND, 7 (44 %) patients with FTD + MND and 10 (43 %) patients with FTD showed 'significant' tau pathology (ie more than just an isolated neurofibrillary tangle or a few neuropil threads in one or more brain regions examined). In most instances, this bore the histological characteristics of an Alzheimer's disease process involving entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, temporal cortex, frontal cortex and occipital cortex in decreasing frequency, accompanied by a deposition of Aβ up to Thal phase 3, though 2 patients with MND, and 1 with FTD did show tau pathology beyond Braak stage III. Four other patients with MND showed novel neuronal tau pathology, within the frontal cortex alone, specifically detected by pThr(175) antibody, which was characterised by a fine granular or more clumped aggregation of tau without neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads. However, none of these 4 patients had clinically evident cognitive disorder, and this type of tau pathology was not seen in any of the FTD + MND or FTD patients. Finally, two patients, one with MND and one with FTD, showed a tau pathology consistent with Argyrophilic Grain Disease (AGD). Western blotting and use of 3- and 4-repeat tau antibodies confirmed the histological interpretation of Alzheimer's disease type pathology in all instances except for those patients with accompanying AGD where a banding pattern on western blot, and immunohistochemistry, confirmed 4-repeat tauopathy. In all 3 patient groups, amyloid pathology was more likely to be present in patients dying after 65 years of age, and in the presence of APOE ε4 allele. We conclude that tau pathological changes are equally common amongst patients with MND, FTD + MND and FTD though, in most instances, these are limited in extent. In patients with MND, when cognitive impairment is present this is most likely due to an accompanying/evolving (coincidental) Alzheimer's disease process or, as in a single case, Dementia with Lewy bodies, within the cerebral cortex rather than as a result of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Conversely, in FTD and FTD + MND dementia is more likely to be associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy than tau. Hence, present study shows no progression in severity of (tau) pathology from MND through FTD + MND to FTD, and does not support the concept of these conditions forming a continuum of clinical or pathological change. PMID:27036121

  6. Pathological and Protective Immunity to Pneumocystis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Taylor; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic infection in the HIV-positive population and is re-emerging as a growing clinical concern in the HIV-negative immunosuppressed population. Newer targeted immunosuppressive therapies and the discovery of rare genetic mutations have furthered our understanding of the immunity required to clear Pneumocystis infection. The immune system can also mount a pathologic response against Pneumocystis following removal of immunosuppression and result in severe damage to the host lung. The current review will examine the most recent epidemiologic studies about the incidence of Pneumocystis in the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in the developing and developed world and will detail methods of diagnosis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Finally, this review aims to summarize the known mediators of immunity to Pneumocystis and detail the pathologic immune response leading to Pneumocystis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:25420451

  7. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Context .- There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective .- To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design .- The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results .- Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions .- We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  8. A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology – benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, Helen M; Martin, Sean T; Casey, Mary; Tobbia, Igdam; Benani, Fadel; Barry, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not be mistaken for malignant cells on microscopic examination. Unfortunately a lack of awareness of this pathological entity can lead to diagnostic confusion amongst pathologists resulting in the multinucleate giant cells being mistaken for highly mitotic cells and consequently the fibroadenoma being mistaken for a malignant lesion. This may have serious implications for the subsequent management of the patient. The presence of this unusual cell type in the stroma does not alter the prognosis of otherwise benign lesion. We encountered two such cases at our institution in a six month period recently. We present their histories along with relevant radiological, microscopic and immunohistochemical features, followed by a discussion of this unusual pathological entity. PMID:18673528

  9. Propagation of alpha-synuclein pathology: hypotheses, discoveries, and yet unresolved questions from experimental and human brain studies.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Toshiki; Giasson, Benoit I

    2016-01-01

    Progressive aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αS) through formation of amorphous pale bodies to mature Lewy bodies or in neuronal processes as Lewy neurites may be the consequence of conformational protein changes and accumulations, which structurally represents "molecular template". Focal initiation and subsequent spread along anatomically connected structures embody "structural template". To investigate the hypothesis that both processes might be closely associated and involved in the progression of αS pathology, which can be observed in human brains, αS amyloidogenic precursors termed "seeds" were experimentally injected into the brain or peripheral nervous system of animals. Although these studies showed that αS amyloidogenic seeds can induce αS pathology, which can spread in the nervous system, the findings are still not unequivocal in demonstrating predominant transsynaptic or intraneuronal spreads either in anterograde or retrograde directions. Interpretation of some of these studies is further complicated by other concurrent aberrant processes including neuroimmune activation, injury responses and/or general perturbation of proteostasis. In human brain, αS deposition and neuronal degeneration are accentuated in distal axon/synapse. Hyperbranching of axons is an anatomical commonality of Lewy-prone systems, providing a structural basis for abundance in distal axons and synaptic terminals. This neuroanatomical feature also can contribute to such distal accentuation of vulnerability in neuronal demise and the formation of αS inclusion pathology. Although retrograde progression of αS aggregation in hyperbranching axons may be a consistent feature of Lewy pathology, the regional distribution and gradient of Lewy pathology are not necessarily compatible with a predictable pattern such as upward progression from lower brainstem to cerebral cortex. Furthermore, "focal Lewy body disease" with the specific isolated involvement of autonomic, olfactory or cardiac systems suggests that spread of αS pathology is not always consistent. In many instances, the regional variability of Lewy pathology in human brain cannot be explained by a unified hypothesis such as transsynaptic spread. Thus, the distribution of Lewy pathology in human brain may be better explained by variable combinations of independent focal Lewy pathology to generate "multifocal Lewy body disease" that could be coupled with selective but variable neuroanatomical spread of αS pathology. More flexible models are warranted to take into account the relative propensity to develop Lewy pathology in different Lewy-prone systems, even without interconnections, compatible with the expanding clinicopathological spectra of Lewy-related disorders. These revised models are useful to better understand the mechanisms underlying the variable progression of Lewy body diseases so that diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are improved. PMID:26446103

  10. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  11. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect

  12. Sphenoid masses in children: radiologic differential diagnosis with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lui, Y W; Dasari, S B; Young, R J

    2011-04-01

    Childhood central skull base masses are rare, often difficult to diagnose, and have overlapping imaging findings. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical findings, and management of pediatric sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus masses with an emphasis on imaging findings that may help to differentiate lesions. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is provided. Finally, an imaging-based algorithm is presented as a guide to help radiologists narrow their differential diagnoses. Some of the entities discussed are virtually unique to the pediatric population; others occur rarely in this age group but should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. Entities included in the discussion are grouped into 2 categories: those that cause nonaggressive osseous remodeling and those that are more commonly associated with aggressive bone changes. Mucocele, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell lesions, meningioma, and fibrous dysplasia tend to remodel bone, while entities such as chordoma, craniopharyngioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sinonasal carcinoma, and neuroblastoma may cause more aggressive local bone changes. PMID:20595365

  13. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  14. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  15. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  16. Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aminu Z.; Edino, Steven T.; Samaila, Adamu A.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17534016

  17. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  18. Physiologic or pathologic hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Krayenbuehl, H P; Hess, O M; Schneider, J; Turina, M

    1983-01-01

    Physiologic hypertrophy occurs as the result of exercise conditioning and is characterized by normal or supranormal left ventricular (LV) contractile function and reversibility of structural alterations. Whether hypertrophy produced by chronic abnormal loading can be termed 'physiologic' is a matter of debate because in experimental pressure overload hypertrophy normal in vivo ventricular function may be associated with abnormal in vitro function of the papillary muscles. In patients with moderate LV hypertrophy from aortic valve disease (angiographic mass less than 180 g/m2) ejection fraction (EF) is preserved, but at similar levels of afterload, when mass exceeds 180 g/m2, EF is depressed. Comparison of LV function with myocardial structure (endomyocardial biopsies) has shown that in patients with compensated LV function and those with left heart failure (EF less than 57%, LVEDP greater than 20 mm Hg and/or cardiac index less than 2.5 l/min/m2) interstitial fibrosis (IF) was increased to a similar extent (16 and 18%; normal less than 5%), whereas muscle fiber diameter (MFD; normal less than or equal to 20 mu) was larger (P less than 0.05) in the patients with failure (30 mu) than in those with preserved function (27 mu). Moreover patients with depressed postoperative function had a larger (P less than 0.01) preoperative MFD (35 mu) than those with normal postoperative function (30 mu). Seventeen months after successful aortic valve replacement IF increased (P less than 0.02) and MFD decreased (P less than 0.001) but did not become normal regardless whether postoperative function was normal or depressed. Thus in secondary hypertrophy myocardial structure is pathologic even in the presence of normal LV function and depressed function appears likely to be related to excessive fiber hypertrophy rather than to IF. Massive fiber hypertrophy heralds an unfavorable postoperative LV function and fibrosis is irreversible after surgical correction of the abnormal load. PMID:6220898

  19. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  20. Pathology of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Colby, Thomas V

    2015-08-01

    Pathologists are frequently involved in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis on conventional biopsies or examining bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and assisting bronchoscopists when performing bronchial or transbronchial biopsies or transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)/endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided biopsies of enlarged lymph nodes. Histology generally does not pose difficult tasks in the correct clinical and imaging scenario, but atypical forms of sarcoidosis exist, and in these cases, the diagnosis may become difficult. When faced with granulomas in the lung, the evaluation of their qualitative features, anatomic distribution, and accompanying findings usually allows the pathologist to narrow considerably the differential diagnosis. The final diagnosis always requires the careful integration of the histology with the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. How robust is the histologic component of the diagnosis varies from case to case, and the pathologist should always clearly discuss this point with the clinician; in general, the weaker the histology is, the stronger should be the clinical-radiologic findings, and vice versa. The differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis includes granulomatous infections, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, several collagen vascular diseases (particularly Sjögren), drug reactions, chronic aspiration, and even diffuse fibrosing diseases. In this review, conventional and unusual histologic findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis are presented, highlighting the role of the pathologist and discussing the main differential diagnoses. PMID:25762348

  1. Unusual Findings in Appendectomy Specimens of Adults: Retrospective Analyses of 1466 Patients and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Ozgur Aytac, Huseyin; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Akin Tarim, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis. Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. Patients and Methods: Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients’ age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up. Results: Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology. Conclusions: Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination. PMID:24719727

  2. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  3. Pathology Dynamics Predict Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Secondary injury, the complex cascade of cellular events following spinal cord injury (SCI), is a major source of post-insult neuron death. Experimental work has focused on the details of individual factors or mechanisms that contribute to secondary injury, but little is known about the interactions among factors leading to the overall pathology dynamics that underlie its propagation. Prior hypotheses suggest that the pathology is dominated by interactions, with therapeutic success lying in combinations of neuroprotective treatments. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive, system-level characterization of the entire secondary injury process using a novel relational model methodology that aggregates the findings of ~250 experimental studies. Our quantitative examination of the overall pathology dynamics suggests that, while the pathology is initially dominated by “fire-like,” rate-dependent interactions, it quickly switches to a “flood-like,” accumulation-dependent process with contributing factors being largely independent. Our evaluation of ~20,000 potential single and combinatorial treatments indicates this flood-like pathology results in few highly influential factors at clinically realistic treatment time frames, with multi-factor treatments being merely additive rather than synergistic in reducing neuron death. Our findings give new fundamental insight into the understanding of the secondary injury pathology as a whole, provide direction for alternative therapeutic strategies, and suggest that ultimate success in treating SCI lies in the pursuit of pathology dynamics in addition to individually involved factors. PMID:19125684

  4. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign-out experience for pathologists. PMID:27217973

  5. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Protsenko, Ekaterina; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Loggia, Marco L; Coppola, Gianluca; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache. PMID:26366304

  6. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Protsenko, Ekaterina; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Loggia, Marco L.; Coppola, Gianluca; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache. PMID:26366304

  7. Pathological alterations due to motile Aeromonas infection in red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri).

    PubMed

    Bunnajirakul, S; Pavasutthipaisit, S; Steinhagen, D

    2015-01-01

    A herd of red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) was reared in outdoor concrete ponds and suffered from occasional mortality. Moribund fishes showing abdominal dropsy and fin rots were sent for diagnosis. Gross necropsy findings showed enlargement of liver, spleen, and kidney in concurrence with congestion, and a severe accumulation of peritoneal fluid. Histopathological findings revealed an alteration of hepatocytes, with a severe diffuse accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the trunk kidney, severe accumulation of mononuclear cells together with cloudy swelling of the renal tubular epithelium was observed. From internal organs of the fish motile Aeromonas spp. were identified. The pathological findings might be associated with a long-term infection of affected fish fostered by common stressors such as improper feeding and poor pond environment condition (water temperature). Effective therapeutic measures comprised an advancement of keeping conditions and appropriate feeding to improve the health status in combination with the application of antibiotic substances. PMID:26527040

  8. Pathology of congenital syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Froberg, M K; Fitzgerald, T J; Hamilton, T R; Hamilton, B; Zarabi, M

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model for congenital syphilis in the rabbit. This report provides additional information on newborn tissue pathology in animals that were infected in utero. A total of 35 pregnancies were evaluated, each containing 6 to 12 newborns. In the infected group, the mortality was approximately 50%; of the live newborns, half appeared normal and half were hyperreflexic, weak, and runty. Gross pathology in the sickly newborns was quite prevalent and involved enlarged spleens with isolated spots of necrosis; enlarged livers that were overtly congested and hemorrhagic and had numerous granular, white spots; and brains with hemorrhage in the occipital area. Histopathology was apparent in different tissues. Lymphocytes, plasma cells, and vacuolated macrophages were prominent in livers, spleens, brains, and bones. A few actively motile treponemes were visualized by dark-field microscopy within extracts of spleen and within cerebrospinal fluid. Low numbers of treponemes were also demonstrated in sections of brain and liver by using the Warthin-Starry silver stain technique. Blood hematocrits were decreased, and extramedullary hematopoiesis was prominent within spleens and livers; this is consistent with anemia. This rabbit model exhibits many of the same pathologic features commonly found in human congenital syphilis. Images PMID:8406873

  9. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    PubMed Central

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I–IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  10. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual inquiry method helped reveal similarities and key differences with civilian pathologists. Such an analysis helped identify specific instances that would benefit from implementing digital pathology in a military environment. Employing digital pathology to facilitate workload distribution, secondary consultations, and quality assurance (over-reads) could help the AFMS deliver more accurate, efficient, and timely AP services at a global level. PMID:24392246

  11. Neuroimmunity: Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Foster, Simmie L; Woolf, Clifford J

    2016-05-20

    Evolution has yielded multiple complex and complementary mechanisms to detect environmental danger and protect tissues from damage. The nervous system rapidly processes information and coordinates complex defense behaviors, and the immune system eliminates diverse threats by virtue of mobile, specialized cell populations. The two systems are tightly integrated, cooperating in local and systemic reflexes that restore homeostasis in response to tissue injury and infection. They further share a broad common language of cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides that enables bidirectional communication. However, this reciprocal cross talk permits amplification of maladaptive feedforward inflammatory loops that contribute to the development of allergy, autoimmunity, itch, and pain. Appreciating the immune and nervous systems as a holistic, coordinated defense system provides both new insights into inflammation and exciting opportunities for managing acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26907213

  12. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka; Mller, Arne; Doudet, Doris Jeanne; Gjedde, Albert

    2012-10-30

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopaminergic sensitivity toward uncertainty, and suggest that dopaminergic sensitivity to uncertainty is pronounced in pathological gambling, but not among non-gambling healthy controls. The findings have implications for understanding dopamine dysfunctions in pathological gambling and addictive behaviors. PMID:22889563

  13. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  14. Morphologic Updates in Prostate Pathology.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Adebowale J; Humphrey, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    In the past several years, modifications have been made to the original Gleason system with resultant therapeutic and prognostic implications. Several morphologic variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma have also been described. Prostate pathology has also evolved over the years with the discovery and utility of new immunohistochemical stains. The topics discussed in this update include the Gleason grading system, prognostic grade grouping, variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma, and the application of immunohistochemistry to prostate pathology. PMID:26612214

  15. [Pathological proximal femur fracture: consider also primary bone tumour].

    PubMed

    van de Sande, Michiel A J; van Rijswijk, Carla S P; Dijkstra, P D Sander; Taminiau, Antonie M H

    2010-01-01

    Two male and one female patient, aged 64, 70 and 51 respectively, were surgically treated for pathological fracture of the proximal femur without preoperative biopsy. In contrast to their benign radiological diagnosis, all three patients were finally diagnosed as having a malignant primary bone tumour. The proximal femur is the primary location of pathological fractures in the appendicular skeleton. Metastases to bone are the most common cause of a destructive lesion of the skeleton in an adult. Although rare, a primary bone tumour must be included in differential diagnosis of a pathological fracture. A systematic diagnostic strategy is critical to avoid complications that make curative treatment impossible. A solitary bone lesion seen on radiography should never be assumed to be a bone metastasis. Without further diagnostic research, surgical treatment for a pathological fracture should never be commenced before a definitive diagnosis is made. PMID:20619031

  16. Misconceptions about Acne Still Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157613.html Misconceptions About Acne Still Common Skin condition isn't caused by ... of negative and mistaken beliefs about people with acne, a new study finds. Researchers showed photos of ...

  17. The American Society for Clinical Pathology resident in-service examination: does resident performance provide insight into the effectiveness of clinical pathology education?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    The resident in-service examination in pathology is an in-training exercise that is taken by virtually all pathology residents in the United States as well as by some participants in Canada, Ireland, and Lebanon. Although all of the anatomic pathology topics in the examination, with only one exception-forensic pathology, show significant improvement in scores over the 4 years of residency training, three areas of clinical pathology training (laboratory administration, clinical chemistry, and microbiology) show significantly lower improvement in performance over the years of residency training. By contrast, transfusion medicine, hematopathology and the special topics section of the examination all demonstrate improved performance by residents over time. While the reason behind these differences must remain speculative at this time, these findings suggest that measures to improve effectiveness in clinical pathology training might be suggested by examining the differences between residency training practices between higher and lower performing areas of clinical pathology. PMID:17556086

  18. Improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    A considerable void exists in the information available regarding anatomic pathology diagnostic errors and their impact on clinical outcomes. To fill this void and improve patient safety, four institutional pathology departments (University of Pittsburgh, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and Henry Ford Hospital System) have proposed the development of a voluntary, Web-based, multi-institutional database for the collection and analysis of diagnostic errors. These institutions intend to use these data proactively to implement internal changes in pathology practice and to measure the effect of such changes on errors and clinical outcomes. They believe that the successful implementation of this project will result in the study of other types of diagnostic pathology error and the expansion to national participation. The project will involve the collection of multi-institutional anatomic pathology diagnostic errors in a large database that will facilitate a more detailed analysis of these errors, including their effect on patient outcomes. Participating institutions will perform root cause analysis for diagnostic errors and plan and execute appropriate process changes aimed at error reduction. The success of these interventions will be tracked through analysis of postintervention error data collected in the database. Based on their preliminary studies, these institutions proposed the following specific aims: Specific aim #1: To use a Web-based database to collect diagnostic errors detected by cytologic histologic correlation and by second-pathologist review of conference cases. Specific aim #2: To analyze the collected error data quantitatively and generate quality performance reports that are useful for institutional quality improvement programs. Specific aim #3: To plan and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve clinical outcomes, based on information derived from root cause analysis of diagnostic errors. Specific aim #4: To assess the success of implemented interventions by quantitative measure of postinterventional errors and clinical outcomes and by qualitative assessment by project participants. Funding for this project was approved by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality in September 2002, and data collection and analysis are ongoing. Over 5000 errors have been collected in the database, and the clinical outcomes of these errors have been tracked. At a national meeting in November 2003, root cause analysis was performed to determine causes of errors. The findings of these root cause analyses have been presented at national pathology meetings and are currently being published. PMID:15555746

  19. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of unusual disk disease is critical for accurate radiologic diagnoses. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27082664

  20. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  1. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day. PMID:24590540

  2. The molecular pathology of rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Kenshi; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 10 million Americans. Although the phenotypes of rosacea are clinically heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of chronic facial skin inflammation. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease has been poorly understood and limited to descriptions of factors that exacerbate or improve this disorder. Recent molecular studies suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular and inflammatory disease seen in patients with rosacea. These findings may help explain the benefits of current treatments and suggest new therapeutic strategies helpful for alleviating this disease. This article discusses the possible molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of rosacea from current clinical observations and laboratory research. PMID:19481425

  3. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay. PMID:12240693

  4. Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.

    PubMed

    Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

  5. Electrodiagnosis in common mononeuropathies and plexopathies.

    PubMed

    Jillapalli, Devanand; Shefner, Jeremy M

    2005-06-01

    Electrodiagnosis has a prominent role in the diagnosis of common entrapment neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow) and plexopathies (idiopathic brachial plexopathy and diabetic lumbar radiculoplexopathy). The relevant anatomy and pathology of these disorders is reviewed in the context of electrodiagnosis and prognosis. PMID:15937735

  6. Introduction: human pathology within the broad scope of comparative pathology.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, H E

    1996-01-01

    Pathologic integration is the basic phenomenon of comparative pathology. Since man evolved as earth's most influential species, he was unequally influenced the progression and prevention of diseases in himself and other species. This has both positive and negative ramifications. Positive influences have been life-style, the prolongation of life under healthy conditions and medical progress as seen in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, dental hygiene and other factors, such as the decrease of infectious and parasitic diseases, which are still dominating factors in developing nations. Negative influences are side effects of medical treatments, the appearance of occupational, and certain recreational diseases. These are the pathologic effects of man's life-style to which car accidents, smoking and other factors can be added. Different species are affected by environmental changes such as pollution, ozone, acidic rain, polluted food, and transmission of different diseases from one species to another. Interspecies-specifically the direct influence of man in the extermination of other species, or the indirect influence such as through pollutants in the environment producing chain reactions in different species, can be distinguished. The physical environment has been changed as can be seen in air pollution in large cities, the damage to the ozone layer and the increase of malignant melanoma in certain regions of western Australia. The industrialized nations are dominated by non-infectious diseases such as atherosclerosis and neoplasms, whereas in the developing nations parasitic and infectious diseases stand in the fore-front. Particular diseases like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome increase in both types of nations. These diseases may have developed from other species, e.g. the plague which was originally a disease of rodents, especially rats where it was transmitted by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, Rothschild. The principle of foremost importance is the disruption of biologic integration of normal processes leading to different types of pathologic progression. A typical problem affecting man and many other fellow species is crowding. Man's pathology and the pathology of other species exhibit continued integration which is the central problem for understanding diseases where similar functions are performed by various structures, such as is the case in gaseous exchange, or differences in size and life span. The broad spectrum of comparative pathology which centers around human pathology provides a source of increased knowledge for a better understanding of diseases. The present issue is based on the two symposia organized by the International Society for the Study of Comparative Ongology during the Fifth International Conference of Anticancer Research, 17-22 October 1995, Corfu, Greece. PMID:8744790

  7. Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Michael; Schmitz, Susanne; Hansson, Oskar; Walsh, Cathal; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Bennett, David; Minthon, Lennart; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Blennow, Kaj; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J; Weiner, Michael; Hampel, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects. PMID:21684041

  8. The cerebrovascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease and its influence on clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Modrego, Pedro J; Rios, Consuelo; Pérez Trullen, José M; Errea, José M; García-Gómara, Maria J; Sanchez, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Vascular pathology is frequently found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of vascular pathology in the brain in AD patients in a systematic manner and its clinical significance at presentation. A series of 51 patients with mild to moderate AD were consecutively enrolled. At baseline, every patient underwent the following clinical scales: Mini-Mental, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Ischemic Scale, Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and an Activities of Daily Living Scale (Disability Assessment for Dementia). We also carried out magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and color echo Doppler of carotids to measure the intima-media thickness. White matter hyperintensities were quantitatively evaluated with the Wahlund scale. We did not find correlation between intima-media thicknesses of carotids and clinical scales and between the Wahlund scale and clinical scales. The presence or absence of both microinfarctions and hypertension had no influence in the scores of the clinical scales. We conclude that the vascular component is common in AD but only as coincident pathology. PMID:18276961

  9. Pathological gambling: a general overview.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Larry L; Boehlke, Karmen K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a mental health disorder. Pathological gambling is currently classified as an impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, but it shares many important features with substance use disorders, especially in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical course, and treatment. Consequently, the DSM-V Task Force has suggested that pathological gambling be reclassified and included in a new category entitled "Addiction and Related Disorders." The category would include both substance-related and non-substance/behavioral addictions. This article provides a general overview of some of the available literature regarding pathological gambling and includes the presentation of a number of relevant topics including etiology, risk factors, comorbidity, prevention, and treatment. However, as with most complex, multifaceted, and multidimensional phenomena, more research is needed in order to improve both prevention and treatment efforts for pathological gambling. PMID:22641963

  10. Finding common ground in public health nursing education and practice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda O; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Schoon, Patricia M; Brueshoff, Bonnie; Jost, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of the public health nursing (PHN) workforce requires public health nurses from academia and practice to collaborate. However, a shortage of PHN clinical sites may lead to competition between schools of nursing for student placements. The Henry Street Consortium, a group of 5 baccalaureate schools of nursing and 13 local health departments in the state of Minnesota, developed a model for collaboration between PHN education and practice. This paper describes the development process--the forming, storming, norming, and performing stages--experienced by the Henry Street Consortium members. The consortium developed a set of entry-level core PHN competencies that are utilized by both education and practice. It developed menus of learning opportunities that were used to design population-based PHN clinical experiences. In addition, the consortium created a model for training and sustaining a preceptor network. The members of the Henry Street Consortium collaborated rather than competed, used consensus for decision making, and respected and accepted different points of view. This collaboration significantly impacted how schools of nursing and local health departments work together. The consortium's ability to retain its relevance, energy, and momentum for both academic and agency partners sustains the collaboration. PMID:21535112

  11. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose strategies for moderating harmful effects of restoration while meeting the needs of both endangered species and the imperiled native marsh ecosystem.

  12. Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

  13. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

  14. Finding Common Language around Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, New Orleans has proved fertile ground for the most extensive education reform movement in the United States. As such, the educational landscape in New Orleans is a highly contested space. Yet stakeholders across the pro/anti-charter divide lack a fully developed language that accommodates the multi-vocality of participants contributing…

  15. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in

  16. Finding Common Ground: How Faith Communities Support Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Saundra

    Noting that faith communities play a vital role in connecting to families and children and often become involved in and supportive of education issues important in their local community, this document discusses the development of partnerships involving public schools and faith-based communities. The document compiles a series of talking points for…

  17. Quality in Industry and Education: Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickie, Desmond; Sawkins, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes a postgraduate total quality leadership program developed for Rover, a British auto manufacturer, and accredited by Liverpool John Moores University. Identifies managerial and educational quality issues. (SK)

  18. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  19. Finding Common Ground: Redefining Women's Work in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Jamie K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes working conditions of female household servants in Colombia. Reviews history of support groups assisting household workers and subsequent expansion into successful movement for workers' legal rights and social security. "Women's work" has gained some respect as household workers strive to participate in ongoing social changes. (TES)

  20. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  1. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  2. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  3. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  4. Pathology of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A

    1989-01-01

    An allergic disease may develop in any organ or system. The respective etiological factors include foreign proteins, infectious agents such as various microbes, viruses, moulds, parasites, chemical compounds often in the form of drugs usually designated as haptens, polysaccharides, benign and malignant neoplasms. Of the factors operating in the causal pathogenesis of such diseases the most important one is an exaggerated formation of antibodies, which appears to be uncontrolled and occurring irrespective of the demands of the organism. The essential morphological features in allergic inflammation are rather variegated, their diagnostic value differing in a wide range but being never absolute. The above features include eosinophilic leucocytes, allergic arteritis and phlebitis, fibrinoid necrotic glomerulonephritis, histiocytic granulomatous inflammation or histiocytic granuloma. Granulomatous capsulitis and trabeculitis affecting the spleen and lymph nodes are believed to be of major diagnostic significance. The immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase methods and electron microscopy are important diagnostic tools. It has been generally acknowledged that many drugs operate as antigens. They may cause death of the respective patient, but allergic manifestations may subside after withdrawal of such drugs. On occasion they operate as a trigger mechanism with the allergy progressing even after treatment had been interrupted. Therefore they have been receiving extreme attention. Our collection of cases a case of giant-cell myocarditis following sulfamethoxypyridazine, anaphylactic shock has been reported to occur after intravenous administration of novocaine, and generalized cutaneous vasculitis developed in the same patient during the subsequent phase. A similar cutaneous finding was reported to have developed after penicillin injection, granulomatous inflammation developed owing to sulfonamide treatment. Allergic tumour-like lymphadenitis developed after administration of anti-anthracic serum; an anticonvulsive syndrome developed after hydantoinate administration. The latter consisted of generalized exanthema, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy. The lymph nodes showed tumour-like lymphadenitis mimicking lymphogranuloma or reticulosis. Allergic diseases appear as either isolated organ lesions or systemic diseases. Thus, isolated and systemic polyarteritis nodosa, isolated nasal, pulmonary or systemic Wegener's granulomatosis have been recognized. Temporal arteritis has been recognized as a localized form of systemic giant-cell arteritis. The haemolytic-uraemic syndrome appears to be a milder variety of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Allergic diseases or manifestations occasionally affect two or more organs or systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2486027

  5. Complete atrioventricular canal defect in a foal: Clinical and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Marc S; Pariaut, Romain; Alcaraz, Ana; Gelzer, Anna R M; Malik, Nina; Renaud-Farrell, Shari; Charter, Mary Ellen; Fox, Philip R; Moïse, N Sydney

    2005-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) canal defects comprise a rare category of congenital heart disease associated with abnormal development of the endocardial cushions. These anomalies include a broad spectrum of lesions involving the atrial septum primum, the inlet portion of the ventricular septum, and the atrioventricular valves. In severe cases heart failure may result. The present report describes cardiopulmonary findings in a six-week-old, female Thoroughbred foal with persistent tachypnea and tachycardia since birth. Clinical, echocardiographic, cardiac catheterization, and pathologic findings were compatible with complete AV canal defect with bi-directional shunting, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. Gross cardiac pathologic findings included a large atrioventricular septal defect, a common atriovalvular orifice, five atrioventricular leaflets, with two free-floating bridging leaflets. Histopathologic lesions in the lung included hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteriolar walls due to thickening of the tunica media. This represents a well documented case of complete endocardial cushion defect with anomalous development of the atrioventricular valves and resultant pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. PMID:19083319

  6. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

  7. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  8. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V; Aller, Raymond D; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B; Friedman, Bruce A; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  9. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  10. Influence of APOE genotype and the presence of Alzheimer's pathology on synaptic membrane lipids of human brains.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Naoto; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-01

    The APOE genotype is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it remains unclarified how the ε4 allele accelerates whereas the ε2 allele suppresses AD development, compared with the more common ε3 allele. On the basis of the previous finding that the assembly of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) into fibrils in the brain, an early and invariable pathological feature of AD, depends on the lipid environment, we determined the levels of synaptic membrane lipids in aged individuals of different APOE genotypes. In the comparison between amyloid-free ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 brains, the presence of the ε2 allele significantly decreased the level of cholesterol. Alternatively, in the comparison among ε3/ε3 brains, the presence of AD pathology substantially decreased the levels of cholesterol. This study suggests that the ε2 allele suppresses the initiation of AD development by lowering the cholesterol levels in synaptic membranes. PMID:24446209

  11. Forensic pathology and the miscarriage of justice.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    A case of conviction for rape-murder that was eventually overturned based on a post-conviction re-evaluation of the findings at autopsy is described. The main issue elucidated on post-conviction review was that postmortem anal dilation and postmortem hypostatic hemorrhages of the neck were misinterpreted as injuries. After review of the autopsy findings, the prosecution agreed with the appellant that a miscarriage of justice had occurred and the conviction was quashed by an appellate court. This case underscores the need for an awareness of key pitfalls that can be encountered at autopsy, such as the proper interpretation of postmortem artefacts. The evolving role of the evidence-based framework for forensic pathology is explored as a systemic solution to enhance the administration of justice. PMID:22116733

  12. CT findings in leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1984-12-01

    Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

  13. Pathology in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development. PMID:24122335

  14. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  15. Pathological characteristics of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHI, HONG-YUN; ZHU, SHU-CHAI; SHEN, WEN-BIN; LIU, MIAO-LING

    2014-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which include regularly occurring multiple carcinogenic lesions (MLs), severe dysplasia (SD) and direct intramural infiltration (DI), were investigated using large pathological sections. A total of 52 esophageal cancer patients underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Large sections of the surgical resection specimens were then made for pathological examination. The actual length of the carcinoma was calculated during surgery from the length determined microscopically. ML, SD and DI were identified during pathological examination of the large sections by microscope and were statistically analyzed. The lesion lengths obtained by the various inspection methods differed from each other. ML, SD and DI were identified in 15, 28 and 41 patients, respectively. Furthermore, a higher incidence of DI was observed in patients with lymphatic infiltration or those with a later stage of disease. ML, SD and DI were identified as characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and ML and DI were found to correlate with lymphatic infiltration. PMID:25013466

  16. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL

  17. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  18. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  19. Pattern of T2 hypointensity associated with ring-enhancing brain lesions can help to differentiate pathology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, K M; Erickson, B J; Lucchinetti, C

    2006-03-01

    Ring-enhancing lesions seen on MR images can occur with a variety of etiologies. Some ring-enhancing lesions have hypointense rims peripherally on T2-weighted MR images. In this study, we examined whether T2 hypointense rims were associated with specific pathologies. A search for ring-enhancing lesions on MR images obtained from 1996 to 2004 was performed, and revealed 221 patients with MRI findings of ring enhancement. The pattern of T2 hypointensity (arc or rim) corresponding with ring enhancement was recorded. In addition, we analyzed other imaging characteristics, including signal on diffusion-weighted images, central homogeneity on T2 and multiplicity of lesions. We then reviewed clinical data on the patients to ascertain the diagnosis for each examination. The most common associated pathologies in our study were gliomas (40%), metastases (30%), abscesses (8%) and multiple sclerosis (MS; 6%). Hypointense borders on T2-weighted images were present in 67% of lesions in the form of a rim in 40% and an arc in 60%. Abscesses had the highest percentage of hypointense rims. Metastases and gliomas more commonly had arcs, and MS lesions were divided between rims and arcs. Abscesses and MS lesions were more commonly homogeneous centrally, compared to gliomas and metastases. Additionally, abscesses were more often bright on diffusion imaging than the other pathologies. As expected, abscesses and MS lesions were usually multiple, whereas metastases were typically multiple in approximately 50% of the patients; gliomas were generally solitary. Trends in T2 hypointensity may aid in distinguishing among etiologies of ring-enhancing lesions, although there is overlap between the MR appearance of these various pathologies. PMID:16447037

  20. Spectrum of Histomorphologic Findings in Liver in Patients with SLE: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shrruti; Rastogi, Archana; Singh, Jyotsna; Rajbongshi, Apurba; Bihari, Chhagan

    2014-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome (SS), and scleroderma are immunologically mediated disorders that typically have multisystem involvement. Although clinically significant liver involvement is rare, liver enzyme abnormalities are common in these patients. The reported prevalence of hepatic involvement in SLE, histopathologic findings, and its significance is very variable in the existing literature. It is important to be familiar with the causes of hepatic involvement in SLE along with histomorphological features which aid in distinguishing hepatitis of SLE from other hepatic causes as they would alter the patient management and disease course. Histopathology of liver in SLE shows a wide morphological spectrum commonly due to a coexisting pathology. Drug induced hepatitis, viral etiology, and autoimmune overlap should be excluded before attributing the changes to SLE itself. Common histopathologic findings in SLE include fatty liver, portal inflammation, and vascular changes like hemangioma, congestion, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, arteritis, and abnormal vessels in portal tracts. PMID:25136456

  1. Pattern of muscle and nerve pathology in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Worden, R E

    1976-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-one inpatients undergoing detoxification from alcoholism were studied electrodiagnostically. Of them, 115 (57%) exhibited muscle pathology; only 11 (5%) showed no electrodiagnostic evidence of pathology. A common occurrence in the more severely toxic patients was a phenomenon called "burst suppression," which revealed an inability of the patient to sustain a normal consistent firing of motor units upon muscle contration; the significance of this phenomenon is not thoroughly understood. Electrodiagnosis is a helpful tool in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with alcoholism. PMID:196538

  2. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... other specialized machines during her NICU stay. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Equipment commonly ...

  3. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B.; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  4. Diagnostic difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, R K; Odze, R D

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes some of the common diagnostic problems encountered by pathologists when evaluating patients with chronic colitis and in whom inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either suspected or within the differential diagnosis. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) show characteristic, but non-specific, pathological features that may overlap and result in a diagnosis of 'indeterminate colitis' (IC). However, other reasons why pathologists may entertain a diagnosis of IC include failure to recognize or accept certain 'hardcore' histological features as indicative of CD, an attempt to classify cases of chronic colitis based on mucosal biopsy material or in the absence of adequate clinical and radiographic information, and the presence of other disease processes that mask, or mimic, IBD. In addition, some cases of UC may show unusual CD-like features, such as discontinuous or patchy disease, ileal inflammation, extracolonic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation in response to ruptured crypts, aphthous ulcers, or transmural inflammation. Furthermore, other forms of colitis, such as microscopic colitis, diverticulitis and diversion colitis may, on occasion, also show IBD-like changes. The clinical and pathological features that aid in the distinction between these entities, and others, are covered in detail in this review. PMID:16405661

  5. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    PubMed

    Słodkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Michał

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

  6. Clinical and Pathological Continuum of Multisystem TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Geser, Felix; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, John; Uryu, Kunihiro; Neumann, Manuela; Brandmeir, Nicholas J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Kwong, Linda K.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Clark, Chris M.; Malunda, Joe; Miller, Bruce L.; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Qian, Jiang; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Grossman, Murray; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of transactivation response DNA-binding protein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology in the central nervous system of patients with clinically and autopsy-confirmed diagnoses of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with and without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without cognitive impairment. Design Performance of immunohistochemical whole–central nervous system scans for evidence of pathological TDP-43 and retrospective clinical medical record review. Setting An academic medical center. Participants We included 64 patients with clinically and pathologically confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions with or without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without cognitive impairment. Main Outcome Measure Neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology. Results We found evidence of neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology in all disease groups throughout the neuraxis, albeit with variations in the frequency, morphology, and distribution of TDP-43 lesions. Moreover, the major clinical manifestations (eg, cognitive impairments, motor neuron signs, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuropsychiatric features) were reflected by the predominant distribution and burden of TDP-43 pathology. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions are different manifestations of a multiple-system TDP-43 proteinopathy linked to similar mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:19204154

  7. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the α-β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent shrinkage greatly compared to the standard antioxidant vitamin E, %shrinkage at 11.6 ±1.3 for hydroquinone and 27.8 ±2.2 for vitamin E, P = .001. Conclusion Free radicals crosslinked unsaturated lipid fatty acids into thermoset polymers through Fenton reactions when combined with acrolein. Further, hydroquinone was a superior antioxidant to vitamin E. PMID:25909053

  8. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  9. Abnormal Paraplegin Expression in Swollen Neurites, ?- and ?-Synuclein Pathology in a Case of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia SPG7 with an Ala510Val Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Thal, Dietmar R.; Zchner, Stephan; Gierer, Stephan; Schulte, Claudia; Schls, Ludger; Schle, Rebecca; Synofzik, Matthis

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the SPG7 gene are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias and spastic ataxias. Ala510Val is the most common SPG7 mutation, with a frequency of up to 1% in the general population. Here we report the clinical, genetic, and neuropathological findings in a homozygous Ala510Val SPG7 case with spastic ataxia. Neuron loss with associated gliosis was found in the inferior olivary nucleus, the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the substantia nigra and the basal nucleus of Meynert. Neurofilament and/or paraplegin accumulation was observed in swollen neurites in the cerebellar and cerebral cortex. This case also showed subcortical ?-pathology in an unique distribution pattern largely restricted to the brainstem. ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies (LBs) were observed in the brainstem and the cortex, compatible with a limbic pattern of Braak LB-Disease stage 4. Taken together, this case shows that the spectrum of pathologies in SPG7 can include neuron loss of the dentate nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus as well as neuritic pathology. The progressive supranuclear palsy-like brainstem predominant pattern of ? pathology and ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies in our SPG7 cases may be either coincidental or related to SPG7 in addition to neuron loss and neuritic pathology. PMID:26506339

  10. Impaired self-awareness in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Nol, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n=30), and in a comparison group (n=35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes. PMID:22273773

  11. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  12. Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features of Primary Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Review of 51 Cases

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Shinya; HOSHI, Katsuichiro; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; CHIMURA, Syuuichi; KOBAYASHI, Masayuki; MACHIDA, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

  13. Clinical Correlations With Lewy Body Pathology in LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lang, Anthony E.; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ross, Owen A.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Marder, Karen S.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Marti-Masso, Jose F.; Ferrer, Isidre; de Munain, Adolfo López; Goldman, Samuel M.; Schüle, Birgitt; Langston, J. William; Aasly, Jan O.; Giordana, Maria T.; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Puschmann, Andreas; Canesi, Margherita; Pezzoli, Gianni; De Paula, Andre Maues; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Stoessl, A. Jon; Marras, Connie

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD. OBSERVATIONS We describe genetic, clinical, and neuropathological findings of 37 cases of LRRK2-related PD including 33 published and 4 unpublished cases through October 2013. Among the different mutations, the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation was most frequently associated with LB pathology. Nonmotor features of cognitive impairment/dementia, anxiety, and orthostatic hypotension were correlated with the presence of LBs. In contrast, a primarily motor phenotype was associated with a lack of LBs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinicopathological correlations in a series of LRRK2-related PD cases. Findings from this selected group of patients with PD demonstrated that parkinsonian motor features can occur in the absence of LBs. However, LB pathology in LRRK2-related PD may be a marker for a broader parkinsonian symptom complex including cognitive impairment. PMID:25401511

  14. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs: a review of 51 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Chimura, Syuuichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Machida, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

  15. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26045858

  16. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

  17. Antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Mekala R.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murphy, Matthew C.; Murray, Melissa E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy. Methods: Patients with microinfarcts (n = 22) and patients without microinfarcts (n = 44) who underwent antemortem MRI were identified from a dementia clinic–based, population–based, and community clinic–based autopsy cohort. The microinfarct and no-microinfarct groups were matched on age at MRI, age at death, sex, APOE status, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Brain infarcts were assessed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. White matter hyperintensities on FLAIR MRI and hippocampal volumes on T1-weighted MRI were quantified using automated methods. A subset of subjects with microinfarcts (n = 15) and a matched group of subjects without microinfarcts (n = 15) had serial T1-weighted MRIs and were included in an analysis of global and regional brain atrophy rates using automated methods. Results: The presence of cortical (p = 0.03) and subcortical (p = 0.02) infarcts on antemortem MRI was associated with presence of microinfarcts at autopsy. Higher numbers of cortical (p = 0.05) and subcortical (p = 0.03) infarcts on antemortem MRI were also associated with presence of microinfarcts. Presence of microinfarcts was not associated with white matter hyperintensities and cross-sectional hippocampal volume on antemortem MRI. Whole-brain and regional precuneus, motor, and somatosensory atrophy rates were higher in subjects with microinfarcts compared to subjects without microinfarcts. Conclusions: Microinfarcts increase brain atrophy rates independent of Alzheimer disease pathology. Association between microinfarct pathology and macroinfarcts on MRI suggests either common risk factors or a shared pathophysiology and potentially common preventive targets. PMID:24793188

  18. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. PMID:26021584

  19. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  20. Common Curriculum, Core Curriculum or Common Curriculum Standards--Finding a Solution for Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabback, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of possible curriculum models in post-conflict countries, taking as an example the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1996 and 2004. Following the Dayton agreement, the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided between 13 ministries administering different Bosnian, Serb and Croat cantons. Despite…

  1. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  2. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  3. Renal pathology and HIV infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Praditpornsilpa, K; Napathorn, S; Yenrudi, S; Wankrairot, P; Tungsaga, K; Sitprija, V

    1999-02-01

    The existence of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) as a distinct disease entity characterized by glomerulosclerosis is well established in North America and Western Europe. Although the large number of HIV-infected cases overwhelm the Asian countries, no cases of HIVAN are documented in the literature. We studied 26 cases of HIV-infected Thai patients with proteinuria greater than 1.5 g/d of protein during 1995 and 1996. None of the patients were treated with antiretroviral drugs at the time of renal biopsy. Intravenous drug addiction and sexual transmission were risk factors in 11 and 15 patients, respectively. Pathological examinations were performed by light microscopic and immunoperoxidase study. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 17 cases, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in 2 cases, and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis secondary to cryptococcal infection in 2 cases each. One case each had membranous glomerulopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis secondary to tuberculosis. The renal pathological findings of HIVAN with the unique features described in previous literature were not evident in these patients. Although the data in this study are limited to 26 HIV-infected Thai patients, we believe that HIVAN is uncommon in the Asian HIV-infected population. PMID:10023639

  4. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

  5. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

  6. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

    PubMed

    Arbelo, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herrez, P; Surez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Rivero, M; Grau-Bassas, E R; Fernndez, A

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a primary T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans. PMID:24650893

  7. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  8. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums, it does not qualify for the permit issued under this part. (b) A pathological laboratory...

  9. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums, it does not qualify for the permit issued under this part. (b) A pathological laboratory...

  10. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums, it does not qualify for the permit issued under this part. (b) A pathological laboratory...

  11. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums, it does not qualify for the permit issued under this part. (b) A pathological laboratory...

  12. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals or sanitariums, it does not qualify for the permit issued under this part. (b) A pathological laboratory...

  13. Lupus Nephritis: Animal Modeling of a Complex Disease Syndrome Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tracy L; Madaio, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Nephritis as a result of autoimmunity is a common morbidity associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). There is substantial clinical and industry interest in medicinal intervention in the SLE nephritic process; however, clinical trials to specifically treat lupus nephritis have not resulted in complete and sustained remission in all patients. Multiple mouse models have been used to investigate the pathologic interactions between autoimmune reactivity and SLE pathology. While several models bear a remarkable similarity to SLE-driven nephritis, there are limitations for each that can make the task of choosing the appropriate model for a particular aspect of SLE pathology challenging. This is not surprising given the variable and diverse nature of human disease. In many respects, features among murine strains mimic some (but never all) of the autoimmune and pathologic features of lupus patients. Although the diversity often limits universal conclusions relevant to pathogenesis, they provide insights into the complex process that result in phenotypic manifestations of nephritis. Thus nephritis represents a microcosm of systemic disease, with variable lesions and clinical features. In this review, we discuss some of the most commonly used models of lupus nephritis (LN) and immune-mediated glomerular damage examining their relative strengths and weaknesses, which may provide insight in the human condition. PMID:25722732

  14. Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS. PMID:22397318

  15. Hippocampal pathology in two mentally ill paraphiliacs.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; Mannheim, Glenn; Kruesi, Markus

    2002-08-20

    Paraphilias or disorders of sexual behavior have markedly increased in prevalence during the last decade. Until now no published neuropathological studies on paraphilia have appeared in the medical literature. A computerized search was done on all available medical and autopsy records of a large urban hospital (St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC) for any mention of deviant sexual behavior. Cases were then reviewed for presence of a history consistent with DSM-IV diagnoses of paraphilia. Two such cases were identified. Neuropathological examination in both cases revealed simple cell atrophy of pyramidal cells confined to different hippocampal subfields. Reactive astrocytosis was present in the outer strata of the affected regions. The pathological changes in the hippocampus resemble those reported after persistent stress or long-term chronic glucocorticoid administration. The accompanying astrocytosis indicates a reactive, ongoing process. The findings suggest new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of paraphilia. PMID:12165369

  16. [Current medicolegal and ethical issues in pathology].

    PubMed

    Robienski, J; Hoppe, N

    2013-02-01

    The increase in density of information available in relation to patients and research participants, in particular in the context of genetic diagnostics and analysis, results in an increased potential for uncovering details which were unexpected but are of particular significance for the patient. Deciding how this information is dealt with and who is entitled to receive this information, is a medicolegal and ethical balancing act. Incidental findings and the challenges posed by the advent of personalised medicine are but two areas which increasingly impact medical disciplines that do not conventionally work directly with patients. Both areas raise questions of what is legally required and morally necessary. The authors briefly sketch these two areas and the medicolegal and ethical implications for diagnostics and research in pathology. PMID:23322303

  17. The pathological evolution of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, W I; Miller, D H; Barnes, D

    1992-08-01

    The new technique of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) has been found to have particular value in the study of the evolution of the plaque of multiple sclerosis. Particularly when combined with gadolinium enhancement, the method not only shows very dramatically the waxing and waning of the plaque with time, it also demonstrates with remarkable clarity the important role of changes in vascular permeability in the pathological process. In this Annotation the ability of this technique to throw new light on the process of plaque formation and evaluation is critically assessed. In addition, the role of changing fluid content of the extracellular spaces of the CNS in influencing interpretation of the more conventional clinical and electrophysiological findings is discussed. While the method of NMR analysis does not yet show us how the plaque is initiated, it is suggested that future studies with these new techniques in the living subject may well lead us to rational therapeutic approaches based on pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:1528388

  18. Tau pathology-mediated presynaptic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno, H; Morfini, G; Buitrago, L; Ujlaki, G; Choi, S; Yu, E; Moreira, J E; Avila, J; Brady, S T; Pant, H; Sugimori, M; Llinás, R R

    2016-06-14

    Brain tauopathies are characterized by abnormal processing of tau protein. While somatodendritic tau mislocalization has attracted considerable attention in tauopathies, the role of tau pathology in axonal transport, connectivity and related dysfunctions remains obscure. We have previously shown using the squid giant synapse that presynaptic microinjection of recombinant human tau protein (htau42) results in failure of synaptic transmission. Here, we evaluated molecular mechanisms mediating this effect. Thus, the initial event, observed after htau42 presynaptic injection, was an increase in transmitter release. This event was mediated by calcium release from intracellular stores and was followed by a reduction in evoked transmitter release. The effect of htau42 on synaptic transmission was recapitulated by a peptide comprising the phosphatase-activating domain of tau, suggesting activation of phosphotransferases. Accordingly, findings indicated that htau42-mediated toxicity involves the activities of both GSK3 and Cdk5 kinases. PMID:27012611

  19. [Cardiology in the Morgagni's anatomo pathological work].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde, Pedro; Aranda Fraustro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In the XVIII century, under the influence of the "systematic spirit", characteristic of the Enlightenment age, pathological anatomy was systematized in the Morgagni's fundamental treatise De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published as letters in 1761. Certain biographical data of the author are reported here as well as some his more important contributions to cardiology such as the Morgagni's, Adams', Stokes' syndrome. His points of view on sudden death and his observations on post-infarct myocardial rupture, are related also. In his global evaluation of these facts, the speculative approach always predominates. Indeed, in these anatomist's works, we find a good example of the application of epistemologic principles to the medical field. PMID:25862292

  20. Riedel's thyroiditis: clinical, pathological and imaging features.

    PubMed

    Papi, G; Corrado, S; Cesinaro, A M; Novelli, L; Smerieri, A; Carapezzi, C

    2002-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is an extremely rare form of chronic thyroiditis, characterised by a fibroinflammatory process which partially destroys the thyroid, often involving surrounding tissues. We describe an unusual case of RT in a 38-year-old woman, and discuss its typical clinical, pathological, ultrasound, radionuclide scanning and magnetic resonance findings. We conclude that the diagnosis of RT is highly suggestive in the presence of a hard gland (or nodule), fixed to adjacent structures; 'cold' on Tc99 scan; hypoechoic with absence of vascular flow, invading the adjacent neck structures on ultrasound; hypointense in T1- and T2-weighted MR images; and showing fibrous tissue fragments with inflammatory cells at cytological examination. Thyroidectomy has to be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to relieve pressure symptoms. PMID:11831840

  1. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  2. Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

  3. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  4. Expanding the spectrum of neuronal pathology in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Coon, Elizabeth A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Jenkins, Sarah M; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Low, Phillip A; Schmeichel, Ann M; Parisi, Joseph E

    2015-08-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy that typically affects patients in their sixth decade of life and beyond. The defining clinical features of the disease include progressive autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia leading to significant disability. Pathologically, multiple system atrophy is characterized by glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing filamentous alpha-synuclein. Neuronal inclusions also have been reported but remain less well defined. This study aimed to further define the spectrum of neuronal pathology in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (20 male, 15 female; mean age at death 64.7 years; median disease duration 6.5 years, range 2.2 to 15.6 years). The morphologic type, topography, and frequencies of neuronal inclusions, including globular cytoplasmic (Lewy body-like) neuronal inclusions, were determined across a wide spectrum of brain regions. A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated between distinct anatomic regions of involvement (striatum, substantia nigra, olivary and pontine nuclei, hippocampus, forebrain and thalamus, anterior cingulate and neocortex, and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). The major finding was the identification of widespread neuronal inclusions in the majority of patients, not only in typical disease-associated regions (striatum, substantia nigra), but also within anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain and hypothalamus. Neuronal inclusion pathology appeared to follow a hierarchy of region-specific susceptibility, independent of the clinical phenotype, and the severity of pathology was duration-dependent. Neuronal inclusions also were identified in regions not previously implicated in the disease, such as within cerebellar roof nuclei. Lewy body-like inclusions in multiple system atrophy followed the stepwise anatomic progression of Lewy body-spectrum disease inclusion pathology in 25.7% of patients with multiple system atrophy, including a patient with visual hallucinations. Further, the presence of Lewy body-like inclusions in neocortex, but not hippocampal alpha-synuclein pathology, was associated with cognitive impairment (P = 0.002). However, several cases had the presence of isolated Lewy body-like inclusions at atypical sites (e.g. thalamus, deep cerebellar nuclei) that are not typical for Lewy body-spectrum disease. Finally, interregional correlations (rho ≥ 0.6) in pathologic glial and neuronal lesion burden suggest shared mechanisms of disease progression between both discrete anatomic regions (e.g. basal forebrain and hippocampus) and cell types (neuronal and glial inclusions in frontal cortex and white matter, respectively). These findings suggest that in addition to glial inclusions, neuronal pathology plays an important role in the developmental and progression of multiple system atrophy. PMID:25981961

  5. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  7. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  8. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  9. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  10. Computed tomography appearance of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the abdomen: CT features and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Xu, Junlong; Wang, Jiaxin; Fan, Hongguang; Ang, Xuan; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT findings of abdominal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) and the relationship with morphological character. Materials and Methods: CT examinations and pathological findings of ten intra-abdominal IMTs were retrospectively analyzed. The histopathological characteristics of the IMTs were confirmed by two pathologists and two radiologists evaluated CT findings of the lesion, with emphasis on the imaging features compared with the corresponding histopathology. Results: The most common imaging characteristics were presence of heterogeneity, all tumors showed varying degrees of contrast enhancement. Two major different CT patterns were individualized. In type one, the tumor had a distinct boundary without a lobular appearance and displayed hypo-enhanced enhancement after administration of contrast in correlated with the mainly histopathologic findings of spindle cells myxoid and hypocellular fibrous (6/10; 60%). In type two, the lesions exhibited indistinct boundaries or complete capsule, ill-defined growth patterns or low intralesional attenuation with marked heterogeneous or circumferential enhancement, which correlated well with the presence of abundance of micromodule and inflammatory cell infiltration (4/10; 40%). Conclusions: Two major different contrast enhancement CT patterns were individualized can help to determine the relationships with histopathologic findings, while cannot be reliably differentiated from other solid lesions based solely on the CT appearance, combined with diagnostic biopsy may facilitate to achieve a correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26629216

  11. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis.

    PubMed

    Guinebretière, J M; Menet, E; Tardivon, A; Cherel, P; Vanel, D

    2005-04-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities, (adenosis, fibrosis, cysts and hyperplasia) but vary in intensity and extension. Thus, their clinical and radiographic presentation is extremely different from one patient to another. Adenofibroma is the most frequent tumour. It also undergoes modifications according to hormonal conditions. About 90% of malignant tumours are primary carcinoma. The incidence of intra-ductal carcinoma has risen dramatically since the development of screening because of its ability to induce calcification. Two mechanisms could be involved in the formation of calcification: one active (tumour cell secretion of vesicles), the other passive (necrotic cell fragments are released). Invasive carcinoma comprises numerous histological types. Stromal reactions essentially determines their shape: a fibrous reaction commonly found in ductal carcinoma creates a stellate lesion while other stroma, inflammatory (medullary carcinoma), vascular (papillary carcinoma) or mucinous determine nodular lesions whose borders push the surrounding tissue. The histological features which give rise to the radiographic pattern will be emphasised. PMID:15797289

  12. Tau in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that has a role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules and thus in promoting axonal outgrowth. Structurally, tau is a natively unfolded protein, is highly soluble and shows little tendency for aggregation. However, tau aggregation is characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. The mechanisms underlying tau pathology and tau-mediated neurodegeneration are debated, but considerable progress has been made in the field of tau research in recent years, including the identification of new physiological roles for tau in the brain. Here, we review the expression, post-translational modifications and functions of tau in physiology and in pathophysiology. PMID:26631930

  13. Hyperthyroidism Presenting With Pathologic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Margaret D.; Corwin, Daniel J.; Harrison, Victor S.; Jacobstein, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormone directly stimulates bone resorption in in vitro organ culture, and in adults excess thyroid hormone is associated with decreased bone mineral density. There are limited data in children regarding the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism and even fewer instances in the literature of hyperthyroidism presenting with bone demineralization and fracture. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism presenting with fractures and osteoporosis. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a pathologic fracture. PMID:26746406

  14. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa. PMID:27137972

  15. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  16. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  17. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,

  18. Cumulative traumatization associated with pathological dissociation in acute psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chui-De; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-12-15

    Clinical studies of patients with dissociative disorders and prospective studies of childhood trauma survivors show inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between childhood trauma and dissociation. This study aims to resolve this inconsistency by investigating how dissociation is related to parental dysfunctions, general psychopathology, childhood trauma, and adulthood trauma. Specifically, we focus on the role of cumulative traumatization in pathological and non-taxon dissociation. Eighty acute psychiatric inpatients were administrated standardized measures on dissociation, perceived parental dysfunctions, traumatizing events, and general psychopathology. Parental dysfunctions and trauma correlated with both types of dissociation and general psychopathology. When general psychopathology and parental dysfunctions were controlled, a unique link between trauma and dissociation remained significant. Moreover, the pattern of relationships differed for non-taxon and pathological dissociations. The effect of childhood but not adulthood trauma was significant on non-taxon dissociation. In contrast, an interactive model incorporating both childhood and adulthood trauma was the best model for explaining pathological dissociation. Childhood trauma is important for developing non-taxon dissociation, and adulthood trauma exacerbates its effects on the emergence of pathological dissociation. Cumulative traumatization from childhood to adulthood should be incorporated into the trauma hypothesis of pathological dissociation. PMID:26454403

  19. Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh.; Pirko, Istvan; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article summarizes the pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases and discusses neuropathologic studies that have yielded novel insights into potential mechanisms of demyelination. Recent Findings The pathologic hallmark of MS consists of focal demyelinated plaques within the CNS, with variable degrees of inflammation, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Active MS lesions show a profound pathologic heterogeneity with four major patterns of immunopathology, suggesting that the targets of injury and mechanisms of demyelination in MS may be different in different disease subgroups. Recent pathologic studies have suggested that the subarachnoid space and cortex may be initial sites and targets of the MS disease process, that inflammatory cortical demyelination is present early in MS, and that meningeal inflammation may drive cortical and white matter injury in some MS patients. Summary MS is heterogeneous with respect to clinical, genetic, radiographic, and pathologic features; surrogate MRI, clinical, genetic, serologic, and/or CSF markers for each of the four immunopatterns need to be developed in order to recognize them in the general nonbiopsied MS population. Inflammatory cortical demyelination is an important early event in the pathogenesis of MS and may be driven by meningeal inflammation. These observations stress the importance of developing imaging techniques able to capture early inflammatory cortical demyelination in order to better understand the disease pathogenesis and to determine the impact of potential disease-modifying therapies on the cortex. PMID:23917093

  20. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  1. Parallel states of pathological Wnt signaling in neonatal brain injury and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fancy, Stephen P J; Harrington, Emily P; Baranzini, Sergio E; Silbereis, John C; Shiow, Lawrence R; Yuen, Tracy J; Huang, Eric J; Lomvardas, Stavros; Rowitch, David H

    2014-04-01

    In colon cancer, mutation of the Wnt repressor APC (encoding adenomatous polyposis coli) leads to a state of aberrant and unrestricted high-activity signaling. However, the relevance of high Wnt tone in non-genetic human disease is unknown. Here we demonstrate that distinct functional states of Wnt activity determine oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation and myelination. Mouse OPCs with genetic Wnt dysregulation (high tone) express multiple genes in common with colon cancer, including Lef1, Sp5, Ets2, Rnf43 and Dusp4. Surprisingly, we found that OPCs in lesions of hypoxic human neonatal white matter injury upregulated markers of high Wnt activity and lacked expression of APC. We also found that lack of Wnt repressor tone promoted permanent white matter injury after mild hypoxic insult. These findings suggest a state of pathological high-activity Wnt signaling in human disease tissues that lack predisposing genetic mutation. PMID:24609463

  2. The ongoing revolution in breast imaging calls for a similar revolution in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Tabár, L; Dean, P B; Lindhe, N; Ingvarsson, M

    2012-01-01

    COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PATHOLOGISTS AND RADIOLOGISTS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF COMMON GROUND: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

  3. Clinico-pathological analysis of foal diseases from 237 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, M A; Kamada, M; Yoshihara, T; Kaneko, M; Yoshikawa, T

    1991-09-01

    To elucidate the current status of foal diseases in Japan, clinico-pathological analysis was conducted on 237 foal autopsy cases. As a result, bacterial infection was identified as an important cause of foal death. Most of the bacteria isolated from these cases were ubiquitous, opportunistic, environmental organisms, known to be non-pathogenic to mature animals. Most of cases with bacterial infection were diagnosed as having hypogammaglobulinemia, i.e., failure of passive transfer. In addition, the mean weight of thymuses in foals affected by bacterial infection tended to be lower than that of foals without infection. These findings suggest that the common cause of foal diseases were mainly due to the opportunistic bacterial infections associated with the weakened immune function, serving as precursor to or promotor of infection. PMID:1811113

  4. Common elbow injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    Field, L D; Savoie, F H

    1998-09-01

    Athletes of all ages and skill levels are increasingly participating in sports involving overhead arm motions, making elbow injuries more common. Among these injuries is lateral epicondylitis, which occurs in over 50% of athletes using overhead arm motions. Lateral epicondylitis is characterised by pain in the area where the common extensor muscles meet the lateral humeral epicondyle. The onset of this pathological condition begins with the excessive use of the wrist extensor musculature. Repetitive microtraumatic injury can lead to mucinoid degeneration of the extensor origin and subsequent failure of the tendon. Lateral epicondylitis can almost always be treated nonoperatively with activity modification and specific exercises. If the athlete fails to respond to nonoperative treatment after 6 months to 1 year, they are candidates for surgical intervention. Medial epicondylitis is characterised by pain and tenderness at the flexor-pronator tendinous origin with pathology commonly being located at the interface between the pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis origin. Golfers and tennis players often develop this condition because of the repetitive valgus stress placed on the medial elbow soft tissues. Careful evaluation is important to differentiate medial epicondylitis from other causes of medial elbow pain. As with lateral epicondylitis, patients with medial epicondylitis not responding to an extensive nonoperative programme are candidates for surgical intervention. A less common cause of medial elbow pain is medial ulnar collateral ligament injury. Repetitive valgus stress placed on the joint can lead to microtraumatic injury and valgus instability. When the medial ulnar collateral ligament is disrupted, abnormal stress is placed on the articular surfaces that can lead to degenerative changes with osteophyte formation. As with other elbow injuries, a strict rehabilitation regimen is first employed; ligament reconstruction is only recommended if the injury fails to improve and only in athletes requiring a high level of performance. Excessive valgus stress can also lead to posteromedial olecranon impingement on the olecranon fossa producing pain, osteophyte and loose body formation. Arthroscopic elbow debridement can often be helpful in improving motion and in reducing pain in such patients. PMID:9802175

  5. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Meningioma: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    SHIBUYA, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. Although the spectrum of clinical and molecular genetic issues regarding meningiomas remains undefined, novel genetic alterations that are associated with tumor morphology, malignancy, or location have recently been discovered. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the heterogenous pathology of meningiomas, particularly on associations between the clinical, histological, etiological, epidemiological, and molecular genetical aspects of the neoplasm. PMID:25744347

  6. Signaling pathways in melanosome biogenesis and pathology.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-07-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over 100 genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  7. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  8. From the radiologic pathology archives imaging of osteonecrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Foreman, Kristopher L; Klassen-Fischer, Mary K; Fox, Michael G; Chung, Ellen M; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is common and represents loss of blood supply to a region of bone. Common sites affected include the femoral head, humeral head, knee, femoral/tibial metadiaphysis, scaphoid, lunate, and talus. Symptomatic femoral head osteonecrosis accounts for 10,000-20,000 new cases annually in the United States. In contradistinction, metadiaphyseal osteonecrosis is often occult and asymptomatic. There are numerous causes of osteonecrosis most commonly related to trauma, corticosteroids, and idiopathic. Imaging of osteonecrosis is frequently diagnostic with a serpentine rim of sclerosis on radiographs, photopenia in early disease at bone scintigraphy, and maintained yellow marrow at MR imaging with a serpentine rim of high signal intensity (double-line sign) on images obtained with long repetition time sequences. These radiologic features correspond to the underlying pathology of osseous response to wall off the osteonecrotic process and attempts at repair with vascularized granulation tissue at the reactive interface. The long-term clinical importance of epiphyseal osteonecrosis is almost exclusively based on the likelihood of overlying articular collapse. MR imaging is generally considered the most sensitive and specific imaging modality both for early diagnosis and identifying features that increase the possibility of this complication. Treatment subsequent to articular collapse and development of secondary osteoarthritis typically requires reconstructive surgery. Malignant transformation of osteonecrosis is rare and almost exclusively associated with metadiaphyseal lesions. Imaging features of this dire sequela include aggressive bone destruction about the lesion margin, cortical involvement, and an associated soft-tissue mass. Recognizing the appearance of osteonecrosis, which reflects the underlying pathology, improves radiologic assessment and is important to guide optimal patient management. PMID:25019438

  9. The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parham, D M; Coleman, D; Kodikara, S; Moss, S; Ellis, I O; Al-sam, S; Anderson, N; Bobrow, L; Buley, I; Connolly, C E; Dallimore, N S; Hales, S; Hanby, A; Humphreys, S; Knox, F; Lowe, J; Macartney, J; Nash, R; Patnick, J; Pinder, S E; Quinn, C M; Robertson, A J; Shrimankar, J; Walker, R A; Wells, C; Winder, R; Patel, N

    2006-01-01

    Background The original role of the National Health Service breast screening programme (pathology) external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was educational; it aimed to raise standards, reinforce use of common terminology, and assess the consistency of pathology reporting of breast disease in the UK. Aims/Methods To examine the performance (scores) of pathologists participating in the scheme in recent years. The scheme has evolved to help identify poor performers, reliant upon setting an acceptable cutpoint. Therefore, the effects of different cutpoint strategies were evaluated and implications discussed. Results/Conclusions Pathologists who joined the scheme improved over time, particularly those who did less well initially. There was no obvious association between performance and the number of breast cancer cases reported each year. This is not unexpected because the EQA does not measure expertise, but was established to demonstrate a common level of performance (conformity to consensus) for routine cases, rather than the ability to diagnose unusual/difficult cases. A new method of establishing cutpoints using interquartile ranges is proposed. The findings also suggest that EQA can alter a pathologist's practice: those who leave the scheme (for whatever reason) have, on average, marginally lower scores. Consequently, with the cutpoint methodology currently used (which is common to several EQA schemes) there is the potential for the cutpoint to drift upwards. In future, individuals previously deemed competent could subsequently be erroneously labelled as poor performers. Due consideration should be given to this issue with future development of schemes. PMID:16443726

  10. Training Pathologists in Mouse Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Ward, Jerrold M.; HogenEsch, Harm; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Treuting, Piper M.; Macauley, John B.; Schofield, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology), primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today’s research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through “apprenticeships” in formal programs, these are often heavily service-related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889

  11. 100 years of Lewy pathology.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, α-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which α-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

  12. Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C. W.; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ≥85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-β and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and α-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28–5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-β accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88–7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12–12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14–19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or α-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged ≥85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. PMID:23983028

  13. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  14. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  15. Nutritional characteristics, eating pathology, and hormonal status in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Gorenflo, D W; Drewnowski, A; Demitrack, M A

    1996-10-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is common in patients with eating disorders. However, many women engage in pathologic dieting behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathologic eating attitudes and behaviors that are present in many young women. Specific food choices and nutrient intakes may be associated with altered gonadal hormone status of these dieters. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the nutritional characteristics of college-aged women defined by their eating attitudes and behaviors with a previously described questionnaire. We evaluated dietary intake, body composition, and selected biochemical indicators in 76 undergraduate women. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, lipids, and carotenoids were measured on days 6, 21, and 28 of one menstrual cycle. Dietary assessment was based on food records at two 3-d intervals during the cycle. Ovulatory status was definitively determined on the basis of biochemical data for 46 of the women. Increased degree of pathologic dieting was associated with a significantly lower intake of dietary fat (P < 0.02), despite similar mean body mass index and body composition across the eating pathology groups. Serum concentration of alpha-carotene was significantly greater (P < 0.005) in association with a greater degree of eating pathology. With ovulation as a between-group factor, serum lutein concentration and dietary intake of energy and fat differed significantly between groups (P < 0.003). Nutritional characteristics associated with pathologic dieting behavior may also be associated with menstrual irregularities in young women. PMID:8839501

  16. Children's views of communication and speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Rosalind; Roulstone, Sue

    2011-08-01

    Children have the right to express their views and influence decisions in matters that affect them. Yet decisions regarding speech-language pathology are often made on their behalf, and research into the perspectives of children who receive speech-language pathology intervention is currently limited. This paper reports a qualitative study which explored experiences of communication and of speech-language pathology from the perspectives of children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). The aim was to explore their perspectives of communication, communication impairment, and assistance. Eleven school-children participated in the study, aged between 7-10 years. They were recruited through a speech-language pathology service in south west England, to include a range of ages and severity of difficulties. The study used open-ended interviews within which non-verbal activities such as drawing, taking photographs, and compiling a scrapbook were used to create a context for supported conversations. Findings were analysed according to the principles of grounded theory. Three ways of talking about communication emerged. These were in terms of impairment, learning, and behaviour. Findings offer insight into dialogue between children with SLCN and adults; the way communication is talked about has implications for children's view of themselves, their skills, and their participation. PMID:21793773

  17. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Oncology Melanoma/Skin Cancer Neuro-Oncology Nursing/Oncology Nutrition Other Pain & Symptom Mgmnt Palliative Care/End of Life Pathology Pediatric Cancers Pharmacy/Oncology Physician-Patient Communication Psychosocial Issues/Psychiatry ...

  18. Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions.

    PubMed

    Wells, C A; El-Ayat, G A

    2007-12-01

    Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25. It is so common that many people regard it as a normal component of the breast. This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands. The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different breast lesions, some of which are very taxing diagnostically; apocrine variants of both in-situ and invasive cancer are encountered. This review considers the common apocrine metaplastic lesions seen in fibrocystic change as well as apocrine adenoma, apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis, atypical apocrine lesions and apocrine malignancies. PMID:18042688

  19. Pathologic Characteristics of Transplanted Kidney Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Robson, Simon C.; Sachs, David H.; Colvin, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    For xenotransplantation to become a clinical reality, we need to better understand the mechanisms of graft rejection or acceptance. We examined pathologic changes in α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pig kidneys transplanted into baboons that were treated with a protocol designed to induce immunotolerance through thymic transplantation (n=4) or were treated with long-term immunosuppressants (n=3). Hyperacute rejection did not occur in α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout kidney xenografts. By 34 days, acute humoral rejection led to xenograft loss in all three xenografts in the long-term immunosuppression group. The failing grafts exhibited thrombotic microangiopathic glomerulopathy with multiple platelet-fibrin microthrombi, focal interstitial hemorrhage, and acute cellular xenograft rejection. Damaged glomeruli showed IgM, IgG, C4d, and C5b-9 deposition. They also demonstrated endothelial cell death, diffuse endothelial procoagulant activation with high expression of tissue factor and vWF, and low expression of the ectonucleotidase CD39. In contrast, in the immunotolerance group, two of four grafts had normal graft function and no pathologic findings of acute or chronic rejection at 56 and 83 days. One of the remaining kidneys had mild but transient graft dysfunction with reversible, mild microangiopathic glomerulopathy, probably associated with preformed antibodies. The other kidney in the immunotolerance group developed unstable graft function at 81 days and developed chronic xenograft glomerulopathy. In summary, the success of pig-to-primate xenotransplantation may necessitate immune tolerance to inhibit acute humoral and cellular xenograft rejection. PMID:22114174

  20. Clinical and Pathological Heterogeneity of Korean Patients with CAPN3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Jun; Jang, Hoon; Lee, Jung Hwan; Shin, Ha Young; Cho, Sung-Rae; Park, Kee Duk; Bang, Duhee; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the characteristics of Korean patients with calpainopathy. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients from ten unrelated families were diagnosed with calpainopathy via direct or targeted sequencing of the CAPN3 gene. Clinical, mutational, and pathological spectra were then analyzed. Results Nine different mutations, including four novel mutations (NM_000070: c.1524+1G>T, c.1789_1790inA, c.2184+1G>T, and c.2384C>T) were identified. The median age at symptom onset was 22 (interquartile range: 15-28). Common clinical findings were joint contracture in nine patients, winged scapula in four, and lordosis in one. However, we also found highly variable clinical features including early onset joint contractures, asymptomatic hyperCKemia, and heterogeneous clinical severity in three members of the same family. Four of nine muscle specimens revealed lobulated fibers, but three showed normal skeletal muscle histology. Conclusion We identified four novel CAPN3 mutations and demonstrated clinical and pathological heterogeneity in Korean patients with calpainopathy. PMID:26632398