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1

Finding Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of common denominators by relating visual models to numbers. Students learn the value of multiplying a fraction by a fraction with a value of 1. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

2

Typical findings in pathological grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients exhibiting pathological grief reactions are those in the middle portion of a spectrum between those on one end with “normal” grief and those on the other end who suffer from full-blown neurosis, psychosomatic symptoms, etc., which are directly related to aknown loss. After examining 23 cases, the author suggests that patients who suffer from pathological grief share a

Vamik Volkan

1970-01-01

3

Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.  

PubMed

Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. PMID:23210582

Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina; Slaughter, Richard

2012-12-01

4

Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

Gaitini, Diana

2012-01-01

5

Progressive supranuclear palsy: MRI and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose was to investigate brain atrophy and signal intensity changes on MRI in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to correlate them with pathological features. We reviewed MRI and brain specimens of six patients with PSP, nine with Parkinson's disease (PD) and six with striatonigral degeneration (SND). Sagittal T1-weighted images showed that four patients with PSP had obvious

A. Yagishita; M. Oda

1996-01-01

6

Pathological gambling and the structure of common mental disorders.  

PubMed

This study investigated a proposed three-factor model of common mental disorders in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093). It also evaluated the inclusion of pathological gambling (PG) in the three-factor model to determine whether PG loaded more strongly on a higher-order externalizing factor comprised of alcohol and drug dependence and antisocial personality disorder. The results indicated the three-factor model showed good fit to the NESARC data. PG loaded onto the externalizing factor for men and women, but in women, PG showed the best fit when it was allowed to load on the externalizing factor as well as a lower-order internalizing factor of anxious-misery composed primarily of mood disorders. Findings emphasize the need to investigate the differences in the nature of PG behavior between men and women. PMID:22134454

Oleski, Janine; Cox, Brian J; Clara, Ian; Hills, Amber

2011-12-01

7

Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

2006-01-15

8

Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

2006-01-15

9

Finding common structured patterns in linear graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear graph is a graph whose vertices are linearly ordered. This linear ordering allows pairs of disjoint edges to be either preceding (<), nesting (?) or crossing (?). Given a family of linear graphs, and a non-empty subset R?{,?,?}, we are interested in the Maximum Common Structured Pattern (MCSP) problem: find a maximum size edge-disjoint graph, with edge pairs

Guillaume Fertin; Danny Hermelin; Romeo Rizzi; Stéphane Vialette

2010-01-01

10

Epithelioid sarcoma: clinical, MR imaging and pathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To report and describe the MR imaging features of eight new cases of this rare soft tissue sarcoma and correlate them with the clinical and histologic findings. Design and patients. Retrospective analysis was carried out for the MR imaging characteristics and histologic findings of eight patients with pathologically proven epithelioid sarcoma and the literature was reviewed. Findings were correlated

S. Hanna; S. Kaste; J. Jenkins; K. Hewan-Lowe; J. Spence; M. Gupta; D. Monson; B. Fletcher

2002-01-01

11

Finding lowest common ancestors in parallel  

SciTech Connect

Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)/p) log/sub 2/n) and O(n/sup 2//p + log/sub 2/n) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results are better than the best known result in that the first achieves the O(log/sub 2/n) time bound with only n + absolute value of Q processors which the second reduces the number of processors used by a factor of log/sub 2/n which is optimal for large query sets when 0 < p less than or equal to n/sup 2//log/sub 2/n. The computer model the authors use here is the PRAM which is an SIMD model allowing read but not write conflicts. The results also imply the following improvements: the processor bound for finding a set of fundamental cycles in an undirected graph is improved by a factor of log/sub 2/n and the result is optimal for dense graphs; the implementations of some other sequential and parallel algorithms are also simplified.

Tsin, Y.H.

1986-08-01

12

["The athlete's heart": most common electrocardiographic findings].  

PubMed

The morphological and functional cardiac adaptations induced by physical training may be reflected in several athlete's electrocardiographic variants. Rhythm and heart rate disturbances are the most common findings, and sinus bradycardia is the most frequent adaptation. Non-specific intraventricular conduction delay and incomplete right bundle branch block are also frequent, but other bundle branch and fascicular blocks are extremely rare. While the atrioventricular conduction may be prolonged, the occurrence of first degree and type I second degree atrioventricular blocks depends on the individual's susceptibility. Advanced second and third degree atrioventricular blocks are exceptional, and when present, the possibility of underlying heart disease must be excluded. High QRS voltage is more frequent in male athletes, but its correlation with left ventricular hypertrophy is low. The ST segment elevation in the so called "early repolarization" pattern is typical of the athlete's electrocardiogram. Vagotonic or high T wave voltages and U waves are also frequent when sinus bradycardia is present. Tachyarrhythmias and increased automatism arrhythmias are rare and usually benign. The increased vagal tone is responsible for the suppression of the physiological and ectopic pacemakers. While Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome per se does not exclude an athlete from sports activity, the risk of a sudden death makes it mandatory to perform an exhaustive cardiac evaluation. We may conclude that no sport can be considered arrhythmogenic or as a predisposing factor for malignant ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:9644959

Boraita Pérez, A; Serratosa Fernández, L

1998-05-01

13

Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, findings of biobehavioral research into pathological gambling (PG) are discussed, focusing on neuropsychological, psychophysiological, neuroimaging, neurochemical and genetic studies. Neuropsychological studies indicate deficiencies in certain executive functions. Psychophysiological studies indicate that arousal in PG is of importance when reward is present. Neuroimaging studies point to abnormalities in brain functioning. Recent research into the neurochemistry of PG indicates

Anna E Goudriaan; Jaap Oosterlaan; Edwin de Beurs; Wim Van den Brink

2004-01-01

14

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to\\u000a correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients\\u000a with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT\\u000a and MR imaging

F. Laurent; J. C. Philippe; B. Vergier; B. Granger-Veron; B. Darpeix; J. Vergeret; P. Blanc; J. F. Velly

1999-01-01

15

Comparison of Autofluorescence Imaging Endoscopic Findings with Pathologic Findings after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Gastric Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims All epithelial cells emit autofluoresce, with tumor cells emitting weaker autofluorescence. We categorized patterns of autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and compared their clinical characteristics and pathology findings after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Methods Twenty patients were enrolled, comprising 4 adenomas and 16 early gastric cancers. AFI findings were classified as follows: G0 (well-defined pink lesion on a green background with a clear interface over ?50% of its area), G1 (pink-green mottled lesion on a green background with a clear interface over <50% of its area), P1 (pink-green mottled lesion on a purple background with a clear interface over <50% of its area), and P2 (vague lesion on a purple background with a clear interface over ?10% of its area). Results Most of the patients (80%) were male, and their median age was 62.4 years (range: 46-78 years). The lesion sizes by white-light mode, AFI mode, and pathology were 20.8±13.1, 22.8±15.4, and 20.0±17.7 mm (mean±SD), respectively. Sixteen cases of adenocarcinoma were classified as follows: G0 (n=10), G1 (n=2), P1 (n=2), and P2 (n=2). The G0 group has no p53 positive lesions, unlike the non-G0 group (p=0.044). All cases with the P1 and P2 patterns were of the gastric and intestinal types, respectively. Conclusions AFI images of gastric tumors were categorized into four patterns that were useful for defining the resection margin in 87.5% of cases, with G0 being the most common pattern (62.5%).

Kim, Wan Jung; Jeong, Soung Won; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Ik Sung; Ham, Jeung Ho; Lee, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Lee, Joon Seong; Jin, So Young

2008-01-01

16

[Haemangioblastomas: clinical, epidemiological and pathological findings in 14 cases].  

PubMed

We report the clinical, epidemiological and pathological findings of 14 patients with haemangioblastoma. Sixty-four percent occurred in males, with ages ranging from 16 to 60 years, with an average of 34, 4 years. Most of the tumours were confined to the cerebellum (n=9). The most frequent symptoms were headache (n=7) and dizziness (n=7), with a mean duration of 70 days. Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (vHL) was diagnosed in 3 patients. Eleven patients were submitted to total surgical removal and in 3 the tumour was partially resected. A relapse rate of 28% in 3 years of follow-up was found. The patients with vHL showed recurrence in 66% of the cases. These findings corroborate those in current medical literature, showing an increased morbidity of this tumor when associated with vHL. PMID:10849633

Gasparetto, E L; Faoro, L N; Reis Filho, J S; Torres, L F

2000-06-01

17

[Pathology along the liver sinusoids: endothelial and perisinusoidal findings].  

PubMed

Sinusoidal alterations unrelated to primary hepatocellular damage present without characteristic clinical findings and in these cases the liver biopsy is particularly important. Capillarization of sinusoids is characterized by closing of fenestration, formation of a basal membrane and by the expression of CD34 and is typical for active cirrhosis. In nodular regeneratory hyperplasia, capillarization indicates a local or general disturbance of perfusion. In large regenerative nodules, focal nodular hyperplasia and liver cell adenoma CD34-positive capillaries reflect afferent parts and CD34-negative sinusoids the efferent parts of the parenchymal vascular bed. HCC generally have a completely capillarized CD34-positive vascular bed. Hepatic angiosarcomas and epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas can be easily overseen in liver biopsies, if they spread along the sinusoids without detoriation of the acinar architecture and without significant alteration of the surrounding liver cell plates. Toxic damage of endothelial cells, post-sinusoidal stasis and sinusoidal hyperperfusion are the underlying pathogenetic principles of sinusoidal injury. Rupture and loss of the perisinusoidal reticulin fibres lead to peliosis hepatis. In these cases liver biopsy might disclose occlusion of the terminal liver veins (VOD). Perisinusoidal fibrosis can be caused by intrasinusoidal accumulation of pathologic cells, advanced intrasinusoidal macrophagocytic storage diseases and by activation of the vitamin A-storing hepatic stellate cells. Perisinusoidal amyloidosis can be the first sign of an underlying B-cell neoplasia. PMID:18210108

Fischer, H-P; Flucke, U; Zhou, H

2008-02-01

18

Spinal Cord Decompression Sickness: A Review of the Pathology and Some New Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews the pathological changes reported in spinal cord decompression sickness and describes the major theories of the aetiology of the disease process supported by the pathological changes reported. Recently reported findings are included w...

J. J. Sykes

1985-01-01

19

Encapsulated hepatocellular carcinoma: Radiologic findings and pathologic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encapsulated form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a pathologic subtype that has been found to occur with variable frequency in typical HCC in Japanese radiological, surgical, and autopsy series. It is a well-differentiated tumor that tends to grow slowly and noninvasively, and has a better prognosis than other gross forms of HCC.

Pablo R. Ros; Brian J. Murphy; James L. Buck; Gabriel Olmedilla; Zachary Goodman

1990-01-01

20

Progressive biliary pathology associated with common pancreato-biliary channel.  

PubMed

A female infant who presented with transient obstructive jaundice and who was shown to have mild fusiform dilatation of the common bile duct at the age of 18 months was followed up with hepatobiliary ultrasound scans over a period of 17 years. Enlarging gallbladder polyps were identified during the last 2 years of follow-up, and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) showed a common pancreato-biliary channel with minimal bile duct dilatation. A high concentration of pancreatic amylase was detected in the bile. Hepaticojejunostomy and cholecystectomy were performed. Histologically, the resected common bile duct showed fibrous thickening of the wall and loss of surface epithelium. Muscular hypertrophy and polypoid lesions, which were foci of cholesterosis, were identified in the gallbladder. There was a minimal lymphocytic infiltrate in the subepithelial connective tissue. This report documents a progressive change in the ultrasound appearances of the gallbladder and histological changes in the extrahepatic ducts secondary to a common pancreato-biliary channel and pancreato-biliary reflux. PMID:10770409

Pushparani, P; Redkar, R G; Howard, E R

2000-04-01

21

Pathology of Common Murres and Cassin's Auklets exposed to oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathology of diving seabirds exposed to oil is described. Cassins Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) were experimentally exposed to weathered Santa Barbara Channel (CA) crude oil by external application to the breast plumage or wings. Beached Common Murres (Uria aalge) were recovered from an accidental oil spill of bunker C fuel oil. Exposed birds exhibited hepatocellular dissociation and hemosiderosis, renal tubular

D. Michael Fry; Linda J. Lowenstine

1985-01-01

22

Peripancreatic intranodal haemangioma mimicking pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: imaging and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

Haemangiomas are common benign tumours that are generally detected within the skin, mucosal surfaces and soft tissues. However, intranodal haemangiomas are extremely rare and are among the benign primary vascular abnormalities of the lymph nodes that include lymphangioma, haemangioendothelioma, angiomyomatous hamartoma and haemangiomas. In this case report, we present the imaging and pathological findings of an intranodal haemangioma in the pancreatic head simulating a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intranodal haemangioma in this location.

Karaosmanoglu, A D; Arellano, R; Baker, G

2011-01-01

23

Peripapillary detachment in pathologic myopia: Unusual OCT findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To report an unusual case of myopic peripapillary retinal detachment (PPRD) imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Observational case report. Results: OCT showed a nonreflective space between the retinal pigment epithelium and the neurosensory retina with the presence of bridging tissue that could be defined as an outer retinal schisis, which is not typical of myopic PPRD. Conclusion: This case suggests that the spectrum of PPRD in pathological myopia may extend beyond that already described.

Carbonelli, Michele; Savini, Giacomo; Zanini, Maurizio; Barboni, Piero

2007-01-01

24

Severe mitral regurgitation in horses: clinical, echocardiographic and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Forty-three horses with mitral regurgitation (MR) and congestive heart failure were examined, using M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time and Doppler echocardiography. There was no breed or sex predisposition when compared to the general hospital population. The mean +/- s.d. age of affected horses was 7.6 +/- 8.1 years. Horses with MR and congestive heart failure had significant increases in mean values for left ventricular chamber size, left atrial size and heart rate and significant decreases in interventricular septal and left ventricular free wall thickness. Significant increases in pulmonary artery diameter were detected compared to aortic diameter. Mean values for fractional shortening were not significantly different from normal. All horses had a Grade 3-6/6 holosystolic or pansystolic murmur with its point of maximal intensity in the mitral to aortic valve area. Atrial fibrillation was found at presentation in 24 horses with MR and congestive heart failure. One horse presented with atrial tachycardia and subsequently developed atrial fibrillation. Seven horses had ventricular premature contractions. Exercise intolerance (n = 34), respiratory signs (n = 31), and fever (n = 21) were the most common presenting signs. Thickening of the left atrioventricular valve leaflets, endocarditis, flail valve leaflets, rupture of a chorda tendineae, and mitral valve prolapse were detected echocardiographically. Doppler echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large systolic regurgitant jet in the left atrium in all horses in which it was used, and in many horses, concurrent tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation was detected. All horses died or were subjected to euthanasia due to the severity of their MR and/or lack of response to therapy. Post mortem examinations were performed in 35 horses and confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The echocardiographic detection of a flail mitral valve leaflet was significantly associated with the detection of a ruptured chorda tendineae at post mortem examination. There was a significant association between echocardiographic detection of a dilated pulmonary artery and its presence at post mortem examination. M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time, and Doppler echocardiography should be used to accurately characterise the valvular abnormalities and assess the severity of mitral regurgitation. Pulmonary artery dilatation, an echocardiographic indication of severe pulmonary hypertension, should be considered a grave prognostic indicator and may indicate impending pulmonary artery rupture. PMID:9458395

Reef, V B; Bain, F T; Spencer, P A

1998-01-01

25

Primary solid pancreatic tumors: recent imaging findings updates with pathology correlation.  

PubMed

The imaging findings of primary solid pancreatic tumors have long been studied and are generally well-established. However, interestingly enough, a wealth of new information has recently appeared in the literature, including the imaging findings of novel or previously seldom-addressed pathological entities as well as atypical imaging findings of common tumors, both of which are well-correlated with the pathology findings. 5 %-14 % of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas have been reported on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography to be isoattenuating, and thus making the imaging diagnosis challenging. The imaging-pathology correlation in such isoattenuating tumors is presented along with a discussion regarding the early imaging detection of pancreatic cancers. Colloid (or mucinous non-cystic) pancreatic cancer may resemble a less harmful cystic lesion due to its abundant extracellular mucin, and thus requiring caution in the image interpretation. Serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors have recently been recognized as a separate entity from usual neuroendocrine tumors. Exuberant fibrosis caused by serotonin metabolites and scarce tumor cells creates a unique pattern of pancreatic ductal obstruction seen on imaging. Small solid pseudopapillary tumors appear as unencapsulated, completely solid lesions with gradually increasing enhancement after contrast administration, unlike typical solid pseudopapillary neoplasms that present as a large mixed solid and degenerated cystic or hemorrhagic mass encapsulated by a thick capsule and which, therefore, tend to be misdiagnosed on imaging. Solid serous adenoma is a rare, solid variant of serous cystadenoma and appears on imaging as a hypervascular, solid nodule due to its genuinely microscopic cystic, alveolar, and ectatic tubular tumor architecture. PMID:23640523

Kim, So Yeon; Park, Seong Ho; Hong, Nurhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Seung-Mo

2013-10-01

26

Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has\\u000a a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of

Larry A. Binkovitz; Emily A. Lorenz; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samir Kahwash

2010-01-01

27

Pathological findings in dogs after multiple Africanized bee stings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study included 19 dogs that died by intoxication due to multiple Africanized bee stings. Bee accidents occurred in rural and urban areas of the Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Although bee stings were associated with edema and hyperemia in several regions of the body, head and neck were the most commonly and massively affected areas. Stingers

Eduardo C. Oliveira; Pedro M. O. Pedroso; Adriana E. W. B. Meirelles; Caroline A. Pescador; Aline S. Gouvêa; David Driemeier

2007-01-01

28

Spinal muscular atrophy: new findings for an old pathology.  

PubMed

Understanding the events that are responsible for a disease is mandatory for setting up a therapeutic strategy. Although spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is considered a rare neurodegenerative pathology, its impact in our society is really devastating as it strikes young people from birth onward, and it affects their families either emotionally or financially. Moreover, it requires intensive care for the children, and this diverts both parents and relatives from their occupations. Each neuron is very different from one another; therefore, in a neurodegenerative disease, the population of axons, synapses and cell bodies degenerate asynchronously, and subpopulations of neurons have different vulnerabilities. The knowledge of the sequence of events along the lengths of individual neurons is crucial to understand if each synapse degenerates before the corresponding axon, or if each axon degenerates before the corresponding cell body. Early degeneration of one neuronal compartment in disease often reflects molecular defects somewhere else. Up until now, SMA is considered mostly a lower motor neuron disease caused by the loss-of-function mutations in the SMN1 gene; here, we inspect other features that can be altered by this defect, such as the cross talk between muscle and motor neuron and the role of physical inactivity. PMID:23750936

Bottai, Daniele; Adami, Raffaella

2013-06-28

29

[Osteochondrodysplasias. Prenatal diagnosis and pathological-anatomic findings].  

PubMed

Prenatal sonographic investigations were applied for malformations to 7,194 foetuses, between October 1985 and April 1992, with 28 cases of osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and one case of dysostosis being dissected. Included were 20 cases of lethal osteochondrodysplasia, among them two cases of lethal hypophosphatasia, five cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case each of Type II shortrib (polydactyly) syndrome (VERMA-NAUMOFF) and metatropic dysplasia, three cases of campomelic dysplasia and eight cases of Type II A imperfect osteogenesis. Also observed were eight cases of nonlethal OCD, among them three cases of diastrophic dysplasia and five of achondroplasia. Dysostosis was recorded from one case and was diagnosed as Type V acrocephalosyndactyly (Pfeiffer). Identification of a specific OCD proved to be difficult in the second or third trimenon. Hence, the form of OCD was prenatally diagnosed only in ten of all cases investigated. Tentative diagnosis was first established from the postmortem radiograph. Additional malformations and other abnormalities then were detected by complementary pathologico-anatomic processing of findings. The final diagnosis was derived from radiological, pathologico-anatomic and histological findings. Diagnosis of this constitutional osteopathy is quite difficult and calls for interdisciplinary cooperation between gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatric surgeons, radiologists, geneticists and pathologists. More effective counselling of affected families is the major purpose of all the efforts involved. PMID:8499423

Tennstedt, C; Bartho, S; Bollmann, R; Schwenke, A; Nitz, I; Rothe, K

1993-03-01

30

Clinical and pathological findings of severe subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral dysplasia in a rottweiler puppy.  

PubMed

Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) and mitral dysplasia were diagnosed in an asymptomatic eight-week-old rottweiler. Clinical and pathological findings were compatible with a fixed and dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Gross and microscopic pathological findings were consistent with the most severe form of SAS, described previously in Newfoundland dogs over six months of age. These observations demonstrate that very young asymptomatic puppies may suffer a severe complex form of SAS. PMID:9816571

Fernández del Palacio, M J; Bayón, A; Bernal, L J; Cerón, J J; Navarro, J A

1998-10-01

31

Pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of the pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons was performed on specimens submitted to 2 reference laboratories from 1994 to 2012 to determine the range and occurrence of diseases affecting aquarium-held populations. One hundred two and 94 total diagnoses were recorded in weedy and leafy seadragons, respectively. Two of the more common etiologic diagnoses in both species were mycobacteriosis and scuticociliatosis, whereas myxozoanosis was common in weedy seadragons. Metazoan parasite infections were less common etiologic diagnoses. There were no correlations between mycobacteriosis and ciliate protozoan infections in either species. Myxozoanosis was usually found in combination with other diseases and, except for 1 case, was restricted to weedy seadragons. Phaeohyphomycosis, nonmycobacterial bacterial infections, and trauma were also important but less frequent diagnoses. Intestinal coccidiosis was found in weedy but not leafy seadragons. Mineralization of the swim bladder was detected in 26 of 197 leafy seadragons and only 2 of 257 weedy seadragons. Although weedy and leafy seadragons share certain diseases of significance to exhibit populations, there are diseases unique to each species about which the veterinary pathologist, clinician, or diagnostician should be aware. PMID:23528940

Bonar, C J; Garner, M M; Weber, E S; Keller, C J; Murray, M; Adams, L M; Frasca, S

2013-03-25

32

Pathological findings in three non-japanese patients with the POEMS syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological features of three European patients with plasma cell dyscrasia, osteosclerosis and a multisystem disorder, most frequent in Japan, that includes polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein anti skin changes (POEMS syndrome), are reported. The material was obtained from biopsies (peroneal nerve, lymph node) and general autopsy, including hypophysis, in one case. The most salient findings were: peripheral nerve lesions, including

R. Gherardi; M. Baudrimont; M. Kujas; D. Malapert; F. Lange; F. Gray; J. Poirier

1988-01-01

33

Autism or autisms? Finding the lowest common denominator.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest the presence of a minicolumnopathy in autism. Minicolumnar abnormalities as well as certain migratory and proliferative defects, common to autism, may be rooted in the general mechanics of periventricular germinal cell division and maturation. Increased numbers of periventricular germinal cell/radial glia can be mimicked by a variety of different transgenic mouse models and environmental factors. These murine models and environmental factors illustrate how a fairly homogenous neuroanatomical phenotype can diverge at the genetic level. By first defining the lowest common denominator (i.e., the minicolumn) and then examining which pathways are vulnerable to involved genetic and environmental factors, we may gain a greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Autism Spectrum Conditions. PMID:21766543

Williams, Emily L; Casanova, Manuel F

34

Homepage Finding and Topic Distillation Using a Common Retrieval Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the TREC-2002 web track the University of Melbourne experimented with a system designed primarily for topic relevance tasks, and applied i t directly to the homepage finding and topic distillation tasks. Our intention was to process queries re gardless of their classification, as discriminating information may be unavailable in practice. An integer-valued weighting scheme reported in earlier work was

Vo Ngoc Anh; Alistair Moffat

2002-01-01

35

Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

2007-01-01

36

Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)|

Tonner, Carol

1992-01-01

37

Halitosis--a common medical and social problem. A review on pathology, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Bad breath is a condition that has health and social implications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the classification of halitosis, it's etiology, it's prevalence, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the condition. Halitosis is affecting about 25-30% of world's population. It includes categories of genuine halitosis, pseudo-halitosis and halitophobia. It is believed that in 80-90% of cases halitosis origins in the oral cavity and the most common causes are: gingival pathologies, caries and poor oral hygiene. Extraoral sources of halitosis are responsible for 10-20% of all cases and are caused by poor diet, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, certain drugs and diseases of other parts of digestive tract as well as some systemic conditions. Diagnostics of halitosis includes subjective methods (examiner's sense of smell) and objective methods (instrumental analysis). Simple, subjective examination is considered a "golden standard" in clinical practice. In case of pathological halitosis identifying the direct cause of halitosis is essential. After excluding, or after successful treatment, of all oral pathologies, in case of remaining fetor ex ore identification and treatment of halitosis often requires multidisciplinary approach. Many unknowns remain in causes and mechanisms of halitosis. It can significantly impair quality of life, social interactions, lead directly to depression,low self-esteem or other mood disorders, therefore it is important to properly identify, treat and continue research on halitosis. PMID:23082699

Zalewska, A; Zato?ski, M; Jab?onka-Strom, A; Paradowska, A; Kawala, B; Litwin, A

2012-09-01

38

Systemic fatal type II coronavirus infection in a dog: Pathological findings and immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fatal systemic coronavirus infection is described in a 53-day-old Pekinese dog. Pathological findings and immunohistochemical identification using a monoclonal anti-canine Coronavirus antibody are included. Visceral lesions consisted of extensive fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia, multiple renal cortical infarcts, severe coalescing centrilobular hepatic fatty change with minimal random hepatic necrosis, and multifocal splenic haemorrhage with lymphoid depletion. Moderate chronic diffuse enteritis

V. Zappulli; D. Caliari; L. Cavicchioli; A. Tinelli; M. Castagnaro

2008-01-01

39

Fetal Musculoskeletal Malformations with a Poor Outcome: Ultrasonographic, Pathologic, and Radiographic Findings  

PubMed Central

The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article.

Lee, Soo-Hyun; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee-Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

2002-01-01

40

Finding discriminating structural features by reassembling common building blocks.  

PubMed

We present a new method for constructing discriminating substructures by reassembling common medicinal chemistry building blocks. The algorithm can be parametrized to meet differing objectives: (1) to build features that discriminate for biological activity in a local structural neighborhood, (2) to build scaffolds for R-group analysis, (3) to construct cluster signatures that discriminate for membership in the cluster and provide a graphical representation for its members, and (4) to identify substructures that characterize major classes in a heterogeneous compound set. We illustrated the results of the algorithm on a literature dataset is of 118 compounds with in vitro inhibition data against recombinant human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B). PMID:14561096

Cross, Kevin P; Myatt, Glenn; Yang, Chihae; Fligner, Michael A; Verducci, Joseph S; Blower, Paul E

2003-10-23

41

Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor  

PubMed Central

Background Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown. Case We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth. Conclusion Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome.

Chehade, Cynthia; Awwad, Johnny; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Wakim, Rima; Tfayli, Hala; Farra, Chantal

2013-01-01

42

The pre-metastatic niche: finding common ground.  

PubMed

It is rapidly becoming evident that the formation of tumor-promoting pre-metastatic niches in secondary organs adds a previously unrecognized degree of complexity to the challenge of curing metastatic disease. Primary tumor cells orchestrate pre-metastatic niche formation through secretion of a variety of cytokines and growth factors that promote mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to future metastatic sites. Hypoxia within the primary tumor, and secretion of specific microvesicles termed exosomes, are emerging as important processes and vehicles for tumor-derived factors to modulate pre-metastatic sites. It has also come to light that reduced immune surveillance is a novel mechanism through which primary tumors create favorable niches in secondary organs. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of underlying mechanisms of pre-metastatic niche formation and highlights the common links as well as discrepancies between independent studies. Furthermore, the possible clinical implications, links to metastatic persistence and dormancy, and novel approaches for treatment of metastatic disease through reversal of pre-metastatic niche formation are identified and explored. PMID:23636348

Sceneay, Jaclyn; Smyth, Mark J; Möller, Andreas

2013-05-01

43

Disseminated mucormycosis in haematological patients: CT and MRI findings with pathological correlation.  

PubMed

Disseminated mucormycosis is a rare, mostly fatal infectious complication in immunocompromised haematological patients. The purpose of our study was to describe the multiorgan manifestations of disseminated mucormycosis documented at CT and MRI in four patients and correlate these with the pathological findings and patient outcome. Irrespective of the site of infection, infarction or haemorrhage are the constant features of invasive mycosis. Identification of one or both of these two major imaging findings in immunocompromised patients should be regarded as an indicator of possible infection by angiotropic fungi, including the genre Mucorales. PMID:16940368

Horger, M; Hebart, H; Schimmel, H; Vogel, M; Brodoefel, H; Oechsle, K; Hahn, U; Mittelbronn, M; Bethge, W; Claussen, C D

2006-09-01

44

Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method.

LE DONNE, MARIA; ALIBRANDI, ANGELA; CIANCIMINO, LEONARDA; AZZERBONI, ANDREA; CHIOFALO, BENITO; TRIOLO, ONOFRIO

2013-01-01

45

Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes — is ... genetic factors and environmental factors could lead to celiac disease, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, or other ...

46

Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: From Common Pathologies to Potential New Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes constitutes a major health risk in the United States, with over 20% of individuals over the age of 60 currently suffering from this disease and an additional 1.5 million new cases diagnosed in patients over 20 years of age in 2005. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease represents a major risk to the aging population, with recent statistics estimating up to 16 million people diagnosed by 2050 in the United States alone. As type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are now recognized as members of the broader class of amyloid diseases and because the pathologies of disease progression between these indications is similar, common strategies focused on the design of next-generation therapeutics can be envisioned and are discussed herein.

Levy, Daniel E.

2007-01-01

47

Common and uncommon histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: imaging spectrum with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 35,000 new cases and 12,480 deaths in the United States in 2003. Recent advances in imaging technology, pathology, urology, and oncology permit early diagnosis of RCC and facilitate optimal management. The 2004 World Health Organization classification for renal neoplasms recognizes several distinct histologic subtypes of RCC. These subtypes include clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, hereditary cancer syndromes, multilocular cystic RCC, collecting duct carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma-associated RCC, Xp11.2 translocation-TFE3 carcinoma, and unclassified lesions. Different histologic subtypes of RCC have characteristic histomorphologic and biologic profiles. Clear cell RCC is the most common subtype and has a less favorable prognosis (stage for stage) than do papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma are associated with aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis. PMID:17102051

Prasad, Srinivasa R; Humphrey, Peter A; Catena, Jay R; Narra, Vamsi R; Srigley, John R; Cortez, Arthur D; Dalrymple, Neal C; Chintapalli, Kedar N

48

Thymoma: a review of the clinical and pathological findings in 65 cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although rare, thymoma is the most common tumour of the anterior mediastinum. In an effort to assess the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this tumour and to determine whether clinicopathologic stage or histopathologic classification correlates with clinical outcome, in the Department of Pathology and the Department of Surgery at the University of Saskatchewan we reviewed all cases of thymoma registered in the province of Saskatchewan using the database of the Saskatchewan Cancer Centre. Methods In 65 patients with a diagnosis of thymoma or thymic carcinoma identified from the Saskatchewan Cancer Centre database between Jan. 1, 1960, and Dec. 31, 2000, we studied the presentation, diagnostic investigations, therapeutic interventions, tumour size, postoperative course, clinical stage, histopathologic classification, disease recurrence and mortality. Results Of the 65 patients, 17 (26%) were asymptomatic and 11 (17%) had symptoms consistent with myasthenia gravis. Surgical resection is most commonly performed through a median sternotomy and frequently requires en bloc resection of one or more adjacent structures. The overall survival of patients with thymoma was found to correlate with the clinical stage as described by Masaoka and colleagues and with complete tumour resection. A trend to clinicopathologic correlation was observed when applying the histologic classification systems of Suster and Moran and the World Health Organisation, but this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions Thymoma is a rare tumour with a variable clinical presentation. Clinical outcome correlates with clinical stage and the ability to achieve complete tumour resection.

Sperling, Brita; Marschall, Jeff; Kennedy, Renee; Pahwa, Punam; Chibbar, Rajni

2003-01-01

49

An Unusual Case of Hemosiderotic Fibrohistiocytic Lipomatous Lesion: Correlation of MRI and Pathologic Findings  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of lipomatous lesions ranges from benign to highly malignant disease. Differentiation between these lesions is important to indicate prognosis and choose the most appropriate treatment. Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion (HFLL) is a rare subtype of lipomatous tumor. The diagnosis is usually based on clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical information. Where magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a suitable modality to assess fatty tumors, no data is reported on MR imaging of HFLL. Here, the MR characteristics are described in correlation with pathologic findings in a case of HFLL in the left thigh, an unusual location.

de Vreeze, Ronald S. A.; Koops, Wim; Haas, Rick L.; van Coevorden, Frits

2008-01-01

50

German uranium miner study--pathological and molecular genetic findings. German Uranium Miner Study, Research Group Pathology.  

PubMed

Uranium miners of the former Wismut company in Germany form the largest cohort of workers exposed to (222)Rn and dust in the world. The German Uranium Miner Study, Research Group Pathology, is evaluating the central pathology archive of the Wismut company. The main tasks of our study are pathological-anatomical and molecular genetic investigations of 28,975 autopsy cases and the evaluation of mining pollutants in the lungs by neutron activation analysis. As part of an observer agreement study, lung tumors are classified according to the WHO/IASLC classification and nontumorigenic lung disorders are registered. Lung tumors were analyzed for the presence of a proposed radon-specific mutation in the TP53 gene (formerly known as p53). Interim results are: (a) In the years 1957 to 1965, a high rate (69%) of small cell carcinomas was found which had declined to 34% by 1990. (b) The percentage of the deceased who suffered from silicosis is not higher in the group of lung tumors than in other tumor groups or the nontumor group. (c) The hypothesis of a radon-characteristic hotspot mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is not supported by our investigations. (d) Neutron activation analysis demonstrates that uranium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt and antimony can be found in tissue samples from the miners even when they had stopped working more than 20 years before death. PMID:10564937

Wiethege, T; Wesch, H; Wegener, K; Müller, K M; Mehlhorn, J; Spiethoff, A; Schömig, D; Hollstein, M; Bartsch, H

1999-12-01

51

Pathological Findings in a Case of Failed Uterine Artery Embolization for Placenta Previa  

PubMed Central

The reported success rate of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for obstetrical hemorrhage is more than 90%. We experienced a case of failed UAE for postpartum hemorrhage, although an embolic particle was found pathologically in the uterine vessels without coagulation. A 42-year-old woman (gravida 7, para 2) with placenta previa had genital bleeding at 35 weeks of gestation, and cesarean section was performed. We immediately added UAE aiming to reduce massive bleeding after the cesarean section, successful embolization of the bilateral uterine arteries and internal iliac arteries were confirmed by angiography regardless the vital sign was recovered with an appropriate amount of transfusion; the massive bleeding recurred after 1 hour of UAE. Hysterectomy was performed and pathological findings of the uterus showed that there was no coagulation in the vessels, which was supposed to be observed by the effect of gelatin sponge. In addition, despite the fact that no coagulation was found, only one gelatin sponge was found in 16 slices of the uterine wall specimens. We speculate that thrombotic materials were caught in vasoconstricted vessels triggered by hypovolemic shock due to acute blood loss, and then the gelatin sponge could be washed out after recovering to normalized circulation status leading to recurrent massive hemorrhage.

Wada, Natsuko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Kayoko; Terada, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Akemi; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Masayasu; Ishiko, Osamu; Nishida, Norifumi

2013-01-01

52

MR Imaging of Deltoid Ligament Pathologic Findings and Associated Impingement Syndromes1  

PubMed Central

Injuries of the deltoid ligament of the ankle are increasingly recognized with the widespread use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The use of higher magnetic field strengths requires familiarity with the anatomic substructure of the deltoid ligament to better localize and characterize pathologic findings. Specifically, improved image resolution allows components of the superficial (tibiocalcaneal, tibionavicular, posterior superficial tibiotalar, and tibiospring ligaments) and deep (anterior tibiotalar and posterior deep tibiotalar ligaments) portions of the ligament to be evaluated separately. Awareness of the deltoid ligament substructure and associated injury patterns can guide the radiologist in defining underlying mechanical derangement, such as that seen in various impingement disorders. In this review article, the MR imaging technique for the deltoid ligament is summarized, and the normal and abnormal MR imaging appearances of various components of the deltoid ligament and associated impingement syndromes are presented.

Chhabra, Avneesh; Subhawong, Ty K.; Carrino, John A.

2010-01-01

53

Pathological findings in clinically false-negative and false-positive neck dissections for oral carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

A series of 86 patients presenting with oral cancer underwent neck dissection (114 sides of neck), after preoperative staging by palpation under general anaesthesia and CT imaging. Detailed histopathological assessment of the surgical neck dissection specimens showed the incidence of clinically false-negative and false-positive assessments was 27% and 40%, respectively. Extranodal spread of metastatic carcinoma was present in 16% of clinically negative necks. The pathological findings provided plausible explanations for the clinical misdiagnosis in all 19 of the false-positive necks and in 13 of the 18 false-negative necks, where micrometastases or metastasis to nodes measuring less than 1.7 cm accounted for five and seven misdiagnosed cases, respectively. We conclude that the most stringent clinical protocols, even when supplemented by CT scanning, cannot be expected to achieve 100% accuracy. Detailed histopathological assessment provides the most reliable, currently available method of diagnosing cervical metastatic disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Woolgar, J. A.; Vaughan, E. D.; Scott, J.; Brown, J. S.

1994-01-01

54

Pathological Findings of Pemphigus Vulgaris Showing Giant Cobblestone-Like Conjunctival Papillae  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the pathophysiological findings of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) showing giant conjunctival papillae. Methods A 64-year-old man who had mucosal-dominant PV with giant conjunctival papillae, resembling those of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), underwent an ophthalmological workup. The clinical and pathological findings were investigated. Results Ophthalmic interventions were unable to provide the desired beneficial effects, and multiple excisions were necessary to remove the proliferative conjunctival lesions. Histopathological investigations of the excised tissues demonstrated acantholysis and a subconjunctival infiltration with numerous inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. However, in contrast to typical VKC, mast cells and eosinophils were rarely found in the subconjunctival tissues. Direct immunofluorescent staining showed a significant deposition of immunoglobulin G and complement component 3 in the epithelial intercellular substance, consistent with mucosal-dominant PV. Then, the patient was hospitalized because of oral erosion exacerbation and malnutrition. Because of the patient's declining general condition, we administered an increasing dose of a systemic steroid with an intravenous immunoglobulin, after which his ocular lesions and symptoms improved. Conclusions The histological conjunctival papilla findings were quite different from those of VKC papillae. If PV causes a lesion in a patient, systemic immunosuppression might be more effective than topical ophthalmic treatment because of overall immunological involvement.

Namba, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Mari; Sugano, Akira; Murata, Ichidai; Suzuki, Tamio; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

55

Thoracic computed tomography, angiographic computed tomography, and pathology findings in six cats experimentally infected with aelurostrongylus abstrusus.  

PubMed

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection is common in endemic areas and may cause severe respiratory clinical signs. Computed tomography (CT) is an important tool to diagnose pulmonary disease, because it allows detection of small lesions and discrimination of superimposed structures. The purpose of this study was to characterize by CT and angiographic CT the pulmonary lesions in six cats before, and 48 and 81 days after inoculation with 100 or 800 A. abstrusus infective larvae. Histological examination of the accessory lung lobe was performed to determine the microscopic, pathomorphologic correlate of the CT findings. The predominant CT lesion consisted of multiple nodules of varying size distributed throughout the lungs, severity depending on infectious dose. The histological correlate of the nodular lesions was multifocal dense granulomatous to mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates, including eosinophils distributed in the parenchyma and obliterating the alveoli. Marked, multifocal, dose-dependent thickening of the bronchi and adjacent interstitial changes blurred the margins of the outer serosal surface of the bronchi and vessels. Histologically, this was due to peribronchial mixed cell inflammation. During the course of infection some of the nodular and peribronchial changes were replaced by areas of ground-glass opacity. In addition to providing detailed depiction of pulmonary lesions resulting from an infectious cause and clearly defining lesions with respect to time and severity of infection, CT allowed quantitative assessment of bronchial thickness and lymph node size during the course of disease. Findings indicated that CT characteristics of this disease are consistent with pathologic findings. PMID:23718907

Dennler, Matthias; Bass, Danielle A; Gutierrez-Crespo, Beatriz; Schnyder, Manuela; Guscetti, Franco; Di Cesare, Angela; Deplazes, Peter; Kircher, Patrick R; Glaus, Tony M

2013-05-29

56

Experimental Copper Deficiency, Chromium Deficiency and Additional Molybdenum Supplementation in Goats - Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

Secondary copper (Cu) deficiency, chromium (Cr) deficiency and molybdenosis (Mo) has been suggested to cause the "mysterious" moose disease in the southwest of Sweden. The present experiment was performed on goats to investigate the clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations after 20 months feeding of a semi-synthetic diet deficient in Cu and Cr. Four groups were included in the study: control group (n = 4), Cu-deficient group (group 1, n = 4), Cr-deficient group (group 2, n = 2) and Cu+Cr-deficient group (group 3, n = 3). Group 3 was additionally supplemented with tetrathiomolybdate during the last 2 months of the experiment. Main histopathological findings in groups 1 and 3 were the lesions in the liver, characterised by a severe active fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, haemosiderosis and mild necroses. Additionally, degenerative alterations of the exocrine pancreas were prominent in groups 1 and 3. Lesions in group 3 were more pronounced than in group 1. In group 3, the skin showed an atrophic dermatosis, while in group 2 a crusty dermatitis caused by Candida spp. was observed. This study shows that liver, pancreas and skin are mainly affected by a long term deficiency of copper and the findings are complicated by molybdenum application while chromium deficiency produced no histomorphological effects in our study.

Aupperle, H; Schoon, HA; Frank, A

2001-01-01

57

Integrating commons dilemma findings in a general dynamic model of cooperative behavior in resource crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research on commons dilemmas is characterized by innumerable published findings, each standing relatively isolated from the other. To date there is little integration of the findings under a unified concept. The present contribution aims to integrate already existing findings in a general dynamic model of cooperative behavior in resource crises by means of computer simulation. The model postulates that

Hans-Joachim Mosler; Wernher M. Brucks

2003-01-01

58

Correlation of Ultrasound-Measured Common Carotid Artery Stiffness With Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantitatively and noninvasively evaluate com- mon carotid atherosclerosis in a series of patients, we mea- sured the stiffness parameter p, which represents the mechan- ical properties of the vessel. \\/3 was calculated from the relationship between blood pressure and the diameter of the artery as measured by an ultrasonic, phase-locked, echo- tracking system. Increases in the severity grade of

Takashi Wada; Kuniyasu Kodaira; Kentaro Fujishiro; Ken-ichi Maie; Eiji Tsukiyama; Tsutomu Fukumoto; Tomoko Uchida; Sayaka Yamazaki

2010-01-01

59

Methadone-Induced Delayed Posthypoxic Encephalopathy: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings in a patient with methadone-induced delayed posthypoxic encephalopathy (DPHE). Case Report. A Thirty-eight-year-old man was found unconscious for an unknown duration after methadone and diazepam ingestion. His initial vitals were temperature 104 degree Fahrenheit, heart rate 148/minute, respiratory rate 50/minute, and blood pressure 107/72?mmhg. He developed renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver enzymes which resolved completely in 6 days. After 2 weeks from discharge he had progressive deterioration of his cognitive, behavioral and neurological function. Brain MRI showed diffuse abnormal T2 signal in the corona radiata, centrum semiovale, and subcortical white matter throughout all lobes. Extensive work up was negative for any metabolic, infectious or autoimmune disorder. Brain biopsy showed significant axonal injury in the white matter. He was treated successfully with combination of steroids and antioxidants. Follow up at 2 year showed no residual deficits. Conclusion. Our observation suggests that patients on methadone therapy should be monitored for any neurological or psychiatric symptoms, and in suspected cases MRI brain may help to make the diagnosis of DPHE. A trial of steroids and antioxidants may be considered in these patients.

Mittal, Manoj; Wang, Yunxia; Reeves, Alan; Newell, Kathy

2010-01-01

60

Emotion regulation in pathological skin picking: findings from a non-treatment seeking sample.  

PubMed

Pathological skin picking (PSP) is characterized by excessive picking of the skin, resulting in significant distress or functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotion regulation hypothesis of PSP. University students with PSP (n = 55) and without history of PSP (n = 55) were asked to retrospectively rate the intensity of affective states before, during, and after skin picking episodes. The results showed that for a majority of the PSP sufferers, intensity of certain negative affective states (i.e. anxiety, tension or boredom) was pronounced just before picking, and diminished significantly in the period from before to after picking. Relief and gratification increased during picking whereas guilt increased afterwards. A similar pattern emerged in the control group, although a much lower level of intensity was reported. Participants were also asked to fill out questionnaires concerning emotion regulation difficulties, emotion reactivity, depression, anxiety and worry. Hierarchical logistic regressions demonstrated that emotion regulation difficulties as well as emotion reactivity predicted PSP diagnosis after depression, anxiety and worry were controlled for. Furthermore, emotion regulation difficulties statistically mediated the relationship between emotion reactivity and PSP. Overall, the findings support an emotion regulation model of PSP. PMID:20172501

Snorrason, Ivar; Smári, Jakob; Olafsson, Ragnar P

2010-02-06

61

Caspase-Cleaved TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 is a Major Pathological Finding in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major constituent of inclusions found in frontotemporal dementia with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine a possible role for TDP-43 in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a site-directed caspase-cleavage antibody to TDP-43 based upon a known caspase-3 cleavage consensus site within TDP-43 at position D219 was designed. In vitro, this antibody labeled the predicted 25 kDa caspase-cleavage fragment of TDP-43 without labeling full-length TDP-43 following digestion of recombinant TDP-43 with caspase-3 or treatment of Hela cells with staurosporine. Application of this antibody in postmortem brain sections indicated the presence of caspase-cleaved TDP-43 in Hirano bodies, tangles, reactive astrocytes and neuritic plaques of the AD brain. Caspase-cleaved TDP-43 also co-localized with ubiquitin labeled neurons as well as dystrophic neuritis within plaque regions. These results suggest that caspase-cleaved TDP-43 is a major pathological finding in AD and may contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with this disease.

Rohn, Troy Y.

2008-01-01

62

Trapped neutrophil syndrome in a Border Collie dog: clinical, clinico-pathologic, and molecular findings.  

PubMed

Trapped neutrophil syndrome (TNS) is an autosomal recessive inherited neutropenia known in Border Collies since the 1990's. Recently, the causative mutation has been identified in the canine VPS13B gene and a DNA-based diagnosis has now become available. The present paper describes clinical and clinico-pathologic findings in a Border Collie with TNS that was molecularly diagnosed for the first time in Japan. In a 10-week-old male Border Collie with microgenesis and symptoms related to recurrent infections, a hematological examination revealed severe leukopenia due to neutropenia, suggesting the dog to be affected by inherited neutropenic immunodeficiency. Direct DNA sequencing demonstrated that the dog was homozygous for the causative mutation of TNS and both its parents were heterozygous carriers. In addition, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction-based length polymorphism analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis was developed for the genotyping of TNS. This assay could discriminate clearly all genotypes, suggesting that it was suitable for both individual diagnosis and large-scale surveys for prevention. PMID:22240985

Mizukami, Keijiro; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Seira; Kawamura, Ryuta; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

2012-01-12

63

Choroideremia: New Findings from Ocular Pathology and Review of Recent Literature  

PubMed Central

Histopathology of young individuals affected by choroideremia is rarely available to allow correlation with the clinical presentation. A 30-year-old male with choroideremia died in a motor vehicle accident and one eye was subjected to histopathological examination. Immunoblot analysis of protein derived from white blood cells of a living brother, also affected with choroideremia, confirmed the absence of Rab escort protein-1, the normal CHM gene product. Direct sequencing of the coding region and adjacent splice sites of the CHM gene was undertaken on genomic DNA from the living brother and revealed a transition mutation, C to T, in exon 6 (R253X) which resulted in a stop codon and was predicted to truncate the protein product. Histopathological examination of the eye of the deceased brother showed relative independent degeneration of choriocapillaris, retinal pigment epithelium and retina, similar to observations in the mouse model of choroideremia. In addition, mild T-lymphocytic infiltration was found within the choroid. The ophthalmic features and the pathology of choroideremia are discussed in light of new findings in the current case.

MacDonald, Ian M.; Russell, Laurie; Chan, Chi-Chao

2009-01-01

64

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

65

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

66

Methylmercury poisoning in common marmosets--MRI findings and peripheral nerve lesions.  

PubMed

Common marmosets were used as model animals for methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning. Six marmosets were given MeHg of 5 ppm Hg in drinking water. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 2 each. The first group was examined for acute symptomatic MeHg poisoning. They were given MeHg for 70 and 90 days, respectively, to manifest severe symptoms. The second group was sacrificed after 38 days of MeHg exposure, when they had acute-subclinical MeHg poisoning. The third group of animals was exposed for 21 days, and then observed for 2.5 years without MeHg exposure. One of them showed typical symptoms of MeHg poisoning after MeHg exposure had ended, but the other one showed only slight symptoms without ataxia. This experiment demonstrated that MeHg causes pathological changes in neural tissues including the peripheral nerves in common marmosets. Furthermore, common marmosets were found to show MeHg-induced pathological changes similar to those in humans in the cerebrum and cerebellum. PMID:12512874

Eto, Komyo; Yasutake, Akira; Korogi, Yukunori; Akima, Michio; Shimozeki, Toshie; Tokunaga, Hidehiro; Kuwana, Takashi; Kaneko, Yosuke

67

Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features  

PubMed Central

Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC), an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

Leddy, Rebecca; Irshad, Abid; Rumboldt, Tihana; Cluver, Abbie; Campbell, Amy; Ackerman, Susan

2012-01-01

68

Aging and the esophagus: Common pathologic conditions and their effect upon swallowing in the geriatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysphagia in the elderly is most often oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal in location and neuropathologic in etiology. Aging\\u000a itself, although causing demonstrable structural and functional changes in the esophagus, does not cause any clinically relevant\\u000a esophageal dysphagia. A variety of pathologic conditions seen in the geriatric population affect the esophagus and can alter\\u000a esophageal function, resulting in symptomatic dysphagia. Accurate diagnosis

Gulchin A. Ergun; Paul F. Miskovitz

1992-01-01

69

The pathology of experimental poxvirus infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): further characterization of a new primate model for orthopoxvirus infections.  

PubMed

Zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) can induce severe disease in man and the virus has potential for use in bioterrorism. New vaccines and therapeutics against OPV infections must be tested in animal models. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course and pathology of a new OPV isolate, calpox virus, which is infectious in marmosets. Infection experiments were performed with 28 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to different challenge doses of calpox virus by the intravenous, oropharyngeal and intranasal (IN) routes. The median marmoset IN infectious dose corresponded to 8.3 × 10(2)plaque forming units of calpox virus. Infected animals developed reproducible clinical signs and died within 4-15 days post infection. Characteristic pox-like lesions developed in affected organs, particularly in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Calpox virus disease progression and pathological findings in the common marmoset appear to be consistent with lethal OPV infections in man and in other non-human primate (NHP) models. IN inoculation with low virus doses mimics the natural route of the human variola virus infection. Thus, the marmoset model of calpox virus infection can be considered to be relevant to investigation of the mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis and pathology and for the evaluation of new vaccines and antiviral therapies. PMID:21783202

Mätz-Rensing, K; Stahl-Hennig, C; Kramski, M; Pauli, G; Ellerbrok, H; Kaup, F-J

2011-07-23

70

Prostate Cancer: Correlation of MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy with Pathologic Findings after Radiation Therapy—Initial Experience1  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy for depiction of local prostate cancer recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy, with step-section pathologic findings as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study received institutional approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Study was compliant with Health Insurance Port- ability and Accountability Act. Sextant biopsy, digital rectal examination,

Darko Pucar; Amita Shukla-Dave; Hedvig Hricak; Chaya S. Moskowitz; Kentaro Kuroiwa; Semra Olgac; Lanie E. Ebora; Peter T. Scardino; Jason A. Koutcher; Kristen L. Zakian

71

A Linear-Time Algorithm for Finding Approximate Shortest Common Superstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate shortest common superstrings for a given setR of strings can be constructed by applying the greedy heuristics for finding a longest Hamiltonian path in the weighted graph\\u000a that represents the pairwise overlaps between the strings inR. We develop an efficient implementation of this idea using a modified Aho-Corasick string-matching automaton. The resulting\\u000a common superstring algorithm runs in timeO(n) or

Esko Ukkonen

1990-01-01

72

[Liver fluke infestation in New World camelids. Parasitology, pathology, clinical findings and therapy].  

PubMed

In Llamas and Alpacas infestation with Fasciola hepatica or Dicrocoelium dendriticum can cause liver damage, sometimes even with lethal outcome. Once infected South American Camelids (SACs) react more sensitively to these parasites than other domestic ruminants. We report here on the pathology, parasitology, clinics and therapy of this disease. Concerning Dicrocoelium dendriticum we describe own clinical results and therapeutic outcome in addition to the pathological investigation. According to anatomic corrosion casts, the bile ducts of SACs show more similarity with the equine bile system than with the bile system of domestic ruminants. PMID:10384709

Gunsser, I; Hänichen, T; Maierl, J

1999-05-01

73

Common denominators in the etiology and pathology of visceral lesions of cystic fibrosis and Keshan disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common denominator of a unique disseminated multi-focal milliary myocardial hyaline necrosis and fibrosis in Keshan disease\\u000a (KSD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) and a commonality of the affected age groups of fetuses and preschool children led to the review\\u000a of existing KSD autopsy material to search for pancreatic and hepatic lesions considered pathognomonic for CF.\\u000a \\u000a Pancreatic lesions considered pathognomonic for

J. D. Wallach; Ma Lan; Wei Han Yu; Bo-Qi Gu; Feng Teng Yu; Roy F. Goddard

1990-01-01

74

Clinical and pathologic findings in two new allelic murine models of polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with inherited cystic kidney diseases have progressive cystic dilation of nephrons with concomitant loss of functional renal parenchyma and renal failure. Animal models of inherited cystic kidney disease are useful for study of the pathogenesis and molecular basis of cystic renal diseases. This article describes the clinical and pathologic features in two spontaneously occurring murine models of inherited polycystic

CAROLE VOGLER; SHARON HOMAN; ALETHA PUNG; CONSTANCE THORPE; JANE BARKER; EDWARD H. BIRKENMEIER; POORNIMA UPADHYA

1999-01-01

75

Finding a Student Voice in School Reform: student disaffection, pathologies of disruption and educational control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the nature and impact of state interventions into student behaviour in schools. Of particular concern is the maintenance of behaviourist analyses and practices within a changing rubric of impaired student pathology. The invention of Attention Deficit Disorder Syndrome is convenient to education departments struggling to maintain failing students who in previous times were jettisoned from schools into

Roger Slee

1994-01-01

76

Pathological and clinical findings in a series of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological features of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were studied, and when possible the case histories were reviewed.The typical tumour is sharply demarcated but not encapsulated, is composed of sheets of cells having eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, with the deposition of amyloid in the stroma. We would stress the frequency of binucleate cells, the scarcity of mitoses,

E. D. Williams; C. L. Brown; I. Doniach

1966-01-01

77

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the maxillary sinus: CT appearance, clinical and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a very rare neoplasm. Many aspects of this tumor have not been fully elucidated including their imaging characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, less than 10 cases of IMT of the maxillary sinus have been reported mainly concerning the CT features. Herein we present three cases of pathologically proved IMT originated in the maxillary

Songhua Fang; Danjun Dong; Mei Jin

2006-01-01

78

Finding Common Ground: A First Amendment Guide to Religion and Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is built on the conviction that finding common ground on many divisive issues is possible within the civic framework provided by the Religious Liberty clauses of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It argues that there is a clearly defined constitutional difference between "teaching religion" to students and "teaching…

Haynes, Charles C., Ed.

79

Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes  

PubMed Central

Heart disease is common in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and analysis of literature indicate that sudden death in chimpanzees (and in gorillas and orangutans) is commonly associated with diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis of unknown cause. In contrast, most human heart disease results from coronary artery atherosclerosis, which occludes myocardial blood supply, causing ischemic damage. The typical myocardial infarction of humans due to coronary artery thrombosis is rare in these apes, despite their human-like coronary-risk-prone blood lipid profiles. Instead, chimpanzee ‘heart attacks’ are likely due to arrythmias triggered by myocardial fibrosis. Why do humans not often suffer from the fibrotic heart disease so common in our closest evolutionary cousins? Conversely, why do chimpanzees not have the kind of heart disease so common in humans? The answers could be of value to medical care, as well as to understanding human evolution. A preliminary attempt is made to explore possibilities at the histological level, with a focus on glycosylation changes.

Varki, Nissi; Anderson, Dan; Herndon, James G; Pham, Tho; Gregg, Christopher J; Cheriyan, Monica; Murphy, James; Strobert, Elizabeth; Fritz, Jo; Else, James G; Varki, Ajit

2009-01-01

80

Ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia with dystonia: clinico-pathological findings in a sporadic case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcephaly, absent psychomotor development and dystonic limb movements were the main clinical features of a 3-year-old\\u000a girl affected by hypoplasia of the ponto-cerebellar structures. As in the few previously reported cases there are discrepancies\\u000a between the severity of lesions in the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. Pathological features such as size\\u000a reduction of the ventral pons, inferior olive atrophy, dentate nucleus

Alessandro Simonati; Bernardo Dalla Bernardina; Romano Colombari; Nicoló Rizzuto

1997-01-01

81

Cardiorespiratory Function and Pathological Findings in Heart-Lung Block Reimplanted after Hypothermic Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good result from the heart-lung transplantation depends on the quality of the preservation of cardiopulmonary transplants. To determine the functional and pathological status of the heart-lung block after preservation for several hours, we performed 10 heterologous heart-lung transplantations in Beagle dogs (weight 13.5 kg) under extracorporeal circulation. Weight and length compatibility between donor and receiver was ensured. Measurements of

C. Saunier; J. P. Gille; J. P. Villemot; F. Schrijen; M. Clavey; T. Hubert; C. Glace; B. Foliguet

1988-01-01

82

Pruritus in familial Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: a common symptom associated with central nervous system pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pruritus, a common feature of animal prion diseases such as scrapie, is rarely reported in humans with Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease\\u000a (CJD), and its anatomical background is not well defined. The present study was undertaken to carry out a methodical prospective\\u000a search for the prevalence of pruritus in CJD patients and investigate its anatomical substrate by MRI. The study group included\\u000a consecutive

Oren S. Cohen; Joab Chapman; Hedok Lee; Zeev Nitsan; Shmuel Appel; Chen Hoffman; Hanna Rosenmann; Amos D. Korczyn; Isak Prohovnik

2011-01-01

83

Common pathological processes in Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are conditions that affect a large number of people in the industrialized countries. Both conditions are on the increase, and finding novel treatments to cure or prevent them are a major aim in research. Somewhat surprisingly, AD and T2DM share several molecular processes that underlie the respective degenerative developments. This review

Lin Li; Christian Hölscher

2007-01-01

84

Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.  

PubMed

The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population. PMID:17323569

Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Rüegg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

2005-06-01

85

Early Pathologic Findings of Bronchiolitis Obliterans after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Proposal from a Case  

PubMed Central

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is one of the serious, noninfectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Early diagnosis of BO is usually difficult because patients are often asymptomatic at an initial stage of the disease and pathologic findings are available mostly at the late stages. Therefore, the diagnosis of the disease is based on the pulmonary function test using the National Institute of Health consensus criteria. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive BO. A biopsy specimen at an early stage demonstrated alveolar destruction with lymphocyte infiltration in bronchial walls and mild narrowing of bronchioles without fibrosis, those were strongly indicative of initial pathologic changes of BO. Definitive BO followed, which was proven by both clinical course and autopsy. While alloreactive lymphocytes associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease are believed to initiate BO, we present a rare case that directly implies such a scenario.

Nakamoto-Matsubara, Rie; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kurita, Naoki; Obara, Naoshi; Okoshi, Yasushi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Noguchi, Masayuki; Chiba, Shigeru

2012-01-01

86

Early pathologic findings of bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a proposal from a case.  

PubMed

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is one of the serious, noninfectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Early diagnosis of BO is usually difficult because patients are often asymptomatic at an initial stage of the disease and pathologic findings are available mostly at the late stages. Therefore, the diagnosis of the disease is based on the pulmonary function test using the National Institute of Health consensus criteria. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive BO. A biopsy specimen at an early stage demonstrated alveolar destruction with lymphocyte infiltration in bronchial walls and mild narrowing of bronchioles without fibrosis, those were strongly indicative of initial pathologic changes of BO. Definitive BO followed, which was proven by both clinical course and autopsy. While alloreactive lymphocytes associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease are believed to initiate BO, we present a rare case that directly implies such a scenario. PMID:22957280

Nakamoto-Matsubara, Rie; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kurita, Naoki; Obara, Naoshi; Okoshi, Yasushi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Noguchi, Masayuki; Chiba, Shigeru

2012-08-22

87

Pathologic pulmonary findings in children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a study of ten cases.  

PubMed

Lung tissue and tissue from the lymphoreticular system obtained at open biopsy and/or autopsy were studied in ten children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One or both parents of nine of the children had AIDS or risk factors for AIDS. The remaining child had hemophilia. The following pulmonary lesions were seen: 1) diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), 2) Pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, 3) lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP), and 4) desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP). Combinations of such factors as mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, and opportunistic infection played a role in the pathogenesis of DAD. Opportunistic infections were related to the defective cell-mediated immunity in these children. The clinical, epidemiologic, immunologic, and pathologic features of the thymuses of these patients indicate that the immune deficiency was unlikely to have been of congenital origin. The immunologic abnormalities may also have been related to the pathogenesis of LIP and DIP. Neither LIP nor DIP has been described in adults with AIDS. Open lung biopsy is of practical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary disease in children with AIDS. PMID:3972404

Joshi, V V; Oleske, J M; Minnefor, A B; Saad, S; Klein, K M; Singh, R; Zabala, M; Dadzie, C; Simpser, M; Rapkin, R H

1985-03-01

88

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system: normal and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Whole body nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the cardiovascular system was carried out in early clinical trials in 244 volunteers and patients using a 3.5 KGauss (0.35 T) unit. The spin echo technique with multiple imaging parameters was used. Blood vessels were clearly discriminated from solid organs and lesions because little or no intraluminal signal is seen with laminar blood flow at normal velocities, whereas a more intense image is generated by solid organs. Characteristic flow signals were observed in normal patients and were accentuated by varying the imaging parameters. Cardiac chambers were well delineated in some patients on nongated images. In one case, internal topography of the ventricles was exquisitely displayed on a gated image. Intraluminal pathology, such as dissection of the aorta, aneurysms of the aorta and left ventricle, and aortic atheroma, was clearly demonstrated. Patency of coronary arterial bypass grafts was shown. Abnormal flow patterns due to slow or turbulent flow were accentuated on images using the second spin echo. The preliminary experience indicated the considerable potential of NMR imaging in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease.

Herfkens, R.J.; Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.; Lipton, M.J.; Crooks, L.E.; Lanzer, P.; Botvinick, E.; Brundage, B.; Sheldon, P.E.; Kaufman, L.

1983-06-01

89

Comparison of technetium-99m and iodine-123 imaging of thyroid nodules: Correlation with pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Three hundred and sixteen patients with solitary or dominant thyroid nodules were imaged both with technetium-99m- (99mTc) pertechnetate and iodine-123 ({sup 123}I). The images were preferred, but differences were small and in 27%-58% of the cases there was no difference in quality between the two radionuclides. Discrepancies between {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I images were found in 5%-8% of cases, twice as often in multinodular goiters as in single nodules. Cytologic/histologic examination was performed on all nodules but no correlation was found between the pathology and the type of discrepancy. Twelve carcinomas were found (4%) but none in nodules showing a discrepancy. There was great variation among the observers about the preference for radionuclides and about the existence or type of discrepancies. The slightly better overall quality of {sup 123}I scans is probably not of diagnostic significance and does not justify the routine use of {sup 123}I instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Routine reimaging of {sup 99m}Tc hot nodules with radioiodine for cancer detection does not appear to be necessary.

Kusic, Z.; Becker, D.V.; Saenger, E.L.; Paras, P.; Gartside, P.; Wessler, T.; Spaventi, S. (University Hospital Dr. M. Stojanovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

1990-04-01

90

Taxonomical, clinical and pathological findings in moradilla (Lobelia-like) poisoning in sheep.  

PubMed

Each year during late winter and spring, grazing sheep and cattle in the State of Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico develop toxicoses which have been empirically associated to consumption of a toxic plant locally known as moradilla. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether moradilla was a toxic plant not yet reported in Tamaulipas or was an unrecognized species of the Lobelaceae or Campanulaceae family. Taxonomic determination of moradilla plants collected from February to April showed that it was a species of Lobelia. Five alkaloids were identified by thin-layer chromatography in the mature stages of moradilla, while only 1 and 3 alkaloids were found in the growing and flowering stages of this plant, respectively. The alkaloids were not affected by making silage, drying in hay or freezing. Experimental intoxication of sheep with moradilla caused clinical signs and pathologic changes identical to those previously described for lobelia toxicosis. It was concluded that Lobelia berlandieri was the cause of moradilla toxicosis in grazing cattle and sheep of northeastern Mexico. PMID:8066962

Lopez, R; Martinez-Burnes, J; Vargas, G; Loredo, J; Medellin, J; Rosiles, R

1994-06-01

91

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium: case history, pathologic findings, and discussion.  

PubMed

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium (PSCCE) is an exceedingly rare tumor. Rarely are cytological criteria discussed. We report our experience in the cytological diagnosis of a case. A postmenopausal, 64-yr-old woman suffered from pyometria. An endometrial Pap smear displayed some malignant squamous cells. Curettage of the cervix and the uterine cavity only recovered some fragments of atypical squamous epithelium whose origin could not be precisely identified. A hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy was decided upon. Pathological study evidenced a primary squamous cell carcinoma in the uterine cavity while the cervix was tumor-free and the lymph nodes were devoid of metastases (pT1, pN0, pM0). The patient died 46 mo PO with multiple pulmonary and renal metastases. The histological feature of PSCCE is identical to that of any tumor of a similar nature, whatever the site, especially the cervix. Confirmation of the primary endometrial nature is only possible on the hysterectomy specimen. PMID:12411995

Houissa-Vuong, S; Catanzano-Laroudie, M; Baviera, E; Balaton, A; Galet, B; Gedeon, I; Vuong, P N

2002-11-01

92

[The female external genitalia : pathologic findings and first steps in treatment].  

PubMed

Symptoms of diseases of the female external genitalia are often expressed in pruritus and burning pain. To accomplish a targeted differential diagnosis an exact knowledge of anatomy is essential. An accurate anamnesis, a detailed inspection, and conducting a biopsy or microbiological smear lead to the correct diagnosis. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is the most common non-neoplastic disease of the vulva. This should be distinguished from amongst others lichen ruber planus, psoriasis, contact dermatitis of the vulva, or infectious diseases like condylomata acuminata, herpes genitalis, or mycosis.Preinvasive dysplastic alterations commonly cause symptoms comparable to benign diseases. Their appearance can be very heterogeneous. To avoid missing these conditions, it is often necessary to obtain a biopsy.Vulvar carcinoma occurs most frequently in the 8th decade. Nonetheless it should be included in differential diagnostic considerations in younger women since the incidence of the HP-positive variant is increasing in the younger age group. PMID:21107806

Goldnau, C; Köninger, A; Kimmig, R

2010-12-01

93

Orbital dermoid cyst of childhood: clinical pathologic findings, classification and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric orbital dermoid cysts. Chart review of consecutive pediatric\\u000a biopsy-proven dermoid cysts surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology, Maggiore Hospital, between 2000 and 2007.\\u000a We excised dermoid cysts from 30 children (30 eyes) whose mean age at the time of surgery was 24 months (range 6?84). The\\u000a most common presentation of

Stefano Cavazza; Gian Luca Laffi; Laura Lodi; Elisa Gasparrini; Giorgio Tassinari

2011-01-01

94

Pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas: computed-tomographic, sonographic, and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a series of eight cases of pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas, an uncommon lesion that contains bizarre giant cells and resembles sarcoma histologically. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described in the radiological literature. Clinical symptoms are similar to those of the usual pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma, but at presentation the primary tumor mass is usually large, and widespread metastatic disease is present. The most striking finding is massive lymphadenopathy, which may mimic lymphoma. A combination of clinical history, imaging findings, and results of percutaneous biopsy should lead to the proper diagnosis and may help to differentiate this entity from others that may affect lymph nodes.

Wolfman, N.T.; Karstaedt, N.; Kawamoto, E.H.

1985-02-01

95

Lateral dermoid cyst of the floor of mouth: unusual radiologic and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

A lateral dermoid cyst is a rare lesion of the floor of mouth, with only 12 cases reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man with a slowly enlarging mass in the submandibular region. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion containing multiple uniformly rounded foci, creating a "sack-of-marbles" appearance. Needle aspirations showed atypical findings, and the mass was excised. Histopathology revealed a cyst containing a keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial lining with apocrine and eccrine glands. These findings were diagnostic of a dermoid cyst, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any midline or lateral cervical lesion. PMID:21334151

Lin, Harrison W; Silver, Amanda L; Cunnane, Mary E; Sadow, Peter M; Kieff, David A

2011-02-21

96

Finding A Common Language: How To Communicate Climate Change Science To Non-Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful communication about complex subjects, especially of a scientific nature, brings with it a significant set of challenges. If, in addition to being a scientifically complex concept, the topic also carries with it certain political or ideological implications, the challenges grow significantly. Climate change is a poster child for the difficulties in communicating valuable science beyond the confines of the scientific community, or even of a smaller and more specialized subgroup within that community. However, strategies exist for maximizing the reach of this important information, and for effectively disseminating the science behind climate change. Communication requires that the contingent attempting to communicate and the intended recipients of the information share a common language. The first step in finding that common language is to identify the intended audience, and then designing ways to effectively meet the needs of that specific audience.

Unger, H. M.; Casey, A. G.

2004-12-01

97

Lymphomatosis cerebri Presenting as a Rapidly Progressive Dementia: Clinical, Neuroimaging and Pathologic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) usually presents with clinical and neuroimaging findings consistent with single or multiple intracranial mass lesions. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such lesions are nearly always contrast enhancing, reflecting disruption of the blood-brain barrier at the site of tumor nodules. We describe 2 cases from the UCLA Medical Center who developed a rapidly progressive

Rohit Bakshi; John C. Mazziotta; Paul S. Mischel; Reza Jahan; David B. Seligson; Harry V. Vinters

1999-01-01

98

Pathological findings in the human auditory system following long-standing gentamicin ototoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical, audiovestibular and histopathological findings in a patient who suffered from a long-standing gentamicin-induced deafness are reported. In both temporal bones, the organ of Corti was completely absent, with only a few nerve fibres remaining in the apical part of the cochlea. Regenerative ingrowth of nerve fibers into the area of the degenerative organ of Corti was present apically

R. M. Backus; J. C. M. J. DeGroot; R. A. Tange; E. H. Huizing

1987-01-01

99

Pathologic Findings of Coronary Stents: A Comparison of Sudden Coronary Death Versus Non-cardiac Death.  

PubMed

There are few histologic studies of intracoronary stents found at autopsy. We studied histologic findings of 87 intracoronary stents from 45 autopsy hearts. There were 40 patients with chronically implanted stents and five shorter than 30 days. Of five patients with recent stent placement, the cause of death was related to the stent (in-stent thrombosis) in one case. Of the 40 patients with chronic stents, there were 16 sudden coronary deaths and 24 noncoronary deaths (controls). There were no late stent thromboses in the coronary deaths. In the coronary deaths, 26% of stents showed restenosis versus 11% in controls (p = 0.1). The rate of healed infarcts and cardiomegaly was similar in the coronary and noncoronary groups, and acute thrombi in native arteries were seen only in three hearts in the coronary group. We conclude that the cause of death is rarely impacted by in-stent findings at autopsy, especially in chronically implanted stents. PMID:24164207

Mont, Erik; Cresswell, Nathaniel; Burke, Allen

2013-11-01

100

Vascular pancreatic lesions: spectrum of imaging findings of malignant masses and mimics with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of hypervascular pancreatic lesions is complex, and includes endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas, metastases to the pancreas, and masses, or mass-like lesions, arising from the neurovascular networks traversing the pancreas. In this manuscript, we will discuss salient imaging findings of these masses, pertinent differential diagnoses, as well as review clinical symptomatology that may aid in the diagnosis of some of these lesions. PMID:22968429

Bhosale, Priya R; Menias, Christine O; Balachandran, Aparna; Tamm, Eric P; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Francis, Isaac R; Elsayes, Khaled M

2013-08-01

101

Severe idiopathic gastroparesis due to neuronal and interstitial cells of Cajal degeneration: pathological findings and management  

PubMed Central

Delayed gastric emptying can be due to muscular, neural, or humoral abnormalities. In the absence of an identified cause, gastroparesis is labelled as idiopathic. We present the case of a patient with severe idiopathic gastroparesis. Pharmacological approaches failed, as well as reduction in gastric emptying resistance with pyloric injection of botulinum toxin and pyloroplasty. Therefore, subtotal gastrectomy was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical study of the resected specimen showed hypoganglionosis, neuronal dysplasia, and a marked reduction in both myenteric and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal. To our knowledge, this is the first time these rare histological findings have been described in a patient with idiopathic gastroparesis.

Zarate, N; Mearin, F; Wang, X-Y; Hewlett, B; Huizinga, J D; Malagelada, J-R

2003-01-01

102

Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares. Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms. A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported. IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test. The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms.

Szeredi, L.; Haake, D. A.

2009-01-01

103

Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne's disease  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively.

Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sebastien

2012-01-01

104

Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses.  

PubMed

Natural eastern equine encephalitis alphavirus (EEEV) infection was diagnosed in two adult horses with anorexia and colic, changes in sensorium, hyperexcitability, and terminal severe depression. Myocardium, tunica muscularis of stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, and spleen capsule had coagulative necrosis and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. Central nervous system (CNS) lesions were diffuse polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis characterized by perivascular T lymphocyte cuffing, marked gliosis, neuronophagia, and multifocal microabscesses. Lesions were more prominent within cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. EEEV was identified in the cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells of spleen, stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, blood vessels, and dendritic cells. In the CNS, EEEV-positive cells included neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and neutrophils. EEEV was isolated from the CNS of both horses. The detailed description of the encephalic and spinal EEEV localization and the findings of EEEV in extraneural tissues contribute to the understanding of this important multisystemic zoonotic disease. PMID:11467481

Del Piero, F; Wilkins, P A; Dubovi, E J; Biolatti, B; Cantile, C

2001-07-01

105

Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses  

PubMed Central

Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases.

Josefsen, Terje D; S?rensen, Karen K; M?rk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

2007-01-01

106

Secretory meningiomas: clinical, radiological and pathological findings in 70 consecutive cases at one institution  

PubMed Central

Secretory meningioma (SM) is a rare, benign subtype of meningioma. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 70 SMs were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological and immunohistochemical findings, and patient outcome to discuss the specific features of SMs. Cranial base preference, hyper-signal in T2 weighted MR image, “xenon light” gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement were frequently observed in the 70 cases. Non-skull base SMs, which received more complete resection (p<0.01) and had better short-term and long-term outcome, were observed with more severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) (p<0.001). In follow-up, only 1 cranial base SM case showed tumor progression. 3 cases died after operation, all with cranial base SMs. As for the 10 cases given Simpson grade 3 or 4 resection who were available at follow-up, 3 died, 5 received gamma-knife therapy, and the other 2 cases received no treatment at all. Only one of the 2 residual SMs without postoperative radiation presented minor progression at a median of 48 months follow-up. In conclusion, cranial base preference, hyper-signal T2 weighted MR image and “xenon light” GD-DTPA enhancement are specific for SMs. Prognosis of SMs is related with operation completeness and surgical risks, rather than the extent of PTBE. Residual SM grows slowly and reacts well to gamma-knife therapy.

Wang, Dai-Jun; Xie, Qing; Gong, Ye; Wang, Yin; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Mao, Ying; Zhong, Ping; Huang, Feng-Ping; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Yong-Fei; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Bo-Jie; Chen, Hong; Xie, Li-Qian; Zheng, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Hong-Da; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu

2013-01-01

107

In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

McGrew, W C

2010-10-27

108

Subclinical peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Of the numerous complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment, peripheral neuropathy is a deleterious and persistent patient complaint commonly attributed to chemotherapy. The present study investigated the occurrence of subclinical peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. Experimental Design Fifty-two (52) patients underwent extensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) prior to receiving chemotherapy. Changes in multiple functions of primary afferent fibers were assessed and compared to a group of healthy control subjects. Skin temperature, sensorimotor function, sharpness detection, and thermal detection were measured, as was touch detection, using both conventional (von Frey monofilaments) and novel (Bumps detection test) methodology. Results Patients had subclinical deficits, especially in sensorimotor function, detection of thermal stimuli, and touch detection that were present prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. The measured impairment in touch sensation was especially pronounced when using the Bumps detection test. Conslusions The colorectal cancer patients in this study exhibited deficits in sensory function prior to undergoing chemotherapy treatment, implicating the disease itself as a contributing factor in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. The widespread nature of the observed deficits further indicated that cancer is affecting multiple primary afferent subtypes. Specific to the finding of impaired touch sensation, results from this study highlight the use of newly employed methodology, the Bumps detection test, as a sensitive and useful tool in the early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.; Eng, Cathy; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R.; Simone, Donald A.; Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

2013-01-01

109

A fast parallel algorithm for finding the longest common sequence of multiple biosequences  

PubMed Central

Background Searching for the longest common sequence (LCS) of multiple biosequences is one of the most fundamental tasks in bioinformatics. In this paper, we present a parallel algorithm named FAST_LCS to speedup the computation for finding LCS. Results A fast parallel algorithm for LCS is presented. The algorithm first constructs a novel successor table to obtain all the identical pairs and their levels. It then obtains the LCS by tracing back from the identical character pairs at the last level. Effective pruning techniques are developed to significantly reduce the computational complexity. Experimental results on gene sequences in the tigr database show that our algorithm is optimal and much more efficient than other leading LCS algorithms. Conclusion We have developed one of the fastest parallel LCS algorithms on an MPP parallel computing model. For two sequences X and Y with lengths n and m, respectively, the memory required is max{4*(n+1)+4*(m+1), L}, where L is the number of identical character pairs. The time complexity is O(L) for sequential execution, and O(|LCS(X, Y)|) for parallel execution, where |LCS(X, Y)| is the length of the LCS of X and Y. For n sequences X1, X2, ..., Xn, the time complexity is O(L) for sequential execution, and O(|LCS(X1, X2, ..., Xn)|) for parallel execution. Experimental results support our analysis by showing significant improvement of the proposed method over other leading LCS algorithms.

Chen, Yixin; Wan, Andrew; Liu, Wei

2006-01-01

110

Radiological and pathological findings of a metastatic composite paraganglioma with neuroblastoma in a man: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla or paraganglia are extremely rare and present a diagnostic dilemma. These tumors consist of a neuroendocrine component mixed with a neural component. We describe the imaging characteristics together with the corresponding pathological findings of a composite tumor. Apart from any component-specific imaging findings, the hallmark of this entity is the presence of histologically distinguishable components. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our hospital due to a suspect lesion found on chest computed tomography carried out for unclear thoracic pain. An abdominal computed tomography scan and ultrasound examination detected a retroperitoneal tumor comprising two different tumor components. Twenty-four-hour urine revealed high levels of normetanephrine, characteristic of a neuroendocrine tumor. An octreoscan prior to surgical procedures revealed multiple osseous and intra-hepatic metastases. The final histopathological workup revealed a composite paraganglioma with neuroblastoma. Our patient died ten months after the initial diagnosis from tumor-associated complications. Conclusions Composite paragangliomas with neuroblastoma are rare tumors of the retroperitoneum. Such tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

2010-01-01

111

Intersection of biobanking and clinical care: should discrepant diagnoses and pathological findings be returned to research participants?  

PubMed

Diagnostic discrepancies occur when the diagnosis made on a biospecimen during the course of review at a biobank differs from the original clinical diagnosis. These diagnostic discrepancies detected during biobanking present unique challenges that are distinct from other types of research results or incidental findings. The proposed process for reporting diagnostic discrepancies or pathological incidental findings identified through a quality assurance evaluation at the biobank includes verification of the biospecimen identity, verification of the diagnosis within the biobank, and re-review of the case by the pathologist at the biospecimen collection site. If the pathologist at the biobank and the original pathologist do not reach agreement, an impartial and knowledgeable third party is consulted. The decision as to whether and how to notify research participants of any confirmed changes in diagnosis would be determined by institutional procedures. Implementation of this proposed process will require clear delineation of the roles and responsibilities of all involved parties in order to promote excellence in patient care and ensure that researchers have access to biospecimens of requisite quality.Genet Med 2012:14(4):417-423. PMID:22344228

Lockhart, Nicole C; Yassin, Rihab; Weil, Carol J; Compton, Carolyn C

2012-02-16

112

The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

1991-02-01

113

[Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the abdomen: CT findings and radiologic-pathologic correlation in 3 cases].  

PubMed

We describe the CT findings of abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) in three patients. The most common imaging finding was the presence of single or multiple soft-tissue density intraperitoneal masses without apparent origin in an abdominal organ. In the first patient, a single peritoneal mass was located in the mesentery between the stomach and pancreas. In the second patient, an intraperitoneal pelvic mass was seen in the retrovesical space. In the third patient, a large homogeneous soft-tissue mass that nearly filled the entire peritoneal space was found. Two patients had multiple liver metastases and adenopathies at the time of diagnosis. The diagnosis was confirmed with CT-guided percutaneous biopsies in all three cases. DSRCT should be suspected in young men with multiple bulky heterogeneous soft-tissue masses. PMID:19298986

Eiriz Martínez, S; Conceição E Silva, J P

2009-03-18

114

Study finds cancer programs in Michigan follow care guidelines for common cancers  

Cancer.gov

A majority of Michigan oncology practices participating in a statewide consortium followed treatment guidelines for common cancers, but had gaps in managing symptoms and end-of-life care, according to a new study.

115

Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.  

PubMed

Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position. PMID:16954531

Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

2006-10-01

116

FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

117

The Prevalence and Biometric Structure of Pathological Dissociation in the General Population: Taxometric and Behavior Genetic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxometric and biometric analyses were conducted on 2 North American samples to investigate the prevalence and biometric structure of pathological dissociation. Results indicated that approximately 3.3% of the general population belongs to a pathological dissociative taxon. A brief 8-item self-report scale called the DES–T can be used to calculate taxon membership probabilities in clinical and nonclinical samples of adults (a

Niels G. Waller; Colin A. Ross

1997-01-01

118

Behavioral history: A definition and some common findings from two areas of research.  

PubMed

Behavioral history research includes studies that (a) permit assessment of a prior experimental condition on a subsequent one, (b) show either short-lived or permanent effects, and (c) produce effects that are observable in ongoing behavior or that may be unobservable until special test conditions are introduced. We review experiments within both the conventional experimental analysis of behavior and behavioral pharmacology in order to identify commonalities and differences in the outcomes of conceptually similar experiments. We suggest that a deeper understanding of the necessary and sufficient conditions for producing history effects will emerge from these complementary research efforts. PMID:22478310

Tatham, T A; Wanchisen, B A

1998-01-01

119

Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

Fulkerson, Gregory

2009-01-01

120

Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: Finding common grounds.  

PubMed

A flow of key information links marine spatial planning (MSP) and oil spill risk analysis (OSRA), two distinct processes needed to achieve true sustainable management of coastal and marine areas. OSRA informs MSP on areas of high risk to oil spills allowing a redefinition of planning objectives and the relocation of activities to increase the ecosystem's overall utility and resilience. Concomitantly, MSP continuously generates a large amount of data that is vital to OSRA. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping system emerges as an operational tool to implement the MSP-OSRA link. Given the high level of commonalities between ESI and MSP data (both in biophysical and human dimensions), ESI tools (both paper maps and dynamic GIS-based product) are easily developed to further inform MSP and oil spill risk management. Finally, several other benefits from implementing the MSP-OSRA link are highlighted. PMID:23941806

Frazão Santos, Catarina; Michel, Jaqueline; Neves, Mário; Janeiro, João; Andrade, Francisco; Orbach, Michael

2013-08-12

121

Trisomy 8: a common finding in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Obtaining a germ cell line is one of the most important steps in developing a transgenic or knockout mouse with a targeted mutated gene of interest. A common problem with this technology is that embryonic stem (ES) cells often lack, or are extremely inefficient at, germ line transmission. Results To determine whether chromosomal anomalies are correlated with inefficient ES cell germ line transmission, we examined 97 constructed ES cell lines using conventional cytogenetic analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosomal abnormalities occurred in 44 (45%) out of the 97 specimens analyzed: 31 specimens had trisomy 8 or mosaic trisomy 8, eight specimens had partial trisomy 8 resulting from unbalanced translocations, and five specimens had other chromosomal anomalies. Conclusions Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is an important tool for improving the yield and quality of gene targeting experiments.

2013-01-01

122

Interdisciplinary, translational, and community-based participatory research: finding a common language to improve cancer research.  

PubMed

Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the "left end" of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the "right end" (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other's worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement. PMID:19336548

Hebert, James R; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E

2009-03-31

123

Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies  

PubMed Central

Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma.

Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

2013-01-01

124

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

125

Effects of Dietary Selenium on Tissue Concentrations, Pathology, Oxidative Stress, and Immune Function in Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached

J. Christian Franson; David J. Hoffman; Alicia Wells-Berlin; Matthew C. Perry; Valerie Shearn-Bochsler; Daniel L. Finley; Paul L. Flint; Tuula Hollmén

2007-01-01

126

Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels.

Tosun, Ozgur [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: ztosun@yahoo.com; Sanlidilek, Umman [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Cetin, Huseyin [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Ozdemir, Ozcan [Ankara Akay Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kurt, Aydin; Sakarya, Mehmet Emin; Tas, Ismet [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-09-15

127

PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

Wu Kailiang [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ung, Yee C., E-mail: yee.ung@sunnybrook.c [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hornby, Jennifer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

128

Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation. Methods Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status. Conclusion BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed.

Noh, Jae Myoung; Han, Boo-Kyung; Rhee, Sun Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Park, Hyojung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

2013-01-01

129

High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.  

PubMed

Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. PMID:20398945

Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

2010-03-25

130

Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.  

PubMed

Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth. PMID:19022689

Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

2008-11-20

131

Case report of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, review of its sonographic and magnetic resonance findings, and distinction from other gallbladder pathology  

PubMed Central

A case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is presented with a brief review of its sonographic and magnetic resonance features. These imaging features are also compared to those seen in gallbladder adenomyomatosis and gallbladder carcinoma. While there are many overlapping imaging findings in these entities, it is important to recognize distinguishing characteristics so a correct surgical approach is chosen. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy attempted with existing xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis has an increased surgical complication rate compared to open cholecystectomy and often necessitates intraoperative conversion to open cholecystectomy.

Cecava, Nathan D.; Andrews, Robert

2011-01-01

132

Pathological finding of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) restenosis lesion with black hole appearance on intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

Restenosis still occurs, even with the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), and the precise mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In the present case, focal in-stent stenosis was discovered on angiography 16 months after SES implantation. Intravascular ultrasound revealed an echolucent homogeneous zone, which has been termed "black hole". A sample of stenotic tissue retrieved by aspiration revealed neointimal hyperplasia, composed of proteoglycans and smooth muscle cells with scanty cellularity. Furthermore, infiltration of many macrophages and T lymphocytes coexisted in the restenotic tissue. These findings suggest that delayed healing is 1 of the mechanisms of SES restenosis. PMID:19179779

Goto, Kenji; Shiode, Nobuo; Shirota, Kinya; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kitamura, Fumiyo; Tominaga, Koichi; Kato, Yasuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Inoue, Katsumi; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

2009-01-27

133

Gastric Stromal Tumors in Carney Triad Are Different Clinically, Pathologically, and Behaviorally From Sporadic Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Findings in 104 Cases  

PubMed Central

Carney triad, as originally described in 1977, was the association of 3 tumors: gastric epithelioid leiomyosarcoma [later renamed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)], extra-adrenal paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma. The disorder affected mostly young women and was not familial. We studied the clinical and pathologic features of the gastric neoplasm in 104 patients with the syndrome. Most (88%) were young women (mean age, 22 y), and the usual presentation was gastric bleeding. The tumors, commonly antral-based (61%), were multifocal, and ranged from 0.2 to 18.0 cm in dimension. Most (86%) featured round and polygonal (epithelioid) cells. Metastasis occurred in 49 patients (47%): to gastric lymph nodes (29%), liver (25%), and peritoneum (13%). Immunopositivity was detected in the tumors tested as follows: KIT, 100%; CD34, 75%; PKCy, 21%; PDGFRA, 90%; and smooth muscle actin, 6%. Fourteen patients (13%) died of metastatic GIST at a mean age of 45 years (range, 30 to 69 y). Estimated 10 and 40-year survivals were 100% and 73%, respectively. Median survival time was 26.5 years (range, 16 to 60 y). There was no correlation between the National Institutes of Health tumor risk classification and the tumor behavior. Compared with sporadic gastric GISTs, the gastric stromal tumor in Carney triad showed distinctive features: female predilection, young patient age, epithelioid cell predominance, multifocality, frequent lymph node metastasis, serial tumor occurrence, and unpredictable behavior. Thus, the Carney triad gastric stromal tumor is different clinically, pathologically, and behaviorally from sporadic gastric GIST.

Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Young, William F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Carney, J. Aidan

2013-01-01

134

Gastric stromal tumors in Carney triad are different clinically, pathologically, and behaviorally from sporadic gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors: findings in 104 cases.  

PubMed

Carney triad, as originally described in 1977, was the association of 3 tumors: gastric epithelioid leiomyosarcoma [later renamed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)], extra-adrenal paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma. The disorder affected mostly young women and was not familial. We studied the clinical and pathologic features of the gastric neoplasm in 104 patients with the syndrome. Most (88%) were young women (mean age, 22 y), and the usual presentation was gastric bleeding. The tumors, commonly antral-based (61%), were multifocal, and ranged from 0.2 to 18.0 cm in dimension. Most (86%) featured round and polygonal (epithelioid) cells. Metastasis occurred in 49 patients (47%): to gastric lymph nodes (29%), liver (25%), and peritoneum (13%). Immunopositivity was detected in the tumors tested as follows: KIT, 100%; CD34, 75%; PKCtheta, 21%; PDGFRA, 90%; and smooth muscle actin, 6%. Fourteen patients (13%) died of metastatic GIST at a mean age of 45 years (range, 30 to 69 y). Estimated 10 and 40-year survivals were 100% and 73%, respectively. Median survival time was 26.5 years (range, 16 to 60 y). There was no correlation between the National Institutes of Health tumor risk classification and the tumor behavior. Compared with sporadic gastric GISTs, the gastric stromal tumor in Carney triad showed distinctive features: female predilection, young patient age, epithelioid cell predominance, multifocality, frequent lymph node metastasis, serial tumor occurrence, and unpredictable behavior. Thus, the Carney triad gastric stromal tumor is different clinically, pathologically, and behaviorally from sporadic gastric GIST. PMID:19935059

Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C; Young, William F; Stratakis, Constantine A; Carney, J Aidan

2010-01-01

135

Common gastric and colon (GC) carcinoma with an anomaly in the GC amylase (AMY) gene and good prognosis: clinical findings of common GC carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common causes and clinical features of gastric and colon (GC) carcinomas were investigated in 218 Japanese patients who\\u000a underwent gastrectomy and 138 Japanese patients who underwent colectomy over a period of 2.9 years. One characteristic feature\\u000a of common GC carcinoma was high levels of saliva-type serum amylase (S-Amy). High serum amylase of >400 IU\\/l, which was secreted\\u000a from GC carcinoma, was

Tadako Nakatsuji

2009-01-01

136

Association between faecal load of lawsonia intracellularis and pathological findings of proliferative enteropathy in pigs with diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

Background The study was designed to investigate correlation between histological findings of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine cases of diarrhoea and the quantitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces. A total of 156 pigs (10 to 70 days post weaning) with diarrhoea were randomly selected from 20 herds: The pigs were subjected to necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and faecal quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real time PCR. Results The median Lawsonia intracellularis excretion was significantly higher in pigs with gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: 5.92 log10 bacteria/g faeces) compared to pigs without gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: <3.3 log10 bacteria/g faeces) (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the measureable PE lesions and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.50 (P<0.001). A significantly increasing trend in Lawsonia intracellularis excretion level for increasing proliferative enteropathy histopathology and immunohistochemistry scores was demonstrated (P<0.001; P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the histopathology scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.67 (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the IHC scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.77 (P<0.001). Conclusions The histological and quantitative PCR detection of Lawsonia intracellularis were correlated in pigs with diarrhoea. Overall the results suggest that clinically important levels for Lawsonia intracellularis excretion in faeces may be established. Such clinical threshold levels may be used in practice to confirm a diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis associated diarrhoea.

2012-01-01

137

The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity (Carney complex): imaging findings with clinical and pathological correlation.  

PubMed

The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity, or Carney complex (CNC), is a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. CNC is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is genetically heterogeneous. Its features overlap those of McCune-Albright syndrome and other multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of the syndrome, followed by multicentric heart myxomas, which occur at a young age and are the lethal component of the disease. Myxomas may also occur on the skin (eyelid, external ear canal and nipple) and the breast. Breast myxomas, when present, are multiple and bilateral among female CNC patients, an entity which is also described as "breast-myxomatosis" and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. Affected CNC patients often have tumours of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), an adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-independent cause of Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone (GH)-secreting and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas, thyroid adenomas or carcinomas, testicular neoplasms (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumours [LCCSCT]) and ovarian lesions (cysts and cancinomas). Additional infrequent but characteristic manifestations of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMS), breast ductal adenomas (DAs) with tubular features, and osteochondromyxomas or "Carney bone tumour". Teaching Points • Almost 60 % of the known CNC kindreds have a germline inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene. • Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of CNC, followed by heart myxomas. • Indicative imaging signs of PPNAD are contour abnormality and hypodense spots within the gland. • Two breast tumours may present in CNC: myxoid fibroadenomas (breast myxomatosis) and ductal adenomas. • Additional findings of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMSs) and osteochondromyxomas. PMID:23315333

Courcoutsakis, Nikos A; Tatsi, Christina; Patronas, Nicholas J; Lee, Chiy-Chia Richard; Prassopoulos, Panos K; Stratakis, Constantine A

2013-01-12

138

MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

Thomas M. Link

139

PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE RHINOCEROSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of bacterial diseases in rhinoceroses are sporadic and include systemic infections with Salmonella and Clostridia 25 32* 39. Leptospirosis has been considered as an etiologic possibility for the fatal hemolytic anenlia syndrome of black rhinoceroses 22. Fatal colibacillosis occurred in a premature black rhinoceros neonate in St. Louis with typical septicemic lesions with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also described

Richard J. Montall; Scott B. Citino

140

New methods for finding common insertion sites and co-occurring common insertion sites in transposon- and virus-based genetic screens  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis screens in mice are used to identify individual genes that drive tumor formation. In these screens, candidate cancer genes are identified if their genomic location is proximal to a common insertion site (CIS) defined by high rates of transposon or retroviral insertions in a given genomic window. In this article, we describe a new method for defining CISs based on a Poisson distribution, the Poisson Regression Insertion Model, and show that this new method is an improvement over previously described methods. We also describe a modification of the method that can identify pairs and higher orders of co-occurring common insertion sites. We apply these methods to two data sets, one generated in a transposon-based screen for gastrointestinal tract cancer genes and another based on the set of retroviral insertions in the Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene Database. We show that the new methods identify more relevant candidate genes and candidate gene pairs than found using previous methods. Identification of the biologically relevant set of mutations that occur in a single cell and cause tumor progression will aid in the rational design of single and combinatorial therapies in the upcoming age of personalized cancer therapy.

Bergemann, Tracy L.; Starr, Timothy K.; Yu, Haoyu; Steinbach, Michael; Erdmann, Jesse; Chen, Yun; Cormier, Robert T.; Largaespada, David A.; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.

2012-01-01

141

Unexpected intra-operative findings.  

PubMed

Abdominal surgeons are often asked to manage challenging pathologic conditions with limited preoperative information. As such, unexpected intraoperative findings are commonly encountered. Often, there is little peer-reviewed evidence on which to base management decisions. This article reviews common unexpected surgical challenges and provides recommendations based on the latest available literature. PMID:23177065

Hall, Jason F; Stein, Sharon L

2012-10-22

142

Non-Alzheimer neurodegenerative pathologies and their combinations are more frequent than commonly believed in the elderly brain: a community-based autopsy series.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by neuronal loss and cerebral deposition of proteins with altered physicochemical properties. The major proteins are amyloid-? (A?), tau, ?-synuclein, and TDP-43. Although neuropathological studies on elderly individuals have emphasised the importance of mixed pathologies, there have been few observations on the full spectrum of proteinopathies in the ageing brain. During a community-based study we performed comprehensive mapping of neurodegeneration-related proteins and vascular pathology in the brains of 233 individuals (age at death 77-87; 73 examined clinically in detail). While all brains (from individuals with and without dementia) showed some degree of neurofibrillary degeneration, A? deposits were observed only in 160 (68.7 %). Further pathologies included ?-synucleinopathies (24.9 %), non-Alzheimer tauopathies (23.2 %; including novel forms), TDP-43 proteinopathy (13.3 %), vascular lesions (48.9 %), and others (15.1 %; inflammation, metabolic encephalopathy, and tumours). TDP-43 proteinopathy correlated with hippocampal sclerosis (p < 0.001) and Alzheimer-related pathology (CERAD score and Braak and Braak stages, p = 0.001). The presence of one specific variable (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, A? parenchymal deposits, TDP-43 proteinopathy, ?-synucleinopathy, vascular lesions, non-Alzheimer type tauopathy) did not increase the probability of the co-occurrence of others (p = 0.24). The number of observed pathologies correlated with AD-neuropathologic change (p < 0.0001). In addition to AD-neuropathologic change, tauopathies associated well with dementia, while TDP-43 pathology and ?-synucleinopathy showed strong effects but lost significance when evaluated together with AD-neuropathologic change. Non-AD neurodegenerative pathologies and their combinations have been underestimated, but are frequent in reality as demonstrated here. This should be considered in diagnostic evaluation of biomarkers, and for better clinical stratification of patients. PMID:23900711

Kovacs, Gabor G; Milenkovic, Ivan; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Höftberger, Romana; Gelpi, Ellen; Haberler, Christine; Hönigschnabl, Selma; Reiner-Concin, Angelika; Heinzl, Harald; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter; Budka, Herbert

2013-07-31

143

Bilateral invasive lobular breast cancer in a female teenager: a rare finding of a common disease--case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Management of cancer patients in low-resource communities presents enormous challenges. Breast cancer is a public health problem in Cameroon and occurs mostly in elderly women. The predominant histological type is a duct carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma in teenagers is rare. In this report we present a case of bilateral invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that was confirmed on biopsies in a 22-year-old female. We present this rare finding and review the pathological, clinical and radiographic challenges of the disease. Nodules in the breast from patients of any age should be submitted for histology. Public education is beneficial and should be intensified. PMID:21436945

Enownchong, Enow-Orock George; Thomas, Egbe Obinchemti; Akum, Achidi Eric; Defang, Asonganyi Etienne; Paul, Ndom; Emmanuel, Fongang; Peter, Ndumbe

2010-07-19

144

Finding a Common Purpose for Schooling in the United States: Why Do We Educate in a Democracy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Centuries ago, Aristotle recognized the problems associated with deciding what the youth of a culture should learn. Early in the 21 ,t century, and more than two centuries into the history of the United States, the circumstances are astonishingly similar. The struggle to identify a common purpose for schooling continues. A premise of the Agenda for Education in a

Dennis Potthoff; Corrine Mantle-Bromley; Richard Clark; Audrey Kleinsasser; Bernard Badiali; Steven Baugh

145

Harvard-led study finds diagnostic and invasive procedures common in women with breast-conserving surgery  

Cancer.gov

Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have high rates of diagnostic and invasive breast procedures after treatment with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) according to a study published April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast-conserving surgery is the most common treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ and has proven to be an effective alternative to mastectomy in most women; however, the necessity for and likelihood of further diagnostic mammograms and invasive procedures following BCS are unknown.

146

Radiologic-pathologic correlation of uncommon mesenchymal liver tumors.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal liver tumors are rarely encountered in clinical practice. We review the spectrum of mesenchymal liver tumors with radiologic-pathologic correlation. There is an overlap of cross-sectional imaging findings of mesenchymal liver tumors with that of the more common malignant epithelial tumors. Familiarity with the radiologic findings and its pathologic basis would help radiologists to include these uncommon liver tumors in their differential diagnosis. PMID:24070712

Bhargava, Puneet; Iyer, Ramesh S; Moshiri, Mariam; Yeh, Matthew M; Upton, Melissa P; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Gupta, Rajan T

147

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J. C.; Hollmen, R.; Poppenga, R. H.; Hario, M.

2000-01-01

148

Molecular pathology of single gene disorders.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies using recombinant DNA technology have led to an understanding of the basic molecular pathology of single gene disorders. Furthermore, methods are being developed for finding genes for conditions, whose underlying biochemistry is still not understood, or which may contribute to polygenic systems that underlie common diseases. As well as providing new approaches to carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and treatment of single gene disorders, these advances promise to provide important information about the pathophysiology of many common polygenic diseases.

Weatherall, D J

1987-01-01

149

Cryptic deletions are a common finding in "balanced" reciprocal and complex chromosome rearrangements: a study of 59 patients  

PubMed Central

Using array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) 41 de novo reciprocal translocations and 18 de novo complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) were screened. All cases had been interpreted as “balanced” by conventional cytogenetics. In all, 27 cases of reciprocal translocations were detected in patients with an abnormal phenotype, and after array CGH analysis, 11 were found to be unbalanced. Thus 40% (11 of 27) of patients with a “chromosomal phenotype” and an apparently balanced translocation were in fact unbalanced, and 18% (5 of 27) of the reciprocal translocations were instead complex rearrangements with >3 breakpoints. Fourteen fetuses with de novo, apparently balanced translocations, all but two with normal ultrasound findings, were also analysed and all were found to be normal using array CGH. Thirteen CCRs were detected in patients with abnormal phenotypes, two in women who had experienced repeated spontaneous abortions and three in fetuses. Sixteen patients were found to have unbalanced mutations, with up to 4 deletions. These results suggest that genome?wide array CGH may be advisable in all carriers of “balanced” CCRs. The parental origin of the deletions was investigated in 5 reciprocal translocations and 11 CCRs; all were found to be paternal. Using customised platforms in seven cases of CCRs, the deletion breakpoints were narrowed down to regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. No susceptibility motifs were associated with the imbalances. These results show that the phenotypic abnormalities of apparently balanced de novo CCRs are mainly due to cryptic deletions and that spermatogenesis is more prone to generate multiple chaotic chromosome imbalances and reciprocal translocations than oogenesis.

De Gregori, M; Ciccone, R; Magini, P; Pramparo, T; Gimelli, S; Messa, J; Novara, F; Vetro, A; Rossi, E; Maraschio, P; Bonaglia, M C; Anichini, C; Ferrero, G B; Silengo, M; Fazzi, E; Zatterale, A; Fischetto, R; Previdere, C; Belli, S; Turci, A; Calabrese, G; Bernardi, F; Meneghelli, E; Riegel, M; Rocchi, M; SGuerneri; Lalatta, F; Zelante, L; Romano, C; Fichera, Ma; Mattina, T; Arrigo, G; Zollino, M; Giglio, S; Lonardo, F; Bonfante, A; Ferlini, A; Cifuentes, F; Van Esch, H; Backx, L; Schinzel, A; Vermeesch, J R; Zuffardi, O

2007-01-01

150

Tumor-associated focal chronic pancreatitis from invasion of the pancreatic duct by common bile duct carcinoma: radiologic–pathologic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of tumor-associated focal chronic pancreatitis of the uncinate process of the pancreas. The chronic pancreatitis\\u000a was secondary to stenosis of the main pancreatic duct from invasion by a common bile duct carcinoma. A feature distinguishing\\u000a the chronic pancreatitis from pancreatic carcinoma was the localized dilatation of pancreatic duct branches evident in the\\u000a focal lesion of the

T. Gabata; J. Sanada; S. Kobayashi; N. Terayama; M. Kadoya; O. Matsui

2003-01-01

151

TDP43Based Animal Models of Neurodegeneration: New Insights into ALS Pathology and Pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and pathological overlap between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) suggests these diseases share common underlying mechanisms, a suggestion underscored by the discovery that TDP-43 inclusions are a key pathologic feature in both ALS and FTLD. This finding, combined with the identification of TDP-43 mutations in ALS, directly implicates this DNA\\/RNA binding protein in disease

Iga Wegorzewska; Robert H. Baloh

2011-01-01

152

Pathology and toxicology findings for search-and-rescue dogs deployed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack sites: initial five-year surveillance.  

PubMed

A long-term surveillance study was conducted on 95 search-and-rescue (S&R) dogs deployed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack sites; an additional 55 nondeployed S&R dogs served as controls. After 5 years of surveillance, 32% of the deployed dogs have died and 24% of the nondeployed dogs. The mean age at the time of death in these 2 groups of dogs is not significantly different. Causes of death in both groups of dogs include inflammatory, degenerative, and proliferative conditions. No primary pulmonary tumors have been identified to date nor has any significant level of toxicant been found in the tissues from these dogs using assays for general organic compounds and metals or, specifically, for polychlorinated biphenyls. However, significant numbers of both deployed and nondeployed dogs have evidence of inhaled matter as demonstrated by the presence of anthracotic pigments or refractile particulate matter in pulmonary tissue. Although S&R activities in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks exposed dogs to a wide variety of potentially toxic compounds, to date, these dogs do not appear to suffer from higher mortality or increased pulmonary disease compared with nondeployed dogs. To the authors' knowledge, the current survey represents the first long-term and large-scale survey of the pathology and toxicology of S&R dogs deployed to a major disaster site. PMID:18599853

Fitzgerald, Scott D; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Emmett Braselton, W; Downend, Amanda B; Otto, Cynthia M

2008-07-01

153

Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects—a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition\\u000a in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2–3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects\\u000a not performing long-distance running

Robert Stahl; Anthony Luke; C. Benjamin Ma; Roland Krug; Lynne Steinbach; Sharmila Majumdar; Thomas M. Link

2008-01-01

154

Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with a V180I Mutation: Comparative Analysis with Pathological Findings and Diffusion-Weighted Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a useful technique for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The present study reported DWI results in cases of familial CJD with a V180I mutation (CJD180) in the prion protein gene as well as neurological findings. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3 patients with V180I was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, brain MRI,

Kazuo Mutsukura; Katsuya Satoh; Susumu Shirabe; Itsuro Tomita; Takayasu Fukutome; Minoru Morikawa; Masachika Iseki; Kensuke Sasaki; Yusei Shiaga; Tetsuyuki Kitamoto; Katsumi Eguchi

2009-01-01

155

Fetal Hydrops, Hyperechogenic Arteries and Pathological Doppler Findings at 29 Weeks: Prenatal Presentation of Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy – A Novel Mutation in ENPP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal diagnosis of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) (OMIM #208000) is difficult and rare. There are various known gene mutations in ENPP1 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase\\/phosphodiesterase 1) locus 6q22-q23. We present a case of suspected intrauterine diagnosis at 29 weeks of gestation in a consanguineous couple. The sonographic findings were fetal hydrops (hydrothorax, skin edema, ascites, pericardial effusion and polyhydramnion), echogenic

A. Reitter; D. Fischer; H. Buxmann; Y. Nitschke; F. Rutsch; A. Mottok; M. L. Hansmann; E. Harms; F. Louwen; R. Schlösser

2009-01-01

156

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

157

Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

158

Unusual malignant breast lesions: imaging-pathological correlations.  

PubMed

This pictorial essay presents the common radiological (mammography and/or ultrasonography) and pathological findings observed in unusual malignant breast lesions, which include well-differentiated subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (tubular, mucinous, papillary, and medullary carcinomas), metaplastic carcinoma, and metastases. This study also includes unusual ultrasonographic appearances of a plasmacytoma. PMID:21948695

Karan, Belgin; Pourbagher, Ay?in; Bolat, Filiz Aka

2011-09-17

159

Pathological findings in the caeca of naturally infected ostriches, Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves, Struthionidae) parasitized by Codiostomum struthionis (Horst, 1885) Railliet and Henry, 1911 (Nematoda, Strongylidae).  

PubMed

In order to characterize lesions associated with Codiostomum struthionis in ostriches, 10 caeca were examined on both macro- and microscopic levels. Parasites were found in the distal third of the caecum and characterized as C. struthionis. Thickened mucosa was identified macroscopically where parasites were observed in high concentrations. Nodular areas were also observed in the distal third of the infected caeca, as well as hemorrhagic areas abutting small ulcers surrounded by edema. These findings were not observed in healthy controls. The concentration of C. struthionis found in infected animals was directly correlated with the severity of lesions observed in each caecum. These results allowed us to infer that C. struthionis is responsible for lesions in ostrich caeca. PMID:19647369

de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo

2009-07-02

160

Intraoperative findings in revision chronic otitis media surgery.  

PubMed

In this study, we reviewed the surgical findings in a series of revision tympanomastoidectomy to determine the most common causes of failure in chronic otitis media surgery. The intraoperative findings at revision mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty of 116 patients were analyzed. The most common sites of pathologic tissue at revision surgery (with cholesteatoma and/ or granulation tissue) were unexenterated cells of the sinodural angle. The most common mechanical cause of retention of debris in canal wall down procedures was facial ridge. PMID:18298298

Faramarzi, Abolhassan; Motasaddi-Zarandy, Masoud; Khorsandi, Mohammad-Taghi

2008-03-01

161

A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology – benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not

Helen M Heneghan; Sean T Martin; Mary Casey; Igdam Tobbia; Fadel Benani; Kevin M Barry

2008-01-01

162

The Role and Limitations of 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) Scan and Computerized Tomography (CT) in Restaging Patients with Hepatic Colorectal Metastases Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Comparison with Operative and Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

Background Recent data confirmed the importance of 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the selection of patients with colorectal hepatic metastases for surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before hepatic resection in selected cases may improve outcome. The influence of chemotherapy on the sensitivity of FDG-PET and CT in detecting liver metastases is not known. Methods Patients were assigned to either neoadjuvant treatment or immediate hepatic resection according to resectability, risk of recurrence, extrahepatic disease, and patient preference. Two-thirds of them underwent FDG-PET/CT before chemotherapy; all underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and FDG-PET/CT. Those without extensive extrahepatic disease underwent open exploration and resection of all the metastases according to original imaging findings. Operative and pathological findings were compared to imaging results. Results Twenty-seven patients (33 lesions) underwent immediate hepatic resection (group 1), and 48 patients (122 lesions) received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (group 2). Sensitivity of FDG-PET and CT in detecting colorectal (CR) metastases was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (FDG-PET: 93.3 vs 49%, P?findings. Baseline FDG-PET and CT before neoadjuvant therapy are mandatory.

Metser, Ur; Geva, Ravit; Nakache, Richard; Shmueli, Einat; Klausner, Joseph M.; Even-Sapir, Einat; Figer, Arie; Ben-Haim, Menahem

2007-01-01

163

Unexpected dilatation of the common bile duct after methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in rabbits. Possible implications to findings in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) rapidly dissolves cholesterol gall stones in vitro and in vivo. To further characterise tolerability and safety of this aliphatic ether, either MTBE (1 ml\\/kg body wt daily for two days) or an equal amount of saline was infused into the common bile duct (CBD) of eight cholecystectomised rabbits. Transient vomiting, dyspnoea and somnolence developed during

R Tritapepe; C Pozzi; P Caspani; C Di Padova

1989-01-01

164

Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated.

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

2012-01-01

165

Pathological gambling.  

PubMed

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

166

Scoring CT\\/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient’s age, body mass index and common laboratory test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT\\/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38–80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall

T. Vehmas; L. Kivisaari; M. S. Huuskonen; M. S. Jaakkola

2005-01-01

167

Rates of Depression in Individuals With Pathologic But Not Clinical Alzheimer Disease are Lower Than Those in Individuals Without the Disease: Findings From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of major depression is increased in Alzheimer disease (AD), but currently the basis of this association remains unclear. The present study examined rates of depression in 4 groups of participants with postmortem examination from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging: (1) cognitively normal controls with no Alzheimer pathology, (2) cognitively normal individuals with Alzheimer pathology, (3) individuals with

Melissa D. Morgan; Michelle M. Mielke; Juan C. Troncoso; Alan B. Zonderman; Constantine G. Lyketsos

2007-01-01

168

Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

PubMed Central

Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (microtubule-associated protein tau mutations); strongly asymmetric, distributed atrophy (Pick's disease); relatively symmetric, predominantly extratemporal atrophy (corticobasal degeneration, fused-in-sarcoma pathology). TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with substantial individual variation; however, within this group progranulin mutations were associated with strongly asymmetric, distributed hemispheric atrophy. We interpret the findings in terms of emerging network models of neurodegenerative disease: the neuroanatomical specificity of particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathologies may depend on an interaction of disease-specific and network-specific factors.

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

2011-01-01

169

Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]). Pathologic specimens of the hypertrophic synovium may appear villous, nodular, or villonodular, and hemosiderin deposition, often prominent, is seen in most cases. The knee, followed by the hip, is the most common location for PVNS or PVNB, whereas PVNTS occurs most often in the hand and foot. PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS). PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Radiographs reveal nonspecific features of a joint effusion in PVNS, a focal soft-tissue mass in PVNB or PVNTS, or a normal appearance. Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases). Cross-sectional imaging reveals diffuse involvement of the synovium (PVNS), an intimate relationship to the tendon (PVTNS), or a typical bursal location (PVNB), findings that suggest the diagnosis. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of prominent low signal intensity (seen with T2-weighting) and "blooming" artifact from the hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences) are nearly pathognomonic of this diagnosis. In addition, MR imaging is optimal for evaluating lesion extent. This information is crucial to guide treatment and to achieve complete surgical resection. Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS. Recognizing the appearances of the various types of PVNS, which reflect their pathologic characteristics, improves radiologic assessment and is important for optimal patient management. PMID:18794322

Murphey, Mark D; Rhee, John H; Lewis, Rachel B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Flemming, Donald J; Walker, Eric A

170

USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

171

Tenovaginoscopic approach to the common digital flexor tendon sheath of adult cattle: technique, normal findings and preliminary results in four clinical cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the tenovaginoscopic approach to the bovine common digital flexor tendon sheath (CDFTS). A comparative anatomical, ultrasonographic and endoscopic study was undertaken using 26 healthy cadaver feet from adult dairy cows. Tenovaginoscopy was performed using a rigid, 30° arthroscope (length 18 cm; outer diameter 4mm) enabling a direct view of the synovial cavity and the following structures: digital flexor tendons, digital annular ligaments, lateral and medial pouches, three mesotendons, the vinculum of the superficial digital flexor tendon, and a slot-shaped opening in the manicaflexoria of the hind feet. Additionally, four clinical cases of septic tenosynovitis treated with lavage under tenovaginoscopic control were examined. Tenovaginoscopy represents a feasible, minimally invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of septic tenosynovitis of the CDFTS, which allows the degree of alterations of the normal structures to be evaluated. PMID:21292522

Bertagnoli, Alberto; Räber, Marta; Morandi, Nicola; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Steiner, Adrian

2011-02-02

172

From telepathology to virtual pathology institution: the new world of digital pathology.  

PubMed

Telepathology has left its childhood. Its technical development is mature, and its use for primary (frozen section) and secondary (expert consultation) diagnosis has been expanded to a great amount. This is in contrast to a virtual pathology laboratory, which is still under technical constraints. Similar to telepathology, which can also be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily is demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology (Klaus.Kayser@charite.de) at least two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories will be implemented in the near future: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (> or = 1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists (usually situated in one institution) and a centralized laboratory, which digitizes complete histological slides. Both scenarios are under intensive technical investigations. The features of virtual pathology comprise a virtual pathology institution (mode a) that accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The Internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size and number of transferred images have to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. The sender needs to possess experiences in image sampling techniques, which present with the most significant information. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. The first experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized virtual pathology institution (mode b) depends upon the digitalization of a complete slide, and the transfer of large sized images to different pathologists working in one institution. The technical performance of complete slide digitalization is still under development. Virtual pathology can be combined with e-learning and e-training, that will serve for a powerful daily-work-integrated pathology system. At present, e-learning systems are "stand-alone" solutions distributed on CD or via Internet. A characteristic example is the Digital Lung Pathology CD, which includes about 60 different rare and common lung diseases with some features of electronic communication. These features include access to scientific library systems (PubMed), distant measurement servers (EuroQuant), automated immunohisto-chemistry measurements, or electronic journals (Elec J Pathol Histol, www.pathology-online.org). It combines e-learning and e-training with some acoustic support. A new and complete database based upon this CD will combine e-learning and e-teaching with the actual workflow in a virtual pathology institution (mode a). The technological problems are solved and do not depend upon technical constraints such as slide scanning systems. At present, telepathology serves as promoter for a complete new landscape in diagnostic pathology, the so-called virtual pathology institution. Industrial and scientific efforts will probably allow an implementation of this technique within the next two years with exciting diagnostic and scientific perspectives. PMID:15847374

Kayser, K; Kayser, G; Radziszowski, D; Oehmann, A

173

Pair-wise detection of eight common DNA polymorphisms of the human lipoprotein lipase gene by PCR-RFLP. Findings of the Olivetti Heart Study.  

PubMed

We developed a rapid procedure to analyse simultaneously two different DNA polymorphisms of the human LPL gene by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). The method involves PCR amplification of the gene fragments encompassing two polymorphic sites, direct digestion in the same PCR-tube of the amplification mixture with two restriction enzymes, and the analysis of the resulting DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis. In 422 participants of the 1994 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study, a total of eight common LPL gene polymorphisms have been analysed in pairs by this procedure: -93 T/G and D9N; V108V and T361T; N291S and PvuII; HindIII and S447X. Two of these polymorphisms (V108V and T361T) were analysed for the first time. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of clinical samples of varying DNA content and practically halves the times and costs of screening for these LPL polymorphisms. PMID:15553598

Feliciello, I; Capossela, S; Cantile, M; Barbato, A; Cappuccio, F P; Strazzullo, P; Chinali, G

2004-08-01

174

Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on endoscopic and pathologic alterations of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders of Iranian patients with common\\u000a variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Nineteen of 39 CVID patients (48%) had GI complaints. The most common symptom was chronic\\u000a diarrhea (28%). In endoscopic examination of small intestines, 15 patients had no abnormal finding. Duodenal biopsy revealed\\u000a villous atrophy in eight and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Ahmad Khodadad; Asghar Aghamohammadi; Nima Parvaneh; Nima Rezaei; Fatemeh Mahjoob; Mohammad Bashashati; Masoud Movahedi; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Fariborz Zandieh; Zahra Roohi; Sina Abdollahzade; Ali Salavati; Ali Kouhi; Bahram Talebpour; Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

2007-01-01

175

Clinical and Pathologic Features of Secondary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a relatively common form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has an excellent prognosis. In contrast, secondary acute myeloid leukemias, including therapy-related AML and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, have a relatively poor prognosis. We identified 9 cases of APL at our institution in which there was a history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic immunosuppression, or antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinical and pathologic findings in these cases of secondary APL were compared with the clinical and pathologic findings in cases of de novo APL. We found that secondary and de novo APL had abnormal promyelocytes with similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features, comparable cytogenetic findings, comparable rates of FMS-like tyrosine kinase mutations, and similar rates of recurrent disease and death. These data suggest that secondary APL is similar to de novo APL and, thus, should be considered distinct from other secondary acute myeloid neoplasms.

Duffield, Amy S.; Aoki, Joseph; Levis, Mark; Cowan, Kathleen; Gocke, Christopher D.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Vuica-Ross, Milena

2013-01-01

176

Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Fusco, Gregory P.; Perez, Mia C.

2009-08-25

177

Lewy Body Pathology in Normal Elderly Subjects  

PubMed Central

Lewy body and Lewy neurite formation are the hallmark neuropathological findings in Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other alpha-synucleinopathies. They also have been described in the brains of normal older individuals and referred to as incidental Lewy body disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites (Lewy body pathology; LBP) in 139 autopsies from our normal volunteer control group of the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center. All subjects were followed longitudinally and were cognitively normal without any type of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric features, or other CNS findings. Thirty-three out of 139 normal subjects contained LBP in various brain regions. The most common regions involved were the medulla (26%), amygdala (24%), pons (20%), and midbrain (20%). No mean statistical differences were found between those with and without LBP on any demographic or cognitive variable, Braak stage, or neurofibrillary tangle and neuritic plaque quantitation. The high prevalence of LBP in our elderly, well educated group is not clear although it does not appear to be related to aging or the presence of AD pathology. Overall, our findings support the concept that incidental Lewy body disease most likely represents preclinical or presymptomatic PD, PDD or DLB.

Markesbery, William R.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Liu, Huaichen; Schmitt, Frederick A.

2009-01-01

178

Frequency of errors and pathology in panoramic images of young orthodontic patients.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of errors in panoramic radiographs in young orthodontic patients, to register pathologic and abnormal conditions, and to compare these findings with the patient's record. A total of 1287 panoramic radiographs of children and adolescents (530 boys and 757 girls; mean age 14.2 years) were analyzed. The radiographs were obtained of patients referred for orthodontic treatment during a 1 year period. Four observers evaluated the radiographs for 10 common errors, pathologies, and/or anomalies. Cohen's kappa was used for the calculations of inter- and intraobserver variability. Five of the errors were divided into clinically relevant or not clinically relevant errors, i.e. errors influencing diagnosis. Only those pathological findings with a possible influence on orthodontic treatment were compared with the patient's record. Of the 1287 radiographs, 96 per cent had errors. The number of errors in each image varied between 1 and 5, and in 24 per cent of these images, the errors could be of importance for clinical decision making. The most common error was that the tongue was not in contact with the hard palate. Pathologies or anomalies were found in 558 patients and a total of 1221 findings were recorded. Findings of possible relevance for orthodontic treatment were 63, and 12 of those were registered in the patient records. Pathological findings outside the dental arches were low and could be an argument for minimizing the radiation field. PMID:21511820

Granlund, Christina M; Lith, Agneta; Molander, Björn; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken; Ekestubbe, Annika

2011-04-21

179

Molecular Pathology in Early Hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors characterized by an obvious multistage process of tumor development. Remarkable progress in diagnostic imaging has led to the discovery of small equivocal lesions, now widely recognized as dysplastic nodule, or early HCC. Early HCC is considered a key step in HCC development and progression. However, the molecular pathology involved

Kathryn Effendi; Michiie Sakamoto

2010-01-01

180

Pathological Fear of Cot Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened

Helen Weightman; Brian M. Dalal; I. F. Brockington

1998-01-01

181

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Schoedel, Karen; Lu, Zhengbin

2009-04-17

182

Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption  

PubMed Central

Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users’ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists’ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems.

Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

2012-01-01

183

General and Developmental Education: Finding Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that both general and developmental education focus on such preparatory skills as communicating effectively and thinking critically. Describes current approaches combining general and developmental education. Explains the mechanics of cross-over teaching between the two domains. (PAA)|

Franke, Thomas L.

1993-01-01

184

Nosebleeds Common But Seldom Serious, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... nosebleed patients either by stuffing the nose with cotton or by cauterizing a broken blood vessel using ... who were treated by packing their nose with cotton. Study co-author Dr. Jennifer Villwock said the ...

185

Confronting Difference and Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

On sitting down to write my contribution to this Colloquy, I found myself pulled in many directions, as Joan Williams’s new book is rich with fascinating and provocative ideas. From the incredibly valuable documentation of how rigid masculine norms harm men who want to do right by their families, to the highlighting of deep tensions between “femmey” and “tomboy” feminists,

Gowri Ramachandran

2011-01-01

186

Learning Community: Finding Common Ground in Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume explores multiple layers of educational community and the conditions that contribute to their resilience and growth. Using a backdrop of the experiences of different schools, the discussion depicts community as a process rather than a commodity and illustrates how ideas of community develop. Issues of identity, leadership, voice, and…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

187

Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.  

PubMed

Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

2009-08-07

188

The pathology of primary blast overpressure injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have

Maria A. Mayorga

1997-01-01

189

Anesthesia and tau pathology.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

Whittington, Robert A; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-03-25

190

Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success.

Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

2012-01-01

191

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.

2007-12-10

192

Current concepts: rotator cuff pathology in athletes - a source of pain or adaptive pathology?  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are common in patients and athletes with shoulder pain. Historically these anatomic derangements have been thought to be the source of the patient's symptoms, and approaches have been focused on restoring the anatomy. This manuscript will address three objectives: 1) suggest that the approach to rotator cuff disease should be based on the patient's history and physical examination, and not necessarily on the anatomic disorders apparent on imaging; 2) review the data that supports the contention that rotator cuff disease is not the source of pain in the symptomatic shoulder, and 3) describe the concept of adaptive pathology. The findings on the MRI in the thrower's painful shoulder may be adaptive, and these alterations may be required to allow performance at high levels in sport. PMID:24030304

Kuhn, John E

193

In vivo spreading of tau pathology.  

PubMed

Recent findings have suggested that tau pathology may spread in the brain by a prion-like mechanism. In this issue of Neuron, de Calignon et al. (2012) recreated an early stage of neurofibrillary tangle pathology to show that tau aggregates initially generated in a circumscribed area spread throughout the brain and lead to neurodegeneration. PMID:22365536

Soto, Claudio

2012-02-23

194

Oligodendroglial tumors: diagnostic and molecular pathology.  

PubMed

Oligodendroglial tumors, which encompass pure oligodendroglioma and mixed oligoastrocytoma, represent the second most common glioma in adults after glioblastoma. They remain controversial neoplasms in the realm of surgical neuropathology. The early recognition of their more favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment when compared with diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas has influenced the pathologic diagnostic interpretation, and resulted in a pervasive interobserver variability. The more recent finding of an increased frequency of 1p/19q deletion in these tumors by cytogenetic analysis, and the association of this molecular abnormality with a better prognosis has greatly impacted the field of neuro-oncology. In this review, we focus on important histopathologic aspects in the evaluation of oligodendroglial tumors, key differential diagnoses, and highlight particular clinical and molecular characteristics, as well as current diagnostic and conceptual controversies. PMID:20860317

Rodriguez, Fausto J; Giannini, Caterina

2010-05-01

195

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

196

Pathology Case Study: Cerebellar Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Cummings, Thomas J.; McLendon, Roger E., 1957-; Ebert, Robert H.; Provenzale, James M.

2008-03-24

197

Clinico-pathological findings in peripartum dairy cows fed anion salts lowering the dietary cation-anion difference: involvement of serum inorganic phosphorus, chloride and plasma estrogen concentrations in milk fever.  

PubMed

In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several clinico-pathological constituents in serum and urine, which might be related to milk fever, were analyzed using stored samples from the previous study to identify clinico-pathological parameters for easily evaluating the efficacy of lowering DCAD and to further investigate the mechanism by which lowering DCAD prevents milk fever. Among the parameters analyzed in the present study, inorganic phosphorus (iP) was involved in milk fever because the serum concentration and urinary excretion of iP were significantly higher in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group), which did not develop hypocalcemia, than those in other groups of multiparous cows. Serum chloride concentrations in the heifer group and the group of multiparous cows fed anion salts (anion group) tended to remain higher than those in other control groups of multiparous cows suggesting that serum chloride concentration may be utilized for evaluating the status of metabolic acidosis and the efficacy of lowerng DCAD in dairy cows fed anion salts. In addition, plasma estradiol-17beta concentration in the heifer group tended to be lower at parturition compared with that in other multiparous groups suggesting that estrogen known as a potent inhibitor of bone resorption may be involved in developing milk fever. PMID:17596033

Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Kojima, Toshiyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu

2007-05-01

198

From the radiologic pathology archives: esophageal neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Esophageal neoplasms have a wide spectrum of clinical features, pathologic findings, and imaging manifestations. Leiomyomas are the most common benign esophageal neoplasm, typically appearing as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Fibrovascular polyps arise in the cervical esophagus, gradually elongating as they are pulled inferiorly by esophageal peristalsis. Granular cell tumors are generally incidental small intramural masses with an appearance similar to that of leiomyomas. Malignant esophageal neoplasms are a common cause of cancer mortality, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma. Both of these tumors occur in older men, most often appearing as irregular infiltrative lesions at barium examination, with evidence of tumor spread beyond the esophagus at cross-sectional imaging. Adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett esophagus and is much more likely than SCC to involve the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal involvement by lymphoma is usually secondary to tumor spread from the stomach or mediastinum. Spindle cell carcinoma is a biphasic malignancy with carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements that forms a bulky polypoid intraluminal mass. Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that may be hypervascular and is usually associated with metastatic disease at presentation. Understanding the imaging appearances and pathologic bases of esophageal neoplasms is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning. PMID:23842973

Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodriguez, Pablo; Levine, Marc S

199

Sesamoids and accessory ossicles of the foot: anatomical variability and related pathology.  

PubMed

Sesamoids and accessory ossicles seen in the foot vary widely in their prevalence and appearance. Occasionally, these bones may be associated with painful syndromes, due to various pathologies, including trauma, infection, inflammation, degeneration and others. However, symptomatic accessory and sesamoid bones are rare, and search for additional pathology should be performed. Although the clinical significance of these osseous structures is probably minor, clinicians very commonly ask about these bones, which may originate an unnecessary work-up. Therefore, knowledge of their presence and morphological variations is important to prevent misinterpreting them as fractures-a common error. Finally, it may be very difficult to distinguish between incidental variants and truly symptomatic ones. Radiological studies provide insight regarding the presence and pathology involving these bones. This review describes an overview of the anatomy of sesamoids and accessory ossicles in the foot, and provides a pictorial review of their pathological conditions, including trauma, sesamoiditis, osteomyelitis, osteoarthritis and pain syndromes. Radiological studies including radiography, ultrasound, scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide useful information which should be used in concert with clinical findings to guide patient management. Teaching points • Sesamoids and accessory ossicles seen in the foot vary widely in their prevalence and appearance. • Pathology of these bones includes trauma, sesamoiditis, infection, osteoarthritis and pain syndromes. • Radiography, ultrasound, scintigraphy, CT and MRI provide information regarding the pathology of these bones. PMID:24006205

Nwawka, O Kenechi; Hayashi, Daichi; Diaz, Luis E; Goud, Ajay R; Arndt, William F; Roemer, Frank W; Malguria, Nagina; Guermazi, Ali

2013-09-05

200

Extensive dentigerous cyst associated with a mesiodens: CT findings.  

PubMed

The most common of the supernumerary teeth in humans are mesiodentes, which arise in the midline of the maxilla between the central incisors. The most common pathologic findings associated with a mesiodens are retention of the adjacent incisors, malposition, and diastema. The development of a dentigerous cyst in association with an impacted mesiodens is relatively uncommon. We report the case of a 35-year-old man with an extensive dentigerous cyst associated with a mesiodens who presented with a painful swelling in the left nasolabial area. We discuss the imaging findings in this case, particularly the contribution of computed tomography, and we review the literature on this interesting condition. PMID:23975501

Kim, Kyung Soo; Mun, Seog-Kyun

2013-08-01

201

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi; Abernethy, John

2008-04-29

202

Pathologic basis of central nervous system infections.  

PubMed

Radiology provides valuable gross pathologic information about central nervous system (CNS) infections. Major categories of infectious lesions of the brain and spinal cord are recognized by imaging such as diffuse, focal, or multifocal. This article discusses the pathologic basis of these radiographic findings. It illustrates examples with gross and microscopic photographs of CNS infections, and the tissue reactions to these infections. Where the organism can spread within the CNS, and cellular responses to the organism underlie both the radiographic and pathologic findings. PMID:23122266

McKeever, Paul E

2012-11-01

203

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Yousem, Sam; Johnson, Douglas R.; Gregorio, Remigio; Nodit, Laurentia

2009-03-11

204

SNOMED CT in pathology.  

PubMed

Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible. PMID:22925793

García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

2012-01-01

205

Insurance problems and pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 241 members of Gamblers Anonymous was conducted in order to find out the impact of pathological gambling on the insurance industry and whether Gamblers Anonymous reverses that impact. Fifty-two percent of the respondents cashed in, surrendered, lapsed or had policies revoked for non-payment. Forty-six percent borrowed on or used the cash value of their life insurance policies

Henry R. Lesieur; Kenneth Puig

1987-01-01

206

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. ... M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. ...

207

Common Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Common warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Common warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

208

Ubiquilin 2 Is Not Associated with Tau Pathology  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aberrant proteins in inclusion bodies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Impairment of proteolytic systems is a common event in these protein misfolding diseases. Recently, mutations in the UBQLN 2 gene encoding ubiquilin 2 have been identified in X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, ubiquilin 2 is associated with inclusions in familial and sporadic ALS/dementia, synucleinopathies and polyglutamine diseases. Ubiquilin 2 exerts a regulatory role in proteostasis and thus it has been suggested that ubiquilin 2 pathology may be a common event in neurodegenerative diseases. Tauopathies, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied with dementia, are characterized by inclusions of the microtubule-binding protein tau. In the present study, we investigate whether ubiquilin 2 is connected with tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Pick’s disease (PiD) and familial cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We show that ubiquilin 2 positive inclusions are absent in these tauopathies. Furthermore, we find decreased ubiquilin 2 protein levels in AD patients, but our results do not indicate a correlation with tau pathology. Our data show no evidence for involvement of ubiquilin 2 and indicate that other mechanisms underly the proteostatic disturbances in tauopathies.

Nolle, Anna; van Haastert, Elise S.; Zwart, Rob; Hoozemans, Jeroen J. M.; Scheper, Wiep

2013-01-01

209

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

210

Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology is a free resource for pregraduate students of medicine, pathologists and other health professionals dealing with prenatal medicine. The atlas can be found at http:\\/\\/www.muni.cz\\/atlases. The access is restricted to registered users. Concise texts summarize the gross and microscopic pathology, etiology, and clinical signs of both common and rare fetal and neonatal conditions.

Marta Ježová; Katarína Mú?ková; Ond?ej Sou?ek; Josef Feit; Pavel Vlašín

2008-01-01

211

Handheld computing in pathology.  

PubMed

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-04-18

212

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in

Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kfihlhorn

1994-01-01

213

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

214

Description of Laryngeal Pathologies in Children Evaluated by Otolaryngologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data were collected on 731 patients (age birth to 18) at a children's hospital otolaryngology clinic. Most frequent laryngeal pathologies were subglottic stenosis, vocal nodules, laryngomalacia, and vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal pathologies were more common to males than females, were most common in the youngest patients, and were distributed…

Dobres, Rachel; And Others

1990-01-01

215

Common breast problems.  

PubMed

A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea. PMID:22963023

Salzman, Brooke; Fleegle, Stephenie; Tully, Amber S

2012-08-15

216

Correlation of histopathological diagnosis with habits and clinical findings in oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis is a common oral health problem in India. This study was conducted to correlate the histopathological diagnosis with habits and clinical findings in patients suffering from oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). METHODS: Patients suffering from oral submucous fibrosis from the Departments of Otorhinolayngology and Pathology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India were studied from 2004–2008. Detailed

Shruti Pandya; Ajay Kumar Chaudhary; Mamta Singh; Mangal Singh; Ravi Mehrotra

2009-01-01

217

Pathology annual. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

218

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

219

TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies.

Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

2010-01-01

220

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kanbour, Anisa; Chen, Lei; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

221

Pathology Case Study: Cervicomedullary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Hamilton, Ronald

2007-10-16

222

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Hasegawa, Susan; Arnold, Sonya

2009-05-08

223

Intestinal pathology from NSAIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the pathology of 17 patients with NSAID-associated stricturing and non-stricturing, erosive-ulcerative intestinal\\u000a pathology. Eight patients had stricturing lesions mainly localized in the caecal region and right-sided colon. All except\\u000a one patient who suffered exclusively from jejuno-ileal pathology had been treated with the slow-release form of diclofenac.\\u000a The lesions observed satisfied the macroscopic and microscopic criteria of diaphragm disease

F. Halter; A. Gut; C. Ruchti

1996-01-01

224

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

225

[Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].  

PubMed

Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. PMID:22325312

Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

2012-01-17

226

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

227

Common pathological mechanisms in mouse models for muscular dystrophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duchenne\\/Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies share clinical symptoms like muscle weakness and wasting but differ in clinical presentation and severity. To get a closer view on the differentiating molecular events responsible for the muscular dystrophies, we have carried out a comparative gene expression profiling of hindlimb muscles of the following mouse models: dystrophin-deficient (mdx, mdx3cv), sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgca null, Sgcb null,

R. Turk; E. Sterrenburg; E. J. de Meijer; R. X. de Menezes

2005-01-01

228

Pathological Anatomy of Complications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of papers in the recent literature have been concerned with various aspects of the pathogenesis of retinal detachment. Little has been written, however, about the pathological anatomy of the eye after operations for reattachment of the retina. In...

M. Boniuk L. E. Zimmerman

1965-01-01

229

Retroviruses and human pathology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains four sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Retroviruses and the Murine Model System;Retroviruses and the Vertebrate Model System;Retroviruses and Human Pathology;and Retroviruses and Oncogenes.

Gallo, R.C.; Stehelin, D.; Varnier, O.E.

1985-01-01

230

Geographical Pathology of Atherosclerosis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents results of investigations on the geographical pathology of atherosclerosis, conducted in various regions of the Soviet Union during the last 15 years. The methodology and program of study were developed on the initiative of the World Hea...

A. M. Vikhert B. S. Zhdanov E. E. Matova S. G. Aptekar

1987-01-01

231

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: celebrating the centennial through the lens of the Johns Hopkins hospital surgical pathology records.  

PubMed

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is now considered the most prevalent autoimmune disease, as well as the most common endocrine disorder. It was initially described in 1912, but only rarely reported until the early 1950s. To celebrate this centennial, we reviewed the surgical pathology archives of the Johns Hopkins hospital for cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, spanning the period from May 1889 to October 2012. Approximately 15,000 thyroidectomies were performed at this hospital over 124 years. The first surgical case was reported in 1942, 30 years after the original description. Then, 867 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were seen from 1942 to 2012, representing 6% of all thyroidectomies. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was the sole pathological finding in 462 cases; it accompanied other thyroid pathologies in the remaining 405 cases. The most commonly associated pathology was papillary thyroid cancer, an association that increased significantly during the last two decades. The most common indication for thyroidectomy was a thyroid nodule that was cytologically suspicious for malignancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis remains a widespread, intriguing, and multifaceted disease of unknown etiology one century after its description. Advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis and preoperative diagnosis will improve recognition and treatment of this disorder, and may one day lead to its prevention. PMID:23151083

Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Chuang, Kelly; Dembele, Marieme; Iwama, Akiko; Iwama, Shintaro

2013-02-01

232

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

233

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Tetraparesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs progressive weakening of the limbs. Microscopic images of a biopsy specimen are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Pittella, Josãâ© E.; Da Costa, Cristiane C.; Giannetti, Alexandre V.; Perpãâ©tuo, Francisco O.

2009-01-21

234

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold. The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

2007-12-12

235

Transmembrane glycine zippers: Physiological and pathological roles in membrane proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed a common sequence motif in membrane proteins, which we call a glycine zipper. Glycine zipper motifs are strongly overrepresented and conserved in membrane protein sequences, and mutations in glycine zipper motifs are deleterious to function in many cases. The glycine zipper has a significant structural impact, engendering a strong driving force for right-handed packing against a neighboring helix. Thus, the presence of a glycine zipper motif leads directly to testable structural hypotheses, particularly for a subclass of glycine zipper proteins that form channels. For example, we suggest that the membrane pores formed by the amyloid- peptide in vitro are constructed by glycine zipper packing and find that mutations in the glycine zipper motif block channel formation. Our findings highlight an important structural motif in a wide variety of normal and pathological processes. amyloid- | membrane channel | membrane protein structure | prion | transmembrane helix

Kim, Sanguk; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Oberai, Amit; Yang, Duan; Schmidt, Jacob J.; Bowie, James U.

2005-10-01

236

[Peculiarities of thyroid pathology in the childhood].  

PubMed

The paper deals with etiopathogenetic and clinical peculiarities, and also therapeutic methods during the pathological processes in the thyroid system in the childhood. The most common of these processes is the diffuse nontoxic goiter, which results in abnormality of metabolic processes regulation in the child's growing organism and often signals to the beginning of many thyropathies. PMID:23534272

Buriak, V N; Murashko, E S

237

Common Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most widely cultivated legumes in the world, occupying over 27 million hectares of tropical and temperate\\u000a agricultural land in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (FAO, 2003). The genus Phaseolus is of American origin and comprises over 30 species (Debouck, 1999). P. vulgaris is the most widely grown legume, occupying

Francisco J. Morales

238

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Iscoll, Eileen

2008-11-17

239

Reinforcement Pathology and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

Carr, Katelyn A.; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H.

2012-01-01

240

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Lyons, Valerie; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-09-16

241

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Anhalt, John P.; Torbenson, Michael; Sheaffer, John; Macauley, Robert

2007-10-05

242

A contact dermatitis of broilers ?clinical and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new skin condition of broilers which results in the downgrading of up to 15–30% of broiler carcases\\/week is described. Unsightly brown?black coloured erosions and ulcers occur on the breast, hock and foot skin. Histopathological examination of these revealed acute inflammation with necrosis of the epidermis and in more severe cases, the upper dermis. A study of the condition has

Joan A. Greene; R. M. McCracken; R. T. Evans

1985-01-01

243

Benign hereditary chorea 2: pathological findings in an autopsy case.  

PubMed

Two Japanese families with benign hereditary chorea (BHC) 2 have recently been reported. BHC 2 is characterized by adult-onset non-progressive chorea, and by genetic abnormality in the locus of chromosome 8q21.3-q23.3. This differs from the genetic abnormality previously reported in BHC. Here we report the first autopsied case of a member of one of two known families with BHC 2. A normally developed woman recognized choreiform movements of her bilateral upper extremities beginning approximately at age 40. The movements had slowly spread to her trunk and lower extremities by approximately age 60. Generalized muscular hypotonia was also observed. The symptoms persisted until her death at the age 83, but had not worsened. Neuropathological examination revealed mild to moderate neuronal loss and astrocytosis in the striatum and decreased volume of cerebral white matter with astrocytosis bilaterally. Additionally, sparse but widely distributed neurofibrillary tangles and argyrophilic threads as well as scattered tufted astrocytes immunoreactive for 4-repeat isoform of tau were observed in the cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum, showing 4-repeat tauopathy similar to that of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Unique neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in the oculomotor nuclei; however, any specific immunoreactivities (e.g. ubiquitin and p62) were not detected, suggesting the presence of previously undescribed protein intracellular inclusions. Clinicopathologically, chorea accompanied with generalized muscular hypotonia seemed to be associated with mild degeneration of the striatum and cerebral white matter. The significance of PSP-like changes in the pathogenesis of BHC 2 remains to be elucidated. PMID:22239265

Yoshida, Yasuji; Nunomura, Jinichi; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Miyata, Hajime

2012-01-12

244

[Epidermoid cysts and implants. Anatomo-pathologic findings].  

PubMed

A case is reported that is exceptional in more than one respect. The mandibular region was the site of development of three cysts: a radiculo-dental cyst, a coronodental cyst in appearance but which could have been an epidermoid cyst and a typical epidermoid cyst. Lingual nerve lesions are a rare, major complication of implantations. Dismounting of a stable implant is a very rare occurrence. Histopathology showed a bone integration process in contact with the major part of implant, an interposed fibrous band existing in certain sectors only. PMID:3470884

Commissionat, Y; Forest, M; Clairet, A; Al Himdani, K; Nguyen, P N

1987-01-01

245

Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease.

Stark, D.D.; Higgins, C.B.; Lanzer, P.; Lipton, M.J.; Schiller, N.; Crooks, L.E.; Botvinick, E.B.; Kaufman, L.

1984-02-01

246

A unique presentation and rare pathological finding for urachal sinus.  

PubMed

We report an otherwise well developing 2-year-old girl who presented with a urachal sinus with its opening located at the midline between umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis was made by ultrasound preoperatively, and confirmed during surgery. Additionally, columnar epithelium was found in the portion of sinus tract traversing the abdominal wall. Metaplasia of the sinus tract is worrisome, as urachal carcinomas have been traditionally characterized to result from this process. PMID:24074678

Wang, Bo; Tashiro, Jun; Pelaez, Liset; Rodriguez, Maria M; Perez, Eduardo A; Neville, Holly L; Sola, Juan E

2013-09-01

247

Radiologic-Pathologic Findings in Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A 13-month-old boy developed eosinophilic me- ningoencephalitis, retinitis, and a protracted encephalopa- thy with severe residual deficits. The initial MR examina- tion revealed diffuse periventricular white matter disease, and follow-up images showed atrophy. Brain biopsy, se- rology, and epidemiologic studies lead to the diagnosis of Baylisascaris procyonis infection, a parasitic disease con- tracted through exposure to soil contaminated by

Howard A. Rowley; Rosalie M. Uht; Kevin R. Kazacos; Wendy V. Wheaton; A. James Barkovich; Andrew W. Bollen

248

Portacaval shunt in a calf: clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings.  

PubMed

A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extrahepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant. PMID:17494368

Buczinski, Sébastien; Duval, Julie; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Francoz, David; Fecteau, Gilles

2007-04-01

249

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: Pathologic analysis of 73 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic factors of predictive value for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), an aggressive salivary gland malignancy, are poorly defined. Because residual mixed tumor may be relatively inconspicuous and various carcinoma subtypes are encountered, misdiagnosis is common. To describe the pathologic features and identify potential prognostic factors, we retrospectively examined 73 cases of CXPA of the major salivary glands treated at

Jean E Lewis; Kerry D Olsen; Thomas J Sebo

2001-01-01

250

Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which it is premised, that

Joel Michell

2008-01-01

251

[Geriatric digestive pathology].  

PubMed

This study shows the digestive diseases frequency, in 438 patients older than 60 years. Gastroduodenal pathology was more frequent (53%) followed by colonic diseases (34%) intestine (25.7%), intestinal parasitosis (24%) anus-rectum (19%), esophagus (17%), biliary Tract (12%) liver (7%) and pancreas (2%). PMID:8018899

Estremadoyro Robles, O

252

Airway pathology in asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway pathology in asthma. M. Saetta, G. Turato. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the major cellular and structural changes present in the airways and lung parenchyma in asthma in comparison with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an attempt to underline the possible mechanisms contributing to airflow limitation in these two diseases. Both asthma and COPD

M. Saetta; G. Turato

2001-01-01

253

Pathological Responses to Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism

Rachel Yehuda; Richard Bryant; Charles Marmar; Joseph Zohar

2005-01-01

254

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

255

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

256

Pathological and molecular biological approaches to early mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related malignancy that arises primarily from mesothelial cells on the serosal surfaces of the pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is most common, and its incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide as a result of widespread use of asbestos. Morphological discrimination between MPM and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia is difficult, and the most reliable pathological criterion for malignancy is mesothelial proliferation invading deeply into subpleural adipose tissues. To establish radical cure of MPM, it is crucial to find early-stage MPM of epithelial type, in which mesothelial proliferation is localized on the serosal surface of parietal pleura or limited within the submesothelial fibrous tissues of parietal pleura. The initial clinical presentation for patients with MPM is frequently dyspnea and/or chest pain due to large pleural effusion, and cytological analysis of pleural effusions is valuable to find patients with early-stage MPM of epithelial type. Recently, cytological features of MPM in pleural effusion, molecular markers for MPM, and genetic alternations of MPM have been reported. In this review, we discuss major issues on pathological and molecular biological approaches for diagnosis of early-stage MPM of epithelial type. PMID:22237727

Tsujimura, Tohru; Torii, Ikuko; Sato, Ayuko; Song, Misa; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi

2012-01-12

257

Primary Cilia in Normal and Pathological Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical literature in pathology contains a surprising number of anecdotal reports of primary cilia, with authors often expressing some incredulity at finding such organelles. In this update of an earlier review, I will argue that primary cilia should by now be regarded as regular cell organelles, not some form of atypical response to unusual circumstances. In all situations in

Denys N. Wheatley

1995-01-01

258

Pathology of endometrium treated with tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To determine the type of endometrial abnormalities associated with prolonged tamoxifen treatment and to investigate the correlation between tamoxifen dose and any abnormalities detected. METHODS--Endometria from 19 prospectively collected breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen were ascribed a pathological diagnosis and the findings compared with those in a control group matched for age and presentation. The abnormalities were related to

S M Ismail

1994-01-01

259

Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins  

PubMed Central

The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with ?-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of ?-synuclein with ?-amyloid (A?) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble A? oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric A? with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the A?42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of A?42, ?-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with A? was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with A? can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of A? and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease.

Olah, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virok, Dezso; Simon, Dora; Bozso, Zsolt; Tokesi, Natalia; Horvath, Istvan; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovacs, Janos; Magyar, Anna; Szucs, Maria; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovadi, Judit

2011-01-01

260

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: correlation with pathological examination  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the correlation between enhancement patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pathological findings. Methods The CEUS enhancement patterns of 40 pathologically proven ICC lesions were retrospectively analysed. Pathologically, the degree of tumour cell and fibrosis distribution in the lesion was semi-quantitatively evaluated. Results 4 enhancement patterns were observed in the arterial phase for 32 mass-forming ICCs: peripheral rim-like hyperenhancement (n=19); heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=6); homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3); and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=4). Among the four enhancement patterns, the differences in tumour cell distribution were statistically significant (p<0.05). The hyperenhancing area on CEUS corresponded to more tumour cells for mass-forming ICCs. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=2) and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=2) were observed in the arterial phase for four periductal infiltrating ICCs. In this subtype, fibrosis was more commonly found in the lesions. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=1) and homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3) were observed in the arterial phase for four intraductal growing ICCs. This subtype tended to have abundant tumour cells. Conclusion The CEUS findings of ICC relate to the degree of carcinoma cell proliferation at pathological examination. Hyperenhancing areas in the tumour always indicated increased density of cancer cells.

Xu, H-X; Chen, L-D; Liu, L-N; Zhang, Y-F; Guo, L-H; Liu, C

2012-01-01

261

Kidney Pathology Precedes and Predicts the Pathological Cascade of Cerebrovascular Lesions in Stroke Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has been hypothesized to be an age-dependent disease accompanied by similar vascular changes in other organs. SHRSP feature numerous vascular risk factors and may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD. Here we compare renal histopathological changes with the brain pathology of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Material and Methods We histologically investigated the brains and kidneys of 61 SHRSP at different stages of age (12 to 44 weeks). The brain pathology (aggregated erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, microbleeds, microthromboses) and the kidney pathology (aggregated erythrocytes within peritubular capillaries, tubular protein cylinders, glomerulosclerosis) were quantified separately. The prediction of the brain pathology by the kidney pathology was assessed by creating ROC-curves integrating the degree of kidney pathology and age of SHRSP. Results Both, brain and kidney pathology, show an age-dependency and proceed in definite stages whereas an aggregation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, we parsimoniously interpreted as stases, represent the initial finding in both organs. Thus, early renal tubulointerstitial damage characterized by rather few intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and tubular protein cylinders predicts the initial step of SHRSPs' cerebral vascular pathology marked by accumulated erythrocytes. The combined increase of intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and protein cylinders accompanied by glomerulosclerosis and thrombotic renal microangiopathy in kidneys of older SHRSP predicts the final stages of SHRSPs' cerebrovascular lesions marked by microbleeds and thrombotic infarcts. Conclusion Our results illustrate a close association between structural brain and kidney pathology and support the concept of small vessel disease to be an age-dependent systemic pathology. Further, an improved joined nephrologic and neurologic diagnostic may help to identify patients with CSVD at an early stage.

Schreiber, Stefanie; Bueche, Celine Z.; Garz, Cornelia; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Amann, Kerstin; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Goertler, Michael; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

2011-01-01

262

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

263

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

264

Revisiting Texas' pathology frontier.  

PubMed

Despite sleet, snow, and bitter temperatures, nearly three fourths of the Texas Society of Pathologists (TSP) guest list journeyed to Dallas the first weekend of February to attend the TSP Diamond Jubilee. It would take more than a little slush during the Ice Storm of '96 to keep the oldest contiguous state pathology organization in the nation from celebrating 75 years of scientific, technical, political, and social advances. PMID:8901066

Franke, J

1996-04-01

265

Pathology of peliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peliosis is a pathological entity characterized by the gross appearance of multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within parenchymatous organs. Peliosis has been related to several underlying debilitating illnesses such as tuberculosis, hematological malignancies, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and post-transplant immunodeficiency, as well as intravenous drug abuse, chronic alcoholism, and in conjunction with the intake of oral contraceptives or steroids. The

Michael Tsokos; Andreas Erbersdobler

2005-01-01

266

Pathology Case Study: Lethargy and Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the health conditions of a male baby born prematurely (28 weeks gestational age). The patientâÂÂs history, gross and microscopic descriptions, ultrasound images, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Heyner, Robert; Sobel, Raymond A.

2007-10-12

267

Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hari, Raj

2009-04-15

268

Pathology Case Study: Oligoarthritis and Localized Swellings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 75-year-old man has been admitted to the hospital with chest pain radiating to his left arm, elbow, and wrist. Visitors are given the clinical history and radiology findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Chung, Wen-Wei

2008-11-25

269

Pathology Case Study: Left Upper Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This surgical pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a mass in the patientâÂÂs neck. Gross and microscopic descriptions of the surgically removed mass are included in the case study to aid in understanding the diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Craig, Fiona; Nodit, Laurentia

2008-12-24

270

Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Over the past 70years, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has emerged as one of the most common and important pathological features of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Axons in the white matter appear to be especially vulnerable to injury due to the mechanical loading of the brain during TBI. As such, DAI has been found in all severities of TBI and may represent a key pathologic substrate of mild TBI (concussion). Pathologically, DAI encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities from primary mechanical breaking of the axonal cytoskeleton, to transport interruption, swelling and proteolysis, through secondary physiological changes. Depending on the severity and extent of injury, these changes can manifest acutely as immediate loss of consciousness or confusion and persist as coma and/or cognitive dysfunction. In addition, recent evidence suggests that TBI may induce long-term neurodegenerative processes, such as insidiously progressive axonal pathology. Indeed, axonal degeneration has been found to continue even years after injury in humans, and appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes. Here we review the current understanding of DAI as a uniquely mechanical injury, its histopathological identification, and its acute and chronic pathogenesis following TBI. PMID:22285252

Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

2012-01-20

271

The pathology of heuristic search in the 8-puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, an incomplete heuristic search nearly always finds better solutions if it is allowed to search deeper, i.e. expand and heuristically evaluate more nodes in the search tree. On the rare occasions when searching deeper is not beneficial, a curious phenomenon called ‘search pathology’ occurs. In this article, we study the pathology and gain of a deeper search of

Rok Piltaver; Mitja Luštrek; Matjaž Gams

2012-01-01

272

The pathology of heuristic search in the 8-puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, an incomplete heuristic search nearly always finds better solutions if it is allowed to search deeper, i.e. expand and heuristically evaluate more nodes in the search tree. On the rare occasions when searching deeper is not beneficial, a curious phenomenon called ‘search pathology’ occurs. In this article, we study the pathology and gain of a deeper search of

Rok Piltaver; Mitja Luštrek; Matjaž Gams

2011-01-01

273

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

274

Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

275

Pathology Case Study: Epileptic Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 43 year old man with a "seizure" of dizziness associated with difficulty in walking and performing simple movements. Visitors are provided with patient history along with neuroimaging and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2008-12-10

276

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

277

Ovarian Pathology in Rhesus Macaques: A 12-year Retrospective  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian pathology is an important cause of decreased fertility and reproductive capability and may impact multiple systems, particularly in aging rhesus macaques. Methods Retrospective histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 458 female rhesus macaque necropsies over 12 years at the New England Primate Research Center in Southborough, MA. Results Degenerative and inflammatory changes in the ovaries included mineralization, infiltration by lymphocytes, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, endometriosis, and arteriopathy. Cystic changes included follicular cysts, cystic rete, and mesonephric duct cysts with cystic rete the most common. Neoplasms included granulosa cell tumors, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, and teratoma. Conclusions Ovarian lesions of the rhesus macaque are similar to those of cynomolgus macaques and humans. These lesions are frequently incidental findings but may impact metabolic and neurocognitive studies.

Marr-Belvin, Amanda K.; Bailey, Charles C; Knight, Heather L.; Klumpp, Sherry A.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Miller, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

278

Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

1996-03-01

279

Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing âÂÂfainting spellsâ is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Peng, Yan

2009-01-16

280

Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

As the average age in many countries steadily rises, heart infarction, stroke, and cancer become the most common causes of death in the 21st century. The causes of these disorders are many and varied and include genetic predisposition and environmental influences, but they all share a common feature in that limitation of oxygen availability participates in the development of these pathological conditions. However, cells and organisms are able to trigger an adaptive response to hypoxic conditions that is aimed to help them to cope with these threatening conditions. This review provides a description of several systems able to sense oxygen concentration and of the responses they initiate both in the acute and also in long-term hypoxia adaptation. The role of hypoxia in three pathological conditions, myocardial and cerebral ischemia as well as tumorigenesis, is briefly discussed.

Michiels, Carine

2004-01-01

281

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

282

Pathologists overseas: coordinating volunteer pathology services for 19 years.  

PubMed

Pathologists Overseas is a nonprofit organization that has been coordinating the efforts of volunteer pathologists and technologists for 19 years to improve and provide affordable pathology services to underserved patients worldwide. This is accomplished by aiding and establishing pathology laboratories, providing diagnostic pathology services, and training local physicians as pathologists. Projects have been completed or are currently active in Kenya, Eritrea, Madagascar, Ghana, Nepal, Bhutan, Peru, El Salvador, and St Lucia. The main challenge is finding enough volunteers to provide uninterrupted service to maintain a project. Our goal is to build on these experiences and continue to both support existing and establish more pathology laboratories worldwide. PMID:21284432

Hoenecke, Heinz; Lee, Victor; Roy, Indrojit

2011-02-01

283

Social cost of pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities,

Robert Ladouceur; Jean-Marie Boisvert; Michel Pépin; Michel Loranger; Caroline Sylvain

1994-01-01

284

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

285

[Pathology on the Internet].  

PubMed

Authors' experience gained during a one year usage of the Internet is presented. By now we have found many useful information resources related to the field of pathology. The MEDLINE database is available free of charge at several web sites as well as teaching diagnostic seminars, electronic color atlases, medical publishers homepages, etc. There is also a possibility to enter various topic-related groups in the framework of Internet discussion groups. The limiting factors for reaching medical information from the Internet is hardware and software equipment, the cost of Internet connection, and the data transmission capacity of phone lines. PMID:9624824

Ryska, A; D?dic, K

1998-04-01

286

Medicolegal issues in pathology.  

PubMed

The various methods used by risk managers to assist clinicians in handling medicolegal risk, including improving communication with patients and better dealing with medical records issues, are not particularly of benefit to pathologists. An understanding of tort law, the theory of negligence, the principle of standard of care, and the role of the expert witness helps the pathologist generally assess and manage risk and put it into context with daily pathology practice. An understanding of the litigation process and techniques to better handle a deposition and high-risk specimens or diagnoses are of practical value in avoiding a lawsuit or increasing the likelihood for good outcome in medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18251573

Allen, Timothy Craig

2008-02-01

287

Pathology of lung cancer.  

PubMed

This article reviews current concepts in pathologic classification of lung cancer based on the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors and the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Preinvasive lesions are discussed. The major changes in lung disease diagnosis affected by the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification are presented. For adenocarcinomas diagnosed in small biopsies, specific terminology and diagnostic criteria are proposed along with recommendations for strategic management of tissue and EGFR mutation testing in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Histologic criteria are also presented for other tumors. PMID:22054879

Travis, William D

2011-12-01

288

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

289

Manganese accumulation in the CNS and associated pathologies.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for life. It is a key constituent of clue enzymes in the central nervous system, contributing to antioxidant defenses, energetic metabolism, ammonia detoxification, among other important functions. Until now, Mn transport mechanisms are partially understood; however, it is known that it shares some mechanisms of transport with iron. CNS is susceptible to Mn toxicity because it possesses mechanisms that allow Mn entry and favor its accumulation. Cases of occupational Mn exposure have been extensively reported in the literature; however, there are other ways of exposure, such as long-term parental nutrition and liver failure. Manganism and hepatic encephalopathy are the most common pathologies associated with the effects of Mn exposure. Both pathologies are associated with motor and psychiatric disturbances, related in turn to mechanisms of damage such as oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations, the dopaminergic system being one of the most affected. Although manganism and Parkinson's disease share some characteristics, they differ in many aspects that are discussed here. The mechanisms for Mn transport and its participation in manganism and hepatic encephalopathy are also considered in this review. It is necessary to find an effective therapeutic strategy to decrease Mn levels in exposed individuals and to treat Mn long term effects. In the case of patients with chronic liver failure it would be worthwhile to test a low-Mn diet in order to ameliorate symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy possibly related to Mn accumulation. PMID:21533671

Rivera-Mancía, Susana; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

2011-05-01

290

Pathology of the alimentary tract in Salmonella typhimurium food poisoning.  

PubMed Central

The pathology of the alimentary tracts of nine patients dying of Salmonella typhimurium infection is reviewed. Two patients had previous gastric operations, supporting previous reports that such patients are more susceptible to food poisoning. Four had no parietal (oxyntic) cells in the gastric mucosa, suggesting hypo- or anacidity. Only one had acute gastritis. None had acute enteritis, but in half of the patients, subtle histological changes suggested an 'enteropathy'. Acute diffuse colitis with abundant crypt abscesses, without stromal abscesses in the lamina propria, was the most constant finding and reparative features started very early, and occurred in later deaths. Under ideal circumstances this crypt abscess is readily distinguished from that of idiopathic ulcerative colitis, but can be confused with the crypt abscess of acute bacillary (sonne) dysentery. While the florid colonic changes may have settled in the late deaths, active inflammation is commonly present in the appendix mucosa on histology. The pathology of the alimentary tract in S typhimurium infection differs from that of S typhi and S paratyphi infections. There is little evidence of gastroenteritis, although subtle changes occur in the stomach and small intestine. The features are those of acute diffuse colitis with histological appendicitis, distinguishable from idiopathic ulcerative colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Boyd, J F

1985-01-01

291

Tracking in Anatomic Pathology.  

PubMed

Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

2013-05-01

292

Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD.

el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

2011-01-01

293

Pathology reporting of neuroendocrine tumors: application of the Delphic consensus process to the development of a minimum pathology data set.  

PubMed

Epithelial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have been the subject of much debate regarding their optimal classification. Although multiple systems of nomenclature, grading, and staging have been proposed, none has achieved universal acceptance. To help define the underlying common features of these classification systems and to identify the minimal pathology data that should be reported to ensure consistent clinical management and reproducibility of data from therapeutic trials, a multidisciplinary team of physicians interested in NETs was assembled. At a group meeting, the participants discussed a series of "yes" or "no" questions related to the pathology of NETs and the minimal data to be included in the reports. After discussion, anonymous votes were taken, using the Delphic principle that 80% agreement on a vote of either yes or no would define a consensus. Questions that failed to achieve a consensus were rephrased once or twice and discussed, and additional votes were taken. Of 108 questions, 91 were answerable either yes or no by more than 80% of the participants. There was agreement about the importance of proliferation rate for tumor grading, the landmarks to use for staging, the prognostic factors assessable by routine histology that should be reported, the potential for tumors to progress biologically with metastasis, and the current status of advanced immunohistochemical and molecular testing for treatment-related biomarkers. The lack of utility of a variety of immunohistochemical stains and pathologic findings was also agreed upon. A consensus could not be reached for the remaining 17 questions, which included both minor points related to extent of disease assessment and some major areas such as terminology, routine immunohistochemical staining for general neuroendocrine markers, use of Ki67 staining to assess proliferation, and the relationship of tumor grade to degree of differentiation. On the basis of the results of the Delphic voting, a minimum pathology data set was developed. Although there remains disagreement among experts about the specific classification system that should be used, there is agreement about the fundamental pathology data that should be reported. Examination of the areas of disagreement reveals significant opportunities for collaborative study to resolve unanswered questions. PMID:20118772

Klimstra, David S; Modlin, Irvin R; Adsay, N Volkan; Chetty, Runjan; Deshpande, Vikram; Gönen, Mithat; Jensen, Robert T; Kidd, Mark; Kulke, Matthew H; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Moran, Cesar; Moss, Steven F; Oberg, Kjell; O'Toole, Dermot; Rindi, Guido; Robert, Marie E; Suster, Saul; Tang, Laura H; Tzen, Chin-Yuan; Washington, Mary Kay; Wiedenmann, Betram; Yao, James

2010-03-01

294

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

295

Clinical rotation in pathology: description of a case based approach  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of a system based, integrated curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences of Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, resulted in less contact time for the pathology disciplines during theoretical modules, while a weekly rotation in pathology was introduced during clinical training in the fourth and fifth years. Objective To describe a problem based approach for this rotation. Methods Students are presented with a clinical “paper” case daily, integrating as many of the pathology disciplines as possible to demonstrate the interdependence of the various disciplines. They receive chemical pathology tutorials, visit the various laboratories, and receive practical training in fine needle aspiration biopsy. On the final day, the case studies are assessed and discussed. Results Most students appreciated all activities. This rotation enhanced student interactivity and autonomy and guaranteed immediate feedback. On evaluation of the rotation it was found that the students enjoyed the rotation, learnt something new, and realised the value of group work. Conclusions This innovation integrates pathology with clinical practice and illustrates the use of laboratory medicine in the management of common diseases seen in this country. Students appreciate learning practical skills and having to request special investigations under a pathologist's supervision changes their approach to pathology requests. Familiarity with the pathology environment empowers the student to use pathology with greater ease. A bank of case studies that can be expanded to include all medical disciplines will facilitate the application of a problem based approach and enhance communication between the basic science disciplines and the clinical and pathology disciplines.

Bezuidenhout, J; Wasserman, E; Mansvelt, E; Meyer, C; van Zyl, G; Orth, H; Els, A

2006-01-01

296

Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Lopes, M. B.; Malcolm, Elsa K.

2009-03-20

297

Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community  

PubMed Central

Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP) is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%), followed by operating room consults (46%). Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

Bellis, Magdaleni; Metias, Shereen; Naugler, Christopher; Pollett, Aaron; Jothy, Serge; Yousef, George M.

2013-01-01

298

Finding Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

299

New common fragile sites.  

PubMed

We report the finding of a large number of new common fragile sites. Thirty-one (56%) of 55 common fragile sites found in a sample of human lymphocytes were ones not described at the Eighth International Workshop on Human Gene Mapping (HGM 8). The sample consisted of 3023 lymphocytes from nine unrelated individuals with a history of genitourinary malignancy. The lymphocytes were challenged in culture with aphidicolin (Apc), fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), 5-azacytidine (Aza), and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Thirteen of the new common fragile sites were induced by Apc and FUdR, nine by Aza, five by BrdU, and four by combined means. The sites induced by Apc and FUdR were cross-induced by BrdU. The fragile sites induced by a diminished concentration of Aza were largely located in heterochromatic regions and were cross-induced by BrdU and FUdR. Exposure to BrdU for 24 hours, a technique hitherto restricted to rare fragile sites, induced several common fragile sites. Control lymphocytes had far fewer gaps and breaks, but these were clustered predominantly at high-expression fragile sites. Because more than half of the common fragile sites in this study were new, it is clear that much remains to be learned. Because the classes of fragile sites reveal cross-induction, we propose that fragile sites share structures in DNA. PMID:2454726

Hecht, F; Tajara, E H; Lockwood, D; Sandberg, A A; Hecht, B K

1988-07-01

300

Continuum model of tendon pathology - where are we now?  

PubMed

Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

2013-08-01

301

Practical pathology of aging mice  

PubMed Central

Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

2011-01-01

302

Pathologies of the male breast.  

PubMed

The majority of breast lesions in men are benign. Gynaecomastia is a very common condition in which hormonal changes cause male breasts to enlarge. Three radiological patterns of gynaecomastia have been described: nodular, dendritic, and diffuse glandular pattern. The main differential diagnosis is lipomastia, which is when adipose tissue deposits are found in the subcutaneous tissue. Male breast cancer is rare. The main risk factors are pathologies that cause hormonal imbalances, a history of chest irradiation, and a family history of breast cancer (particularly in families carrying a mutation of the gene BRCA2). Mammography usually shows a mass with no calcifications. Sonography is useful to investigate local disease spread, and for detecting any enlarged axillary lymph nodes. MRI is not currently indicated to investigate male breast cancer. Very often, the clinical examination alone is enough to distinguish benign lesions from malignant lesions. Imaging must not be automatically carried out, but rather it should be used when the diagnosis is clinically uncertain or when patients present risk factors for breast cancer, as well as for guiding biopsies and for assessing disease spread. PMID:23218476

Charlot, M; Béatrix, O; Chateau, F; Dubuisson, J; Golfier, F; Valette, P J; Réty, F

2012-12-05

303

Heterozygous deficiency of ?-catenin impairs pathological angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Vascular and neuronal networks share a similar branching morphology, and emerging evidence implicates common mechanisms in the formation of both systems. ?-Catenin is considered a neuronal catenin regulating neuron cell–cell adhesion and cell motility. Here, we report expression of ?-catenin in vascular endothelium, and show that deletion of only one allele of ?-catenin is sufficient to impair endothelial cell motility and vascular assembly in vitro and pathological angiogenesis in vivo, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and wound healing. In contrast, deletion of one or both allele of ?-catenin had no effects on hormone-induced physiological angiogenesis in the uterus. Molecular analysis confirmed a gene dosage effect of ?-catenin on Rho GTPase activity. Moreover, we show that inflammatory cytokines, but not angiogenic factors, regulate ?-catenin expression, and the levels of ?-catenin positively correlate to human lung cancers. Collectively, our data suggest that inflammation, commonly associated with disease conditions, induces ?-catenin expression that specifically regulates pathological, and not physiological, angiogenesis. Because only pathological angiogenesis is sensitive to decreased levels of ?-catenin, this may provide a good target for antiangiogenic therapy.

DeBusk, Laura M.; Boelte, Kimberly; Min, Yongfen

2010-01-01

304

A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology - benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells  

PubMed Central

Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not be mistaken for malignant cells on microscopic examination. Unfortunately a lack of awareness of this pathological entity can lead to diagnostic confusion amongst pathologists resulting in the multinucleate giant cells being mistaken for highly mitotic cells and consequently the fibroadenoma being mistaken for a malignant lesion. This may have serious implications for the subsequent management of the patient. The presence of this unusual cell type in the stroma does not alter the prognosis of otherwise benign lesion. We encountered two such cases at our institution in a six month period recently. We present their histories along with relevant radiological, microscopic and immunohistochemical features, followed by a discussion of this unusual pathological entity.

Heneghan, Helen M; Martin, Sean T; Casey, Mary; Tobbia, Igdam; Benani, Fadel; Barry, Kevin M

2008-01-01

305

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

306

Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students simulate a "dinosaur dig." The activity opens with background information for teachers about fossils. Working in groups, students excavate fossil sites created in advance by the teacher, or other group of students, and try to reconstruct a chicken skeleton. The activity closes with a two-page student worksheet that directs students to diagram the fossil site and includes probing questions to help them decode their findings.

307

AGENDA HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. AGENDA HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES PANEL MEETING Hilton Washington DC North, Gaithersburg, MD ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

308

The equine fundus. III: Pathological variants.  

PubMed

A wide range of ophthalmoscopic variants are encountered during routine examination of the horse. Some result from minor anatomical anomalies, cause no significant effect on vision and may be considered to lie within the limits of 'biological normality'. Others are a consequence of pathological disruption of the anatomical integrity of the fundus, and may directly or indirectly affect the neurosensory retina and produce some degree of visual deficit. This paper illustrates the ophthalmoscopic appearance of a number of pathological variants of the anatomic fundus, and discusses their possible effect upon vision. Among the abnormalities discussed is peripapillary chorioretinitis, which commonly presents as the so-called peripapillary 'butterfly lesion'. It is concluded that, although this lesion may occur in conjunction with signs of more generalised posterior segment disease, eg posterior capsular cataract, in the absence of concurrent signs of anterior uveitis there is no reason to associate the lesion with equine recurrent uveitis (periodic ophthalmia). PMID:9079119

Matthews, A G; Crispin, S M; Parker, J

1990-09-01

309

Natural pathology of the Baboon (Papio spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Baboons are useful animal models for biomedical research, but the natural pathology of the baboon is not as well defined as other non-human primates. Methods A computer search for all morphologic diagnoses from baboon necropsies at the Southwest National Primate Research Center was performed and included all the natural deaths and animals euthanized for natural causes. Results A total of 10,883 macroscopic or microscopic morphologic diagnoses in 4297 baboons were documented and are presented by total incidence, relative incidence by sex and age-group, and mean age of occurrence. The most common diagnoses in descending order of occurrence were hemorrhage, stillborn, amyloidosis, colitis, spondylosis, and pneumonia. The systems with the most diagnoses were the digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and respiratory. Conclusion This extensive evaluation of the natural pathology of the baboon should be an invaluable biomedical research resource.

Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Malapati, Adinarayana R.; Owston, Michael A.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2011-01-01

310

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].  

PubMed

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

Baliasny?, M M

1991-01-01

311

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

312

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

313

Pathology Case Study: Girl in Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 15-year-old girl found unresponsive near her bed. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with laboratory findings, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Najjar, Hazim

2008-10-29

314

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data.

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

315

Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the âÂÂPatient Historyâ and âÂÂLaboratory Investigationsâ sections, students should proceed on to the âÂÂQuestionsâ section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the âÂÂDiagnosisâ section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nambiar, Ashok

2009-02-06

316

Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

Mohammed, Aminu Z.; Edino, Steven T.; Samaila, Adamu A.

2007-01-01

317

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed.

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

318

Unusual scrotal pathology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse embryological origins of the contents of the scrotum create an environment that fosters a wide variety of unusual pathologies. Most scrotal pathologies are discovered by the patient and are initially evaluated by a thorough physical examination and scrotal ultrasonography. Scrotal lesions can be broadly grouped by the anatomical location in which they develop; the clinician must consider a

Henry M. Rosevear; Alek Mishail; Yefim Sheynkin; Moshe Wald

2009-01-01

319

Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Five pathological gamblers were treated in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Cognitive correction targeted the erroneous perceptions towards the notion of randomness. Four subjects reported a clinically significant decrease in the urge to gamble, an increase in their perception of control, and no longer met the DSM-IV

Robert Ladouceur; Caroline Sylvain; Hélène Letarte; Isabelle Giroux; Christian Jacques

1998-01-01

320

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

321

Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case from the collection documents a sixty-five year old female patient with enlarged lymph nodes in the jugular region, and a nodule of the thyroid. The patient's history is presented, as well as the gross and microscopic descriptions of her thyroid and lymph nodes (including images). Images from an electron microscopic examination are also included to aid in diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Nine, Jeff S.; Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2007-11-16

322

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Zagzag, David; Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale

2009-03-16

323

Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dorvault, Christine

2007-12-18

324

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Yousem, Sam; Sheikh, Hina; Gregorio, Remigio

2009-03-19

325

Aging of signal transduction pathways, and pathology  

PubMed Central

The major cell signaling pathways, and their specific mechanisms of transduction, have been a subject of investigation for many years. As our understanding of these pathways advances, we find that they are evolutionarily well-conserved not only individually, but also at the level of their crosstalk and signal integration. Productive interactions within the key signal transduction networks determine success in embryonic organogenesis, and postnatal tissue repair throughout adulthood. However, aside from clues revealed through examining age-related degenerative diseases, much remains uncertain about imbalances within these pathways during normal aging. Further, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which alterations in the major cell signal transduction networks cause age-related pathologies. The aim of this review is to describe the complex interplay between the Notch, TGF?, WNT, RTK-Ras and Hh signaling pathways, with a specific focus on the changes introduced within these networks by the aging process, and those typical of age-associated human pathologies.

Carlson, Morgan E.; Silva, Haroldo S.; Conboy, Irina M.

2008-01-01

326

Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus  

PubMed Central

Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids.

Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

327

Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Pushkar, Irina

2008-12-17

328

Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji  

PubMed Central

Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations.

Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

2011-01-01

329

Transcranial doppler: Technique and common findings (Part 1)  

PubMed Central

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be aptly called as the doctor’s stethoscope of the brain. Since its introduction in 1982, by Rune Aaslid, TCD has evolved as a diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic tool. During evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke, TCD combined with cervical duplex ultrasonography provides physiological information on the cerebral hemodynamics, which is often complementary to structural imaging. Currently, TCD is the only diagnostic tool that can provide real time information about cerebral hemodynamics and can detect embolization to the cerebral vessels. TCD is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and bedside tool for obtaining information regarding the collateral flow across various branches of the circle of Willis in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. Advanced applications of TCD help in the detection of right-to-left shunts, vasomotor reactivity, diagnosis, and monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. This article describes the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD insonation methods, for detecting the flow in intracranial vessels in addition to the normal and abnormal spectral flow patterns.

Bathala, Lokesh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

2013-01-01

330

Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

2002-01-01

331

Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

Ambler, Marjane

1996-01-01

332

Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

333

Finding Common Ground for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, some members of the conservation community have used ecosystem services as a strategy to conserve biodiversity. Others in the community have criticized this strategy as a distraction from the mission of biodiversity conservation. The debate continues, and it remains unclear whether the concerns expressed are significant enough to merit the opposition. Through an exploration of the science of biodiversity

Belinda Reyers; Stephen Polasky; Heather Tallis; Harold A. Mooney; Anne Larigauderie

2012-01-01

334

Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

Hondius, Dienke

2010-01-01

335

3-D Constraint-Based Modeling: Finding Common Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses Shneiderman's Object-Action Interface model along with the engineering design process as a framework for understanding software interface elements. Provides an educational framework from which instructional materials can be developed. (Author/CCM)|

Wiebe, Eric N.

1999-01-01

336

Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

Hondius, Dienke

2010-01-01

337

Finding Common Ground for Effective Campus-Based Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary reviews the controversy over use of the term binge drinking to describe college student alcohol consumption, argues for abandoning the term, and explains how doing so will help unify and reinvigorate campus-based prevention work. Binge drinking has been defined for men as 5 or more drinks in a row at least once in the previous 2 weeks and

William DeJong

2001-01-01

338

Acquired Brain Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acute brain injury is rarely seen, but salient features include acute hemorrhage, thrombosis, and localized or general edema.\\u000a Findings are rarely specific with regard to etiology. In addition to maternal disease, risk factors for acquired brain lesions\\u000a include disorders of the placenta and\\/or umbilical cord, exposure to toxic agents, metabolic disease, iatrogenic hazards,\\u000a fetal cardiovascular disease, and space-occupying lesions. Most

Daniela Prayer; Ulrika Asenbaum; Peter C. Brugger; Gregor Kasprian

339

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular

W. C. Bell; M. J. Klein; M. J. Pitt; G. P. Siegal

2006-01-01

340

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with

W. C. Bell; M. J. Klein; M. J. Pitt; G. P. Siegal

2006-01-01

341

Endotracheal tube cuff leak with mysterious laryngotracheal pathology.  

PubMed

A 63 year-old obese man with gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and no known history of airway pathology was to undergo a total knee arthroplasty. After intubation, however, repeated cuff leaks, decreasing tidal volumes, and desaturations prompted five additional endotracheal tube placements. Findings on radiography, computed tomography, and fiberoptic laryngoscopy and tracheoscopy were equivocal. Factors contributing to this challenge of persistent and repeated cuff leaks in the absence of known airway pathology could include various laryngotracheal abnormalities. PMID:23634577

Lafleur, J Lance; Boddu, Krishna; Baluch, Amir R; Kaye, Alan D

2012-10-01

342

In vivo confocal microscopic and histological findings of unknown bullous keratopathy probably associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Bullous keratopathy (BK), a severe sight-threatening disorder can have a variety of etiologies such as prophylactic laser iridotomy, intraocular surgery, trauma, and other ocular disorders. However, there are cases of unknown origins, among which a unique clinical entity namely pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is having increased importance. Case presentation In this case note, we report the clinical features and in vivo confocal microscopic and pathological findings of two BK cases of unknown cause. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the BK was caused by the corneal endotheliopathy of PEX, a common disease that could affect up to 30% of people over 60 years old and is more prevalent than we have believed.

2012-01-01

343

CT findings in leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

1984-12-01

344

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

PubMed

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

345

Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings  

PubMed Central

Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis.

Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P

2012-01-01

346

A consensus curriculum for laboratory management training for pathology residents.  

PubMed

Through the combined efforts of the American Pathology Foundation (APF), the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), and the Program Directors Section (PRODS) of the Association of Pathology Chairs (APC), a needs assessment was performed via a survey on the PRODS listserv, workshops at the APC/PRODS annual meetings in 2009 and 2010, and a Work Group of representatives of APF, ASCP, and PRODS. Residency program needs and resource constraints common to training pathology residents in practice and laboratory management were identified. In addition, a consensus curriculum for management training was created to serve as a resource for residency training program directors and others. The curriculum was converted into a "wiki" design tool for use by program directors, residents, and faculty. PMID:22031303

Weiss, Ronald L; McKenna, Barbara J; Lord-Toof, Melissa; Thompson, Nancie Noie

2011-11-01

347

Prevalence of pathological Internet use among university students and correlations with self-esteem, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and disinhibition.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, there has been increased interest in the addictive potential of the Internet. The current study was an attempt to replicate common findings in the literature and provide more evidence for the existence of Internet addiction among students--a population considered to be especially vulnerable. A total of 371 British students responded to the questionnaire, which included the Pathological Internet Use (PIU) scale, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a self-esteem scale, and two measures of disinhibition. Results showed that 18.3% of the sample were considered to be pathological Internet users, whose excessive use of the Internet was causing academic, social, and interpersonal problems. Other results showed that pathological Internet users had lower self-esteem and were more socially disinhibited. However, there was no significant difference in GHQ scores. These results are discussed in relation to the methodological shortcomings of research in the area as a whole. PMID:16332167

Niemz, Katie; Griffiths, Mark; Banyard, Phil

2005-12-01

348

Temporal bone imaging findings in Waardenburg's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: (a) To report computed tomography findings of eight new cases with Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) type I and review reported temporal bone radiographic and histopathological findings in WS with hearing loss; (b) To determine the frequency of inner ear pathologies that may contraindicate cochlear implantation. Methods: A review of 1166 pediatric patients with sensorineural hearing loss revealed 12 cases (1%)

Cagatay Oysu; Aslihan Oysu; Ismet Aslan; Mehmet Tinaz

2001-01-01

349

Demystified ... Molecular pathology in oncology  

PubMed Central

In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology.

Crocker, J

2002-01-01

350

Computed tomography of the anterior mediastinum in myasthemia gravis: a radiologic-pathologic correlative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum were correlated with pathologic findings of the thymus following thymectomy in 57 patients with myasthenia gravis. Based on the patient's age and the overall morphology of the anterior mediastinum, CT scans were assigned one of four grades in an attempt to predict thymus pathologic findings. Using this grading, 14 of

G. T. Fon; M. E. Bein; A. A. Mancuso; J. C. Keesey; A. R. Lupetin; W. S. Wong

1982-01-01

351

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

352

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2012-10-01

353

The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

2011-01-01

354

Pathology Case Study: Post-operative bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves an 83-year-old woman with post-operative bleeding and anemia. Laboratory values are provided in Table 1. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Triulzi, Darrell; Qu, Lirong; Puca, Kathleen; Kiss, Joseph

2008-04-04

355

Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (A?(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects. PMID:21684041

Ewers, Michael; Schmitz, Susanne; Hansson, Oskar; Walsh, Cathal; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Bennett, David; Minthon, Lennart; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Blennow, Kaj; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J; Weiner, Michael; Hampel, Harald

2011-06-17

356

Early cognitive stimulation compensates for memory and pathological changes in Tg2576 mice.  

PubMed

Education and cognitive occupations are commonly associated to reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia. Animal studies have demonstrated that cognitive stimulation (CS) achieved by social/physical activities and/or enriched environments compensates for memory decline. We have elaborated a novel paradigm of CS that is devoid of physical/social activity and enriched environments. 4 month-old Tg2576 mice were cognitively trained for 8 weeks and, after a break of 8 months, long-lasting effects of CS on cognitive abilities and AD-like pathology were measured. Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR) tests showed that deficits in spatial and recognition memories were compensated by CS. These outcomes were accompanied by increased levels of hippocampal post-synaptic markers (PSD95 and NR1) and proteins involved in synaptic formation (Arc, ?-catenin). CS softened amyloid pathology in terms of reduced levels of A?1-42 and the dodecameric assembly, referred as A?*56. CS appeared to affect the APP processing since differences in levels of ADAM17, BACE1 and C99/C83 ratio were found. Tau hyper-phosphorylation and high activities of tau kinases were also reduced by CS. In contrast, CS did not induce any of these molecular changes in wild-type mice. The present findings suggest beneficial and long-lasting effects of CS early in life on cognitive decline and AD-like pathology. PMID:23474306

Gerenu, Gorka; Dobarro, Marta; Ramirez, Maria J; Gil-Bea, Francisco J

2013-03-05

357

?-Synuclein transcript alternative 3?UTR usage as a convergent mechanism in Parkinson's disease pathology  

PubMed Central

?-Synuclein (aSyn) is implicated both in physiological functions at neuronal synaptic terminals as well as pathological processes in the context of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms for these apparently diverse roles are unclear. Here we show that specific RNA transcript isoforms of aSyn with an extended 3?UTR, aSynL, appear selectively linked to pathological processes, relative to shorter aSyn transcripts. Common variants in the aSynL 3?UTR associated with PD risk promote the accumulation and translation of aSynL transcripts. The presence of intracellular dopamine can further enhance the relative abundance of aSynL transcripts through alternative polyadenylation (PolyA) site selection. We demonstrate that presence of the extended aSynL transcript 3?UTR impacts accumulation of aSyn protein, which appears redirected away from synaptic terminals and towards mitochondria, reminiscent of PD pathology. Taken together, these findings identify a novel mechanism for aSyn regulation in the context of PD-associated genetic and environmental variation.

Rhinn, Herve; Qiang, Liang; Yamashita, Toru; Rhee, David; Zolin, Ari; Vanti, William; Abeliovich, Asa

2013-01-01

358

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

359

The tragedy of the commons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We provide a complete characterization of the set of Markov-Perfect Equilibria (MPE) of dynamic common-property resource games a la Levhari and Mirman (1980). We find that all MPE of such games exhibit remarkably regular dynamic behavior. Surprisingly, however, and despite their memoryless nature, MPE need not result in a “tragedy of the commons”, i.e., overexploitation of the resource relative

Prajit K. Dutta; Rangarajan K. Sundaram

1993-01-01

360

Balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of pathological vertebral compressive fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of pathological vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). However, they have not dealt with the impact of relatively common comorbid condi- tions in this age group, such as spinal stenosis, and they have not explicitly addressed the use of imaging as a prognostic indicator for the

Ioannis N Gaitanis; Alexander G Hadjipavlou; Pavlos G Katonis; Michael N Tzermiadianos; Dritan S Pasku; Avinash G Patwardhan

2005-01-01

361

The anatomy and pathology of the central auditory pathways.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the central auditory pathways from the cochlear nucleus to the auditory cortex is reviewed. The common pathologies affecting these pathways are described and the neurological, ophthalmological and vestibular symptoms and signs, which are valuable in diagnosing and siting the level of these lesions are discussed. PMID:7011456

Luxon, L M

1981-02-01

362

Towards a sensing system for quantification of pathological tremor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a sensing system is proposed to quantify pathological tremor in human upper limb. Tremor is the most common movement disorder, defined as the involuntary rhythmic or semi rhythmic body part oscillation resulting from simultaneous alternating antagonistic muscle group contractions. Patients with tremor face difficulty doing simple things like inserting a key to a keyhole, social embarrassment and

F. Widjaja; C. Y. Shee; W. L. Au; P. Poignet; W. T. Ang

2007-01-01

363

The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)|

Bakare, C. A.

1976-01-01

364

Myosinopathies: pathology and mechanisms.  

PubMed

The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is the molecular motor of muscle and forms the backbone of the sarcomere thick filaments. Different MyHC isoforms are of importance for the physiological properties of different muscle fiber types. Hereditary myosin myopathies have emerged as an important group of diseases with variable clinical and morphological expression depending on the mutated isoform and type and location of the mutation. Dominant mutations in developmental MyHC isoform genes (MYH3 and MYH8) are associated with distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Dominant or recessive mutations affecting the type IIa MyHC (MYH2) are associated with early-onset myopathies with variable muscle weakness and ophthalmoplegia as a consistent finding. Myopathies with scapuloperoneal, distal or limb-girdle muscle weakness including entities, such as myosin storage myopathy and Laing distal myopathy are the result of usually dominant mutations in the gene for slow/? cardiac MyHC (MYH7). Protein aggregation is part of the features in some of these myopathies. In myosin storage myopathy protein aggregates are formed by accumulation of myosin beneath the sarcolemma and between myofibrils. In vitro studies on the effects of different mutations associated with myosin storage myopathy and Laing distal myopathy indicate altered biochemical and biophysical properties of the light meromyosin, which is essential for thick filament assembly. Protein aggregates in the form of tubulofilamentous inclusions in association with vacuolated muscle fibers are present at late stage of dominant myosin IIa myopathy and sometimes in Laing distal myopathy. These protein aggregates exhibit features indicating defective degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition to protein aggregation and muscle fiber degeneration some of the myosin mutations cause functional impairment of the molecular motor adding to the pathogenesis of myosinopathies. PMID:22918376

Tajsharghi, Homa; Oldfors, Anders

2012-08-05

365

National PTA Common Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

366

A history of radiologic pathology correlation at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its evolution into the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology.  

PubMed

The evolution of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has played an important role in the history of pathology education and in radiologic pathology correlation in the United States. From its humble beginnings as a museum, showcasing dried and varnished morbid specimens--human relics of the Civil War, the institute became a leader in pathology. Later, it became a center of instruction for radiology residents seeking to understand the pathologic findings that underlay the radiologic appearance of disease. Images were gathered by the AFIP and the American Registry of Pathology (ARP) and have been used in research and education in radiology and other fields (ophthalmology, otalaryngology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Despite the contributions of the AFIP, the ARP, and the Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, high-ranking members of the military and the federal government frowned on a military-owned educational system that also served civilians. Although support from the radiology community dissuaded military officers and federal officials from taking action against the participation of civilians, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) provisions mandated the disestablishment of the AFIP, forcing the redistribution of some of its resources to other military-only organizations and disbanding other AFIP functions. To ensure that the correlation course, known to radiology residents as the "rad-path" course, was not a casualty of the BRAC, the American College of Radiology (ACR) and leaders of the AFIP and ARP agreed that the ACR should continue this vital educational endeavor. In January 2011, the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology of the ACR debuted and successfully instructed 268 radiology residents, including 40 international residents. The faculty and staff, who had been part of the course at the AFIP, continue to help enrich and improve the course established by their predecessors. PMID:22187632

Murphey, Mark D; Madewell, John E; Olmsted, William W; Ros, Pablo R; Neiman, Harvey L

2011-12-20

367

Hypophosphatemic rickets: A case of recurrent pathological fractures  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Renal phosphate-wasting disorders are the most common form of hereditary rickets and osteomalacia in western countries, but are rarely reported in India. Therefore, we report here a case of hypophosphatemic rickets. Aim and objective: To report a case of hypophosphatemic rickets presenting with recurrent pathological fractures. Material and Methods: A 34-year-old premenopausal lady presented with recurrent pathological fractures, bone pain, and muscle weakness since 14 years of age. A thorough history was taken followed by clinical examination, and relevant biochemical and radiological investigations were done. Results: Height was 125 cm, arm span 145 cm, body weight 30 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 19.2 kg/m2. Dental caries, kyphoscoliosis, shortening of left lower limb, bilateral coxa vara deformity of knee, muscle weakness, and bone tenderness were present. Calcium was 9.4 mg/dL, phosphorus: 1.8 mg/dL, albumin: 4.0 gm/dL, alkaline phosphatase: 360 U/L, creatinine: 0.4 mg/dL, a normal ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) loading test,24-hour urine calcium excretion: 102 mg/day, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]: 21.6 ng/mL, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH): 43.74 pg/mL, fraction excretion of phosphate (PO4): 40%, tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate per unit of glomerular filtrate (TmP/GFR): 0.65 mg/dL, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23: 321.4 RU/mL. Skeletal X-rays showed multiple old fractures and pseudofractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole body showed no evidence of tumor. Fludeoxyglucose (18F)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) computed tomography (CT) scan revealed metabolically active marrow with multiple areas of fracture and FDG-avid lesions in both lungs but no CT-based findings. Conclusion: Hypophosphatemic rickets or osteomalacia, possibly hereditary, is a rare cause of recurrent pathological fractures.

Baidya, Arjun; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Ghosh, Sujoy

2012-01-01

368

Prevalence and significance of extravascular incidental findings on computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography.  

PubMed

Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are routinely used to evaluate patients with vascular disease. They have the ability to detect unexpected non-vascular pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CTA or MRA. A retrospective review of 737 patients who underwent CTA and 184 patients who underwent MRA during a five-year period was performed. Incidental findings were classified as low, moderate or high significance findings. For patients with high significance extravascular findings, assessment of the rates of appropriate follow-up was conducted. Among the CTA patients, 539 (73.1%) had incidental findings. Low, moderate and high significance findings were discovered in 514 (69.7%), 95 (12.9%) and 41 (5.6%) patients, respectively. Twenty (48.8%) patients with high significance findings received appropriate follow-up investigations. Among the MRA patients, 95 (51.6%) had extravascular findings. Low, moderate and high significance findings were present in 80 (43.5%), 27 (14.7%), and 3 (1.6%) patients, respectively. Two (66.7%) patients with high significance findings were properly followed up. In conclusion, incidental findings on CTA and MRA are very common. A small percentage of these findings could be serious and were not all adequately followed-up in our study population. Referring physicians should be aware of the potential for serious incidental findings and manage them appropriately. PMID:23493281

Yang, Roy Y; Jaskolka, Jeffrey D; Tan, Kong T; Roche-Nagle, Graham

2013-03-14

369

Entrepreneurship and leadership: common trends and common threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued treatment of entrepreneurship as a separate area of study that is distinct from other broader domains (e.g., leadership and interpersonal influence) is questioned. Reviews of related research on personality, demographics, fit, and cognitive framing\\/bias reveal mixed findings and a lack of sufficient evidence to warrant a distinctly different view of entrepreneurship. Instead, a recognition of common trends and

Robert P. Vecchio

2003-01-01

370

The pathology of shin splints.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121. PMID:18796881

Kues, J M

1990-01-01

371

[Pathological buying -- a literature review].  

PubMed

This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen. PMID:15633069

Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

2005-01-01

372

The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective  

PubMed Central

Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold.

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

373

Pathology Case Study: Diarrhea and Urinary Frequency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 42-year-old African male who presented to the emergency department with "intermittent fevers, up to 104 degrees, occasional chills, night sweats and rigors, periods of diarrhea, dysuria, and generalized malaise." Visitors are given patient history, admission and laboratory data, along with radiology, microscopic, and microbiological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Pushkar, Irina

2008-03-20

374

Forensic pathology and the miscarriage of justice.  

PubMed

A case of conviction for rape-murder that was eventually overturned based on a post-conviction re-evaluation of the findings at autopsy is described. The main issue elucidated on post-conviction review was that postmortem anal dilation and postmortem hypostatic hemorrhages of the neck were misinterpreted as injuries. After review of the autopsy findings, the prosecution agreed with the appellant that a miscarriage of justice had occurred and the conviction was quashed by an appellate court. This case underscores the need for an awareness of key pitfalls that can be encountered at autopsy, such as the proper interpretation of postmortem artefacts. The evolving role of the evidence-based framework for forensic pathology is explored as a systemic solution to enhance the administration of justice. PMID:22116733

Pollanen, Michael S

2011-11-25

375

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Becich, Michael J.

2008-04-28

376

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

377

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

378

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Wang, Jianzhou

2009-09-17

379

Male breast disease: pictorial review with radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

The male breast is susceptible to many of the same pathologic processes as the female breast. Many of these conditions have mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance imaging findings that allow differentiation between clearly benign conditions and those that require biopsy. Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast and has characteristic imaging features that usually allow differentiation from malignancy. Mammography is the initial imaging modality for a clinically suspicious mass. A palpable mass that is occult or incompletely imaged at mammography mandates targeted US. Suspicious or indeterminate masses require biopsy, which can usually be performed with US guidance. Approximately 0.7% of breast cancers occur in men. Men with breast cancer often present at a more advanced stage than do women owing to a delay in diagnosis. Benign breast neoplasms that may occur in men include angiolipoma, schwannoma, intraductal papilloma, and lipoma. Benign nonneoplastic entities that may occur in the male breast include intramammary lymph node, sebaceous cyst, diabetic mastopathy, hematoma, fat necrosis, subareolar abscess, breast augmentation, venous malformation, secondary syphilis, and nodular fasciitis. Familiarity with the salient features of the classic benign male breast conditions will allow accurate imaging interpretation and avoid unnecessary and often invasive treatment. © RSNA, 2013. PMID:23674773

Nguyen, Cheri; Kettler, Mark D; Swirsky, Michael E; Miller, Vivian I; Scott, Caleb; Krause, Rhett; Hadro, Jennifer A

2013-05-01

380

Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor.

More, Chandramani B.; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

2013-01-01

381

Revisiting Rose's common currency debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to revisit the estimation of the effect of a common currency on international trade by applying the new methodology proposed by Helpman, Melitz and Rubistein (2008) and incorporating tourism to the theoretical framework. Rose (2000) estimates an empirical model of bilateral trade, finding a significant coefficient for a currency union variable of 1.2,

María Santana-Gallego; Francisco J. Ledesma-Rodríguez; Jorge V. Pérez-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

382

The Radiological Spectrum of Orbital Pathologies that Involve the Lacrimal Gland and the Lacrimal Fossa  

PubMed Central

CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. Although many diseases that affect the lacrimal gland and fossa are specifically diagnosed by imaging, it is frequently very difficult to differentiate each specific disease on the basis of image characteristics alone due to intrinsic similarities. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a non-enhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. A careful clinical evaluation and moreover, a pathologic verification, are needed. In this pictorial review, the various imaging spectrums of pathologic masses involving the lacrimal gland and fossa are presented, along with appropriate anatomy and pathology reviews.

Jung, Won Sang; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai

2007-01-01

383

The radiological spectrum of orbital pathologies that involve the lacrimal gland and the lacrimal fossa.  

PubMed

CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. Although many diseases that affect the lacrimal gland and fossa are specifically diagnosed by imaging, it is frequently very difficult to differentiate each specific disease on the basis of image characteristics alone due to intrinsic similarities. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a non-enhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. A careful clinical evaluation and moreover, a pathologic verification, are needed. In this pictorial review, the various imaging spectrums of pathologic masses involving the lacrimal gland and fossa are presented, along with appropriate anatomy and pathology reviews. PMID:17673845

Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai

384

Rotator cuff tendinopathy: a model for the continuum of pathology and related management  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPathology of the soft tissues of the shoulder including the musculotendinous rotator cuff and subacromial bursa are extremely common and are a principal cause of pain and suffering. Competing theories have been proposed to explain the pathoaetiology of rotator cuff pathology at specific stages and presentations of the condition. This review proposes a model to describe the continuum of the

Jeremy S Lewis

2010-01-01

385

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

386

Pathology Case Study: Aortic Dissection and Neck Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This case documents the neck and back pain of a 71-year-old female patient. The patient's history is provided, and includes documentation of her condition throughout the duration of her treatment. The pathologic findings include images and descriptions of the gross and microscopic evaluation. In the "Final Diagnosis" section the official conclusion of the doctor is accompanied by a discussion of the diagnosis and references. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Monnin, Kimberly

2007-09-21

387

Late choledochal pathology after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis.  

PubMed

After "simple" cholecystectomy for lithiasis, biliary disorders can appear, with the onset more than 3 years postoperative, like cholangitis or transitory jaundice. Meantime, a whole range of congenital abnormalities initially ignored can become manifest: biliary tract congenital dilatations, duodenal para-Vater diverticulum, Oddi stenosis. Aim: to establish the pathological circumstances that determine late choledochal syndrome, including an analysis concerning the therapeutical approach in these cases. Patients with cholecystectomy complains of late biliary disorders (least 3 years symptom-free) between 1997-2005, were retrospectively studied. Exclusion criteria were intraoperative incidents or accidents, recognised incomplete surgical procedure, early difficult postoperative course. Therapeutical approach was endoscopical, surgical or conservative. 46 patients entered the study group; 38 underwent open cholecystectomy. Mean interval between operation and disturbances onset was 10 years. Following etiopathologic causes of late choledochal pathology were recorded: incomplete cholecystectomy, retained or primary common bile duct (CBD) stones, choledochal cyst or stenosis, Oddi stenosis, duodenal para-Vater diverticulum, anomaly biliary tree. Thirty patients undergone successful endoscopic treatment; in 8 cases endoscopy failed, in 2 cases open surgery was the first choice; 5 diagnostic endoscopic cholangiography with conservative treatment were performed; 1 patient refused any procedure. Cholecystectomy indication is regularly based on clinical and ultrasound examination criteria. Even a simple cholecystectomy can be followed after first 3 years by cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, caused by initially ignored biliary tract pathology. To avoid such omissions, routine intraoperative cholangiography and duodenal endoscopy should precede cholecystectomy. On the other side, cholecystectomy itself can cause late complaints: retained CBD stones, gallbladder stump, and iatrogenic stenosis. The duodenal para-Vater diverticulum seems to have a more important role in biliary disturbances, before and after cholecystectomy. PMID:16927918

Br?tucu, E; Straja, D; Marinca?, M; Daha, C; Cirimbei, C; Boru, C

388

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

389

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

Green, Kimberly

2012-01-01

390

Direct Simulation of Pathological Detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can

James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long

391

Direct Simulation of Pathological Detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can

James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long

2003-01-01

392

Avian clinical pathology. General considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects of avian clinical pathology are reviewed. It is concluded that in a clinical setting a volume of blood equivalent to 1 per cent of body weight can be collected safely from avian species for laboratory examinations. The anticoagulant of choice for most laboratory investigations is lithium heparin. In most bird species the right jugular vein is the preferred

J. T. Lumeij

1987-01-01

393

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

394

Central mechanisms of pathological pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

Rohini Kuner

2010-01-01

395

THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

CROME, L.; STERN, J.

396

[Pathology websites in the World Wide Web. A guide for a specific research of pathology information on the Internet].  

PubMed

Being a global information network, the internet has becoming increasingly important for pathologists as a medium for professional communication and information. Although a large number of pathology-specific websites (PSWs) are accessible on the internet, the potentials of PSWs are still barely known. Since there is no global catalog for all the pathology websites, certain PSWs are difficult to find on the internet. PSWs offer lavishly illustrated education material for undergraduates and postgraduates in pathology, but may also be very useful as reference books or as an instrument of continuing medical education (CME) for experienced pathologists. The spectrum of PSW media comprises electronic training manuals, journals, case collections, photo-archives, and even complete section series of virtual microscopy. PSWs are available at any time, can be updated permanently and linked to further online sources of information. We demonstrate how to find PSWs and present an annotated list of some 100 of the best PSWs. PMID:17849121

Böhm, J

2007-09-13

397

Palpable lesions as a diagnostic tool in patients with thoracic pathology.  

PubMed

Palpable lesion(s) noticed in a patient with thoracic disease may be a useful diagnostic tool and it often gives a clue for further management. In this study, we searched the diagnostic value of palpable lesions in patients with thoracic pathology suspected clinically and/or radiologically. We prospectively examined the correlations of clinical/radiologic and pathologic findings of 72 palpable lesions from 68 patients who presented with suspect for a thoracic disease from two tertiary medical centers. Thirty-two lesions (44.4%) were diagnosed as malignant either by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) only or FNA with confirmatory biopsy. The most common malignancy was non-small-cell carcinoma (10) followed by adenocarcinoma (6), and small-cell carcinoma (5). The most common localization of the palpable lesions was cervical region (20.8%) followed by left supraclavicular (13.8%) and anterior chest wall (13.8%). FNA was effective in obtaining an accurate diagnosis in 66.6% of the patients. Tissue confirmation of FNA was performed in 54 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of FNA in distinguishing a malignant lesion from a benign disease for these palpable lesions were 75, 97, 96, and 80, respectively. One false negativity and one false positivity were also found. Abnormal radiologic features were not correlated with having a malignant palpable lesion. Evaluation of the palpable lesions by FNA and tissue biopsy together is effective for initial triage of the patients with suspect for a thoracic pathology. FNA alone is a convenient and easy method for this purpose especially when the material is immediately assessed for specimen adequacy. PMID:21681977

Yener, Nese Arzu; Midi, Ahmet; Cubuk, Rahmi; Orki, Alpay; Onar, Cagatay; Ersev, Ayse; Arman, Bulent

2011-06-16

398

Pathological correlation with diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to assess causative pathological factors associated with diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who achieved pathological complete response (pCR) after treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods In total, 43 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (?T3 or lymph node positive) who underwent neoadjuvant CRT, subsequent surgery and ultimately achieved pCR were enrolled. All patients underwent pre- and post-CRT 3.0 T rectal MRI with DWI. Two radiologists blinded to pathological staging reviewed pre- and post-CRT 3.0 T rectal MRI for the presence of diffusion restriction in the corresponding tumour areas on post-CRT DWI, with a third radiologist arbitrating any disagreement. The consensus of these findings was then correlated with pathological data such as intramural mucin and the degree of proctitis and mural fibrosis seen on surgical specimen. Additionally, the pre-CRT tumour volume was measured to define the effect of this variable on the degree of radiation proctitis and fibrosis, as well as the presence of intramural mucin. Results Diffusion restriction occurred in 18 subjects (41.9%), while 25 subjects remained diffusion restriction-free (58.1%). The diffusion restriction group tended to have more severe proctitis and mural fibrosis when compared with non-diffusion restriction group (p<0.001). Intramural mucin was also more common in the diffusion restriction group (p=0.052). Higher pre-CRT tumour volumes were significantly predictive of the degree of proctitis (p=0.0247) and fibrosis (p=0.0445), but not the presence of intramural mucin (p=0.0944). Proctitis and mural fibrosis severity were also identified as independent pathological risk factors for diffusion restriction on multivariate analysis (p=0.0073 and 0.0011, respectively). Conclusion Both radiation-induced proctitis and fibrosis were significant and independent predictors of diffusion restriction in patients achieving pCR after treatment with neoadjuvant CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer, and pre-CRT tumour volume significantly affects both variables.

Jang, K M; Kim, S H; Choi, D; Lee, S J; Park, M J; Min, K

2012-01-01

399

Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

Kalousek, D.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (CA)); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

1990-01-01

400

Shoulder pathology associated with symptomatic acromioclavicular joint degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the incidence and nature of shoulder disease found in association with symptomatic degenerative change in the acromioclavicular joint in 218 shoulders. Coexisting pathologic conditions were present in 213 shoulders: rotator cuff degeneration in 176 shoulders (79 with complete thickness tears), labral tears in 72, glenohumeral degeneration in 31, and biceps tendon disease in 49. In 59 shoulders findings

Jeremy N. Brown; Simon N. J. Roberts; Michael G. Hayes; Andrew D. Sales

2000-01-01

401

Issues in the classification and pathological diagnosis of asphyxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although asphyxial deaths often have very characteristic death scene features, the pathological diagnosis of asphyxia is often difficult as there are no pathognomonic findings at autopsy; i.e. features such as fluidity of the blood, congestion, oedema, engorgement of the right side of the heart and petechial haemorrhages are no longer considered diagnostic. For this reason, accurate evaluation of the death

Roger Byard

2011-01-01

402

Pathological roles of ?-synuclein in neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Substantial genetic, neuropathological, and biochemical evidence implicates the presynaptic neuronal protein ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and related Lewy body disorders. How dysregulation of ?-synuclein leads to neurodegeneration is, however, unclear. Soluble oligomeric, but not fully fibrillar, ?-synuclein is thought to be toxic. The major neuronal target of aberrant ?-synuclein might be the synapse. The effects of aberrant ?-synuclein might include alteration of calcium homoeostasis or mitochondrial fragmentation and, in turn, mitochondrial dysfunction, which could link ?-synuclein dysfunction to recessive and toxin-induced parkinsonism. ?-Synuclein also seems to be linked to other genetic forms of Parkinson's disease, such as those linked to mutations in GBA or LRRK2, possibly through common effects on autophagy and lysosomal function. Finally, ?-synuclein is physiologically secreted, and this extracellular form could lead to the spread of pathological accumulations and disease progression. Consequently, factors that regulate the levels, post-translational modifications, specific aberrant cellular effects, or secretion of ?-synuclein might be targets for therapy. PMID:22014436

Vekrellis, Kostas; Xilouri, Maria; Emmanouilidou, Evangelia; Rideout, Hardy J; Stefanis, Leonidas

2011-11-01

403

Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the roles of pathological disorders in Internet addiction disorder and identify the pathological problems in IAD, as well as explore the mental status of Internet addicts prior to addiction, including the pathological traits that may trigger Internet addiction disorder.Methods and Findings59 students were measured by Symptom CheckList-90 before and after they became addicted to the

Guangheng Dong; Qilin Lu; Hui Zhou; Xuan Zhao; Jeremy Miles

2011-01-01

404

Radiologic–Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before\\u000a transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation\\/resection.\\u000a Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics\\u000a using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment\\u000a were

Ahsun Riaz; Robert J. Lewandowski; Laura Kulik; Robert K. Ryu; Mary F. Mulcahy; Talia Baker; Vanessa Gates; Ritu Nayar; Ed Wang; Frank H. Miller; Kent T. Sato; Reed A. Omary; Michael Abecassis; Riad Salem

2010-01-01

405

[A swallowing study, based on clinico-pathological evaluation, performed by video-fluoroscopy].  

PubMed

A clinico-pathological evaluation was performed on patients requiring nasogastric nutritional support. As a result, it was found that nasogastric tube feeding was common in patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Pneumonia was anamnestic in many CVD patients, which was frequently the direct indication for nasogastric tube feeding and the major cause of death in these patients. On the other hand, pneumonia was not common in SDAT in which the major indication of nasogastric tube feeding was abnormal appetite. However, pneumonia was an infrequent cause of death in SDAT compared to CVD patients. The mean age in which nasogastric tube feeding was started was 8 years older in SDAT than CVD patients, however, there was no significant difference in the duration of nasogastric tube feeding ranging from initiation to death. A swallowing study, based on a clinico-pathological evaluation, was performed by video-fluoroscopy on healthy seniors and senior patients neurological diseases. There was no abnormal finding in the healthy seniors. Findings in CVD patients with single-sided neurological diseases indicated that 27.3% had moderate abnormalities and 18.2% had severe abnormalities. In CVD with bilateral defects, 35.7% had moderate abnormalities and 42.9% had severe abnormalities. Though even single-sided CVD defects can frequently cause swallowing disorder, oral food intake was maintained in nearly half of the patients with bilateral CVD, despite high incidence of severe swallowing disorder. In the mild SDAT group, rated on a scale from 0.5 to 1.0 according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), 11.1% had moderate swallowing disorder. In the CDR 2-3 group, 23.1% had moderate disability and 15.4% had severe disability. It appears that SDAT patients do not suffer from rapid deterioration in swallowing ability, which was relatively retained in this disease group. In Parkinson's disease patients with a Yahr grade of I-II, 55.6% had normal findings and 44.4% had mild abnormalities. In Yahr grade III-IV patients, 28.6% had mild and 28.6% had severe disability. Patients with severe dysfunction had a high incidence of silent aspiration. The swallowing function was maintained in the early course of mild Parkinson's disease patients, however the ability rapidly deteriorated with the course of the disease. The radiological findings of the swallowing study supported the clinico-pathological characteristics of each disease. PMID:10737024

Hasegawa, Y; Yamamoto, T; Inagaki, T; Suzuki, K

2000-01-01

406

Bilateral Renal Infarction in a Lupus Patient: An Unusual Pathology  

PubMed Central

Acute renal infarction is still an underdiagnosed pathology. Most cases are secondary to arterial embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation or other cardiac illnesses; however, a less known etiology is the vascular affection of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal infarction in lupus patients normally appears with positive antiphospholipid antibodies or lupus anticoagulant in the context of an antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This is characterized by a state of hypercoagulability potentially affecting all segments of the vascular bed with thrombosis. A differential diagnosis with lupus nephritis, a very common pathology in SLE patients, must be carried out. We have to suspect this pathology in patients with SLE and APS who come to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pains or a renal colic. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman who was diagnosed of bilateral segmental renal infarction in the context of recently diagnosed SLE with no other vascular manifestations.

Padilla-Fernandez, Barbara; Garcia-Casado, Diana; Martin-Izquierdo, Manuela; Manzano-Rodriguez, Carmen; Garcia-Garcia, Javier; Lorenzo-Gomez, Maria F.

2013-01-01

407

A Clinico-Pathological Study on Benign Breast Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: To study the patterns of clinically benign breast disease in females and to co-relate them with the pathological findings. Methods: One hundred females who attended the Surgery Outpatients Department in Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry, with various forms of benign breast diseases during the period from October 2011 to September 2012, were studied. Early diagnoses by doing a triple assessment like a clinical examination, FNAC or a core needle biopsy and imaging methods like ultrasonography or mammography, were made within 72 hrs from the first consultation. The clinical diagnoses were compared with the cytological or histological findings wherever possible and their accuracies were evaluated. Results: Out of the 100 female patients who were studied, 87 patients who presented with breast lumps and fibroadenoma, accounted for 48% of the cases, which was the highest number of patients. Fibrocystic changes and breast abscesses came next with 18% and 12% cases respectively. We detected 3 cases of proliferative disease with atypia and one case with florid hyperplasia, which had high and low risk factors respectively, for developing invasive carcinoma. The oldest lady of the group who was clinically diagnosed to have benign disease, was detected to have invasive ductal carcinoma. They were treated in our hospital and were advised follow up. Conclusion: Benign breast diseases are common in female patients and fibroadenoma is the commonest of them all. Triple assessment provided a quick diagnosis and it alleviated unnecessary anxiety from the patients about breast cancer. The clinical diagnosis of a breast lump, as confirmed by cytology and histology, was accurate in 91.95 % of the cases.

Sangma, Mima B. Maychet; Panda, Kishori; Dasiah, Simon

2013-01-01

408

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received.

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

409

Effect of topographical distribution of ?-synuclein pathology on TDP-43 accumulation in Lewy body disease.  

PubMed

It has been reported that the development of TDP-43 pathology in cases of Lewy body disease (LBD) might be associated with the severity of tau pathology. However, the impact of ?-synuclein pathology on TDP-43 accumulation in LBD remains unclear. To clarify whether ?-synuclein pathology has an effect on TDP-43 accumulation, independent of tau pathology, we examined by immunohistochemistry 56 cases of LBD using a phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody. The frequency of TDP-43 pathology in all LBD cases was 18% (10/56). In 37 LBD cases with no or low tau burden (LBD-Ltau; Braak NFT stages 0-II), the frequency of TDP-43 pathology was 19% (7/37). The frequency of TDP-43 pathology in diffuse neocortical type LBD-Ltau cases was 36% (4/11), which was higher than those in limbic and brain stem-predominant types (11-14%). The amygdala and entorhinal cortex were the most frequently affected sites of TDP-43 pathology in LBD-Ltau cases. In LBD-Ltau cases, the proportion of diffuse neocortical type LBD was higher in the TDP-43-positive cases, than that in TDP-43-negative cases (57 vs. 23%). In all LBD cases, ?-synuclein pathology in the temporal cortex was significantly more severe in TDP-43-positive cases, and significantly correlated with the severity of TDP-43 pathology in the amygdala. In a multivariate model, the presence of severe ?-synuclein pathology was significantly associated with the development of TDP-43 pathology independent of age at death and tau pathology. In the amygdala, TDP-43 was often colocalized with ?-synuclein or tau. Given these findings, we suggest that ?-synuclein pathology is associated with TDP-43 accumulation in LBD cases. PMID:20669025

Yokota, Osamu; Davidson, Yvonne; Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Ishizu, Hideki; Terada, Seishi; Sikkink, Stephen; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Mann, David M A

2010-07-29

410

Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Investigation of Asbestosis  

PubMed Central

By the radiological examination, differential diagnosis of asbestosis from chronic interstitial pneumonia such as IPF/UIP is difficult. The pathological features of asbestosis show the peribronchiolar fibrosis which suggest that asbestos fibers cause the inflammation of bronchioli. Therefore, the criteria for pathological diagnosis of asbestosis in 2010, contain the finding of peribronchiolar fibrosis again. Chest CT scanning including HRCT for total of 38 cases clinically diagnosed asbestosis were reviewed by 3 radiologists and one pulmonologist. On the other hand, the histology of lung tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy were examined by 4 pulmonological pathologists. Furthermore, the content of asbestos bodies in the lung was counted by phase-contrast microscopy. Thirteen cases were definitely diagnosed of asbestosis in the image including HRCT and 17 cases were diagnosed by the histopathological examination showing lung fibrosis with peribronchiolar fibrosis. Only 10 cases were indicated asbestosis by both the radiological and histopathological examinations. The mean value of asbestos bodies for these cases, was 2,133,255 per gram of dry lung tissue.

Kishimoto, Takumi; Kato, Katsuya; Arakawa, Hiroaki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Inai, Kouki; Takeshima, Yukio

2011-01-01

411

Pathology Case Study: Substernal Chest Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology featuring a 49-year-old married white male school teacher was a 2 pack/day smoker with a history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and a family history of coronary artery disease. He was awakened from his sleep at 03:00 with crushing substernal chest pain which radiated to his left arm and was accompanied by shortness of breath. This case study provides learning objectives along with autopsy findings both gross and microscopic in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Nichols, Larry

2009-10-07

412

Three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas: a 13-year surgical pathology review  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of adrenal incidentalomas due to the widespread use of sophisticated abdominal imaging techniques has resulted in an increasing trend of adrenal gland specimens being received in the pathology laboratory. In this context, we encountered three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas. The aim of this manuscript is to report in detail the three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas in the context of a 13-year retrospective surgical pathology review. Methods The three index cases were investigated and analyzed in detail with relevant review of the English literature as available in PubMed and Medline. A 13-year retrospective computer-based histopathological surgical review was conducted in our laboratory and the results were analyzed in the context of evidence-based literature on adrenal incidentalomas. Results A total of 94 adrenal specimens from incidentalomas were identified, accounting for 0.025% of all surgical pathology cases. In all 76.6% were benign and 23.4% were malignant. A total of 53 females (56.4%) and 41 males (43.6%) aged 4 to 85?years were identified. The benign lesions included cortical adenoma (43.1%), pheochromocytoma (29.3%) and inflammation/fibrosis/hemorrhage (8.3%). Metastatic neoplasms were the most common malignant lesions (50%) followed by primary adrenocortical carcinomas (31.8%) and neuroblastoma (13.6%). These cases were discovered as adrenal incidentalomas that led to surgical exploration. The three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas with unusual pathologies were encountered that included (a) adrenal ganglioneuroma, (b) periadrenal schwannoma and (c) primary adrenal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. These cases are discussed, with a literature and clinicopathological review. Conclusions Adrenal lesions are uncommon surgical specimens in the pathology laboratory. However, higher detection rates of adrenal incidentalomas aided by the ease of laparoscopic adrenalectomy has resulted in increased adrenal surgical specimens leading to unsuspected diagnostic and management dilemmas. Accurate pathological identification of common and uncommon adrenal incidentalomas is essential for optimal patient management.

2012-01-01

413

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

414

Evaluating mutant mice: anatomic pathology.  

PubMed

As the human and mouse genome projects approach their goals, initiatives in functional genomics are advancing. When the nucleotide sequences are available, identification of gene functions will assume even greater importance. Determination of gene products and their proximal biochemical functions provide a part of the picture, but determination of their functions in the context of the whole organism is the ultimate goal. The manipulated mouse genome has become accepted as a model for understanding the genetic basis of human conditions and diseases. Consequently, biomedical research institutions have seen significant increases in the use of mice since the early 1980s, and these increases are largely attributable to the use of genetically modified mice. The role of comparative pathology in research on mutant mouse models of disease is increasing in response to these trends. Evaluation and phenotypic characterization of mutant mice, via clinical and anatomic pathology techniques, will be an important component of functional genomics initiatives. PMID:11199155

Brayton, C; Justice, M; Montgomery, C A

2001-01-01

415

Innovations in teaching plant pathology.  

PubMed

The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods. PMID:12730395

Schumann, G L

2003-04-29

416

Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

2013-01-01

417

Optical diagnostics of liver pathology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of reflectance spectroscopy to detect pathological changes in human liver tissue was investigated. Post mortem reflectance spectra were collected from liver tissue originating from 13 individuals. A point counting method was applied to determine relative areas of connective tissue, liver cells with or without fat vacuoles, and vascular spaces in the liver. Preliminary results show that the amount of fat and connective tissue in liver can be estimated from reflectance spectra.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

2003-10-01

418

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Vidal, Sergio; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.

2009-08-18

419

Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.  

PubMed

In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. PMID:6775661

Baskerville, A; Hambleton, P; Benbough, J E

1980-04-01

420

Risk factors for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains—gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999–2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 or older. The current analyses uses data from the 2168 respondents who gambled in the year before the interview.

John W. Welte; Grace M. Barnes; William F. Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell; John C. Parker

2004-01-01

421

Pathology of hereditary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier

Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani

2010-01-01

422

PGC-1? regulates normal and pathological angiogenesis in the retina.  

PubMed

Neovascular diseases of the eye are the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The mechanisms underlying pathological neovascularization in the retina remain incompletely understood. PGC-1? is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular metabolism. In skeletal muscle, PGC-1? induces VEGFA expression and powerfully promotes angiogenesis, suggesting a similar role in other tissues. This study investigates the role of PGC-1? during normal and pathological vascularization in the retina. We show that PGC-1? induces the expression of VEGFA in numerous retinal cells, and that PGC-1? expression is strongly induced during postnatal retinal development, coincident with VEGFA expression and angiogenesis. PGC-1?(-/-) mice have a significant reduction of early retinal vascular outgrowth, and reduced density of capillaries and number of main arteries and veins as adults. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model of retinopathy of prematurity, PGC-1? expression is dramatically induced in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, suggesting that PGC-1? drives pathological neovascularization. In support of this, PGC-1?(-/-) mice subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy had decreased expression of VEGFA and were protected against pathological neovascularization. These results demonstrate that PGC-1? regulates VEGFA in the retina and is required for normal vessel development and for pathological neovascularization. The data highlight PGC-1? as a novel target in the treatment of neovascular diseases of the eye. PMID:23141926

Saint-Geniez, Magali; Jiang, Aihua; Abend, Stephanie; Liu, Laura; Sweigard, Harry; Connor, Kip M; Arany, Zoltan

2012-11-07

423

Cerebrovascular Disease Pathology and Parkinsonian Signs in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Mild motor symptoms including parkinsonian signs are common in old age but their underlying neuropathology is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that cerebrovascular pathologies are related to parkinsonian signs. Methods We studied brain autopsies from 418 deceased participants from the Religious Order Study, who underwent evaluation of parkinsonian signs with a modified version of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS). Brains were evaluated for macroscopic and microinfarcts and the severity of arteriolosclerosis. Regression analyses were employed to examine the association of cerebrovascular pathologies with parkinsonian signs. Results More than 35% of cases (N=149) showed macroscopic infarcts. Almost 30% of cases without macroscopic infarcts, showed pathologies not detected by conventional brain imaging: microinfarcts (N=33, 7.9%); arteriolosclerosis (N=62, 14.8%) or both (N=24, 5.7%). Macroscopic infarcts, specifically multiple cortical and one or more subcortical macroscopic infarcts were related to higher global parkinsonian scores. The presence of multiple and cortical microinfarcts were associated with global parkinsonian score. Arteriolosclerosis was associated with global parkinsonian score but this effect was attenuated and no longer significant after accounting for infarcts. Each of the 3 pathologies were separately associated with parkinsonian gait [macroscopic infarcts (Estimate= 0.552; SE=0.210; p=0.009); microinfarcts (Estimate= 0.424; SE=0.213; p=0.047); arteriolosclerosis (Estimate= 0.191; SE=0.056; p<0.001)]. Further analyses showed that subcortical macroscopic and microinfarcts were specifically associated with the severity of parkinsonian gait. Conclusion Cerebrovascular pathologies, including macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts and arteriolosclerosis, are common in older persons and may be unrecognized common etiologies of mild parkinsonian signs, especially parkinsonian gait, in old age.

Buchman, Aron S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Nag, Sukriti; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

2011-01-01

424

Brain pathology of spinocerebellar ataxias.  

PubMed

The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs) represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases with progressive ataxia and cerebellar degeneration. The current classification of this disease group is based on the underlying genetic defects and their typical disease courses. According to this categorization, ADCAs are divided into the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) with a progressive disease course, and the episodic ataxias (EA) with episodic occurrences of ataxia. The prominent disease symptoms of the currently known and genetically defined 31 SCA types result from damage to the cerebellum and interconnected brain grays and are often accompanied by more specific extra-cerebellar symptoms. In the present review, we report the genetic and clinical background of the known SCAs and present the state of neuropathological investigations of brain tissue from SCA patients in the final disease stages. Recent findings show that the brain is commonly seriously affected in the polyglutamine SCAs (i.e. SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, and SCA17) and that the patterns of brain damage in these diseases overlap considerably in patients suffering from advanced disease stages. In the more rarely occurring non-polyglutamine SCAs, post-mortem neuropathological data currently are scanty and investigations have been primarily performed in vivo by means of MRI brain imaging. Only a minority of SCAs exhibit symptoms and degenerative patterns allowing for a clear and unambiguous diagnosis of the disease, e.g. retinal degeneration in SCA7, tau aggregation in SCA11, dentate calcification in SCA20, protein depositions in the Purkinje cell layer in SCA31, azoospermia in SCA32, and neurocutaneous phenotype in SCA34. The disease proteins of polyglutamine ataxias and some non-polyglutamine ataxias aggregate as cytoplasmic or intranuclear inclusions and serve as morphological markers. Although inclusions may impair axonal transport, bind transcription factors, and block protein quality control, detailed molecular and pathogenetic consequences remain to be determined. PMID:22684686

Seidel, Kay; Siswanto, Sonny; Brunt, Ewout R P; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner; Rüb, Udo

2012-06-09

425

Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman

1992-01-01

426

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

427

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

428

Imaging findings of primary urachal actinomycosis.  

PubMed

Primary actinomycosis in urachal remnant is documented rarely in the English literature. The disease is usually misdiagnosed as urachal carcinoma because of its infiltrating and enhancing natures. We illustrate a case of urachal actinomycosis with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance images. The clinical, radiological, and pathological findings are reviewed. Some imaging findings may help us to differentiate an inflammatory process from malignancy. PMID:21292203

Li, Ming-Feng; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung

2011-01-19

429

Striatal pathology underlies prion infection-mediated hyperactivity in mice  

PubMed Central

Although prion diseases are most commonly modeled using the laboratory mouse, the diversity of prion strains, behavioral testing and neuropathological assessments hamper our collective understanding of mouse models of prion disease. Here we compared several commonly used murine strains of prions in C57BL/6J female mice in a detailed home cage behavior detection system and a systematic study of pathological markers and neurotransmitter systems. We observed that mice inoculated with RML or 139A prions develop a severe hyperactivity phenotype in the home cage. A detailed assessment of pathology markers, such as microglial marker IBA1, astroglial marker GFAP and degeneration staining indicate early striatal pathology in mice inoculated with RML or 139A but not in those inoculated with 22L prions. An assessment of neuromodulatory systems including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin and acetylcholine showed surprisingly little decline in neuronal cell bodies or their innervations of regions controlling locomotor behavior, except for a small decrease in dopaminergic innervations of the dorsal striatum. These results implicate the dorsal striatum in mediating the major behavioral phenotype of 139A and RML prions. Further, they suggest that measurements of activity may be a sensitive manner in which to diagnose murine prion disease. With respect to neuropathology, our results indicate that pathological stains as opposed to neurotransmitter markers are much more informative and sensitive as markers of prion disease in mouse models.

Gunapala, Keith M; Chang, Daniel; Hsu, Cynthia T; Manaye, Kebreten; Drenan, Ryan M; Switzer, Robert C

2010-01-01

430

[Clinico-pathological investigation of two patients with dementia with motor neuron disease].  

PubMed

Dementia with motor neuron disease (D-MND) is characterized clinically by frontal and neurological signs, and pathologically by localized atrophy of the fronto-temporal lobes and neuronal ubiquitin(Ub)-positive inclusions. In this study, we compared the clinico-pathological findings of two patients with D-MND. Case 1 (55-year-old male): At the age of 51, he developed personality change and disinhibition, lacking neurological signs. Brain MRI exhibited localized atrophy of the frontal lobes. At the age of 54, he showed dysphagia and died after a disease duration of 4 years. Neuropathologically, the cerebrum showed localized atrophy of the dorsal area of the frontal lobes. The atrophied cerebral cortex demonstrated moderate neuronal loss with spongy change and gliosis in the superficial layers. The brainstem and spinal cord revealed moderate neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, severe neuronal loss with Bunina bodies in the hypoglossal nucleus, and moderate neuronal loss in the cervical anterior horn. There were some Ub-positive neuronal inclusions in the atrophied cortex and many in the dentate gyrus. Case 2 (68-year-old female): At the age of 64, she developed personality change, and then gait disturbance and dysarthria. Brain MRI exhibited localized atrophy of the fronto-temporal lobes. At the age of 67, she showed dysphagia with Babinski signs and died after a disease duration of 4 years. Neuropathologically, the cerebrum showed localized atrophy of the basal area of the temporal lobes, especially on the right side. The atrophied cerebral cortex demonstrated moderated neuronal loss with spongy change and gliosis in the superficial layers. The pre-central cortex revealed severe loss of Betz cells. The brainstem and spinal cord showed mild neuronal loss without Bunina bodies in the hypoglossal nucleus and cervical anterior horn, accompanied by severe degeneration of the bilateral pyramidal tracts. There were many Ub-positive neuronal inclusions with a few neurites in the atrophied cortex and some in the dentate gyrus. Cases 1 and 2 were clinically diagnosed as Pick's disease (PiD) and D-MND, respectively, although pathological diagnoses were both D-MND. Case 1 showed neuropathological findings typical to D-MND, whereas case 2 showed neuropathological findings common to atypical Pick's disease (aPiD). D-MND and aPiD are should be clinico-pathologically differentiated, although they are included in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease-type inclusions. PMID:17370652

Yamamoto, Ryoko; Iseki, Eizo; Murayama, Norio; Minegishi, Michiko; Kimura, Michihiro; Eto, Ko; Arai, Heii; Ohbu, Sadayoshi; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Hino, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Koshiro

2007-03-01

431

Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few detailed clinico-pathological correlations of Parkinson's disease have been published. The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported. Seventy six had nigral Lewy bodies, and in all of these Lewy bodies were also found in the cerebral cortex. In 24 cases without Lewy bodies, diagnoses included progressive

A J Hughes; S E Daniel; L Kilford; A J Lees

1992-01-01

432

Historical perspectives in diagnostic clinical pathology: development of the pregnancy test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in a series of articles dealing with developments in the history of diagnostic pathology and laboratory medicine for the Journal of Clinical Pathology. The pregnancy test kits of today can give an accurate result within 2 min and are as easily available in the laboratory as they are for over-the-counter purchase. Such kits also find a

David Haarburger; Tahir S Pillay

2011-01-01

433

Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

434

Pathology Case Study: Arthralgia and Myalgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study a 35-year-old woman with a history of arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and myalgia is treated for progressive weakness, shortness of breath and a dry cough. Detailed observations examinations are available along with X-ray images and gross and microscopic descriptions of the patientâÂÂs condition. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ link will take you to the patientâÂÂs official diagnosis and notes from the contributing doctors. Students in the health sciences will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Lee, Robert E.; Chung, Wen-Wei

2009-08-26

435

Pathology Case Study: Man in Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 67-year-old man in a post-operative coma, which required prolonged mechanical ventilation. The results from a CT scan, MRI, and EEG along with microscopic images are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Kovacs, Kalman; Al-Gahtany, Mubarak

2008-04-01

436

Pathology Case Study: Dyspnea and Malaise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old man who was hospitalized 4 weeks before his death with a history of over 3 months of increasing dyspnea and malaise. Visitors are given clinical history, postmortem examination data, and histology, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Ellison, David W.; Baldwin, Lindsay; Poller, David

2009-04-09

437

"Fantastic Thinking" in Pathologically Proven Pick Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Reports of false beliefs may be a unique feature of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) but the nature of these experiences is unclear. Objective To report a case of pathologically verified Pick disease in a patient presenting with prominent and recurrent fantasies. Methods We describe the clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuropathologic findings of a 53-year-old woman presenting with fantasies and meeting Clinical Consensus Criteria for bvFTD. Results Early in her course, she reported interactions with different actors, having torrid affairs with them, and other related fantasies. When confronted with her false beliefs, she admitted that these relationships were imaginary. Autopsy revealed Pick disease with ?-immunoreactive Pick bodies in the frontal and temporal cortices, and in the hippocampi. Conclusions Fantastic thinking, or vividly experienced imagination, may be a manifestation of bvFTD that is distinct from delusions and confabulations and could be the source of previously reported delusions and confabulations in bvFTD.

Kremen, Sarah A.; Solis, Orestes E.; Shapira, Jill S.; Vinters, Harry V.; Mendez, Mario F.

2011-01-01

438

Molecular Pathology of Lewy Body Diseases  

PubMed Central

Lewy body diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein(AS)-positive inclusions in the brain. Since their main component is conformationally modified AS, aggregation of the latter is thought to be a key pathogenic event in these diseases. The analysis of inclusion body constituents gives additional information about pathways also involved in the pathology of synucleinopathies. Widespread mitochondrial dysfunction is very closely related to disease development. The impairment of protein degradation pathways, including both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway also play an important role during the development of Lewy body diseases. Finally, differential expression changes of isoforms corresponding to genes primarily involved in Lewy body formation point to alternative splicing as another important mechanism in the development of Parkinson’s disease, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. The present paper attempts to give an overview of recent molecular findings related to the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.

Beyer, Katrin; Domingo-Sabat, Montserrat; Ariza, Aurelio

2009-01-01

439

Pathology Case Study: Parietal Lobe Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 15-year-old girl admitted to the hospital because of a seizure attack. Images from a CT scan and MRI, and microscopic results provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

Popovic, Mara; Dolenc-Strazar, Zvezdana; Gutnik, Helena

2009-01-19

440

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

Contis, Lydia C.; Peng, Yan

2009-03-23

441

[Current medicolegal and ethical issues in pathology].  

PubMed

The increase in density of information available in relation to patients and research participants, in particular in the context of genetic diagnostics and analysis, results in an increased potential for uncovering details which were unexpected but are of particular significance for the patient. Deciding how this information is dealt with and who is entitled to receive this information, is a medicolegal and ethical balancing act. Incidental findings and the challenges posed by the advent of personalised medicine are but two areas which increasingly impact medical disciplines that do not conventionally work directly with patients. Both areas raise questions of what is legally required and morally necessary. The authors briefly sketch these two areas and the medicolegal and ethical implications for diagnostics and research in pathology. PMID:23322303

Robienski, J; Hoppe, N

2013-02-01

442

The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology  

PubMed Central

Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings.

Tabar, L.; Dean, P. B.; Lindhe, N.; Ingvarsson, M.

2012-01-01

443

Forefoot pathology in rheumatoid arthritis identified with ultrasound may not localise to areas of highest pressure: cohort observations at baseline and twelve months  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar pressures are commonly used as clinical measures, especially to determine optimum foot orthotic design. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) high plantar foot pressures have been linked to metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint radiological erosion scores. However, the sensitivity of foot pressure measurement to soft tissue pathology within the foot is unknown. The aim of this study was to observe plantar foot pressures and forefoot soft tissue pathology in patients who have RA. Methods A total of 114 patients with established RA (1987 ACR criteria) and 50 healthy volunteers were assessed at baseline. All RA participants returned for reassessment at twelve months. Interface foot-shoe plantar pressures were recorded using an F-Scan® system. The presence of forefoot soft tissue pathology was assessed using a DIASUS musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) system. Chi-square analyses and independent t-tests were used to determine statistical differences between baseline and twelve months. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine interrelationships between soft tissue pathology and foot pressures. Results At baseline, RA patients had a significantly higher peak foot pressures compared to healthy participants and peak pressures were located in the medial aspect of the forefoot in both groups. In contrast, RA participants had US detectable soft tissue pathology in the lateral aspect of the forefoot. Analysis of person specific data suggests that there are considerable variations over time with more than half the RA cohort having unstable presence of US detectable forefoot soft tissue pathology. Findings also indicated that, over time, changes in US detectable soft tissue pathology are out of phase with changes in foot-shoe interface pressures both temporally and spatially. Conclusions We found that US detectable forefoot soft tissue pathology may be unrelated to peak forefoot pressures and suggest that patients with RA may biomechanically adapt to soft tissue forefoot pathology. In addition, we have observed that, in patients with RA, interface foot-shoe pressures and the presence of US detectable forefoot pathology may vary substantially over time. This has implications for clinical strategies that aim to offload peak plantar pressures.

2011-01-01

444

Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

While cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized as common symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the underlying histopathologic basis for this is not known, nor has the relevance of neuroinflammatory mechanisms and microglial activation to cognitive impairment (CI) in ALS been systematically analyzed. Staining for neurodegenerative disease pathology, TDP-43, and microglial activation markers (CD68, Ibal) was performed in 102 autopsy cases of ALS, and neuropathology data were related to clinical and neuropsychological measures. ALS with dementia (ALS-D) and ALS with impaired executive function (ALS-Ex) patients showed significant microglial activation in middle frontal and superior or middle temporal (SMT) gyrus regions, as well as significant neuronal loss and TDP-43 pathology in these regions. Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology in middle frontal and superior or middle temporal regions were highly correlated with measures of executive impairment, but not with the MMSE. In contrast, only one ALS-D patient showed moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Tau and A? pathology increased with age. A lower MMSE score correlated with tau pathology in hippocampus and SMT gyrus, and with A? pathology in limbic and most cortical regions. Tau and A? pathology did not correlate with executive measures. We conclude that microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology in frontotemporal areas are determinants of FTLD spectrum dementia in ALS and correlate with neuropsychological measures of executive dysfunction. In contrast, AD pathology in ALS is primarily related to increasing age and associated with a poorer performance on the MMSE.

Brettschneider, Johannes; Libon, David J.; Toledo, Jon B.; Xie, Sharon X.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Geser, Felix; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q.

2013-01-01

445

[Peripheral nerve disorders--clinical pathological approaches].  

PubMed

Clinical pathological approach is defined as combination of neurological, neurophysiological and neuroradiological findings for the interpretation of the morphology of the sural nerve. For this purpose, first, the usefulness of simultaneous biopsy of sural nerve and ipsilateral short peroneal muscle was presented. This method has helped establish the diagnosis of angitis or amyloidosis in some cases. Furthermore, motor-dominant clinical picture was ascertained by relative preservation of sural nerve in contrast with severe changes in intramuscular nerve fascicles. Second, histochemistry using UEA-1 lectin to detect somatic sensory C fibers was discussed. UEA-1 specifically binds to unmyelinated axons and small neurons in dorsal root ganglia as well as substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. Serial semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained. The semithin section was removed of epon and stained histochemically with UEA-1. Positive fibers in the semithin section was compared with the counterpart in the ultrathin sections. UEA-1 positive fibers were found to comprise 20% of all unmyelinated fibers and be randomly distributed among the entire nerve fascicles. The application of this technique to pathological specimens is now undergoing. Third, an autopsy case with sarin intoxication was reported as an example of systemic study of the peripheral nervous system. The patient was a 51-year-old man who inhaled sarin in the attack of Tokyo Subway. He fell into vegetative state and was passively maintained for 13 months. Peripheral sensory nerve showed typical pattern of dying back-type distal peripheral axonopathy. It might be indicated that peripheral nerve be carefully checked among the sarin victims. In conclusion, the aim of our approach is to combine all clinical information, introduce recent advance in neuroscience, and try to find possible cure to intractable neurological disorders. PMID:9577657

Murayama, S

1997-12-01

446

Understanding XDP through imaging, pathology, and genetics.  

PubMed

The X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) is a severe, progressive, adult-onset, X-linked endemic disorder in Filipinos, which is characterized by dystonic movements that start in the third or fourth decade, and replaced by parkinsonism beyond the 10th year of illness. Understanding the pathophysiology of XDP and development of rational therapies will depend on observations from imaging, pathological, and genetic studies. In this paper we summarize the results of these studies on patients with XDP. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging shows hyperintense putaminal rim in both dystonic and parkinsonian stages, and atrophy of the caudate head or putamen in the parkinsonian stage. Neuropathological findings show atrophy of the caudate nucleus and putamen, with mild to severe neuronal loss and gliosis. In the neostriatum, the dystonic phase of XDP shows the involvement of striosomes and matrix sparing, while the later, i.e., parkinsonian phase, shows matrix involvement as well. In the dystonic phase, the loss of striosomal inhibitory projections lead to disinhibition of nigral dopaminergic neurons, perhaps resulting in a hyperkinetic state; while in the parkinsonian phase, severe and critical reduction of matrix-based projection may result in extranigral parkinsonism. Genetic sequencing of the XDP critical region in Xq13.1 has revealed an SVA retrotransposon insertion in an intron of TAF1. This may reduce neuron-specific expression of the TAF1 isoform in the caudate nucleus, and subsequently interfere with the transcription of many neuronal genes, including DRD2. Findings from imaging, pathology, and genetics studies are gradually shedding light on the pathophysiology of XDP, which hopefully will lead to more rational and directed therapies. PMID:21034368

Pasco, Paul Matthew D; Ison, Claro V; Mu?oz, Edwin L; Magpusao, Nelma S; Cheng, Anthony E; Tan, Kenneth T; Lo, Raymundo W; Teleg, Rosalia A; Dantes, Marita B; Borres, Ruth; Maranon, Elma; Demaisip, Cynthia; Reyes, Marita V T; Lee, Lillian V

2010-11-01