Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Typical findings in pathological grief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vamik Volkan

    1970-01-01

    Summary Patients exhibiting pathological grief reactions are those in the middle portion of a spectrum between those on one end with “normal” grief and those on the other end who suffer from full-blown neurosis, psychosomatic symptoms, etc., which are directly related to aknown loss. After examining 23 cases, the author suggests that patients who suffer from pathological grief share a

  2. Pathological Findings in Feto-maternal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carles, Dominique; André, Gwenaëlle; Pelluard, Fanny; Martin, Olivia; Sauvestre, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) is the cause of late fetal death in 1.6%-11% of cases. In spite of this high frequency, its pathological features have received little attention. The definitive diagnosis of lethal FMH requires confirmation of sufficient fetal blood volume loss. This is determined by tests such as the Kleihauer-Betke test, which may not have been obtained or not have been available before the autopsy. The pathologist may offer a tentative diagnosis of FMH from the autopsy findings. The objective of this study was to better characterize the placental and fetal autopsy findings in lethal FMH. This was a retrospective study of 17 cases of FMH proven by a positive Kleihauer-Betke test. The cases were selected from the autopsy files of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. The pathological reports as well as the placental and fetal photographs and the microscopic slides of each case were systematically reviewed. The fetal autopsy findings in FMH are characterized by a eutrophic pale macerated fetus, low liver weight, absent intrathoracic petechiae, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and kidney, and increased circulating nucleated red blood cells. The placenta shows an increased frequency of intervillous thrombi. Although nonpathognomonic, some of the pathological features are strongly suggestive of FMH. When the latter is present, a Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed, even some days after the delivery. PMID:24575782

  3. On finding lowest common ancestors

    SciTech Connect

    Schieber, B.; Vishkin, U.

    1988-12-01

    The authors consider the following problem. Suppose a rooted tree T is available for preprocessing. Answer on-line queries requesting the lowest common ancestor for any pair of vertices in T. They present a linear time and space preprocessing algorithm that enables us to answer each query in O(1) time, as in previous algorithms. Our algorithm has the advantage of being simple and easily parallelizable. The resulting parallel preprocessing algorithm runs in logarithmic time using an optimal number of processors on an EREW PRAM. Each query is then answered in O(1) time using a single processor.

  4. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. DICKENS ARTICLE FINDING COMMON GROUND IN THE

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    DICKENS ARTICLE FINDING COMMON GROUND IN THE WORLD OF ELECTRONIC CONTRACTS: THE CONSISTENCY OF LEGAL REASONING IN CLICKWRAP CASES ROBERT LEE DICKENS* INTRODUCTION State University for their guidance, encouragement, and enthusiasm on this project. #12;DICKENS ARTICLE

  7. Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds C-section ... Thursday, February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childbirth Sexual Health Sexual Problems in Women THURSDAY, Feb. 5, ...

  8. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  9. Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna E Goudriaan; Jaap Oosterlaan; Edwin de Beurs; Wim Van den Brink

    2004-01-01

    In this review, findings of biobehavioral research into pathological gambling (PG) are discussed, focusing on neuropsychological, psychophysiological, neuroimaging, neurochemical and genetic studies. Neuropsychological studies indicate deficiencies in certain executive functions. Psychophysiological studies indicate that arousal in PG is of importance when reward is present. Neuroimaging studies point to abnormalities in brain functioning. Recent research into the neurochemistry of PG indicates

  10. Pathologic findings in lung allografts with anti-HLA antibodies

    PubMed Central

    DeNicola, Matthew M.; Weigt, Sam S.; Belperio, John A.; Reed, Elaine F.; Ross, David J.; Wallace, W. Dean

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite data indicating a positive correlation between donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and early development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in lung allografts, the role of an antibody-mediated process in acute and chronic lung allograft rejection has not been elucidated. In this study we evaluated pathologic features of transplant lung biopsies in patients with and without DSAs. Methods Forty-one lung transplant biopsies from 41 patients at our institution were included in our study. The biopsy H&E slides were reviewed in a blinded fashion, and scored for presence of microvascular inflammation, acute rejection, bronchiolar inflammation and acute lung injury, as well as diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Microvascular inflammation was graded by the presence of capillary neutrophils on a scale of 0 to 4+. For immunohistochemical analysis, the pattern and intensity of staining for C4d and C3d deposition were evaluated in airways and alveolar capillaries. Results Histopathology suspicious for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR)—defined as ?2+ neutrophilic infiltration and/or DAD—were more common in DSA-positive cases than controls (11 of 16 vs 6 of 25, p < 0.01). Evidence of allograft dysfunction was significantly more common among patients with both DSA and suspicious histopathology compared with controls (5 of 10 vs 3 of 25, p = 0.03). The combination of DSAs and histopathology suspicious for AMR was associated with both BOS (p = 0.002) and mortality (p = 0.03). Immunohistochemistry for C3d and C4d showed no correlation with each other, DSAs or histopathology. Conclusions Grade 2+ neutrophilic infiltration is the histopathologic finding most closely related to DSAs with graft dysfunction and development of BOS in lung transplant recipients and may be a marker for AMR. PMID:23313559

  11. Finding Lowest Common Ancestors in Parallel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung H. Tsin

    1986-01-01

    Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)\\/p) logân) and O(n²\\/p + logân) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results

  12. Introduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals

    E-print Network

    Blin, Guillaume

    Conclusion Comparing genomes Genomes evolved from a common ancestor tend to share the same varieties of geneIntroduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 Jens Stoye2 1Université Paris

  13. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  14. Pathological findings in wild harvested dugongs Dugong dugon of central Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Woolford, L; Franklin, C; Whap, T; Loban, F; Lanyon, J M

    2015-03-01

    The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines. PMID:25751852

  15. On finding lowest common ancestors in trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred V. Aho; John E. Hopcroft; Jeffrey D. Ullman

    1973-01-01

    Trees in an n node forest are to be merged according to instructions in a given sequence, while other instructions in the sequence ask for the lowest common ancestor of pairs of nodes. We show that any sequence of O(n) instructions can be processed “on line” in O(n log n) steps on a random access computer. If we can accept

  16. Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

    INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

  17. Human Hemorrhagic Pulmonary Leptospirosis: Pathological Findings and Pathophysiological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, Thales; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; da Silva, Luis Fernando Ferraz; Gonçalves da Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with protean clinical manifestations. Recently, the importance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a lethal complication of this disease has been recognized. In the present study, five human necropsies of leptospirosis (Weil‘s syndrome) with extensive pulmonary manifestations were analysed, and the antibodies expressed in blood vessels and cells involved in ion and water transport were used, seeking to better understand the pathophysiology of the lung injury associated with this disease. Principal Findings Prominent vascular damage was present in the lung microcirculation, with decreased CD34 and preserved aquaporin 1 expression. At the periphery and even inside the extensive areas of edema and intraalveolar hemorrhage, enlarged, apparently hypertrophic type I pneumocytes (PI) were detected and interpreted as a non-specific attempt of clearence of the intraalveolar fluid, in which ionic transport, particularly of sodium, plays a predominant role, as suggested by the apparently increased ENaC and aquaporin 5 expression. Connexin 43 was present in most pneumocytes, and in the cytoplasm of the more preserved endothelial cells. The number of type II pneumocytes (PII) was slightly decreased when compared to normal lungs and those of patients with septicemia from other causes, a fact that may contribute to the progressively low PI count, resulting in deficient restoration after damage to the alveolar epithelial integrity and, consequently, a poor outcome of the pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Conclusions Pathogenesis of lung injury in human leptospirosis was discussed, and the possibility of primary non-inflammatory vascular damage was considered, so far of undefinite etiopathogenesis, as the initial pathological manifestation of the disease. PMID:23951234

  18. Postoperative anatomic and pathologic findings at CT following gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young Hoon; Choi, Joon-Il; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Min Woo

    2002-01-01

    Helical computed tomography (CT) is useful in identifying postoperative anatomic changes, complications, and tumor recurrence in gastric cancer patients who have undergone gastrectomy. Postoperative anatomic changes can usually be identified on consecutive CT scans. Complications include anastomotic leakage, duodenal stump leakage, intraabdominal bleeding, wound complications, and other less common complications (postoperative pancreatitis, retention of surgical foreign bodies, diffuse peritonitis). The degree and extent of bowel wall thickening is important in diagnosing tumor recurrence; however, CT lacks specificity. Large or conglomerated lymph node metastases can be easily diagnosed at CT; however, small solitary or focal metastases may not be detected or differentiated from nonmetastatic nodes. Ascites, a common finding with peritoneal seeding in gastrointestinal tumors, is well depicted at CT. Hematogenous metastases from gastric carcinoma are most frequently seen in the liver and are best demonstrated with helical CT performed during the portal venous phase of enhancement (sensitivity >90% for the detection of lesions >1 cm). The sophisticated surgical procedures used in gastrectomy can alter normal anatomy and make image interpretation difficult; thus, familiarity with the appearance of postoperative anatomic changes, complications, and tumor recurrence is essential for accurate CT evaluation of affected patients. PMID:11896222

  19. Finding Common Ancestors and Disjoint Paths in DAGs

    E-print Network

    Eppstein, David

    Finding Common Ancestors and Disjoint Paths in DAGs David Eppstein Department of Information in a DAG, either connecting two given nodes to a common ancestor, or connecting two given pairs of paths connecting those nodes to common ancestors. In the second, we are given two pairs of terminals (s1

  20. Common Painkillers May Help Prevent Certain Skin Cancers, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin Cancers, Study Finds But medications such as ibuprofen pose their own risks, experts say (*this news ... Dec. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Common painkillers, including ibuprofen, might slightly reduce your risk of developing a ...

  1. [Delirium: a common complication of severe pathological conditions].

    PubMed

    Szendi, István

    2014-11-30

    Delirium is a complex syndrome caused most often by secondary neuronal dysfuncions due to systemic disorders. Because of the central nervous system manifestations of the general disease processes that are getting through the blood-brain barrier, the vigilance of attention flucutates and, therefore, the integration of incoming stimuli fails - resulting in inadequate behavioral answers. Delirium is one of the most common and serious complications of diseases, particularly in the elderly and patients in critical state. It cannot be traced back to a single etiologic process; one should consider all those pathophysiologic mechanisms that are interacting with one another simultaneously impairing the integrated functioning of the brain. Despite the high prevalence rate of delirium and the marked adverse effects on the outcome of the underlying disorders, management and therapy are basically lacking professional guidelines. The syndrome is a threatening state, requiring increased clinical attention and often intensive care. Beside evidence based therapeutic methods, conscious, targeted screening of the known risk factors and measures against them when they present themselves may exert remarkable influence on the prevention of delirium, which is also an exceptionally important aspect of the care of patients in critical state. PMID:25417135

  2. Pancreatic Tumors: Emphasis on CT Findings and Pathologic Classification

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee-Woo; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors can be classified by their morphologic features on CT. The subtypes include solid tumors, mixed cystic and solid lesions, unilocular cysts, multilocular cystic lesions, and microcystic lesions. Endoscopic US and MRI can provide detailed information for classifying pancreatic lesions. Each subtype has different kinds of tumors and malignant potential, thus the classification can be useful for a better differential diagnosis and treatment planning. For this purpose, we suggest an appropriate modified classification system by using the imaging features of pancreatic tumors with an emphasis on CT findings and illustrate various findings of typical and atypical manifestations. PMID:22043156

  3. PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA)

    E-print Network

    Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

    PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA the survival of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), a prospective study was conducted: Dermochelys coriacea, hatchling, histopathology, leatherback sea turtle, posthatchling. INTRODUCTION

  4. Placental Vascular Pathology Findings and Pathways to Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R.; Senagore, P.; Wang, J.; Tian, Y.; Rahbar, M. H.; Chung, H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between placental vascular findings and preterm delivery in 1,053 subcohort women (239 preterm, 814 term) from a Michigan pregnancy cohort study (1998–2004). Twenty-nine placental vascular variables from microscopic examinations were grouped into 5 constructs: 3 maternal constructs—obstructive lesions (MV-O), bleeding/vessel integrity (MV-I), and lack of physiologic conversion of maternal spiral arteries (MV-D)—and 2 fetal constructs—obstructive lesions (FV-O) and bleeding/vessel integrity (FV-I). Construct-specific scores were created by adding the number of positive findings and deriving a dichotomous variable to approximate the top quintile (“high”) and bottom 4 quintiles (“not high”) within each construct. In multivariate polytomous logistic regression models, medically indicated preterm delivery at <35 weeks was significantly associated with high scores for each of the vascular constructs; adjusted odds ratios ranged from 2.4 to 5.4. Spontaneous preterm delivery at 35–36 weeks was significantly associated with a high score on any 1 of 3 constructs: MV-I, MV-D, and FV-I. Spontaneous preterm delivery at <35 weeks was significantly associated with a high score on 2 or more of 3 constructs: MV-I, MV-D, and FV-I; adjusted odds ratios ranged from 4.1 to 7.4. These results support a role for various placental vascular lesions in medically indicated and spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:19509320

  5. Pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons.

    PubMed

    Bonar, C J; Garner, M M; Weber, E S; Keller, C J; Murray, M; Adams, L M; Frasca, S

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective study of the pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons was performed on specimens submitted to 2 reference laboratories from 1994 to 2012 to determine the range and occurrence of diseases affecting aquarium-held populations. One hundred two and 94 total diagnoses were recorded in weedy and leafy seadragons, respectively. Two of the more common etiologic diagnoses in both species were mycobacteriosis and scuticociliatosis, whereas myxozoanosis was common in weedy seadragons. Metazoan parasite infections were less common etiologic diagnoses. There were no correlations between mycobacteriosis and ciliate protozoan infections in either species. Myxozoanosis was usually found in combination with other diseases and, except for 1 case, was restricted to weedy seadragons. Phaeohyphomycosis, nonmycobacterial bacterial infections, and trauma were also important but less frequent diagnoses. Intestinal coccidiosis was found in weedy but not leafy seadragons. Mineralization of the swim bladder was detected in 26 of 197 leafy seadragons and only 2 of 257 weedy seadragons. Although weedy and leafy seadragons share certain diseases of significance to exhibit populations, there are diseases unique to each species about which the veterinary pathologist, clinician, or diagnostician should be aware. PMID:23528940

  6. Two Cases of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia of Similar Appearance in Adult Monozygotic Twin: Pathology and Computed Tomographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Sun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is related to decreased lung function throughout life. However, the pathology and radiology pattern of BPD of adults are not documented well yet. In this case report, we present BPD case of an adult monozygotic twin showing nearly identical lesions on chest computed tomography (CT). CT images showed mixed areas of ground-glass and reticular opacities in both lungs. They had common histories of pneumonias requiring mechanical ventilations in period of infants. Pulmonary function test of one patient showed a pulmonary insufficiency with airway obstruction. Pathologic findings showed bronchiolar hyperplasia and peribronchiolar fibrosis which was similar to classic BPD patients. Our twin case report might help provide distinguishing pathology and radiology pattern of an adult pulmonary sequelaes of BPD. It might be reasonable to make close follow-up for BPD patients to evaluate the long-term outcomes of BPD survivors.

  7. Mental Health Woes Common Among Homeless Kids, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

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  8. The right atrium: gateway to the heart--anatomic and pathologic imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sachin B; Kwan, Damon; Shah, Amar B; Hsu, Joe Y

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of right atrial anatomic and pathologic imaging findings and associated clinical symptoms is important to avoid false-positive diagnoses and missed findings. Complete evaluation of the heart often requires a multimodality approach that includes radiography, echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and invasive angiography. In general, CT provides the highest spatial resolution of these modalities at the cost of radiation exposure to the patient. Echocardiography and MR imaging offer complementary and detailed information for functional evaluation without added radiation exposure. The advantages and disadvantages of each modality for the evaluation of right atrial anatomic structure, size, and pathologic findings are discussed. Cardiac MR imaging is the reference standard for evaluation of right atrial size and volume but often is too time consuming and resource intensive to perform in routine clinical practice. Therefore, established reference ranges for two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography are often used. Right atrial pathologic findings can be broadly categorized into (a) congenital anomalies (cor triatriatum dexter, Ebstein anomaly, and aneurysm), (b) disorders of volume (tricuspid regurgitation, pathologic mimics such as a pseudoaneurysm, and atrial septal defect), (c) disorders of pressure (tricuspid stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and constrictive pericarditis), and (d) masses (pseudomasses, thrombus, lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum, lipoma, myxoma, sarcoma, and metastatic disease). Familiarity with each pathologic entity and its treatment options is essential to ensure that appropriate imaging modalities are selected. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25590385

  9. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli in piglets: Clinical, pathological and microbiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Claude; Drolet, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study (1980-1989) was conducted to describe the clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in 55 cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) caused by Escherichia coli in piglets. The condition occurred in weaned and suckling piglets and was associated with several serogroups of E. coli. Most of the isolates of E. coli possessed the adhesin F4 (K88) and were hemolytic. Only a few of the isolates of E. coli tested produced verotoxins. Clinical signs and pathological findings noted in these cases were compatible with shock. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423984

  10. [CT imaging features and their correlation with pathological findings of solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xingju; Tan, Xianzheng; Wu, Bing

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the CT features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas (SPTP), and correlation with the pathological findings of the disease so as to improve the diagnostic abilities, the CT images and the clinical manifestations, we retrospectively analyzed the pathological materials of 23 cases with surgery and pathology proved SPTP. In the 23 patients, 21 cases were female (91.3%) and 2 were male (8.7%). The most common symptom was abdominal discomfort with dull pain in 12 patients (52.2%). Others included the pancreatic mass that was detected incidentally during physical examination in 9 patients (39.1%), nausea/vomiting in 2 patients (8.7%). And 1 case of female patients had 2 lesions. In the 24 tumors, 6 cases were located at the head (25.0%), 3 were at neck (12.5%), 8 cases were at body (33.3%), and 7 cases were at tail of pancreas respectively (29.2%). The long-axis diameter ranged from 2.1 cm to 20.1 cm (mean 6.4 cm). 9 tumors were mostly solid component (37.5%), 10 tumors were contained similar proportion of solid and cystic part (41.7%), and mainly cystic components in 5 tumors (20.8%). In 9 of the 23 patients, calcification was found in the tumor (39.1%). In 2 of the 23 patients, bleeding was seen in the mass (8.7%). The dilation of intrahepatic bile duct was found in 1 patient (8.7%). Liver metastasis was showed in one patient (8.7%). On post-contrast CT scan, solid parts demonstrated mild enhancement at the arterial phase. At the portal phase, solid parts were enhanced continuously in all cases, and the enhancement degrees were lower than normal pancreatic tissue. The cystic parts of all lesions showed no enhancement. Pseudo papillary structure, hemorrhage, necrosis, or cystic degeneration were found in all patients by histological study. In a word, SPTP has comparatively characteristic CT imaging features consistent with histological features, when combined with clinical manifestations, could be correctly diagnosed and differentially diagnosed. PMID:24804494

  11. MRI findings are more common in selected patients with acute low back pain than controls?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Hancock; Chris Maher; Petra Macaskill; Jane Latimer; Walter Kos; Justin Pik

    Purpose  The purpose of this study is to investigate if lumbar disc pathology identified on MRI scans is more common in patients with\\u000a acute, likely discogenic, low back pain than matched controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   We compared rates of MRI findings between 30 cases with low back pain and 30 pain-free controls. Cases were patients presenting\\u000a for care with likely discogenic low back

  12. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. (Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

  13. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Mřller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  14. NECROPSY FINDINGS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN COMMON LOONS FROM NEW YORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ward B. Stone; Joseph C. Okoniewski

    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic,and,analytical,findings,are,presented,for 105 common,loons,(Gavia immer) found,dead,or debilitated,in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis,(23% of cases) and ingestion,of lead,fishing,weights,(21%) were,the,most,common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain,etiology,accounted,for,most,of the,remaining,causes of disease,or death.,Analysis,for,total,mercury,in the,liver,of 83 loons,yielded,a geometric,mean,(gm) of 10.3 mg\\/kg,(wet,basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg\\/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing,higher,levels.,

  15. Necropsy findings and environmental contaminants in common loons from New York.

    PubMed

    Stone, W B; Okoniewski, J C

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic and analytical findings are presented for 105 common loons (Gavia immer) found dead or debilitated in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis (23% of cases) and ingestion of lead fishing weights (21%) were the most common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain etiology accounted for most of the remaining causes of disease or death. Analysis for total mercury in the liver of 83 loons yielded a geometric mean (gm) of 10.3 mg/kg (wet basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing higher levels. Organochlorine contaminant levels in brain were generally low, principally consisting of PCB's (gm = 2.02 mg/kg) and DDE (0.47 mg/kg). PMID:11272494

  16. Computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy: normal variants, pitfalls, and spectrum of common and rare pathology.

    PubMed

    Das, K M; Lababidi, Hani; Al Dandan, Sadeq; Raja, Shanker; Sakkijha, Hussam; Al Zoum, Mohammad; AlDosari, Khalid; Larsson, Sven G

    2015-02-01

    A broad spectrum of pathologies that involve the laryngotracheobronchial airway and imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating these abnormalities. Computed tomography with virtual bronchoscopy has been found to be very helpful in defining the location, extent, and nature of these lesions, and is increasingly being used even in patients with contraindications for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Ionizing radiation, associated with virtual bronchoscopy, can be minimized by using low-dose multidetector computed tomography and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques. Furthermore, retrospectively generated virtual bronchoscopy from a routinely acquired computed tomography data set eliminates additional cost and radiation. In the future, virtual bronchoscopy assisted with advanced navigational techniques will broaden the diagnostic and therapeutic landscape. This article presents the characteristic features of common and rare laryngotracheobronchial pathologies seen with virtual bronchoscopy. PMID:24785366

  17. Anatomical and pathological findings in hearts from fetuses and infants with cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Deborah M.; Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M.; Tseng, Chung-E.; Dische, Renata; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Halushka, Marc; Clancy, Robert M.; Buyon, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The autopsy and clinical information on children dying with anti-SSA/Ro-associated cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) were examined to identify patterns of disease, gain insight into pathogenesis and enhance the search for biomarkers and preventive therapies. Methods. A retrospective analysis evaluating reports from 18 autopsies of cardiac NL cases and clinical data from the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus was performed. Results. Of the 18 cases with autopsies, 15 had advanced heart block, including 3 who died in the second trimester, 9 in the third trimester and 3 post-natally. Three others died of cardiomyopathy without advanced block, including two dying pre-natally and one after birth. Pathological findings included fibrosis/calcification of the atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node and bundle of His, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), papillary muscle fibrosis, valvular disease, calcification of the atrial septum and mononuclear pancarditis. There was no association of pathology with the timing of death except that in the third-trimester deaths more valvular disease and/or extensive conduction system abnormalities were observed. Clinical rhythm did not always correlate with pathology of the conduction system, and the pre-mortem echocardiograms did not consistently detect the extent of pathology. Conclusion. Fibrosis of the AV node/distal conduction system is the most characteristic histopathological finding. Fibrosis of the SA node and bundle of His, EFE and valve damage are also part of the anti-Ro spectrum of injury. Discordance between echocardiograms and pathology findings should prompt the search for more sensitive methods to accurately study the phenotype of antibody damage. PMID:22308531

  18. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients. PMID:25598674

  19. Halitosis--a common medical and social problem. A review on pathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, A; Zato?ski, M; Jab?onka-Strom, A; Paradowska, A; Kawala, B; Litwin, A

    2012-09-01

    Bad breath is a condition that has health and social implications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the classification of halitosis, it's etiology, it's prevalence, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the condition. Halitosis is affecting about 25-30% of world's population. It includes categories of genuine halitosis, pseudo-halitosis and halitophobia. It is believed that in 80-90% of cases halitosis origins in the oral cavity and the most common causes are: gingival pathologies, caries and poor oral hygiene. Extraoral sources of halitosis are responsible for 10-20% of all cases and are caused by poor diet, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, certain drugs and diseases of other parts of digestive tract as well as some systemic conditions. Diagnostics of halitosis includes subjective methods (examiner's sense of smell) and objective methods (instrumental analysis). Simple, subjective examination is considered a "golden standard" in clinical practice. In case of pathological halitosis identifying the direct cause of halitosis is essential. After excluding, or after successful treatment, of all oral pathologies, in case of remaining fetor ex ore identification and treatment of halitosis often requires multidisciplinary approach. Many unknowns remain in causes and mechanisms of halitosis. It can significantly impair quality of life, social interactions, lead directly to depression,low self-esteem or other mood disorders, therefore it is important to properly identify, treat and continue research on halitosis. PMID:23082699

  20. CT angiography of the celiac trunk: anatomy, variants and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Ozbülbül, Nilgün I?iksalan

    2011-06-01

    Celiac trunk variants and pathologies are relatively common occurrences. With the advent of computed tomography (CT) technology, these conditions are being diagnosed with an increased frequency even among asymptomatic patients. CT angiography is used noninvasively for preoperative staging and vascular mapping in patients with pancreatic and hepatobiliary neoplasm. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) also allows the accurate depiction of the abdominal splanchnic vessels for stenosis, collateral vessels and atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we describe the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac trunk as well as associated pathologic conditions, such as stenosis, occlusion, aneurysm and median arcuate ligament compression syndrome. The overall aim of this study was to emphasize the clinical importance of these abnormalities. PMID:20690078

  1. Transplacental infection of Coxsackievirus B3 pathological findings in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Anninos, Hector; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Kotsiakis, Xenophon; Syridou, Garyfallia; Tsakris, Athanassios; Patsouris, Efstratios

    2007-06-01

    Coxsackievirus intrauterine infection has been documented mostly on the basis of indirect evidence of transplacental transmission, with neonatal manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and generalized sepsis. This is the first report of prenatal findings and fetoplacental pathology in a third trimester fetus with coxsackie B3 transplacental infection confirmed by molecular techniques. Prenatal ultrasound detected severe reduction of fetal movements at the 27th week. Late onset fetal akinesia deformation sequence with mild arthrogryposis, necrotic meningoencephalitis with vascular calcifications, interstitial pneumonitis, mild myocardial hypertrophy, and chronic monocytic placental villitis were the cardinal findings at fetal autopsy following interruption of the pregnancy. PMID:17457913

  2. Jejunal mucosal enzyme activities, regulatory peptides and organelle pathology of the enteropathy of common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J; Bryant, M G; Bloom, S R; Peters, T J

    1986-03-01

    Jejunal biopsies from six patients having the small bowel enteropathy associated with common variable immunodeficiency have been subjected to analytical subcellular fractionation and enzymic and regulatory peptide microassay to define the organelle pathology of this syndrome. Compared with normal subjects, the immunodeficient patients had decreased activities of the three brush border enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and alpha-glucosidase. The other organelle marker enzyme activities and all the regulatory peptide concentrations did not differ from the controls. Density gradient experiments showed a complete loss of particulate beta-glucosidase (lactase) with activity entirely located in the cytosol. The integrity of other organelles was normal. These data indicate that the enteropathy of common variable immunodeficiency is associated with abnormalities in the jejunal brush border analogous to those present in tropical malabsorption syndrome. PMID:3699546

  3. Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%–2.5% and 75%–96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time. PMID:15833980

  4. Clinico-pathological and biomolecular findings in Italian patients with multiple cutaneous neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neurofibroma occurs as isolated or multiple lesions frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 3500 individuals. It is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which comprises 60 exons and is located on chromosome 17q11.2. NF1 is a fully penetrant gene exhibiting a mutation rate some 10-fold higher compared with most other disease genes. As a consequence, a high number of cases (up to 50%) are sporadic. Mutation detection is complex due to the large size of the NF1 gene, the presence of pseudogenes and the great variety of lesions. Methods 110 patients with at least two neurofibroma lesions recorded in the files of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena during the period 1999-2010, were included in this study. Through interviews and examination of clinical charts, pedigrees were drawn for all patients who were affected by at least two neurofibromas. We attempted to delineate the clinical features of NF1 and the mutational spectrum in the cohort of 11 NF1 families identified. For each proband, the whole coding sequence and all splice sites were studied for mutations, either by the protein truncation test (PTT), or, more frequently, by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Two GIST tumors of NF1 patients were tested for somatic NF1 mutations. Results NF1 germline mutations were identified in 7 (68%) patients. A novel mutation, c.3457_3460delCTCA in exon 20, was detected in two unrelated patients and was associated with different clinical features. No NF1 somatic mutations were detected in the GIST tumors. A wide phenotypic and genotypic variability was registered, both in the spectrum of skin lesions and visceral neoplasms, even among members of the same family who had different clinical manifestations. A proclivity to multiple tumors arising in the same subject, and a higher tumor burden per family were the most relevant findings observed in patients affected with the NF1 mutation. Conclusions We report a novel NF1 mutation and we contribute data for the refinement of the NF1 genotype-phenotype spectrum. PMID:21838856

  5. Correlation between dynamic CT findings and pathological prognostic factors of small lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Wataru; Matsuo, Keiji; Kitano, Mariko; Kawakami, Kenichi; Okada, Tohru; Naganawa, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Purpose: To compare pathological prognostic factors of small lung adenocarcinomas with findings of contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans. Materials and methods: We evaluated 108 patients with lung adenocarcinomas???30?mm in diameter who underwent dynamic CT scans (80–96?ml of contrast material, 2.5–3?ml/s injection) and tumor resections. Attenuation values of both the early phase (20–36?s after injection) and delayed phase (91–95?s) of enhanced CT minus baseline plain CT attenuation were defined as ?Early and ?Delay. The early enhancement ratio was defined as ?Early/?Delay×100 (%). We statistically compared the early enhancement ratios between the presence and absence of each pathological finding (lymph node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, and pleural involvement). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on early enhancement ratios: ratio ?50% (n?=?41) and ratio <50% (n?=?67) and we statistically compared these 2 groups. Results: The early enhancement ratios in the group with lymph node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, and vascular invasion were significantly lower than in the group without these findings (24.9% vs 48.6%; P?pathological prognostic factors in small lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:22752199

  6. Common Pathways in Health Benefit Properties of RSV in Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancers and Degenerative Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Delmas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Lots of epidemiological studies have put forward the beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols consumption in the prevention of diseases related to aging i.e vascular pathologies, neurodegeneration, cancers and associated inflammatory processes. Among polyphenols, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene, RSV), a naturally occurring stilbene widely distributed in foodstuffs such as grapes and wine, has been the most studied. Researches performed since the last decades in vitro, in animal models and in (pre)clinical studies have pointed out its pleiotropic health benefits by acting on multiple signaling pathways which go beyond its originally described direct antioxidant activity. However, its low bioavailability upon oral ingestion and lack of specificity may hamper the translation of the encouraging experimental data into human health benefits. Herein we provide an overview on the capacity of RSV to regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling and to modulate key components of signal transduction pathways which are commonly altered in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and cancer pathologies. We also have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook on RSV metabolism and biological activity of its main metabolites and discussed about the new strategies developed to circumvent its poor bioavailability and to improve its therapeutic efficacy, including synthesis of new derivatives and new formulations for its cell delivery. PMID:25601605

  7. A natural language processing (NLP) program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil Abraham; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Introduction and Objective Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex, free text into simplified, organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. Methods An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included: TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a "gold standard" compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. Results: NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in <1 second, whereas the manual reviewers averaged 3.2 minutes per report. Conclusions: This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases. PMID:25083914

  8. Malignant lymphoma in ferrets: clinical and pathological findings in 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Erdman, S E; Moore, F M; Rose, R; Fox, J G

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in 19 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with malignant lymphoma are reviewed. Peripubescent ferrets had rapidly progressive stage IV high grade immunoblastic or small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. Adult ferrets had stage II or IV low grade diffuse small lymphocytic (DSL) lymphoma, stage IV high grade small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, or stage IV high grade immunoblastic polymorphous (IBP) lymphoma. Three ferrets had concurrent IBP and DSL lymphoma involving different organs. The IBP admixture of immunoblasts, large atypical lymphocytes, Reed-Sternberg-like cells, lymphoblasts and small lymphocytes has been associated with certain retrovirally associated lymphomas and nodal hyperplasias in man, non-human primates and cats. Aleutian disease, a parvovirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease, also involves clinical and histological features similar to certain lymphomas in ferrets. Seven ferrets tested were seronegative for feline leukaemia virus antigen. Only one of eight ferrets was positive for Aleutian parvovirus antibody. The clinical and pathological findings are suggestive of a viral aetiology for certain lymphomas in ferrets. PMID:1556256

  9. Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    Simola, O; Wiberg, M; Jokela, J; Wahlsten, M; Sivonen, K; Syrjä, P

    2012-09-01

    A 3-year-old Cairn Terrier dog that had been in contact with sea water containing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was euthanized because of acute hepatic failure and anuria after a 5-day illness. Histologic findings included lytic and hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and renal tubular necrosis. The cyanotoxin nodularin was detected in liver and kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the algal species Nodularia spumigena. The intensity of algal blooms has increased during the past decades in the Baltic Sea region, thus increasing the risk for intoxications in domestic and wild animals. The authors describe the pathologic findings of cyanobacterial toxicosis in a dog with direct identification of the toxin from organ samples. PMID:21825312

  10. Finding Common Ground: Citizenship Education in a Pluralistic Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Devon

    2002-01-01

    Describes citizenship education program for achieving common ground in a multicultural society that emphasizes religious liberty in American democracy protected by the First Amendment. Includes five areas: conflict resolution, consensus building, religion in the curriculum, teacher education, and religious expression in public schools. (Contains…

  11. On Finding Lowest Common Ancestors: Simplification and Parallelization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Schieber; Uzi Vishkin

    1988-01-01

    We consider the following problem. Suppose a rooted tree T is available for preprocessing. Answer on-line queries requesting the lowest common ancestor for any pair of vertices in\\u000a T. We present a linear time and space preprocessing algorithm which enables us to answer each query in O (1) time, as in Harel and Tarjan [HT-84]. Our algorithm has the advantage

  12. Finding least common ancestors in directed acyclic graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Bender; Giridhar Pemmasani; Steven Skiena; Pavel Sumazin

    2001-01-01

    this paper we introduce a natural extension toall of these LCA problems. We develop algorithms foreciently answering least common ancestor querieson directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). An LCA w ofnodes u and v in a DAG is an ancestor of both uand v where w has no descendants that are ancestorsof both u and v. (See Denitions 2.1 and 2.2.)We present

  13. Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonner, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

  14. Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benkö, Maria; Schöniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

    2011-04-01

    An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention. PMID:21441198

  15. FDG PET/CT findings of common bile duct tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gong, Jing; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-01-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) tuberculosis is rare. A 39-year-old woman was referred because of a 5-month history of abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed dilatation of the distal CBD with irregularly thickened wall. Enhanced CT revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake of the CBD lesion and several retroperitoneal lymph nodes with slight FDG uptake. CBD cholangiocarcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was suspected. CBD tuberculosis was confirmed by endoluminal biopsy. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal biliary FDG accumulation, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas. PMID:23579971

  16. Clinical and pathologic findings of myocarditis in two families with dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, J.B.; Fowles, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.; Subramanian, R.; Henkin, R.E.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of endomyocardial biopsy and gallium-67 scans in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has demonstrated the presence of myocardial inflammation in a subset of patients. A family with DCM was studied with endomyocardial biopsy and gallium-67 scanning; both identified the presence of myocarditis in the proband. Evaluation of histologic sections from deceased family members revealed myocarditis as the principal pathologic finding. This patient identified during life demonstrated a defect in suppressor lymphocytic function and improved with immunosuppressive therapy. A second family with DCM was discovered when postmortem examination of the proband and his father's heart showed myocarditis. A living sibling was identified with asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction. Longitudinal follow-up of surviving members of both families are in progress. This study indicates that thorough diagnostic evaluation of all patients with familial DCM should be pursued to identify subgroups with potentially treatable inflammation.

  17. Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor

    PubMed Central

    Chehade, Cynthia; Awwad, Johnny; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Wakim, Rima; Tfayli, Hala; Farra, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Background Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown. Case We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth. Conclusion Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome. PMID:24159261

  18. Perforated duodenal diverticulum, a rare complication of a common pathology: A seven-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Andrea; Christian, Buchs Nicolas; Pascal, Bucher; Stephane, Dominguez; Philippe, Morel

    2013-03-27

    Duodenal diverticula (DD) are frequently encountered and are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence at autopsy of 22%. Perforation of DD is a rare complication (around 160 cases reported) with potentially dramatic consequences. However, little evidence regarding its treatment is available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our experience of perforated DD, with a focus on surgical management. Between January 2001 and June 2011, all perforated DD were retrospectively reviewed at a single centre. Seven cases (5 women and 2 men; median age: 72.4 years old, rang: 48-91 years) were found. The median American Society of Anesthesiologists' score in this population was 3 (range: 3-4). The perforation was located in the second portion of duodenum (D2) in six patients and in the third portion (D3) in one patient. Six of these patients were treated surgically: five patients underwent DD resection with direct closure and one was treated by surgical drainage and laparostomy. One patient was treated conservatively. One patient died and one patient presented a leak that was successfully treated conservatively. The median hospital stay was 21.1 d (range: 15-30 d). Perforated DD is an uncommon presentation of a common pathology. Diverticular excision with direct closure seems to offer the best chance of survival and was associated with a low morbidity, even in fragile patients. PMID:23556061

  19. Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185

  1. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.

    PubMed

    Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

  2. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  3. Faster algorithms for finding lowest common ancestors in directed acyclic graphs

    E-print Network

    Czumaj, Artur

    Faster algorithms for finding lowest common ancestors in directed acyclic graphs Artur Czumaj Miroslaw Kowaluk Andrzej Lingas§ Abstract We present two new methods for finding a lowest common ancestor additional contribution is a faster algorithm for solving the all-pairs lowest common ancestor problem

  4. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

  5. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  6. Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards to disease category and the categorical variables of species (common ringtail possums v others) and sex. Animals with clinical lesions were significantly more likely to be male common ringtail possums. Conclusions/Significance There is significant disease burden in common ringtail possums (especially males) in some areas of Victoria endemic for M. ulcerans disease. The natural history of the disease generally remains unknown, however it appears that some mildly affected common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums can spontaneously overcome the infection, whereas some severely affected animals, especially common ringtail possums, may become systemically, and potentially fatally affected. Subclinical gut carriage of M. ulcerans DNA in possums is quite common and in some common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums this is transient. Further work is required to determine whether M. ulcerans infection poses a potential threat to possum populations, and whether these animals are acting as environmental reservoirs in certain geographical areas. PMID:24498451

  7. Sarcoidosis in Native and Transplanted Kidneys: Incidence, Pathologic Findings, and Clinical Course

    PubMed Central

    Bagnasco, Serena M.; Gottipati, Srinivas; Kraus, Edward; Alachkar, Nada; Montgomery, Robert A.; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Arend, Lois J.

    2014-01-01

    Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in native and transplanted kidneys classically presents as non caseating granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, the incidence of sarcoidosis in native and transplant kidney biopsies, its frequency as a cause of end stage renal disease and its recurrence in renal allograft are not well defined, which prompted this study. The electronic medical records and the pathology findings in native and transplant kidney biopsies reviewed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1/1/2000 to 6/30/2011 were searched. A total of 51 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis and renal abnormalities requiring a native kidney biopsy were identified. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis, consistent with renal sarcoidosis was identified in kidney biopsies from 19 of these subjects (37%). This is equivalent to a frequency of 0.18% of this diagnosis in a total of 10,023 biopsies from native kidney reviewed at our institution. Follow-up information was available in 10 patients with biopsy-proven renal sarcoidosis: 6 responded to treatment with prednisone, one progressed to end stage renal disease. Renal sarcoidosis was the primary cause of end stage renal disease in only 2 out of 2,331 transplants performed. Only one biopsy-proven recurrence of sarcoidosis granulomatous interstitial nephritis was identified. Conclusions Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in the form of granulomatous interstitial nephritis was a rare finding in biopsies from native kidneys reviewed at our center, and was found to be a rare cause of end stage renal disease. However, our observations indicate that recurrence of sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may occur in the transplanted kidney of patients with sarcoidosis as the original kidney disease. PMID:25329890

  8. Novel Pathologic Findings Associated with Urinary Retention in a Mouse Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB

    PubMed Central

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Monforte, Hector; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a metabolic disorder with devastating clinical characteristics starting in early childhood and leading to premature death. A knockout mouse strain was developed that models this disease. Mice of the strain B6.129S6- Naglutm1Efn/J are invaluable for investigating pathogenesis and possible treatment modalities. However, the mouse strain also exhibits some objectionable phenotypic features. One such feature, urinary retention, not only is atypical of human MPS IIIB but often leads to early termination of experiments due to animal welfare concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate abnormalities associated with the urinary retention. Necropsies were performed on 9-mo-old mice; urinalysis, hematology and blood chemistry parameters were evaluated, and urogenital specimens were microscopically examined. Histopathologic examinations of urinary tract specimens proved illuminating regarding pathology in the urinary tract. A large mononuclear cell infiltrate was discovered in mutant mice of both sexes, more pronounced in females compared with male mice. The infiltrate comprises of large rounded or polygonal cells with generous variably vacuolated, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and small round vesicular nuclei. These cells were present throughout and expand the interstitium of the lower urinary tract. Either this results in extrinsic compression of the lumen of the urethra, eventually leading to obstructive uropathy, bladder hyperdistension, and urinary retention or possibly interferes with the neurogenic component of micturition needs to be further investigated. The novel finding of an unexpected mononuclear cell infiltrate in the urinary tract in the knockout mice B6.129S6- Naglutm1Efn/J is reported. PMID:19389305

  9. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, ?brahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  10. Pathological and clinical findings in a series of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Williams; C. L. Brown; I. Doniach

    1966-01-01

    The pathological features of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were studied, and when possible the case histories were reviewed.The typical tumour is sharply demarcated but not encapsulated, is composed of sheets of cells having eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, with the deposition of amyloid in the stroma. We would stress the frequency of binucleate cells, the scarcity of mitoses,

  11. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis--a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Y; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-02-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the National Cancer Institute (1995 to 2010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%), with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%), followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically, the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades, with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed, and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared with grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders on the basis of the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

  12. New pathological findings in emphysema of childhood: 1. Polyalveolar lobe with emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Hislop; Lynne Reid

    1970-01-01

    A new pathological entity is here described—a polyalveolar lobe with or without emphysema—giving rise to the clinical features of childhood lobar emphysema.A detailed and quantitative study of the airways, alveoli and arteries was carried out on the left upper lobe removed because of shortness of breath, thought to be due to `childhood lobar emphysema'. The child was 17 days old

  13. Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy not necessary to achieve high pathological remission in breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Giving trastuzumab and anthracyclines at the same time is effective at treating HER-2-positive breast cancer, but there is concern that this combination can be associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and colleagues in the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, shows these agents do not need to be given concurrently to achieve a high rate of complete pathological remission.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and correlation with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Xu, Feng; Xiao, Yu-Dong; Paudel, Ramchandra; Sun, Yi; Xiao, En-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the radiological and pathological features of intracranial hemangiopericytoma, and improve the understanding of this tumor. A retrospective analysis of radiological and pathological features of five cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma was conducted between 2006 and 2012 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. A total of five cases (three males and two females; aged 37-60 years) were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions were lobulated with iso-intensity T1-weighted image signals and slightly long T2-weighted image signals. Cystic degeneration, necrosis and flow void were observed. The case with the lesion located under the tentorium cerebelli exhibited compression of the fourth ventricle with lateral ventricle dilatation hydrocephalus. In all cases, the solid section of the lesion was markedly enhanced following injection of the contrast agent, and intratumoral vessels were observed. No case exhibited the dural tail sign. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive expression of cluster of differentiation 34(CD34), vimentin and CD99, and negative expression of epithelial membrane antigen, S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that <5% of cells expressed Ki-67 in two cases and 5-10% of cells expressed Ki-67 in three cases. In conclusion, intracranial hemangiopericytoma exhibits certain distinctive characteristics in radiological examination, allowing for improved diagnosis. However, pathological examination is required for confirmation. PMID:25289095

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and correlation with pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    MA, CONG; XU, FENG; XIAO, YU-DONG; PAUDEL, RAMCHANDRA; SUN, YI; XIAO, EN-HUA

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the radiological and pathological features of intracranial hemangiopericytoma, and improve the understanding of this tumor. A retrospective analysis of radiological and pathological features of five cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma was conducted between 2006 and 2012 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. A total of five cases (three males and two females; aged 37–60 years) were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions were lobulated with iso-intensity T1-weighted image signals and slightly long T2-weighted image signals. Cystic degeneration, necrosis and flow void were observed. The case with the lesion located under the tentorium cerebelli exhibited compression of the fourth ventricle with lateral ventricle dilatation hydrocephalus. In all cases, the solid section of the lesion was markedly enhanced following injection of the contrast agent, and intratumoral vessels were observed. No case exhibited the dural tail sign. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive expression of cluster of differentiation 34(CD34), vimentin and CD99, and negative expression of epithelial membrane antigen, S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that <5% of cells expressed Ki-67 in two cases and 5–10% of cells expressed Ki-67 in three cases. In conclusion, intracranial hemangiopericytoma exhibits certain distinctive characteristics in radiological examination, allowing for improved diagnosis. However, pathological examination is required for confirmation. PMID:25289095

  16. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: Common theme in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immnue cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  17. Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Rüegg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population. PMID:17323569

  18. Common pathological processes in Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Li; Christian Hölscher

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are conditions that affect a large number of people in the industrialized countries. Both conditions are on the increase, and finding novel treatments to cure or prevent them are a major aim in research. Somewhat surprisingly, AD and T2DM share several molecular processes that underlie the respective degenerative developments. This review

  19. Pathologic mechanisms underlying the clinical findings in canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, A F; Koutinas, C K

    2014-03-01

    In dogs with symptomatic or asymptomatic leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum appears to induce a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that in the sick dog may eventually result in tissue damage via different pathomechanisms, notably granulomatous inflammation (eg, nodular dermatitis, osteomyelitis), immune complex deposition (eg, glomerulonephritis), and/or autoantibody production (eg, polymyositis). This is a compensatory but detrimental mechanism generated mainly because of the insufficient killing capacity of macrophages against the parasite in the susceptible dog. Clinical disease is typically exemplified as exfoliative and/or ulcerative dermatitis, with or without nasodigital hyperkeratosis and onychogryphosis, glomerulonephritis, atrophic myositis of masticatory muscles, anterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, epistaxis, and/or polyarthritis, appearing alone or in various combinations. The pathogenesis of these clinical conditions has recently been highlighted, to a greater or lesser extent. The usually subclinical conditions expressed as chronic colitis, chronic hepatitis, vasculitis, myocarditis, osteomyelitis, orchiepididymitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis, though uncommon, are of pathologic importance from a differential point of view. The leading cause of death among canine leishmaniasis patients is chronic proteinuric nephritis that may progress to end-stage kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and/or systemic hypertension. However, even the asymptomatic proteinuria, when profuse, may be a serious problem because it predisposes to arterial thromboembolism and eventually contributes to the deterioration of the body condition. PMID:24510947

  20. Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens

    E-print Network

    Jensen, David

    Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens David D@cs.umass.edu Todd M. La Porte School of Systems Engineering & Policy Analysis Delft University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands tlaporte@tmn.com Abstract---Many conflicts over specific technologies could be alleviated

  1. Faster algorithms for finding lowest common ancestors in directed acyclic graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur Czumaj; Miroslaw Kowaluk; Andrzej Lingas

    2007-01-01

    We present two new methods for finding a lowest common ancestor (LCA) for each pair of vertices of a directed acyclic graph (dag) on n vertices and m edges. The first method is surprisingly natural and solves the all-p airs LCA problem for the input dag on n vertices and m edges in time O(nm). The second method relies on

  2. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the abdominal cavity: CT findings and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi-Kai; Wu, Yuan-Kui; Zhang, Wei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study computed tomography (CT) features of abdominal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in various rare locations. METHODS: We retroprospectively identified cases of MFH involving the abdominal cavity. Particular attention was paid to details regarding imaging features and histological types. RESULTS: The study population consisted of seven men and one woman, with a mean age of 52.5 years. Seven patients had some physical symptoms, while one was incidentally detected. The sites of origin were liver (n = 3), greater omentum (n = 1), superior mesentery (n = 1), ileum (n = 1), right psoas muscle (n = 1) and right kidney (n = 1). With the exception of the ileum lesion, all were of huge size. The contour of the lesions was more or less clear. Foci of necrosis were present in six lesions (n = 6). On plain CT scan, all lesions were hypo to iso dense. The lesion in the greater omentum was cystic. One lesion (n = 1) showed significant enhancement and the cystic lesion showed mild peripheral enhancement. An abundance of blood vessels surrounding the mass was seen in two lesions (n = 2) and both were of the inflammatory variety. Pathological examination revealed storiform-pleomorphic variety (n = 4), inflammatory variety (n = 3) and myxoid variety (n = 1). Two of the patients with inflammatory MFH had a clinical presentation of fever and one was afebrile, however, blood investigations in all three showed leukocytosis. CONCLUSION: Primary MFHs of the abdominal viscera and gastrointestinal tract are generally huge soft tissue masses containing areas of low attenuation and mild to moderate contrast enhancement. PMID:22590669

  3. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Di Cesare, A; Basso, W; Guscetti, F; Riond, B; Glaus, T; Crisi, P; Deplazes, P

    2014-04-01

    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus parasitizes the respiratory tract and can heavily affect the breathing and general condition of cats. Experimental infections of six cats were initiated by intragastric administration with 100 or 800 third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. First-stage larvae were isolated from faecal samples after 35-41 days post infection (dpi) in five animals and until end of study (84 dpi) in two cats. Cough and respiratory sounds were observed starting from 28 to 41 dpi and dyspnoea and panting starting from 52 dpi. All cats had enlarged lymph nodes and, starting from 56 dpi, reduced body weight, and four cats showed intermittent reduced general condition with apathia and anorexia. Eosinophilia and leucocytosis partially with massive lymphocytosis, and occasional basophilia and monocytosis were observed. Mild anaemia was present in five cats, while alterations in coagulation parameters suggested stimulation of the coagulation cascade with increased consumption of coagulation factors (delayed PT, hypofibrinogenemia). Adult A. abstrusus specimens were isolated from the five patent cats at necropsy and all six cats showed pathological changes in the lungs, including disseminated inflammatory cell infiltrates, often associated with incorporated larvae and eggs. There was some degree of overlap between the severity and the inoculation doses. Infections starting from 100 L3 of A. abstrusus had an impact on the lung tissues and on the health of the cats, despite the presence of only mild haematological abnormalities. Due to the worldwide occurrence of feline lung worms, parasitic infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases regardless of the presence of clinical signs and larval excretion. PMID:24504600

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Pathological and parasitological findings in a wild red titi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the cause of death could not be unambiguously identified, the infestation with P. elegans is likely to have). In tropical forests, finding freshly dead or dying individuals is a rare event, unless, epidemics cause mass mortality, like the outbreaks of Ebola in chimpanzees and gorillas (Leendertz et al. 2006; Leroy et al. 2004

  5. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  6. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Roffe, T J; Stroud, R K; Windingstad, R M

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area. PMID:2775094

  7. Clinical and pathologic findings of Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz tumors with ALK fusions.

    PubMed

    Busam, Klaus J; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Wiesner, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Spitz tumors represent a group of melanocytic neoplasms that typically affect young individuals. Microscopically, the lesions are composed of cytologically distinct spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, with a range in the architectural display or the cells, their nuclear features, and secondary epidermal or stromal changes. Recently, kinase fusions have been documented in a subset of Spitz tumors, but there is limited information on the clinical and pathologic features associated with those lesions. Here, we report a series of 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) with spitzoid neoplasms showing ALK fusions (5 Spitz nevi and 12 atypical Spitz tumors). The patients' ages ranged from 2 years to 35 years (mean=17 y; median=16 y). Most lesions were located on the lower extremities and presented clinically as polypoid nodules. All tumors were compound melanocytic proliferations with a predominant intradermal growth. Tumor thickness ranged from 1.1 to 6 mm (mean=2.9 mm; median=2.5 mm). The most characteristic histopathologic feature of the tumors (seen in all but 2 lesions) was a plexiform dermal growth of intersecting fascicles of fusiform melanocytes. All but 2 tumors were amelanotic. All tumors were strongly immunoreactive for ALK. The ALK rearrangements were confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the fusion partner was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) in 11 cases and DCTN1 (dynactin 1) in 6 cases. None of the 8 tumors that were analyzed by FISH for copy number changes of 6p, 6q, 9p, or 11q met criteria for melanoma. Two patients underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and in both cases melanocyte nests were found in the subcapsular sinus of the node. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these 2 tumors revealed no chromosomal gains or losses. In conclusion, our study revealed that Spitz nevi/tumors with ALK rearrangement show a characteristic plexiform morphology and that ALK immunohistochemistry and FISH enable the accurate identification of this morphologic and genetic distinct subset of spitzoid neoplasms. PMID:24698967

  8. Pathologic findings of coronary stents: a comparison of sudden coronary death versus non-cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Mont, Erik; Cresswell, Nathaniel; Burke, Allen

    2013-11-01

    There are few histologic studies of intracoronary stents found at autopsy. We studied histologic findings of 87 intracoronary stents from 45 autopsy hearts. There were 40 patients with chronically implanted stents and five shorter than 30 days. Of five patients with recent stent placement, the cause of death was related to the stent (in-stent thrombosis) in one case. Of the 40 patients with chronic stents, there were 16 sudden coronary deaths and 24 noncoronary deaths (controls). There were no late stent thromboses in the coronary deaths. In the coronary deaths, 26% of stents showed restenosis versus 11% in controls (p = 0.1). The rate of healed infarcts and cardiomegaly was similar in the coronary and noncoronary groups, and acute thrombi in native arteries were seen only in three hearts in the coronary group. We conclude that the cause of death is rarely impacted by in-stent findings at autopsy, especially in chronically implanted stents. PMID:24164207

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva: radiological-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Sato, Eriko; Ito, Naoki; Furui, Tatsuro; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2010-10-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 20-year-old woman with a fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva. Within the lesion, abundant fibrous tissue was visualized as stratiform hypointense areas on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. At the center of the attachment site, clustered fatty tissue was revealed as linear hyperintense areas on T1-weighted MRI. A mild degree of edematous stroma including less fibrosis and cellularity was demonstrated as hyperintense areas on T2-weighted MRI and hypointense areas on T1-weighted MRI. Although the MRI findings of fibroepithelial polyps of the vulva are often similar to those of aggressive angiomyxoma, angiomyofibroblastoma, and cellular angiofibroma, a fibroepithelial polyp should be considered when radiological images demonstrate the following features: stratiform hypointense areas surrounded by patchy hyperintense areas on T2-weighted MRI and hyperintense areas on T1-weighted MRI. PMID:20972861

  10. Groove Pancreatitis: Spectrum of Imaging Findings and Radiology-Pathology Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Siva P.; Salaria, Safia N.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the “groove” between the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are strong associations with long-term alcohol abuse, functional obstruction of the duct of Santorini, and Brunner gland hyperplasia. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, differentiating groove pancreatitis from malignancy on the basis of imaging features, clinical presentation, or laboratory markers can be extraordinarily difficult, and the vast majority of these patients ultimately undergo a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) because of an inability to completely exclude malignancy. In certain cases, however, the imaging features on CT and MRI can allow the radiologist to prospectively suggest the correct diagnosis. PMID:23789694

  11. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  12. Structures and Molecular Mechanisms for Common 15q13.3 Microduplications Involving CHRNA7: Benign or Pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Schaaf, Christian P.; Person, Richard E.; Gibson, Ian B.; Xia, Zhilian; Mahadevan, Sangeetha; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema; Potocki, Lorraine; Kang, Sung-Hae; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Probst, Frank J.; Graham, Brett H.; Shinawi, Marwan; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated four ~1.6-Mb microduplications and 55 smaller 350–680-kb microduplications at 15q13.2–q13.3 involving the CHRNA7 gene that were detected by clinical microarray analysis. Applying high-resolution array-CGH, we mapped all 118 chromosomal breakpoints of these microduplications. We also sequenced 26 small microduplication breakpoints that were clustering at hotspots of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). All four large microduplications likely arose by NAHR between BP4 and BP5 LCRs, and 54 small microduplications arose by NAHR between two CHRNA7-LCR copies. We identified two classes of ~1.6-Mb microduplications and five classes of small microduplications differing in duplication size, and show that they duplicate the entire CHRNA7. We propose that size differences among small microduplications result from preexisting heterogeneity of the common BP4–BP5 inversion. Clinical data and family histories of 11 patients with small microduplications involving CHRNA7 suggest that these microduplications might be associated with developmental delay/mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, we conclude that these microduplications and their associated potential for increased dosage of the CHRNA7-encoded ?7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are of uncertain clinical significance at present. Nevertheless, if they prove to have a pathological effects, their high frequency could make them a common risk factor for many neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:20506139

  13. Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Szeredi, L.; Haake, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares. Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms. A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported. IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test. The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms. PMID:16966455

  14. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Carroll, Larry; Bender, Jeff

    2004-07-01

    Twenty-one American crows were identified as being West Nile virus (WNV) infected by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on fresh brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum of 16 crows) or by WNV-specific immunohistochemistry of various organs (21 crows). Consistent gross lesions attributable to WNV infection were not detected. Common histological lesions included necrosis of spleen and bone marrow. West Nile virus antigen was consistently detected in heart and kidney (100%). In addition, bone marrow (92%), duodenum (89%), proventriculus (87%), liver (86%), lung (85%), spleen (80%), pancreas (61%), and brain (45%) contained WNV antigen-positive cells. Infected cells included cardiomyocytes; neurons; endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells; hematopoietic cells of bone marrow; and macrophages of spleen, liver (Kupffer cells), and lungs. Epithelial cells of renal tubules, duodenum, pancreas, and proventriculus were also infected. The diagnostic histopathologist should consider WNV infection in crows in the absence of any inflammatory lesions. Immunohistochemistry of heart and kidney is as reliable in detecting WNV infection in American crows as RT-PCR of fresh brain tissue. PMID:15305746

  15. Increased frequency of pathologic findings on transcranial B-mode parenchymal sonography in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Stevic, Zorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Mijajlovic, Milija; Jovanovic, Zagorka; Lavrnic, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by involvement of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord, there is accumulating evidence that it is a multisystem degenerative disease, with dysfunction of the striatonigral dopaminergic system as well. Transcranial B-mode sonography of the parenchyma enables depiction of the differing tissue echogenicity of midbrain and basal ganglia structures in various movement disorders. Transcranial B-mode sonography was performed in the standard manner in 101 patients with sporadic newly diagnosed ALS and 60 age- and gender-matched controls. Increased frequencies of pathologic substantia nigra hyper-echogenicity (p = 0.027), interrupted brainstem raphe (p = 0.003) and increased third ventricle diameter (p < 0.0001) were detected in ALS patients as compared with healthy controls. Only four ALS patients exhibited some features of parkinsonism. Pathologic findings on transcranial B-mode sonography of parenchyma did not correlate with clinical presentation, functional status or disease subtype. Our study provides additional evidence of multisystem involvement in ALS patients, particularly in subcortical areas. PMID:25701529

  16. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, Terje D; Sřrensen, Karen K; Mřrk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

    2007-01-01

    Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases. PMID:17903247

  17. Pathological findings of slaughtered camels’ (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed. PMID:25568724

  18. Pathological findings of slaughtered camels' (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed. PMID:25568724

  19. Reading chest radiographs in the critically ill (Part II): Radiography of lung pathologies common in the ICU patient

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali Nawaz; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; AL-Ghanem, Sarah; Gouda, Alaa

    2009-01-01

    This is part II of two series review of reading chest radiographs in the critically ill. Conventional chest radiography remains the cornerstone of day to day management of the critically ill occasionally supplemented by computed tomography or ultrasound for specific indications. In this second review we discuss radiographic findings of cardiopulmonary disorders common in the intensive care patient and suggest guidelines for interpretation based not only on imaging but also on the pathophysiology and clinical grounds. PMID:19641649

  20. Necrotic lymphoma in a patient with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: ultrasonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen months after kidney transplantation for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, a retroperitoneal mass was incidentally detected in a 30-year-old man during routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a mass measuring 5.5 cm×4.3 cm located between the liver and the atrophic right kidney, which showed markedly heterogeneous internal echogenicity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography displayed a mild degree of enhancement only at the periphery of the mass, while the center lacked perceivable intensification. The patient underwent surgical resection. The final pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), and extensive necrosis was observed on microscopic examination. We found that the prominent heterogeneous echogenicity of the mass (an unusual finding of lymphoma) demonstrated on ultrasonography is a result of extensive necrosis, which may sometimes occur in patients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:25541069

  1. Necrotic lymphoma in a patient with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: ultrasonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsu; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Honsoul

    2015-04-01

    Seventeen months after kidney transplantation for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, a retroperitoneal mass was incidentally detected in a 30-year-old man during routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a mass measuring 5.5 cm×4.3 cm located between the liver and the atrophic right kidney, which showed markedly heterogeneous internal echogenicity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography displayed a mild degree of enhancement only at the periphery of the mass, while the center lacked perceivable intensification. The patient underwent surgical resection. The final pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), and extensive necrosis was observed on microscopic examination. We found that the prominent heterogeneous echogenicity of the mass (an unusual finding of lymphoma) demonstrated on ultrasonography is a result of extensive necrosis, which may sometimes occur in patients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:25541069

  2. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  3. Cytologic diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Comparison with endoscopical and pathological findings on 538 cases.

    PubMed

    Raica, M; Minciu, R; Miclea, F; Botoca, M; Dr?gan, P; Ioiart, I

    1997-01-01

    There were investigated 583 cases with tumors of the urinary bladder and 612 patients with non-malignant diseases of the urinary tract. Samples of voided urine were taken from all cases and direct smears fixed by drying were stained by rapid blue polychrome-tanin Dr?gan method Cytological results were compared with endoscopical and pathological findings. The overall rate of real positive results was 91.7% and false negative results were noticed in 8.3% of cases. A direct relationship between real positive results and histological "G" was found. Causes for false negative results were: tumor developed in a bladder diverticulum, calcified tumor, irradiated tumor, insufficient quantity of voided urine, chronic urinary infections and underestimation of cytological criteria of cellular malignancy. There were 9 false positive results in patients with nonmalignant diseases, due to lithiasis, chronic renal failure and chronic urinary infections. The cytological grade of differentiation was performed by the method purposed by Friedman and Ash, and concordance with the standard histological finding was 76.4%. Urine cytology is thought to be a useful method in the primary diagnosis and recurrences of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, in all patients with hematuria, recurrent infections of the urinary tract and neglected lithiasis. PMID:9747115

  4. UCI-led study finds a drug combo better for common type of metastatic breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Postmenopausal women with the most common type of metastatic breast cancer now have a new treatment option that lengthens their lives, according a study led by UC Irvine and conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group. The findings appear in the Aug. 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. A combination of the two anti-estrogen drugs anastrozole and fulvestrant extended the median survival time of women with Stage 4 hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer by more than six months compared to those who underwent standard treatment with anastrozole alone. UC Irvine is home to the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  5. Cystic apocrine hyperplasia is the most common finding in MRI detected breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Winant, Abbey J; Hoda, Syed A

    2014-02-01

    MRI of the breast is an increasingly employed modality for breast imaging due to its relatively high sensitivity for the detection of breast carcinoma. Cumulative data indicate that MRI of the breast has relatively higher sensitivity, but lower specificity than mammography. However, data regarding the diagnostic yield for particular types of breast lesions detected via breast MRI remain scant. Over a 3.5-year period, we evaluated histological findings of 192 needle core biopsies of MRI detected breast lesions. In this series, the positive predictive value of MRI detected lesions for breast carcinoma was 20%. Invasive carcinoma was diagnosed in 16/192 (8%) and in situ carcinoma in 22/192 (11%). The most commonly detected histological finding was cystic apocrine hyperplasia (19%), a benign entity. PMID:24151291

  6. MR cholangiopancreatography at 3.0?T in children: diagnostic quality and ability in assessment of common paediatric pancreatobiliary pathology

    PubMed Central

    Almehdar, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic quality of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) at 3.0?T in children and to assess its diagnostic ability in answering the clinical query. Also, to determine the frequency of artefacts and anatomic variations in ductal anatomy. Methods: Consecutive MRCPs performed in children using a 3-T scanner were retrospectively reviewed to note indications, findings, imaging diagnosis, normal variants, quality and artefacts. Analysis was performed based on the final diagnosis assigned by pathology or the combination of clinical, laboratory, imaging features and follow-up to determine whether it was possible to answer the clinical query by MRCP findings. Results: There were 82 MRCPs performed at 3.0?T on 77 children. 42/82 (51%) MRCPs were of good quality, 35/82 (43%) MRCPs were suboptimal but diagnostic and the remaining 5/82 (6%) MRCPs were non-diagnostic. MRCP answered the clinical query in 61/82 (74%) cases; however, it did not answer the clinical query in 11/82 (14%) cases and was equivocal in 10/82 (12%) cases. There was significant association between the quality of MRCP and the ability of MRCP to answer the clinical query (p<0.0001). 64/82 (78%) MRCP examinations had at least 1 artefact. Variation in the bile duct anatomy was seen in 27/77 (35%) children. Conclusion: MRCP performed at 3.0?T is of diagnostic quality in most cases and is able to provide an answer to the clinical query in the majority of cases. Advances in knowledge: 3-T MRCP is feasible and useful in the assessment of pancreatobiliary abnormalities in children. PMID:23457194

  7. Preoperative pathologic findings associated with residual disease at radical hysterectomy in women with stage IA2 cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anuj; Frumovitz, Michael; Milam, Michael R.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To correlate findings on pathologic examination of loop electroexcisional procedure (LEEP) or cone biopsy specimens with residual disease in radical hysterectomy specimens in patients with stage IA2 cervical cancer to determine whether a subset of such patients may be eligible for conservative, fertility-sparing treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with stage IA2 cervical cancer who had undergone LEEP or cone biopsy before radical hysterectomy. Surgicopathologic features of LEEP and cone biopsy specimens were correlated with the presence or absence of residual tumor in radical hysterectomy specimens. Results Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. At radical hysterectomy, 22 patients (52%) had no residual tumor, while 20 patients (48%) had residual disease. Margin status was the only statistically significant predictor of the presence or absence of residual disease at radical hysterectomy; positive margins predicted the presence of residual disease (P < 0.001). Conclusion Women with stage IA2 cervical cancer and negative margins on LEEP or cone biopsy specimens should be counseled that they may be at low risk for having residual disease in the final radical hysterectomy specimen. PMID:18952270

  8. First fatality associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5 in an Asian elephant: pathological findings and complete viral genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Davison, Andrew J; Kerr, Karen; Stidworthy, Mark F; Redrobe, Sharon; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Denk, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Infections of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause a rapid, highly lethal, hemorrhagic disease, which primarily affects juvenile animals up to the age of four years. So far, the majority of deaths have been attributed to infections with genotype EEHV1 or, more rarely, EEHV3 and EEHV4. Here, we report the pathological characteristics of the first fatality linked to EEHV5 infection, and describe the complete viral DNA sequence. Gross post-mortem and histological findings were indistinguishable from lethal cases previously attributed to other EEHV genotypes, and the presence of characteristic herpesviral inclusions in capillary endothelial cells at several sites was consistent with the diagnosis of acute EEHV infection. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of EEHV5 DNA and was followed by sequencing of the viral genome directly from post-mortem material. The genome is 180,800?bp in size and contains 120 predicted protein-coding genes, five of which are fragmented and presumably nonfunctional. The seven families of paralogous genes recognized in EEHV1 are also represented in EEHV5. The overall degree of divergence (37%) between the EEHV5 and EEHV1 genomes, and phylogenetic analysis of eight conserved genes, support the proposed classification of EEHV5 into a new species (Elephantid herpesvirus 5). PMID:25199796

  9. CT imaging of intrabiliary growth of colorectal liver metastases: a comparison of pathological findings of resected specimens.

    PubMed

    Okano, K; Yamamoto, J; Okabayashi, T; Sugawara, Y; Shimada, K; Kosuge, T; Yamasaki, S; Furukawa, H; Muramatsu, Y

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of CT in the pre-operative evaluation of macroscopic intrabiliary tumour growth of colorectal liver metastases. 25 metastatic nodules of 18 patients who underwent an initial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastasis were retrospectively evaluated. The CT appearance and pathological findings of the resected specimens were correlated. A number of unusual peritumoral features associated with intrabiliary tumour growth were detected by pre-operative CT. These were classified into three patterns: (1) thickened portal tract; (2) intrahepatic bile duct dilatation; and (3) a wedge-shaped area with enhancement. In 8 (32%) of the 25 nodules the portal tract was depicted as thicker than usual and these features were found proximal to the tumour in three instances, distal to the tumour in four instances, and both proximal and distal in one instance. All of the three intrabiliary tumours larger than 30 mm resulted in thickening of the portal tract. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was detected in association with 10 (40%) of 25 nodules. Bile duct dilatation was observed in more than one segment when intrabiliary tumour reached the hepatic hilus from the tumour. The presence of bile duct dilatation was not related to either the size of the tumour or the extent of intrabiliary tumour growth. An abnormally high density wedge-shaped area on contrast enhanced CT was another feature indicating intrabiliary tumour growth and was seen in association with four nodules. Such areas were seen in the liver parenchyma distal to the tumour on three occasions, or encompassing the tumour on one accasion. This wedge-shaped area appeared as a well demarcated dark red-brown region in the cut surface of the resected specimen. CT was useful for detecting the presence of intrabiliary tumour growth with these three patterns of radiological findings in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer PMID:12124235

  10. [Clinical courses and pathological findings in two gay male patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infected in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, S; Kaito, K; Hori, S; Kikuchi, A; Hashimoto, T; Shimada, J; Miyahara, T; Jyo, K; Ushigome, S; Nikaido, T

    1990-02-01

    This is a report on the clinical courses and pathological findings in two gay male patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infected in Japan. Case 1. A 39 year-old Japanese homosexual male was diagnosed as amebic dysentery complicated with liver abscess on admission. He was placed on Metronidazole with complete relief. Serological tests was positive for AIDS. On second admission, he was found to have pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and cytomegalo-viral uveitis. Administration of Pentamidine was partially effective, however the therapy with Azidothimidine was discontinued by bone marrow suppression. On his third admission, he suffered from cryptococcal meningitis and therapy-resistant fungusemia. Finally he died of recurrent pneumonia regardless of appropriate therapies. Autopsy proved extended cryptococcal infection in the brain, meninx, lungs, liver and kidney, and cytomegalo-infection in the lungs, liver and kidney. Furthermore, atypical mycobacteriosis was found in the lymph nodes. There was no active findings compatible with PCP. Case 2. A 44 year-old Japanese homosexual male was admitted with oral candidiasis and diagnosed as AIDS related complex. He suffered from pneumonia with marked improvement on sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim. On his second admission, he developed diarrhea and was found to be infected with Giardia lambia. In addition, cytomegalo-viral infection damaged his eye sight. He died of pneumonia and meningitis shortly there after. Autopsy proved a cytomegalo-viral infection in the lung and colon, old lesions possibly caused by PCP in the lungs, and suppurative meningitis in the meninx. These experiences confirm that AIDS patients can be exposed to several opportunistic infections at the same time in the multiple organs. Furthermore, it is suggested that homosexual patients with AIDS may have unique opportunistic infections such as amebic dysentery or Giardia lamblia unlike other AIDS patients related to hemophilia. PMID:2338506

  11. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  12. Characteristic and Non-characteristic Pathological Findings in Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) of Sheep in the Ege District of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Toplu

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical findings in naturally infected lambs from three outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Mugla and Aydin provinces of the Ege district of Turkey. At necropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, catarrhal or fibrinous bronchopneumonia, and acute catarrhal enteritis were observed. Histopathologically, syncytial cells containing inclusion bodies were seen in the tongue and in the buccal,

  13. CloudLCA: finding the lowest common ancestor in metagenome analysis using cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoguang; Bu, Dechao; Liu, Changning; Li, Jing; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

    2012-02-01

    Estimating taxonomic content constitutes a key problem in metagenomic sequencing data analysis. However, extracting such content from high-throughput data of next-generation sequencing is very time-consuming with the currently available software. Here, we present CloudLCA, a parallel LCA algorithm that significantly improves the efficiency of determining taxonomic composition in metagenomic data analysis. Results show that CloudLCA (1) has a running time nearly linear with the increase of dataset magnitude, (2) displays linear speedup as the number of processors grows, especially for large datasets, and (3) reaches a speed of nearly 215 million reads each minute on a cluster with ten thin nodes. In comparison with MEGAN, a well-known metagenome analyzer, the speed of CloudLCA is up to 5 more times faster, and its peak memory usage is approximately 18.5% that of MEGAN, running on a fat node. CloudLCA can be run on one multiprocessor node or a cluster. It is expected to be part of MEGAN to accelerate analyzing reads, with the same output generated as MEGAN, which can be import into MEGAN in a direct way to finish the following analysis. Moreover, CloudLCA is a universal solution for finding the lowest common ancestor, and it can be applied in other fields requiring an LCA algorithm. PMID:22426983

  14. Leukoaraiosis, a Common Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding, as a Predictor of Traffic Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kaechang; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kumagai, Yasuhiko; Nagahara, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on the relationship between traffic crashes and brain tissue changes in healthy drivers. The relationship between traffic crashes and leukoaraiosis, a common magnetic resonance imaging finding, was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 3,930 automobile drivers (2,037 men and 1,893 women; age, 21–87 years) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging as part of total health check-ups and answered a road traffic questionnaire were examined to determine whether asymptomatic leukoaraiosis was associated with various types of traffic crashes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to elucidate the relationship between leukoaraiosis and various types of traffic crashes. Results Subcortical leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 28.52% of all subjects, whereas periventricular leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 9.57% of all subjects. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in all types of traffic crashes were not significant for subjects with periventricular leukoaraiosis; however, they were significant for subjects with multiple and large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in crashes at crossroads were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.00) for subjects with single subcortical leukoaraiosis, 3.35 (95% CI, 2.36–4.77) for subjects with multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, and 2.45 (95% CI, 2.36–4.98) for subjects with large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Periventricular leukoaraiosis was not significantly associated with crossroad crashes. Involvement in crashes of any type, parking lot crashes, and rear-end collisions showed no significant association with either subcortical or periventricular leukoaraiosis. Conclusions Multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, but not periventricular leukoaraiosis, is significantly associated with traffic crashes, in particular, crossroad crashes. This association is independent of sex, age, and driving exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence describing the relationship between brain tissue changes and traffic crashes. PMID:23437354

  15. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four herds the following case-definition of NNPDS was suggested: Non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first week of life, without detection of known infectious pathogens, characterized by milk-filled stomachs and flaccid intestines at necropsy. PMID:24119974

  16. CpG island methylation is a common finding in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M Suter; M Norrie; S L Ku; K F Cheong; I Tomlinson; R L Ward

    2003-01-01

    Tumour cell lines are commonly used in colorectal cancer (CRC) research, including studies designed to assess methylation defects. Although many of the known genetic aberrations in CRC cell lines have been comprehensively described, no studies have been performed on their methylation status. In this study, 30 commonly used CRC cell lines as well as seven primary tumours from individuals with

  17. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yuko; Maeda, Kaori; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-02-17

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger's beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger's beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger's beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  18. Clinical, electrophysiological, and MRI findings in patients with cerebellar ataxia and a bilaterally pathological head-impulse test.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Hanni; Kremmyda, Olympia; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Zingler, Vera; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

    2011-09-01

    A significant number of patients with bilateral vestibulopathy suffer from cerebellar ataxia and central vestibular symptoms and vice versa. We examined 31 patients presenting with the combination of gait and stance ataxia, cerebellar ocular motor signs, and a bilaterally pathological head-impulse test (HIT). Tests included neuro-orthoptical examination, electromyography and neurography, caloric irrigation, pure-tone audiogram, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Only 17 of 31 patients had a pathological caloric irrigation. Twenty-three patients had evidence of polyneuropathy (predominantly mixed sensorimotor involving axonal loss and demyelination) and twenty of hypoacusis (1 unilateral and 19 bilateral). Voxel-based morphometry comparing local gray matter brain volume between patients and controls revealed cerebellar atrophy involving both the vermis and the hemispheres. We conclude that there is a clinically relevant combination of cerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, bilaterally pathological HIT, polyneuropathy, and hypoacusis. This multisensory syndrome is most likely caused by a neurodegenerative disorder affecting different systems, leading to severe impairment of affected patients. PMID:21950985

  19. Study finds cancer programs in Michigan follow care guidelines for common cancers

    Cancer.gov

    A majority of Michigan oncology practices participating in a statewide consortium followed treatment guidelines for common cancers, but had gaps in managing symptoms and end-of-life care, according to a new study.

  20. Finding common quadratic Lyapunov functions for switched linear systems using particle swarm optimisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Ordóńez-Hurtado; M. A. Duarte-Mermoud

    2011-01-01

    It is undoubtedly important to be able to ensure the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function (CQLF) for a given switched system because this is proof of its asymptotic stability, but equally important is the ability to calculate it in order to obtain more specific information about the behaviour of the switched system under analysis. This article describes the

  1. Finding common quadratic Lyapunov functions for switched linear systems using particle swarm optimisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Ordóńez-Hurtado; M. A. Duarte-Mermoud

    2012-01-01

    It is undoubtedly important to be able to ensure the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function (CQLF) for a given switched system because this is proof of its asymptotic stability, but equally important is the ability to calculate it in order to obtain more specific information about the behaviour of the switched system under analysis. This article describes the

  2. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ung, Yee C., E-mail: yee.ung@sunnybrook.c [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hornby, Jennifer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  3. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  4. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  5. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  6. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Breast: A Radiological and Pathological Study of a Common Tumor in an Uncommon Location

    PubMed Central

    Ginter, Paula S.; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela; Antonio, Lilian B.; Hoda, Syed A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma occurs commonly in the major salivary glands but is uncommonly encountered in the breast. In both of these locations, the tumor is typically grossly circumscribed and has a “mixed” histological appearance, being composed of myoepithelial and epithelial components amid a myxochondroid matrix. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the breast which was preoperatively thought to represent a fibroadenoma on clinical and radiological grounds. It is the rarity of the tumor in the breast, rather than its histological appearance, that causes diagnostic difficulty.

  7. Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

  8. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yap?c?er, Ozlem; Onat, Elif; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Akak?n, Ak?n; Urgun, Kamran; K?l?ç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  9. Predictive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography compared to postoperative pathological findings for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    XUE, JIE; ZHENG, JINSONG; GUO, HONGBO; WANG, XIAOHUI; HAN, ANQIN

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared to that of postoperative pathological findings, for T and N staging and the associations of the metabolic parameters of the primary tumor with histological type and differentiation. The preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT and postoperative pathological findings of 112 NSCLC patients treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy combined with systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the effect of contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT on T and N staging were evaluated. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor were measured. The associations between these metabolic parameters and histological type and differentiation were also evaluated. The differences in the accuracy in overall staging and T staging between PET-CT and contrast-enhanced CT were significant (91.1 vs. 69.6%, P=0.000; and 92.9 vs. 76.8%, P=0.000, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of regional lymph node metastasis detection were 91.7, 93.0, 86.5, 95.8 and 92.6%, respectively, with PET-CT; and 71.3, 77.2, 60.6, 84.5 and 75.2%, respectively, with contrast-enhanced CT. The SUVmax (7.29±1.83 vs. 5.91±1.65, t=4.15, P=0.000) and MTV (48.20±22.47 vs. 30.21±19.72 cm3, t=4.48, P=0.000) were significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to those for adenocarcinoma (AC). There was a positive correlation between the MTV and SUVmax of the primary tumor (Pearson's r=0.838, P=0.000). Significant differences were observed among differentiation subgroups in the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor for both SCC and AC. In conclusion, compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the predictive value of 18F-FDG PET-CT for T and N staging in NSCLC was higher compared to that of contrast-enhanced CT. The FDG uptake of the primary tumor was associated with histological type and differentiation and the difference was statistically significant. Therefore, the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor may be valuable indices to partly predict the histological type and grade of differentiation of NSCLC. PMID:25469279

  10. Predictive value of 18(F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography compared to postoperative pathological findings for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Zheng, Jinsong; Guo, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaohui; Han, Anqin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictive value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared to that of postoperative pathological findings, for T and N staging and the associations of the metabolic parameters of the primary tumor with histological type and differentiation. The preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT and postoperative pathological findings of 112 NSCLC patients treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy combined with systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the effect of contrast-enhanced CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT on T and N staging were evaluated. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor were measured. The associations between these metabolic parameters and histological type and differentiation were also evaluated. The differences in the accuracy in overall staging and T staging between PET-CT and contrast-enhanced CT were significant (91.1 vs. 69.6%, P=0.000; and 92.9 vs. 76.8%, P=0.000, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of regional lymph node metastasis detection were 91.7, 93.0, 86.5, 95.8 and 92.6%, respectively, with PET-CT; and 71.3, 77.2, 60.6, 84.5 and 75.2%, respectively, with contrast-enhanced CT. The SUVmax (7.29±1.83 vs. 5.91±1.65, t=4.15, P=0.000) and MTV (48.20±22.47 vs. 30.21±19.72 cm(3), t=4.48, P=0.000) were significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to those for adenocarcinoma (AC). There was a positive correlation between the MTV and SUVmax of the primary tumor (Pearson's r=0.838, P=0.000). Significant differences were observed among differentiation subgroups in the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor for both SCC and AC. In conclusion, compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the predictive value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT for T and N staging in NSCLC was higher compared to that of contrast-enhanced CT. The FDG uptake of the primary tumor was associated with histological type and differentiation and the difference was statistically significant. Therefore, the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor may be valuable indices to partly predict the histological type and grade of differentiation of NSCLC. PMID:25469279

  11. [Vulvar pathology].

    PubMed

    Zouhair, K; El Ouazzani, T; El Omari, K; El Fajri, S; Lakhdar, H

    2002-11-01

    We evaluated the main causes of vulvar dermatoses; in 785 patients with a vulvar diseases who visited Ibn Rochd Hospital Centre, Casablanca between January 1991 and December 2002. The average age was 31 years (range 2 months to 81 years); 362 patients (41.52%) had vulvar pruritus, 273 patients (34.77%) had warts and 157 (20%) had one or more vulva ulcers. The most common infectious pathology was papillomavirus infection, found in 273 cases (34.77%), followed by vulvovaginal candidiases in 102 cases (12.99 %), syphilitic chancre in 18 cases (2.29%) and herpes genitalis in 17 cases (2.16%). The most common non-infectious pathology was vulvar dermatosis: 259 cases (32.99%); idiopathic pruritus vulvae: 61 cases (7.7%); and tumour-related conditions: 45 cases (5.6%). The frequency of infectious conditions was over 50% and these were generally sexually transmitted infections. PMID:15568459

  12. Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

  13. Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs of male stray dogs in the tropics: prevalence, risk factors, morphological findings and testosterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rodríguez-Buenfil, J C; Segura-Correa, J C; Bolio-Gonzalez, M E; Jiménez-Coello, M; Linde Forsberg, C

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in stray dogs under tropical conditions. Three hundred and eighteen dogs were examined post-mortem in the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. Before killing, a blood sample (from the cephalic vein) for testosterone assay was taken. Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs were found in 135 of the dogs (42.5%) and in 175 of the testes (64.8%). The most frequent pathologies found were testicular degeneration, cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and testicular tumours (in 15.1%, 6.6%, 6.6% and 5.4% of the dogs and 15.1, 4.6, 6.0 and 3.5 of the testes, respectively). Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) was seen in 5.4% of the dogs. Testicular degeneration was more common in old dogs and underweight dogs (p < 0.05). Testicular tumours were 14.3 times more common in cryptorchid dogs. Age was another important factor for the development of testicular tumours (p < 0.05). Lower levels of testosterone concentration (p < 0.05) were observed in dogs with advanced testicular degeneration (0.7 +/- 0.8 nM), dogs with hypoplastic testicles (0.8 +/- 0.9 nM) and dogs with one degenerated and one retained testis or with bilateral cryptorchidism (1.2 +/- 0.9 nM) compared to dogs with one or two normal testes (7.0 +/- 5.5 nM). Testicular volume and weight were significantly lower in degenerated, hypoplastic and retained testes compared with the contralateral normal testis. Some spermatogenic activity was found in three of the retained testes, producing oligozoospermic smears with a high percentage of sperm abnormalities. No comparable epidemiological data about male pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in the dog is available. The prevalence found in this study, yet, appears high. PMID:16984349

  14. Anatomic and pathologic findings at external phased-array pelvic MR imaging after surgery for anorectal disease.

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, Christine; Arrivé, Lionel; Mourra, Najat; Azizi, Louisa; Lewin, Maité; Tubiana, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful for identification of postoperative changes, complications, and disease recurrence in patients who have undergone surgery for primary or recurrent anorectal disease. Commonly used interventions include treatment for anorectal carcinoma: anterior rectal resection with or without creation of different colic anastomoses and abdominoperineal excision with or without pelvic reconstruction (omentoplasty, placement of myocutaneous flaps). Other common interventions include treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (coloproctectomy with or without creation of an ileoanal anastomosis and ileal pouch) and treatment for fistulas (placement of flaps or setons). Postoperative anatomic changes and formation of scar tissue can usually be identified with consecutive MR imaging examinations. Pelvic MR imaging is an accurate technique for assessment of complications including anastomotic leakage, septic complications such as fistulas and abscesses, neoplastic recurrence, and other less common complications (perineal hernia, peritoneal pseudocyst). The sophisticated surgical procedures used in rectal surgery can alter normal anatomy and make image interpretation difficult. Thus, familiarity with the appearances of postoperative anatomic changes, complications, and tumor recurrence is essential for accurate MR imaging evaluation after surgery for anorectal disease. PMID:16973771

  15. Further exploration during open appendicectomy; assessment of some common intraoperative findings

    PubMed Central

    Saliu Oguntola, Adetunji; Layiwola Adeoti, Moses; Olayide Agodirin, Sulaiman; Adeniyi Oremakinde, Adetunji; O Ojemakinde, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very few studies are available to relate the final histology of excised appendix with the detailed intra-operative findings during appendectomy, both open and laparoscopic. This study was aimed to correlate the histological features of appendix specimen with the intra operative findings at open appendicectomy (OA) in a bid to determine when to change the planned procedure to include further exploration. Methods : A prospective study that observes the condition of the greater omentum (GO), the vermiform appendix and peritoneal exudates at all OA done for uncomplicated appendicitis. Histological examination of the appendices done using the H&E stain. Results : Eighty-five patients had emergency open OA, their’ ages range from 6 to 62 yrs (median = 23yrs). Histology showed 7 normal appendix (HNA), 56 acute (HAA) and 22 “non acute” appendicitis (HNAA). Negative appendicectomy rate was 8.2%. The GO was sighted more in patients with HAA than HNAA (p=0.00015) and also significantly more inflamed in the former (p=0.00028). It is not significantly inflamed in those with HNAA (p=0.945). The negative predictive value (NPV) of absent GO is 35.7% while the positive predictive value (PPV) of sighted normal GO and inflamed GO are 92.8% and 100% respectively. The PPV and NPV of presence of pus for diseased appendix are 95.8% and 9.8% respectively while those of excess fluid are 94.8% and 10.8%. The PPV and NPV of macroscopic assessment of the appendix for inflammation are 97% and 45.5% respectively giving the diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. A significant trend of increasing probability of histologically inflamed appendix with increasing severity of macroscopic feature was seen (X2 = 004 df=1, p<0.005). Conclusion: High positive and low negative predictive values are similar for all the three parameters assessed. The macroscopic appearance of the appendix has a predictive likelihood ratio for further exploration. PMID:24772134

  16. Experimental infection of lambs with C and S-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: immunological and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The two main genotypes of recognized isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) are cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains. An experimental infection was conducted to establish the effect of Map strain on the pathogenesis of ovine paratuberculosis. Twenty-four out of thirty 1.5-month-old Assaf lambs were divided into 4 groups of 6 and infected orally with three low passage field isolates, two of S- (22G and the pigmented Ovicap49) and one of C– (764) type, and the reference K-10 strain (C type). The remaining six animals were unchallenged controls. Animals were euthanized at 150 and 390 days post-infection (dpi). Throughout the experiment, the peripheral immune response was assessed and histological and molecular (PCR) studies were conducted on samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue. Specific antibody and IFN-? production was significantly higher in animals infected with the C strains, while no consistent IFN- ? responses were observed in the S-type strain infected groups. A positive intradermal skin test response was detected in all infected groups. Lambs infected with S-type strains had granulomatous lesions restricted to the lymphoid tissue with no differences in the lesion intensity over time. In both C–type strain groups, lesions were more severe at 150 dpi while at 390 dpi lesions, characterized by well-demarcated granulomas with fibrosis, decreased in severity. Only infected lambs were positive to PCR. These results suggest that the strain of Map has a strong influence over the immune and pathological responses developed by the host. Lesions induced by C–type strains in lambs show a regressive character and tend to decrease as the infection progresses. PMID:24428881

  17. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of three-dimensional shear-wave elastographic findings in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Ogawa, Saori; Honjo, Mitsuyoshi; Hara, Takeshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. METHODS: RF ablation was performed in vivo in 10 rat livers using a 15-gauge expandable RF needle. 3D SWE as well as B-mode ultrasound (US) were performed 15 min after ablation. The acquired 3D volume data were rendered as multislice images (interslice distance: 1.10 mm), and the estimated ablation volumes were calculated. The 3D SWE findings were compared against digitized photographs of gross pathological and histopathological specimens of the livers obtained in the same sectional planes as the 3D SWE multislice images. The ablation volumes were also estimated by gross pathological examination of the livers, and the results were then compared with those obtained by 3D SWE. RESULTS: In B-mode US images, the ablation zone appeared as a hypoechoic area with a peripheral hyperechoic rim; however, the findings were too indistinct to be useful for estimating the ablation area. 3D SWE depicted the ablation area and volume more clearly. In the images showing the largest ablation area, the mean kPa values of the peripheral rim, central zone, and non-ablated zone were 13.1 ± 1.5 kPa, 59.1 ± 21.9 kPa, and 4.3 ± 0.8 kPa, respectively. The ablation volumes depicted by 3D SWE correlated well with those estimated from gross pathological examination (r2 = 0.9305, P = 0.00001). The congestion and diapedesis of red blood cells observed in histopathological examination were greater in the peripheral rim of the ablation zone than in the central zone. CONCLUSION: 3D SWE outperforms B-mode US in delineating ablated areas in the liver and is therefore more reliable for spatially delineating thermal lesions created by RF ablation. PMID:25206291

  18. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  19. Primary appendiceal lymphoma presenting as suspected perforated acute appendicitis: clinical, sonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for extranodal involvement by non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, primary appendiceal lymphomas presenting as perforated acute appendicitis are very rare: they occur in only 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphoma cases. The management of this condition is still controversial, and a multimodality approach (e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) is the optimal treatment. In these cases, appendiceal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas typically manifest with acute symptoms in patients with no prior lymphoma history. Additionally, we treated our patient with a right hemicolectomy and postoperative multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:25400798

  20. Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are non-specific: 13-year-experience at a German Heart Center

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Rösch, Johannes; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Ventricular assist devices (VAD) have become an established therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. The two main reasons for this development are the shortage of appropriate donor organs and the increasing number of patients waiting for heart transplantation (HTX). Furthermore, the enormous advances in the technical equipment and the rising clinical experience have improved the implantation technique, the durability and the long-term patient outcomes. Methods: We reviewed all cases of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation at our Erlangen Heart Center during January 2000-July 2013. The main aim of this study was to analyze the underlying pathology from the cardiac apex removed during the implantation. From all patients, we created a follow-up, analyzed the pathological features with the clinical diagnoses and described the overall outcome. Results: VAD implantation was performed in 266 cases at our center in the last 13 years (2.2% of the total of 12254 cardiac surgical operations in that period). From these patients, 223 underwent LVAD or biventricular (BVAD) implantation; the remaining received a right (RVAD) implantation. The most frequent underlying clinical diagnoses were dilated (n = 84, 37.7%, DCM) or ischemic (n = 61, 27.4%, ICM) cardiomyopathy. The pathological findings in the apex biopsy were generally non-specific and showed variable interstitial myocardial fibrosis with evidence of fibre loss, fatty degeneration and variable irregular atrophy of muscle fibres, consistent with dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathies as the most frequent causes of heart failure in these patients. Only a few cases showed other specific features such as myocarditis and AL-amyloidosis. Conclusions: Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during LVAD implantation are rather non-specific and they generally reflect the late stage or consequences of chronic myocardial damage in cases of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathies. Variable patchy chronic inflammatory changes may be observed in cardiomyopathies as a non-specific reaction caused by myocardial fiber damage and should not lead to misinterpretation as evidence of myocarditis or revision of original diagnosis. PMID:25337196

  1. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

  2. [Campylobacter pylori (C. pylori): an occasional finding or a constant pathogenetic factor in peptic and inflammatory gastroduodenal pathology? Personal observations].

    PubMed

    Licata, A; Naso, P; Bartoloni, G; Bonanno, G; Di Gaetano, G; Torcetta, N

    1990-01-01

    The detection of CP in the mucosa of the gastric antrum had led to the supposition of this bacterium's potential pathogenetic role in the onset and continuation of peptic ulcer and/or inflammatory gastroduodenal disease. After reviewing the literature, the Authors report the incidence rate of the presence of C.P. in the mucosa of the gastric antrum in 110 symptomatic patients. Endoscopic examination revealed a negative diagnosis, or the presence of gastric and/or duodenal ulcer, or aspecific inflammatory disease. C.P. was detected using the quick urea test and histomorphological analysis after modified Giemsa staining on bioptic endoscopic specimens. C.P. were present in 86.6% of duodenal ulcers, 94.8% of gastro-duodenal inflammation, and 29.4% of endoscopical normal patients. These results confirm that C.P. should not be considered an occasional finding but almost a constant factors. The importance of performing the quick urea test during endoscopic examination is underlined, since if positive an appropriate therapeutic protocol can be started as soon as possible. PMID:2280870

  3. [Interesting radiological and pathological findings of the internal carotid artery observed in a case of cavernous sinusitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, T; Fujita, Y; Ono, H; Mori, K

    1977-06-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgical department of Nagasaki University Hospital with complaints of high fever, deteriorated conciousness and nonpulsating exophthalmus on the left side. The first carotid angiography which had been done 2 days prior to admission, showed only an irregular narrowing in the cavernous portion of the left carotid artery. The right carotid angiogram did not show any recognizable abnormality. The second angiography which was performed 4 days after the admission, revealed an cylindrical aneurysmal opacification about 0.8 cm in diameter in the left intracavernous portion. The right angiography could not be done at that time. On the 47th hospital day, the third angiogram was performed. There noted again, the aneurysmal opacification in the left carotid artery and furthermore, the right carotid artery was occluded completely at its entrance into the cavernous sinus. On post-mortem examination, the cavernous sinus was filled with coagulated blood which drived from the ruptured left internal carotid artery. Microscopic examination revealed marked invasion of leucocytes to the wall of the internal carotid artery at the cavernous portion in both sides. These findings suggested that a mycotic aneurysm which resulted from the cavernous sinusitis ruptured into the left cavernous sinus and spelled blood compressed the opposite (right) carotid artery within the carvernous sinus which resulted in occlusion of the artery. PMID:560642

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of a large epignathus teratoma using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound: correlation with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Maira Mariko; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Araujo Júnior, E; Drummond, Carolina Leite; Herbst, Sandra Regina Silva; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2014-05-01

    Epignathus teratomas are rare tumors that originate in the region of the palate or pharynx and are known as Rathke pouch. They may be associated with other malformations such as a cleft palate and bifid tongue or nose. The prenatal diagnosis can be established by two-dimensional ultrasonography showing a heterogeneous mass protruding through the mouth of the fetus. The three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode permits better understanding of this anomaly by the parents, facilitating the counseling. The importance of prenatal diagnosis lies in the fact that this tumor may obstruct the airways, thus leading to death at birth due to respiratory insufficiency. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of epignathus teratoma in the 30th week of pregnancy by two-dimensional ultrasonography. We focus on the importance of three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode for demonstrating the spatial relationships of the tumor with the oral cavity and provide correlations between the ultrasound images and the anatomopathological findings. PMID:23398485

  5. Founder Haplotype Analysis of Fanconi Anemia in the Korean Population Finds Common Ancestral Haplotypes for a FANCG Variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population. PMID:25703136

  6. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE RHINOCEROSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Montall; Scott B. Citino

    Reports of bacterial diseases in rhinoceroses are sporadic and include systemic infections with Salmonella and Clostridia 25 32* 39. Leptospirosis has been considered as an etiologic possibility for the fatal hemolytic anenlia syndrome of black rhinoceroses 22. Fatal colibacillosis occurred in a premature black rhinoceros neonate in St. Louis with typical septicemic lesions with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also described

  7. MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

  8. Quantitative analysis of lung elastic fibers in idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE): comparison of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The amount of elastic fibers (EF) and detailed differences between IPPFE and IPF have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to quantify the EF and identify the differences between IPPFE and IPF. Methods We evaluated six patients with IPPFE and 28 patients with IPF who underwent surgical lung biopsy or autopsy. The patients’ clinical history, physical findings, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathological features of lung specimens were retrospectively evaluated. The amounts of EF in lung specimens were quantified with Weigert’s staining using a camera with a charge-coupled device and analytic software in both groups. Results Fewer patients with IPPFE than IPF had fine crackles (50.0% vs. 96.4%, p?=?0.012). Patients with IPPFE had a lower forced vital capacity (62.7?±?10.9% vs. 88.6?±?21.9% predicted, p?=?0.009), higher consolidation scores on HRCT (1.7?±?0.8 vs. 0.3?±?0.5, p?

  9. ["Hic gaudet mors succurere vitae", autopsy findings of the Mainz Institute of Pathology 1971-2010. An analysis on the occasion of the 100 year jubilee].

    PubMed

    Hansen, T; Höring, S; Rosendahl, F; Dusolt, M; Kempe, C; Hechtner, M; Sommer, C; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2014-07-01

    In the past numerous analyses have studied several aspects of autopsies in particular with regard to the decline of frequency; however, long-term studies spanning more than one decade have rarely been published, especially in recent years. On the occasion of the 100 year jubilee the archive data of the Institute of Pathology of the University of Mainz were analyzed for autopsies performed between 1971 and 2010. In this cohort, we focused on patients over?14 years old (n?=?14,724) who died in the University hospital. We compared the number of autopsies with the total number of deceased patients and, in addition, studied several epidemiological aspects with special relevance for the cause of death (COD). In 1973 the peak autopsy frequency was reached with a value of 73.4?% followed by a decrease to 49.1?% in 1980. In the following decade a relatively steady state was achieved (frequency 53.3?% in 1985, and 43.2?% in 1990), followed by a remarkable decline after the 1990s (1997: 26.4?%, 1998: 15.9?% and 2010: 5.6?%). The mean overall age increased during the observation period (59.1 years in 1971 and 67.5 years in 2008). Among the COD groups cardiovascular diseases were predominantly recorded (between 35?% in the 1970s and 39?% in 1995-2010), followed by infectious diseases (between 20 and 25?%). Malignancies represented the third most common COD group with an increase in frequency from approximately 10.5?% in the 1970s to 17?% observed in the last decade. Among the single specific CODs, pulmonary embolism was most often encountered in the 1970s (about 11.5?%), while in the following decades myocardial infarction predominated (up to 15.8?% between 1995 and 2010). In the overall period, lung cancer was the single most common malignancy of the CODs (between 2.5 and 3.9?%). These data confirmed previous studies showing that in Germany the autopsy frequency began to decline remarkably in the 1990s. Besides general aspects, the specific local causes for these phenomena are discussed. PMID:24957867

  10. UCLA stem cell scientists find tumor suppressor genes vital to regulating blood precursor cells in the common fruit fly

    Cancer.gov

    UCLA scientists affiliated with the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have shown that two common tumor suppressor genes, TSC and PTEN, are vital to regulating the stem cell-like precursor cells that create the blood supply in Drosophila, the common fruit fly.

  11. Finding your inner voice through song: Reaching adolescents with techniques common to poetry therapy and music therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori F. Gooding

    2008-01-01

    Literature supports the use of both poetry therapy and music therapy with adolescents. Song writing in particular has been recognized for its wide appeal among the adolescent population. In fact, many of the techniques incorporated into the song writing process are common to both poetry therapy and music therapy. This paper will examine some of those common techniques and provide

  12. Dana-Farber researchers find that revamped radiation treatment schedule for common form of brain cancer can extend survival

    Cancer.gov

    An altered radiation treatment schedule for the most common and lethal form of brain cancer extended survival times, a new study by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other organizations has shown.

  13. The bronchopulmonary pathology of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency: Findings of the death review committee of the national registry for individuals with severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Tomashefski Jr; Ronald G. Crystal; Herbert P. Wiedemann; Edward Mascha; James K. Stoller

    2004-01-01

    To assess the pathological changes in the lungs and liver of 42 individuals who died while enrolled in the Registry of Individuals with Severe Deficiency of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT), all available histopathologic surgical or postmortem-derived specimens were reviewed by the pathologist member of the Death Review Committee. The underlying cause of death was emphysema in 34 patients and cirrhosis in

  14. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  15. Harvard-led study finds diagnostic and invasive procedures common in women with breast-conserving surgery

    Cancer.gov

    Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have high rates of diagnostic and invasive breast procedures after treatment with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) according to a study published April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast-conserving surgery is the most common treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ and has proven to be an effective alternative to mastectomy in most women; however, the necessity for and likelihood of further diagnostic mammograms and invasive procedures following BCS are unknown.

  16. Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links list (below in alphabetical order) to jump to all other web sites. Have a site you Emeritus o Leaving o New · Emergency Alert o WVU Alert Web site o WVU Phone/Email Alert o Monongalia County

  17. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Břrge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrčche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  18. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Břrge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrčche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissičre, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10?6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10?6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10?17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10?8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10?10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  19. Diagnosis, Pathology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-12-26

    Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

  20. Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

    ?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

  1. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  2. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, R.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  3. Dissociative Symptoms in Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Grant; Suck Won Kim

    2003-01-01

    Background: Dissociation is increasingly being recognized as both a normal process and as a psychophysiological aspect of a number of mental disorders. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on a possible link between dissociation and pathological gambling, a relatively common disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. Sampling and Methods: Thirty adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for pathological

  4. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  5. A rare case of an isolated intraventricular tuberculoma with a dismal outcome: an unusual location of a common pathology and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh

    2014-04-01

    Isolated involvement of the ventricle by tuberculosis is extremely rare and only nine cases have been reported till now. We report a 13-year-old immuno-competent boy who presented with features of raised intracranial pressure with altered sensorium. Computed Tomography showed a ring enhancing intraventricular lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Gross total resection of the lesion was achieved and diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The patient had medical complications in the postoperative period and succumbs five days after the surgery. This report presents the unusual location of a common disease with a review of its clinical, radiological and histopathological features as well as the treatment modalities available. PMID:25509942

  6. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. PMID:24342092

  7. Pathological and non-pathological irregularities of nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Star?evi?, Radan; Velepi?, Marko; Bonifa?i?, David

    2014-09-01

    Irregularities of nystagmus can be found almost in every electronystagmographic record, but only a few are pathological. In this investigation, the authors try to define the border line between pathological and nonpathological irregularities of nystagmus and according to this measure the diagnostic use of findings of irregularities of nystagmus. PMID:25420381

  8. Histopathology findings in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758) with chronic weight loss associated with bile tract obstruction by infestation with Platynosomum (Loos, 1907).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Leăo, Adriano Castro; Coutinho, José Flávio Vidal; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2008-10-01

    Chronic weight loss in marmosets is often associated with wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS), an important disease that occurs in callitrichid colonies around the world. Even though its etiology is very difficult to determine, particular variables, such as weight loss, diarrhea and alopecia, associated or not with infestation in the pancreatic ducts with Trichospirura leptossoma (Nematoda: Thelazioidea), seem to be linked with the syndrome. This study investigated the histopathology of the lungs, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and pancreatic ducts of six common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) suffering from severe non-diarrheic weight loss. Three individuals died naturally and the other three were euthanized. Microscopic findings showed the presence of adult flukes (Platynosomum) in the liver. These flukes, which provoke common infection in cats, were also observed inside the gallbladder as well as in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts in common marmosets. Portal fibrosis was observed in two animals, which developed chronic fibrosing hepatopathy (biliary pattern, grade 3). The disease progresses without diarrhea and without pancreatic lesions or infestation. With the progression, the animals presented with ascending cholangitis, cholestasis and portal fibrosis, sometimes culminating in secondary biliary cirrhosis. Therefore, this infirmity, associated with chronic weight loss in common marmosets, could be another etiological factor linked with WMS. PMID:18841441

  9. Imaging findings of common benign renal tumors in the era of small renal masses: differential diagnosis from small renal cell carcinoma: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentiation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  10. Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  11. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

    2005-01-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

  12. Intercultural communication: finding common ground.

    PubMed

    Nance, T A

    1995-01-01

    Diversity has become a leading topic of discussion in virtually all sectors of our society. This is certainly true in health care; the nursing profession has long been dealing with issues of cultural appropriateness. This article looks at the relationship of culture to communication. The current approach to intercultural communication discussed in much of the nursing literature is judged to be short-sighted. An alternative approach based on the development of a functional cultural communication perspective is offered. PMID:7782958

  13. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with a V180I Mutation: Comparative Analysis with Pathological Findings and Diffusion-Weighted Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Mutsukura; Katsuya Satoh; Susumu Shirabe; Itsuro Tomita; Takayasu Fukutome; Minoru Morikawa; Masachika Iseki; Kensuke Sasaki; Yusei Shiaga; Tetsuyuki Kitamoto; Katsumi Eguchi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a useful technique for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The present study reported DWI results in cases of familial CJD with a V180I mutation (CJD180) in the prion protein gene as well as neurological findings. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3 patients with V180I was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, brain MRI,

  14. Henkel Bot 394 Fall 2010 FOREST PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Henkel, Terry

    Henkel Bot 394 Fall 2010 SYLLABUS FOREST PATHOLOGY BOTANY 394 - Fall 2010 Instructor: Terry W, in order of priority: Pathology: 1) Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia (on reserve, library) -updated, library) 4) Forest Disease Management Notes-USFS handbook (on reserve, library) 5) Forest Pathology Notes

  15. The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

    2014-07-01

    Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

  16. Pathological and Immunohistochemical Findings of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection in Tufted Ducks during 2010–2011 Outbreaks in Japan

    PubMed Central

    ABDO, Walied; HARIDY, Mohie; KATOU, Yuki; GOTO, Minami; MIZOGUCHI, Toshio; SAKODA, Yoshihiro; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the winter of 2010–2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

  17. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings of natural highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in tufted ducks during 2010-2011 outbreaks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Katou, Yuki; Goto, Minami; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    In the winter of 2010-2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

  18. Pathology of the breast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian C Bateman

    2004-01-01

    Cellular pathology, comprising cytopathology and histopathology, is an essential component of the management of breast disease. The range of benign and malignant conditions encountered by the breast pathologist is diverse. Benign changes are common and may present as localized masses (e.g. fibroadenoma), diffuse textural alterations (e.g. fibrocystic change), nipple discharge (e.g. intraduct papilloma) or as microcalcifications on mammographic examination (e.g.

  19. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  20. A familial case of Alzheimer's disease without tau pathology may be linked with chromosome 3 markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Poduslo; X. Yin; J. Hargis; R. A. Brumback; J. A. Mastrianni; J. Schwankhaus

    1999-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia that occurs in later years. The diagnosis is confirmed by the pathological findings of #A4-amyloid-containing neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the former being present in sufficient quantity commensurate with age. Other forms of dementia are more difficult to diagnose clinically; their pathology is noted for the lack of plaques and tangles.

  1. A familial case of Alzheimer's disease without tau pathology may be linked with chromosome 3 markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Poduslo; X. Yin; J. Hargis; R. A. Brumback; J. A. Mastrianni; J. Schwankhaus

    1999-01-01

    .   Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia that occurs in later years. The diagnosis is confirmed by the pathological\\u000a findings of ?A4-amyloid-containing neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the former being present in sufficient quantity\\u000a commensurate with age. Other forms of dementia are more difficult to diagnose clinically; their pathology is noted for the\\u000a lack of plaques and

  2. The development of pathological gambling in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kiihlhorn

    1994-01-01

    The development and the social, psychological and cultural conditions of pathological gambling reported by 42 interviewed pathological gamblers were compared with data from 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding. The two studies gave similar results. Gambling on horse races, roulette and bingo were the only types showing a progressive increase in involvement over time. When gambling heavily 40% of the

  3. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  4. Kawasaki disease: basic and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Yokouchi, Yuki; Naoe, Shiro; Saji, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is considered to be a kind of systemic vasculitis syndrome. It most frequently affects infants and young children and primarily invades medium-sized muscular arteries, including the coronary arteries. The etiology of KD is unknown, but epidemiological data suggest involvement of infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, in the onset of KD. In addition, host genetics underlie the disease's pathogenesis. Histologically, coronary arteritis begins 6-8 days after KD onset, and inflammation of all layers of the artery rapidly ensues. The inflammation spreads completely around the artery, resulting in severe damage to structural components. Then, the artery begins to dilate. KD arteritis is characterized by inflammation consisting of marked accumulation of monocytes/macrophages. Aberrant activation of monocytes/macrophages is thought to be involved in the formation of vascular lesions. Inflammatory-cell infiltration persists until about the 25th day of the disease, after which the inflammatory cells gradually decrease in number. Lesions in all arteries are relatively synchronous, as they evolve from acute to chronic injury. If a giant aneurysm remains or vessel recanalization occurs after thrombotic occlusion of an aneurysm, remodeling of the vascular structure, sometimes including even reocclusion, continues even in the remote stage. PMID:23188196

  5. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chong; K. S. Lee; M. J. Chung; J. H. Han; O. J. Kwon; T. S. Kim

    2006-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history

  6. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. Conclusions A novel framework for developing Common Ground to manage conflicts during end-of-life decision-making discussions may assist in achieving a “good death”. These results could aid in educating physicians, learners, and the public on how to achieve productive collaborative relationships during end-of-life decision-making for dying patients, and ultimately improve their deaths. PMID:23339822

  7. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V.; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  8. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences.

    PubMed

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  9. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  10. Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

  11. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Ma; Jun-hui SHEN; Sheng-rong SHEN; Undurti N Das

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is common that occurs in diabetics with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that

  12. Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barnes, Leon, 1941-

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Back Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lu, Zhengbin

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  14. Astrocytic TDP-43 Pathology in Alexander Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Christine M. LaPash; Goldman, James E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of GfapR236H/+ knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in GfapR236H/+ mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  15. Pathology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Markus; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Pathological examination of the affected human tissue is key to understanding the possible mechanisms operating in the disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissues reveal the inflammatory nature of the disease associated with demyelination and axonal damage. Based on the concept of a pathogenic adaptive immune response, immunosuppressive therapies have been developed in an attempt to block or inhibit the potentially pathogenic T and B cells. More recently, re-examination of the neuropathology has led to a resurgence of interest in the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease, the involvement of cortical damage as well as the role of innate immunity in MS. These ideas have led to paradigm shifts from MS being the result of autoimmunity to myelin due to initial adaptive immune responses, to that of a neurodegenerative disease in which, besides T and B cells, innate immunity may play a major role in the disease process. The neuropathological studies have undoubtedly influenced pharmaceutical interest in development of neuroprotective approaches. Here we review the latest findings from pathological studies of MS tissues and discuss the relevance of these findings for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583433

  16. Convergence Theorem Based on a New Hybrid Projection Method for Finding a Common Solution of Generalized Equilibrium and Variational Inequality Problems in Banach Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siwaporn Saewan; Poom Kumam; Kriengsak Wattanawitoon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new hybrid projection method for\\u000afinding a common element of the set of common fixed points of two relatively\\u000aquasi-nonexpansive mappings, the set of the variational inequality for an $\\\\alpha$ -inverse-strongly monotone, and the set of solutions of the generalized\\u000aequilibrium problem in the framework of a real Banach space. We

  17. Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  18. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  19. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success. PMID:23230541

  20. Which trees do wild common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) prefer? Problems and solutions in scaling laboratory findings to diet selection in the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilla J. Scrivener; Christopher N. Johnson; Ian R. Wallis; Midori Takasaki; William J. Foley; Andrew K. Krockenberger

    In this study, we examined whether a group of plant secondary metabolites - the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs), which are known to deter feeding on eucalypt foliage by captive marsupial folivores - influence feeding by wild common brushtail possums. There was at least a six-fold range of FPC concentrations in the foliage of individual trees within a single eucalypt species.

  1. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these…

  2. Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chen, Lei

    This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâ??s history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  3. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  4. Understanding Your Pathology Report

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pathology report is a document that contains the breast cancer diagnosis determined by looking at cells and tissues under ... report. Pathology reports play an important role in breast cancer diagnosis and staging (describing the extent of cancer within ...

  5. Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    French, Jacqueline A.

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâ??s brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Cerebellar Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cummings, Thomas J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  7. Focal Lesion in the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum on FLAIR MR Images: A Common Finding with Aging and after Brain Radiation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Pekala; Alexander C. Mamourian; Heather A. Wishart; William F. Hickey; James D. Raque

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal high signal intensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images is generally considered an abnormal MR finding. We identified high signal intensity in the splenium on FLAIR images in patients of advanced age with otherwise normal images and in patients who had received brain radiation therapy. We undertook an investigation to

  8. Pathological defects in congenital myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline A. Sewry

    2008-01-01

    Congenital myopathies are a molecularly, pathologically and clinically heterogenous group of disorders defined by hypotonia\\u000a and muscle weakness, that usually present at birth or early childhood, in association with a characteristic morphological\\u000a defect. The most common morphological defects are nemaline rods, cores of varying size, central nuclei, and type I fibre hypotrophy,\\u000a with or without an additional abnormality. The defective

  9. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Pathology and Cognitive Domains in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Wang, Zhenxin; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to cognitive domains in older community-dwelling persons with and without dementia. Methods Subjects were 404 persons in the Religious Orders Study, a cohort study of aging, who underwent annual clinical evaluations, including 19 neuropsychological tests from which 5 cognitive domain and global summary scores were derived, and brain autopsy at time-of-death (mean age-at-death 86). Using amyloid-? immunostaining, CAA severity was graded in 5 regions (midfrontal, inferior temporal, angular, calcarine, and hippocampal cortices), as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, and 4 = very severe. Because severity was related across regions (all rs > 0.63), and almost all persons had some CAA, we averaged regional CAA scores and created class variable predictors for no-to-minimal (<0.5), mild-to-moderate (0.5-2.5) and moderate-to-very severe CAA (>2.5). Results CAA was very common (84.9%; 94 had no-to-minimal, 233 mild-to-moderate, and 76 moderate-to-very severe disease) and was related to AD pathology (rs = 0.68). In linear regression analyses controlling for age, sex, education, AD pathology, infarcts, and Lewy bodies, moderate-to-very severe CAA was associated with lower perceptual speed (p = 0.012) and episodic memory (p = 0.047), but not semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, or a composite of all cognitive measures. No associations of mild-to-moderate CAA with cognition were found. Dementia did not modify these findings. Interpretation CAA pathology is very common in older community-dwelling persons and is associated with AD pathology. Moderate-to-very severe CAA, but not mild-to-moderate CAA, is associated with lower performance in specific cognitive domains, most notably perceptual speed, separately from the effect of AD pathology. PMID:21387377

  10. Alexithymia and Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Toneatto; Julia Lecce; Michael Bagby

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between alexithymia and gambling in a community sample of pathological gamblers. Pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers were recruited from the community via advertisements and completed an assessment of their gambling behavior and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia was higher among male pathological gamblers who identified slot machines, cards, and lotteries

  11. Metastatic superscan on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of carcinoma colon: Common finding but rare etiology

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Sharma, Punit; Karunanithi, Sellam; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy in which there is excessive skeletal radioisotope uptake in relation to soft tissues along with absent or faint activity in the genitourinary tract is known as a ‘superscan’. Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy associated with superscan along with others such as lung cancer, breast cancer and haematological malignancies. Here we present the case of a 41 year old woman with carcinoma colon with metastatic superscan on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, a very rare cause for metastatic superscan. PMID:25210281

  12. Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abernethy, John

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  13. Finding exonic islands in a sea of non-coding sequence: splicing related constraints on protein composition and evolution are common in intron-rich genomes

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Tobias; Parmley, Joanna L; Hurst, Laurence D

    2008-01-01

    Background In mammals, splice-regulatory domains impose marked trends on the relative abundance of certain amino acids near exon-intron boundaries. Is this a mammalian particularity or symptomatic of exonic splicing regulation across taxa? Are such trends more common in species that a priori have a harder time identifying exon ends, that is, those with pre-mRNA rich in intronic sequence? We address these questions surveying exon composition in a sample of phylogenetically diverse genomes. Results Biased amino acid usage near exon-intron boundaries is common throughout the metazoa but not restricted to the metazoa. There is extensive cross-species concordance as to which amino acids are affected, and reduced/elevated abundances are well predicted by knowledge of splice enhancers. Species expected to rely on exon definition for splicing, that is, those with a higher ratio of intronic to coding sequence, more introns per gene and longer introns, exhibit more amino acid skews. Notably, this includes the intron-rich basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, which, unlike intron-poor ascomycetes (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), exhibits compositional biases reminiscent of the metazoa. Strikingly, 5 prime ends of nematode exons deviate radically from normality: amino acids strongly preferred near boundaries are strongly avoided in other species, and vice versa. This we suggest is a measure to avoid attracting trans-splicing machinery. Conclusion Constraints on amino acid composition near exon-intron boundaries are phylogenetically widespread and characteristic of species where exon localization should be problematic. That compositional biases accord with sequence preferences of splice-regulatory proteins and are absent in ascomycetes is consistent with selection on exonic splicing regulation. PMID:18257921

  14. Endometrial pathology in postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment: comparison between gynaecologically symptomatic and asymptomatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I; Perel, E; Flex, D; Tepper, R; Altaras, M M; Cordoba, M; Beyth, Y

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate whether endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic rather than in gynaecologically asymptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment; and to evaluate the possible influence of various clinical factors on the incidence of endometrial pathology. METHODS: Endometrial histological findings, transvaginal ultrasonographic endometrial thickness, demographic characteristics, health habits, and risk factors for endometrial cancer were compared between 14 gynaecologically symptomatic (group I) and 224 gynaecologically asymptomatic (group II) postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 28.6% of the study population had endometrial pathology. The incidence of overall positive endometrial histological findings was significantly higher in group I than in group II (92.9% v 24.6%, p < 0.0001). Atrophic endometrium was more common in group II than in group I (75.3% v 7.1%, p < 0.0001). Most other endometrial pathology was significantly more common in group I than in group II (endometrial hyperplasia, 35.7% v 5.6%, p < 0.0001; endometrial polyps, 35.7% v 13.4%, p < 0.0111; endometrial carcinoma, 21.5% v 0.9%, p < 0.0001). Endometrial pathology appeared considerably later in the gynaecologically asymptomatic patients than in gynaecologically symptomatic patients (p = 0.0002). Vaginal bleeding or spotting occurred exclusively in group I. The incidence of endometrial pathology in the entire study population was consistent with that reported elsewhere, and higher than that reported for healthy postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment, and after a shorter duration of time, than in gynaecologically asymptomatic patients. PMID:10474520

  15. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  16. Description of Laryngeal Pathologies in Children Evaluated by Otolaryngologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobres, Rachel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected on 731 patients (age birth to 18) at a children's hospital otolaryngology clinic. Most frequent laryngeal pathologies were subglottic stenosis, vocal nodules, laryngomalacia, and vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal pathologies were more common to males than females, were most common in the youngest patients, and were distributed…

  17. Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Bergh; Eckart Kfihlhorn

    1994-01-01

    Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in

  18. Insurance problems and pathological gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry R. Lesieur; Kenneth Puig

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 241 members of Gamblers Anonymous was conducted in order to find out the impact of pathological gambling on the insurance industry and whether Gamblers Anonymous reverses that impact. Fifty-two percent of the respondents cashed in, surrendered, lapsed or had policies revoked for non-payment. Forty-six percent borrowed on or used the cash value of their life insurance policies

  19. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  20. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  1. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  2. [Mediastinal pathology: pathological treatment of frozen section].

    PubMed

    Saint-Blancard, P; Jancovici, R

    2010-10-01

    Tumoral pathology of the mediastinum is extremely varied, with different prognoses and treatments. The pathological examination is essential, both etiologically and prognostically. Mediastinoscopy is generally used to check for lymph node metastases, bronchopulmonary carcinoma, but also, to a lesser degree, for the exploration of isolated mediastinal adenopathy. Finally, this technique enables a diagnostic approach to mediastinal tumours. The frozen section has its place, at the first indication, making it possible to prescribe neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and in the other situations to make sure that the quantity of material removed is sufficient or even to carry out complementary techniques. PMID:21087726

  3. Identifying personality pathology associated with major depressive episodes: incremental validity of informant reports.

    PubMed

    Galione, Janine N; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Major limitations are associated with the use of a single source of information to assess personality pathology. The construct validity of standardized interviews and informant reports on personality pathology has been established relative to other measures of personality pathology, but it is also important to consider these measures in relation to other constructs that should be related to personality pathology. One example is major depression. In this study, we evaluated whether less common clinical methods of assessment for measuring the same personality pathology constructs, including semistructured interviews and informant reports, demonstrate unique validity, using major depressive episode (MDE) as the external criterion. This analysis focuses on a representative, community-based sample of 1,437 participants and informants. We conducted a hierarchical logistic regression analysis and determined the order of entering the predictor variables based on likelihood of being used in a clinical setting as well as empirical recommendations. Each step of our regression model significantly increased our ability to predict lifetime MDE, including self, interviewer, and informant reports of personality pathology. Overall, these findings indicate that multiple sources of personality assessment provide unique information about the relationship between maladaptive personality traits and a history of MDE. Thus, semistructured diagnostic interviews and informant reports can be used as a resource to improve the validity of personality assessments. PMID:24004355

  4. TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

    2010-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

  5. Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of the Ovary: MR-Pathologic Correlation in Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Jin Hee; Youn, Sung Kook

    2003-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a very rare sex cord stromal tumor occurring in a younger age group than other types of stromal tumors and most commonly accompanied by menstrual irregularity. Several unique histologic features including pseudolobulation, sclerosis and prominent vascularity are clearly reflected at ultrasonography and MRI. We report the ultrasonographic and MR features of three cases of histologically confirmed SSTs, and relate them to the pathological findings. PMID:14530650

  6. Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  7. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  8. Pathology annual. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

  9. Different coexisting gynecological and endometrial pathologies in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I; Beyth, Y; Bernheim, J; Shapira, J; Cordoba, M; Aviram, R; Figer, A; Yigael, D; Altaras, M M

    1998-08-01

    Tamoxifen administration to postmenopausal women has been described as being associated with various endometrial and other gynecological pathologies. However, different coexisting gynecological pathologies in such patients have not yet been described. In the present study, we assessed the histopathological conditions diagnosed in endometrium, myometrium, and ovaries of 28 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who were treated with tamoxifen (study group) and compared the findings to those obtained from 14 similar patients without tamoxifen treatment (control group I) and from 28 age-matched healthy postmenopausal controls (control group II). All specimens were removed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for various indications. The overall incidence of two or more different coexisting gynecological pathologies was significantly higher among the study group (92.9%) than in control group I or in control group II (42.9 and 50%, respectively; p = 0. 0001). There was no significant statistical difference between the control groups. Overall endometrial (and endometrial-like) origin of pathological conditions was significantly more common in the study group (92.6%) than in control group I (50%; p = 0.00072) and control group II (32.1%; p = 0.0000), while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that there might be an association between postmenopausal tamoxifen exposure and the development of such different coexisting or specific single gynecological pathologies originating from the endometrium. PMID:9701693

  10. Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dacic, Sanja

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Sonya

    This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

    This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Cervicomedullary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hamilton, Ronald

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  16. Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moncaster, Juliet A; Pineda, Roberto; Moir, Robert D; Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A; Ghosh, Joy G; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Robb, Richard M; Kuszak, Jer R; Clark, John I; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Hunter, David G; Goldstein, Lee E

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Abeta pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Abeta aggregates (approximately 5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Abeta in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Abeta with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Abeta accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-? Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A.; Ghosh, Joy G.; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Robb, Richard M.; Kuszak, Jer R.; Clark, John I.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Hunter, David G.; Goldstein, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-? peptides (A?), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased A? accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked A? pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear A? accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic A? aggregates (?5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of A? in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic A? with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased A? accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

  18. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  19. Physician-assisted suicide. Finding common ground.

    PubMed Central

    McGough, P; Back, A L; Colley, J

    1997-01-01

    In Washington state, practicing physicians have been forced to confront the emotional, complex issue of physician-assisted suicide sooner than physicians elsewhere in the US. The Washington State Medical Association has struggled at length with the issue and ultimately delineated a policy on safeguards for physician-assisted suicide. The Washington experience may prove instructive to other professional physician organizations even before the US Supreme Court rules on the issue. PMID:9217451

  20. Defining spirit at work: finding common ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Val M. Kinjerski; Berna J. Skrypnek

    2004-01-01

    Debate over the definition of “spirit at work” continues in both the popular and academic literatures. The lack of a clear, accepted definition has hindered the development of useful measures and has delayed research that would advance our understanding of the conditions\\/characteristics that influence the experience of spirit at work and the individual and organizational outcomes that result from spirit

  1. Finding Opportunities for Commonality in Complex Systems

    E-print Network

    Long, Lt. Col. David

    2009-08-24

    Many complex systems with similar functionalities are independently developed, entered into service, and must be supported through their lifecycles. Costs to support and maintain the systems could be decreased by employing ...

  2. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. PMID:23143402

  3. Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  4. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for pathological gambling: a chart review.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2002-09-01

    Although pathological gambling is a relatively common disorder, there exists only limited information regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for this illness. This study examines which medications may be effective, dose and duration of medication trials needed to achieve response, and possible predictors of response. Using a chart review, 50 adult outpatients with DSM-IV pathological gambling treated in clinical practice were assessed regarding response to a variety of medications, including augmentation strategies, and response to concomitant psychotherapy. All subjects received pharmacotherapy for gambling symptoms. Thirty-nine (78%) achieved response to medication treatment. Mean duration of treatment needed for response was 104.9 +/- 85.0 days. Of those treated with an adequate trial of naltrexone as monotherapy, 90.9% were responders, whereas only 45.5% of those treated with an adequate trial of an SSRI achieved response. Patients with poorer social and occupational functioning due to urges and thoughts about gambling were less likely to respond to medication. These findings from a clinical setting suggest that a majority of pathological gamblers improve with medication treatment. Naltrexone, or augmentation of naltrexone with an SSRI, appears to be most effective in relieving gambling symptoms. PMID:12585565

  5. Pathology of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Malowany, Janet I; Butany, Jagdish

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia with numerous clinical consequences. Intravascular sickling of red blood cells leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of SCD has been well studied, there remains a lack of effective treatment. Refinements in overall care have improved quality of life; however, premature death is still not uncommon. SCD usually presents in childhood and is common in areas where malaria is (or was) common. The association with malaria is apparently of benefit to the individual because these individuals tend to contract a milder form of the disease. This review highlights the spectrum of pathology seen in people with SCD, with an emphasis on the pathogenesis of sudden death. PMID:22372205

  6. Careers in Plant Pathology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )

    2004-01-01

    This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

  7. Diagnostic pathology of selected diseases in wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cooper

    2002-01-01

    Summary The prompt detection and effective management of infectious disease in wildlife rely greatly on field diagnosis. Although clinical work is sometimes of value, the cornerstone of diagnosis is pathological examination (gross necropsy with supporting laboratory investigations). The approach and rationale to gross post-mortem examination are common to all species, despite possible significant differences in technique. Likewise, the principles of

  8. Filtering Voluntary Motion for Pathological Tremor Compensation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , it may decrease considerably the person's quality of life, since the ability to perform simple daily tasks is reduced. It is the most common movement disorder found in human pathology. An absolutely the filter ro- bustness to multiple motions and different sensors. To accomplish that, models are assumed

  9. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  10. Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

    2014-10-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

  11. Effectiveness of Pharmacotherapy for Pathological Gambling: A Chart Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Grant; Suck Won Kim

    2002-01-01

    Although pathological gambling is a relatively common disorder, there exists only limited information regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for this illness. This study examines which medications may be effective, dose and duration of medication trials needed to achieve response, and possible predictors of response. Using a chart review, 50 adult outpatients with DSM-IV pathological gambling treated in clinical practice were

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  13. Ultrasound findings of masses of the paratesticular space.

    PubMed

    Smart, J M; Jackson, E K; Redman, S L; Rutherford, E E; Dewbury, K C

    2008-08-01

    Ultrasound is a routine investigation for the assessment of scrotal masses. Many of the detected lesions involve the paratesticular structures. The most common paratesticular masses in clinical practice are epididymal cysts and spermatoceles, but there are a large number of other pathologies that can be encountered and may result in diagnostic uncertainty. This review covers a wide range of the common and the rare, but important, causes of paratesticular masses. The ultrasound findings (both typical and atypical) of these lesions are clarified, and emphasis is given to the features that help to differentiate between them. PMID:18625360

  14. A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

    2014-06-01

    The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak. PMID:24447163

  15. Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klionsky, Bernard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  16. Clinical and pathological features of pachyonychia congenita.

    PubMed

    Leachman, Sancy A; Kaspar, Roger L; Fleckman, Philip; Florell, Scott R; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Lunny, Declan P; Milstone, Leonard M; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Munro, Colin S; O'Toole, Edel A; Celebi, Julide T; Kansky, Aleksej; Lane, E Birgitte

    2005-10-01

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis affecting the nails, skin, oral mucosae, larynx, hair, and teeth. Pathogenic mutations in keratins K6a or K16 are associated with the PC-1 phenotype whereas K6b and K17 mutations are associated with the PC-2 phenotype. Analysis of clinical, pathological, and genetic data from the literature and two research registries reveal that >97% of PC cases exhibit fingernail and toenail thickening, and painful plantar keratoderma. Prospective evaluation of 57 PC patients from 41 families revealed variable clinical findings: hyperhidrosis (79%), oral leukokeratosis (75%), follicular keratosis (65%), palmar keratoderma (60%), cutaneous cysts (35%), hoarseness or laryngeal involvement (16%), coarse or twisted hair (26%), early primary tooth loss (14%), and presence of natal or prenatal teeth (2%). Stratification of these data by keratin mutation confirmed the increased incidence of cyst formation and natal teeth among PC-2 patients, although cysts were more commonly seen in PC-1 than previously reported (25%-33%). Previously unreported clinical features of PC include development of painful oral and nipple lesions during breastfeeding, copious production of waxy material in ears, and inability to walk without an ambulatory aid (50%). Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed with respect to the clinicopathologic and genetic correlations observed. PMID:16250204

  17. Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Davie, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Driscoll, Eileen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  19. Plant Pathology Career Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  1. Pathology of aging psittacines.

    PubMed

    Reavill, Drury R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-01-01

    Aging processes leading to specific organ problems are not obvious in aging psittacines. In general, birds live long and age slowly despite their high metabolic rates and very high total lifetime energy expenditures. Most pathologic processes seen in older parrots are generally not specific for aging because they are seen in young birds as well. Pathologic processes that have a tendency to occur more in older psittacines are atherosclerosis and repeated injury processes, such as chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, liver fibrosis, and lens cataracts. Also, some neoplasms are more often seen at an older age. PMID:20159547

  2. Pathology Case Study: Petechiae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  5. Transplant Pathology Case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.

  6. Overview and Findings from the Rush Memory and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Wilson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The Memory and Aging Project is a longitudinal, epidemiologic clinical-pathologic cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on decline in cognitive and motor function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods. Then, we present data on: 1) the relation of motor function to cognition, disability, and death; 2) the relation of risk factors to cognitive and motor outcomes, disability and death; 3) the relation of neuropathologic indices to cognitive outcomes; 4) the relation of risk factors to neuropathologic indices; and 5) additional study findings. The findings are discussed and contextualized. PMID:22471867

  7. Cognitive and behavioral therapies for pathological gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Blaszczynski; Derrick Silove

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of behavioral and cognitive treatment approaches in the management of pathological gambling disorders. Disappointingly, the literature to date contains only one controlled outcome study in which two differing behavioral techniques were compared. Although research in general has focussed on identifying the nature of cognitive distortions in gambling, findings from these

  8. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  9. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  10. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

  11. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-02-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  12. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  13. Finding Fossils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This OLogy activity serves as a kid-friendly how-to manual about searching for fossils. In Not Just Any Rock Will Do, kids learn that fossils "hide out" in sedimentary rock and see examples of shale and sandstone. Do's and Don'ts for Fossil Hunters gives kids practical tips and a list of fossil-hunting supplies. In Fossils You May Find, there are photos of common invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils to guide kids. Paleontology Clubs and Web Sites lists resources to help kids determine where to hunt for fossils. In Keeping a Field Journal, kids are shown a sample journal entry that points out the types of information they should record.

  14. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  15. Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâ??s chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickson, H.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  18. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  19. Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Skin Rash and Proteinuria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 8-year-old boy has a history of skin rash with concurrent hematuria and proteinuria. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunoflourescent and electron microscopy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Oligoarthritis and Localized Swellings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 75-year-old man has been admitted to the hospital with chest pain radiating to his left arm, elbow, and wrist. Visitors are given the clinical history and radiology findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Lethargy and Coma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heyner, Robert

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the health conditions of a male baby born prematurely (28 weeks gestational age). The patientâ??s history, gross and microscopic descriptions, ultrasound images, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  3. Detailed Shoulder MRI Findings in Manual Wheelchair Users with Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Van Straaten, Meegan G.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Braman, Jonathan P.; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10?MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities. PMID:25180192

  4. Pathologists overseas: coordinating volunteer pathology services for 19 years.

    PubMed

    Hoenecke, Heinz; Lee, Victor; Roy, Indrojit

    2011-02-01

    Pathologists Overseas is a nonprofit organization that has been coordinating the efforts of volunteer pathologists and technologists for 19 years to improve and provide affordable pathology services to underserved patients worldwide. This is accomplished by aiding and establishing pathology laboratories, providing diagnostic pathology services, and training local physicians as pathologists. Projects have been completed or are currently active in Kenya, Eritrea, Madagascar, Ghana, Nepal, Bhutan, Peru, El Salvador, and St Lucia. The main challenge is finding enough volunteers to provide uninterrupted service to maintain a project. Our goal is to build on these experiences and continue to both support existing and establish more pathology laboratories worldwide. PMID:21284432

  5. [A case of groove pancreatitis with a characteristic pathologic feature].

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang Hyuk; Yoo, Kyo Sang; Chung, Yong Woo; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Park, Cheol Hee; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

    2007-03-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis in which scarring is found mainly in the groove between the head of the pancreas, duodenum, and common bile duct. The pathogenesis of groove pancreatitis is still unclear but seems to be caused by the disturbance of pancreatic outflow through Santorini duct. It is often difficult to differentiate preoperatively between groove pancreatitis and pancreatic head carcinoma. Whereas conservative management is effective, some patients with duodenal obstruction may undergo Whipple's operation. A few cases of groove pancreatitis have been reported in Korea, and they were diagnosed only by clinical and radiological features. We experienced a case of groove pancreatitis who needed a surgical management because of severe duodenal obstruction. We report the case with a review of its characteristic pathologic findings. PMID:18172349

  6. Pathology Case Study: Sepsis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Callahan, Debra L.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing â??fainting spellsâ?ť is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

  8. Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy

    2012-05-01

    This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns. PMID:22640539

  9. Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Update on pathological gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Grant; Kyle A. Williams; Suck Won Kim

    2006-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a signi.cant public health concern associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and\\u000a mortality. Although research into the biology of PG is still in an early stage, recent advances in our understanding of motivation,\\u000a reward, and addiction have provided substantial insight into the possible pathophysiology of this disorder. In addition, over\\u000a the past 5 years, extraordinary

  11. Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Bloating and Discomfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 64-year-old woman initially diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Visitors are given an extensive patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient using the findings before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  13. Pharmacological Treatments of Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hollander; Erica Sood; Stefano Pallanti; Nicolo Baldini-Rossi; Bryann Baker

    2005-01-01

    Medication treatment studies have demonstrated short-term efficacy of various SRIs, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers in sub-samples of adult treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling is frequently comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders, substance abuse\\/dependence, and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and comorbidity may influence treatment response in pathological gambling. This review focuses on recent research examining the treatment of pathological gambling and

  14. Social cost of pathological gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ladouceur; Jean-Marie Boisvert; Michel Pépin; Michel Loranger; Caroline Sylvain

    1994-01-01

    Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities,

  15. Quantitative Pathology of Inhalational Anthrax I: Quantitative Microscopic Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lev M. Grinberg; Faina A. Abramova; Olga V. Yampolskaya; David H. Walker; Jerome H. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forty-one cases of documented inhalational anthrax from the Sverdlovsk epidemic of 1979 traced to release of aerosols of Bacillus anthracis at a secret biologic-agent production facility were evaluated by semiquantitative histopathologic analysis of tissue concentrations of organisms, inflammation, hemorrhage, and other lesions in the mediastinum, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchi, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, intestines, kidneys, adrenal glands, and central nervous

  16. Pathological findings in equine herpesvirus 9-induced abortion in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Haridy, M; Nayel, M; Abdelaziz, A A; Fukushi, H; Kuroda, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant rats were infected experimentally with equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus serologically similar to EHV-1, during the first and third trimesters. The inoculated dams had mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead fetuses or undersized pups. Rats inoculated during the first and last trimesters had varying degrees of encephalitis as well as abnormalities of the placentas in the form of marked dilation of maternal blood sinusoids and varying degrees of atrophy and necrosis of the trophoblast cells of the labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and the giant cell layer. Virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the brain and the trophoblast cells of labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and giant cell layer of the placenta in rats inoculated during the first trimester. Virus antigen was detected in fetuses from rats inoculated in the first and last trimesters. Virus DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the placenta and fetuses of inoculated rats. EHV-9 may induce fetal death and abortion in pregnant dams, possibly caused by direct EHV-9 infection of the placenta and/or fetus as well as the secondary effect of vascular injury. PMID:25304504

  17. Portacaval shunt in a calf: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings

    PubMed Central

    Buczinski, Sébastien; Duval, Julie; d’Anjou, Marc-André; Francoz, David; Fecteau, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extra-hepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant. PMID:17494368

  18. Extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma of the larynx: a rare pathological finding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shachi J; Kreisel, Melanie; Kroll, Tobias; Gattenloehner, Stefan; Klussmann, Jens P; Wittekindt, Claus

    2013-02-01

    The extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma is extremely rare in the field of Otorhinolaryngology. The tumour usually arises from the soft tissue of the face or from mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx and the oral cavity but only sporadic endolaryngeal cases have been described in literature so far with predominance of young males. Here, we describe the very rare case of endolaryngeal extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma in a 42-year-old male. Clinical examination showed a mass of the right vocal cord, resembling a cystic lesion. Microlaryngoscopy revealed a non-encapsulated lesion and histopathology including immunohistochemistry which consecutively led to the correct diagnosis. This case suggests that the endolaryngeal extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma can be easily confused with a vocal cord cyst. Malignant transformations have not been reported but recurrences have been described. When total excision cannot be accomplished, reoperation or narrow follow-up is indicated to prevent advanced revision surgeries. PMID:23124718

  19. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and those pregnant women with medium obesity and obesity (p = 0.046). Body mass index (BMI) during normal pregnancy development is lower (p = 0.002) but the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL in blood are higher Blood pressure in pregnant women with pathological pregnancy was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were found in 19 pregnant women with the pathological pregnancy. Statistically, in those women, a significantly higher appearance of psychological symptoms and disorders was observed in comparison to the pregnant women without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). The research has shown that 87.8% from all pregnant women included in this study have been hospitalized due to premature birth, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes in pregnancy, and also due to bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943

  20. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâ??s diagnosis is found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Fevers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â?ť â??Microscopic Description,â?ť and â?? Microbiologyâ?ť sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

  2. "Pathological" Cantor manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    The n-dimensional compact topological space is called to be a Cantor Manifold (CM), if it is not a sum of two proper closed subsets with (n-2)-dimensional intersection. It is by definition a Strongly Cantor Manifold (SCM), if it is not a countable sum of proper closed subsets with no more than (n-2)-dimensional pairwise intersection. We shall call our space a Pathological Cantor Manifold (PCM) if it is CM, but not SCM. In this note we give some examples to investigate "how bad" can be the structure of PCM's.

  3. Continuum model of tendon pathology – where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

  4. Endocrine Pathology: SY08-2 PARAGANGLIOMA.

    PubMed

    Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Paraganglioma normally occurs in sites that parallel the sympathetic and parasympathetic chain ganglions. Common locations of paraganglioma include tumours of paraganglionic system in head and neck region like carotid body paraganglioma and jugulotypmanic paraganglioma. There are also paragangliomas that occur outside the usual distribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. Pathological diagnosis of paraganglioma depends on the characteristic histological features and immnohistochemical detection of neuroendocrine marker(s). Composite paragangliomas (paragangliomas with features of ganglioneuroma or ganglioneuroblastoma) are sometimes noted. The malignant potential of paraganglioma is difficult to be assessed. Assessment systems have been proposed in the pathology reporting of paraganglioma in order to predict the malignant behaviour of the tumour. In this context, proliferative activity obtained from Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining should be provided in the reporting of paraganglioma. Recent developments in molecular genetics have expanded the spectrum of disorders associated with paragangliomas. The relevant clinical impact in pathology is the role of pathologist in the detection of SDHB by immunohistochemistry in paraganglioma as SDHB mutations are strongly correlated with head and neck paraganglioma, presence of metastasis and poor prognosis. A high index of suspicion should be applied as paraganglioma occur in diverse sites. Also, awareness of the need of updated pathological and immunological data are essential for proper management of patients with paraganglioma. PMID:25188066

  5. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    ................................................................................................................4 Audit of Pathology Specimens........................................................................................... A-1 ­ A-58 APPENDIX B Audit of Pathology Specimens Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol C00117E/00117-68 AMENDED PATHOLOGY

  6. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Charles H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fuelled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

  7. Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopes, M. Beatriz S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  8. Cavitary Pulmonary Metastases: CT Features and Their Correlation with the Pathology of the Primary Malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Yu; Ping Wang; Zhaoyu Liang

    2004-01-01

    To study CT features of cavitary pulmonary metastases and to investigate the possible relationship between CT features and the pathology of the primary lesions. CT findings of 131 cavitary metastatic nodules in 40 patients with pathologically-proved pulmonary metastases were retrospectively analyzed. A comparison between CT signs and the pathologic types of the primary tumors was made. Cavitary metastases and multiple

  9. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  10. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  11. Pathologic analysis, diagnosis and treatment of adrenal myelolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Heng-chuan; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Wen-long; Dai, Jun; Huang, Bao-xing; Cao, Wan-li; Sun, Fu-kang

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of non-invasive imaging modalities, the incidental detection of myelolipoma has become more common. We analyze the clinical data of 4 typical cases of unilateral adrenal myelolipomas, including 1 hormonally inactive patient and 3 hormonally active cases with hyperaldosteronemia, hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia. Obvious differences were found in the pathological sections. To our knowledge, this is the first article discussing the etiology of adrenal myelolipoma from pathologic analyses. PMID:25295136

  12. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  14. Unusual Findings in Appendectomy Specimens of Adults: Retrospective Analyses of 1466 Patients and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Ozgur Aytac, Huseyin; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Akin Tarim, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis. Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. Patients and Methods: Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients’ age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up. Results: Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology. Conclusions: Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination. PMID:24719727

  15. Pathological and protective immunity to Pneumocystis infection.

    PubMed

    Eddens, Taylor; Kolls, Jay K

    2015-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic infection in the HIV-positive population and is re-emerging as a growing clinical concern in the HIV-negative immunosuppressed population. Newer targeted immunosuppressive therapies and the discovery of rare genetic mutations have furthered our understanding of the immunity required to clear Pneumocystis infection. The immune system can also mount a pathologic response against Pneumocystis following removal of immunosuppression and result in severe damage to the host lung. The current review will examine the most recent epidemiologic studies about the incidence of Pneumocystis in the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in the developing and developed world and will detail methods of diagnosis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Finally, this review aims to summarize the known mediators of immunity to Pneumocystis and detail the pathologic immune response leading to Pneumocystis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:25420451

  16. Pathology of drug-associated gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ashley B

    2003-01-01

    A large number of drugs have gastrointestinal side-effects of which diarrhoea or constipation, nausea and vomiting are amongst the commonest. In relatively few are there diagnostic pathological changes and this review draws attention to the most common. Incriminating a drug as a cause of specific pathological changes requires the drug to be associated with the changes, for the latter to resolve when the drug is withdrawn and for them to re-appear when a patient is rechallenged with the drug. Individual histological features such as apoptosis, tissue infiltration by eosinophils and increased intra-epithelial lymphocytes within the gut mucosa can be clues to an iatrogenic aetiology but these are by no means specific. Amongst the few pathognomonic patterns of drug reactions is pseudomembranous colitis and diaphragm disease. These, along with others such as reactive gastritis and the collagenous and lymphocytic forms of microscopic colitis, in which drugs have also been implicated, are described here. PMID:14651719

  17. Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

  18. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasny?, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  19. Pathology Case Study: Girl in Coma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Najjar, Hazim

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 15-year-old girl found unresponsive near her bed. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with laboratory findings, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  20. Tau immunotherapy modulates both pathological tau and upstream amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Guerrero-Muńoz, Marcos J; Sengupta, Urmi; Hernandez, Caterina; Barrett, Alan D T; Dineley, Kelly; Kayed, Rakez

    2015-03-25

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathological accumulation of tau appears to be a downstream effect of amyloid ? protein (A?). However, the relationship between these two proteins and memory loss is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the specific removal of pathological tau oligomers in aged Tg2576 mice by passive immunotherapy using tau oligomer-specific monoclonal antibody. Removal of tau oligomers reversed memory deficits and accelerated plaque deposition in the brain. Surprisingly, A?*56 levels decreased, suggesting a link between tau and A? oligomers in the promotion of cognitive decline. The results suggest that tau oligomerization is not only a consequence of A? pathology but also a critical mediator of the toxic effects observed afterward in AD. Overall, these findings support the potential of tau oligomers as a therapeutic target for AD. PMID:25810517

  1. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual inquiry method helped reveal similarities and key differences with civilian pathologists. Such an analysis helped identify specific instances that would benefit from implementing digital pathology in a military environment. Employing digital pathology to facilitate workload distribution, secondary consultations, and quality assurance (over-reads) could help the AFMS deliver more accurate, efficient, and timely AP services at a global level. PMID:24392246

  2. Find Someone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Create a "Find Someone" list, with about 10 items, each containing a shape, number, or measurement. Can you find someone in the group with hair about 4 inches long? Someone wearing parallel lines? Someone born in the 10th month? Learners circulate, trying to find someone who matches each item on the list. To engage younger learners, base the “Find Someone” list on things to count: find someone wearing 7 buttons or find someone wearing 5 barrettes. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should have basic reading skills.

  3. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  4. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  5. Open Mind Commons: An Inquisitive Approach to Learning Common Sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Speer

    Open Mind Commons is an interface for collecting common sense knowledge from users over the Web. By giving the user many forms of feedback and using inferences by anal- ogy to find appropriate questions to ask, Open Mind Com- mons can learn well-connected structures of common sense knowledge, refine its existing knowledge, and build analo- gies that lead to even

  6. Common pathobiochemical hallmarks of progranulin-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Götzl, Julia K; Mori, Kohji; Damme, Markus; Fellerer, Katrin; Tahirovic, Sabina; Kleinberger, Gernot; Janssens, Jonathan; van der Zee, Julie; Lang, Christina M; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Arzberger, Thomas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Haass, Christian; Capell, Anja

    2014-06-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene and the resulting reduction of GRN levels is a common genetic cause for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43. Recently, it has been shown that a complete GRN deficiency due to a homozygous GRN loss-of-function mutation causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disorder. These findings suggest that lysosomal dysfunction may also contribute to some extent to FTLD. Indeed, Grn(-/-) mice recapitulate not only pathobiochemical features of GRN-associated FTLD-TDP (FTLD-TDP/GRN), but also those which are characteristic for NCL and lysosomal impairment. In Grn(-/-) mice the lysosomal proteins cathepsin D (CTSD), LAMP (lysosomal-associated membrane protein) 1 and the NCL storage components saposin D and subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) were all found to be elevated. Moreover, these mice display increased levels of transmembrane protein (TMEM) 106B, a lysosomal protein known as a risk factor for FTLD-TDP pathology. In line with a potential pathological overlap of FTLD and NCL, Ctsd(-/-) mice, a model for NCL, show elevated levels of the FTLD-associated proteins GRN and TMEM106B. In addition, pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 occurs in Ctsd(-/-) mice to a similar extent as in Grn(-/-) mice. Consistent with these findings, some NCL patients accumulate pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 within their brains. Based on these observations, we searched for pathological marker proteins, which are characteristic for NCL or lysosomal impairment in brains of FTLD-TDP/GRN patients. Strikingly, saposin D, SCMAS as well as the lysosomal proteins CTSD and LAMP1/2 are all elevated in patients with FTLD-TDP/GRN. Thus, our findings suggest that lysosomal storage disorders and GRN-associated FTLD may share common features. PMID:24619111

  7. College of Medicine PAT Pathology

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped: Admission to first year, College of Medicine. PAT 823 MECHANISMS OF DISEASE AND TREATMENT/PATHOLOGY. (9 approved electives offered by the various departments in the College of Medicine. The intent is to provide

  8. Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Storage: · All pathology waste bags must be securely tied. · Secondary containers must be rigid, leakPathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no specimens. · Human tissues that have been fixed in formaldehyde or other fixatives*. · Animal carcasses

  9. Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ladouceur; Caroline Sylvain; Hélčne Letarte; Isabelle Giroux; Christian Jacques

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive treatment for pathological gambling. Five pathological gamblers were treated in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Cognitive correction targeted the erroneous perceptions towards the notion of randomness. Four subjects reported a clinically significant decrease in the urge to gamble, an increase in their perception of control, and no longer met the DSM-IV

  10. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lu, Kuan-Ying; Hu, Ching-Chih; Huang, Wen-Hung; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution (P = 0.001), band and segmented cells (P = 0.021), and lymphoid cells (P = 0.029) than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78), and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3%) followed by respiratory failure (10%). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P = 0.001) and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P = 0.004) megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group), as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P = 0.011), were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:25802835

  11. Ipilimumab associated hepatitis: imaging and clinicopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Won; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Krajewski, Katherine M; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Srivastava, Amitabh; Ibrahim, Nageatte

    2013-08-01

    Ipilimumab is a novel immunomodulator demonstrating promising efficacy in treatment of melanoma and other cancers. The clinical benefit from ipilimumab can be hampered by the immure-related adverse events (irAEs) caused by dysregulation of host immune system. Ipilimumab associated hepatitis is also an important irAE, however, there have been limited descriptions of its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics. We aim to describe the clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics of 6 patients who were diagnosed as ipilimumab associated hepatitis during the ipilimumab treatment for melanoma. The clinical features of these patients were as follows: (1) severe cases with systemic symptoms and highly increased level of liver function tests (LFTs), and (2) mild asymptomatic cases with mildly increased level of LFTs. In severe cases with ALT >1,000 IU/L, imaging findings were characterized by mild hepatomegaly, periportal edema, and periportal lymphadenopathy, while mild cases showed normal imaging findings. This spectrum of imaging findings in our series was similar to that of common causes of acute hepatitis. Among 3 cases with pathologic specimen, two cases showed severe panlobular hepatitis with prominent perivenular infiltrate with endothelialitis, suggestive of predominant injury to hepatocytes, while the other case showed mild portal mononuclear infiltrate around proliferated bile ductules, suggestive of predominant injury to bile ducts. In summary, ipilimumab associated hepatitis may demonstrate variable imaging findings according to its clinical severity, and histologically may manifest either as a predominant injury to hepatocytes (acute hepatitis pattern) or as a predominant injury to bile ducts (biliary pattern). PMID:23408334

  12. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  13. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorvault, Christine

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barnes, Leon, 1941-

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case from the collection documents a sixty-five year old female patient with enlarged lymph nodes in the jugular region, and a nodule of the thyroid. The patient's history is presented, as well as the gross and microscopic descriptions of her thyroid and lymph nodes (including images). Images from an electron microscopic examination are also included to aid in diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benjamin, Vallo

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pushkar, Irina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  20. Role and efficacy of diffusion weighted imaging in evaluation of intracranial pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Kundu, J

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the role & efficacy of Diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluation of intracranial pathologies. After achieving patient's informed consent and Institutional review board approval, total 80 cases of various intracranial pathologies of all age groups and either sex were evaluated. All MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T superconducting system (Siemens Medical Healthcare) using a circularly polarized head coil. Out of 80 cases, 2 cases showed no findings on MR (conventional and diffusion MR), and a total of 125 lesions was found in 78 cases. Infarct (68%) was the commonest lesion seen in our study. Of these, acute infarcts which presented within 24 hours of onset of ictus represented 70%, Hyper-acute infarcts (9.41%), Sub-acute infarcts (10.5%) and Chronic infarcts (9.41%) were less common. In cases of acute infarcts of the total 60 lesions, Conventional MR (T2WI) and FLAIR could detect 96.6% of the lesions and diffusion MR had 100% detection rate for acute infarcts. Diffusion MR, conventional MR and FLAIR had equal (100%) detection rate. Both conventional and diffusion MR (100%) had equal detection rate for chronic infarcts. Among the non-infarct lesions, Meningioma were most common with 10 lesions (8%) detected on DW MR. Least common lesions detected by DW MR included Medulloblastoma & Subdural Empyema -1 Lesion (0.8%) each. DWI is more sensitive & diagnostic in cases of acute infarct when comparatively evaluated with conventional MR & FLAIR. PMID:25725682

  1. Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

  2. Static Versus Dynamic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for Detection of Plantar Plate Pathology.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Catherine A; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott; Klein, Erin E; Fleischer, Adam; Argerakis, Nicholas G

    2014-07-15

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is a common modality used to examine plantar plate pathology. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of static versus dynamic ultrasound has not been previously published. The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the value of using preoperative static and dynamic ultrasound findings to diagnose plantar plate pathology using intraoperative inspection as the standard of reference. Patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty clinic from August 2012 to June 2013 with clinically suspected plantar plate pathology that was unresponsive to conservative care served as the study population. Static and dynamic ultrasound exams were performed by a single experienced rater and compared to intraoperative findings. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for static and dynamic ultrasound exams. Thirty-six patients (45 lesser metatarsophalangeal joints) were included in this analysis. Of the 36 patients, 29 were females and 7 were males with average age of 57.9 ± 7.8 years (range, 38-73). There were 38 plantar plate tears (84.4%) noted on intraoperative examination. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the static US exam were 80.0%, 81.6%, 71.4%, 93.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. The same values for the dynamic US exam were 88.9%, 100%, 28.6%, 88.3%, and 100%, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasound techniques are each highly sensitive methods for assessing plantar plate pathology. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of the exam is best when dynamic assessment of the plantar plate is employed. Caution should be used when relying solely on static images to diagnose subtle injuries in this area of the foot. PMID:25027985

  3. Imaging anatomy and pathology of extraocular muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Christian B; Chakraborty, Santanu; Gao, Jennifer; Nguyen, Thanh; Torres, Carlos; Glikstein, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are involved in a variety of disease processes with characteristic findings on imaging. EOM anatomy is described, followed by a review of adult EOM pathology. The imaging characteristics are explained with examples. The pattern of EOM disease on imaging, in corroboration with clinical findings, can often lead the radiologist towards a specific diagnosis. PMID:25267374

  4. Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aminu Z.; Edino, Steven T.; Samaila, Adamu A.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17534016

  5. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  6. Discovering Common Denominators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Kloper

    2012-07-22

    Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

  7. Neuropathologic findings in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Louis, E D; Vonsattel, J P G; Honig, L S; Ross, G W; Lyons, K E; Pahwa, R

    2006-06-13

    Pathologic findings, including cerebellar changes and brainstem Lewy bodies, distinguished 10 essential tremor (ET) cases from 12 controls. Numbers of torpedoes (p = 0.009) and Bergmann glia (p = 0.046) were increased in cases. Six cases (60%) had Lewy bodies vs 2 controls (16.7%) (odds ratio 7.5, 95% CI 1.04 to 54.1; p = 0.035). Four of these six had an atypical distribution of brainstem Lewy bodies. ET may be pathologically heterogeneous. PMID:16769958

  8. Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christakos, Peter

    This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  9. Pathological and problem gambling in substance use treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Chapman, Anna; Radermacher, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Pathological and problem gambling refer to a class of disorders, including those meeting criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis (i.e., pathological gambling), and others comprising a spectrum of severity defined by significant personal and social harm (i.e., problem gambling), that may be common in substance use treatment but are frequently unrecognized. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence indicating the prevalence of such gambling disorders in substance use treatment. It provides weighted mean estimates from across studies of clinical samples of substance users, and suggests around 14% of patients that demonstrate comorbid pathological gambling. Around 23% suffer conditions along the broader spectrum of problem gambling. The review also highlights important limitations of existing evidence, including scant data on current versus lifetime comorbidity, as well as reliance on convenience samples and self-administered measures of gambling problems. Notwithstanding a concomitant need for caution when applying these results, the findings suggest a strong need to identify and manage gambling comorbidity in substance use treatment. Strategies for identification of gambling disorders, and therapies that may provide useful adjunctive interventions in substance use treatment are discussed. PMID:24074847

  10. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  11. Anatomic and clinical pathology of cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Montine, Kathleen S; Montine, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Progressive cognitive impairment and its clinical culmination in dementia loom as a major public health problem in the coming generation of older adults, and this fact compels investigation to develop interventions that prevent, delay, or cure. The tools of anatomic pathology have provided key insights into the complex convergence of multiple diseases that commonly contribute to the dementia syndrome and its prodrome in the community setting, and they have suggested some exposures that may modulate disease burden. The tools of clinical pathology, in combination with neuroimaging, have revolutionized the approach to clinical investigation of Alzheimer's disease and are now doing the same with Lewy body disease and vascular brain injury. The tools of anatomic and clinical pathology will continue to contribute to our understanding of these diseases as we advance toward effective interventions for the diseases that commonly cause cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults. PMID:22699849

  12. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  13. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  14. Pancreatic neoplasms: MR imaging and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mergo, P J; Helmberger, T K; Buetow, P C; Helmberger, R C; Ros, P R

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can aid in the detection and characterization of many pancreatic neoplasms. The MR imaging appearances of common pancreatic neoplasms such as ductal adenocarcinoma are well-known. However, MR imaging features of more unusual pancreatic neoplasms are not well understood. Such tumors include mucin-hyper-secreting carcinoma, serous microcystic neoplasm, mucinous macrocystic neoplasm, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm, multiple cysts associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease, acinar cell carcinoma, pancreaticoblastoma, and endocrine neoplasms (eg, nonfunctioning islet cell tumors, insulinoma, and gastrinoma). In general, pancreatic neoplasms demonstrate high signal intensity on T2-weighted images; the signal intensity on T1-weighted images is more variable but is often intermediate or low. Gadolinium enhancement is often helpful in further characterizing pancreatic neoplasms. The gross and histologic features of pancreatic neoplasms are also not well-known. Correlation with the underlying pathologic features enhances understanding of the MR imaging characteristics of both common and unusual pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:9084072

  15. Comprehensive radiographic pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.L. (Dept. of Radiology, Louisiana State Univ., School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA (US)); Dennis, C.A. (School of Radiographic Technology, Louisiana State Univ., School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA (US))

    1990-01-01

    This book defines terminology and shows how various imaging modalities are used to diagnose disease. The authors organize material by body system, and clinical manifestations and imaging findings are presented for each disease discussed. The book emphasizes information relevant to practicing radiologic technologists, such as changes in technique or special handling required by patients with specific conditions, and sequencing procedures when more than one imaging modality should be used.

  16. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Břrge G.; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  17. Combined Common Person and Common Item Equating of Medical Science Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Paul R.

    This equating study of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examinations was a combined common persons and common items equating, using the Rasch model. The 1,000-item test was administered to about 3,000 second-year medical students in seven equal-length subtests: anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, pharmacology, and…

  18. PATHOLOGY IN CAPTIVE PLATYPUS (ORNITHORHYNCHUS ANATINUS) IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. McCoII

    Between 1978 and 1981, 20 platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) which had been held in exhibits for varying periods, were submitted for necropsy. The most common gross and histologic lesions were adrenal enlargement, pulmonary pathology consistent with shock or aspiration pneumonia, intestinal coccidiosis, the presence of trypanosomes, myocarditis and nephritis.Other conditions encountered included infestation with ticks (Ixodes ornithorhynchi), a mild infection of

  19. Parallel states of pathological Wnt signaling in neonatal brain injury and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fancy, Stephen P.J.; Harrington, Emily P.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Silbereis, John C.; Shiow, Lawrence R.; Yuen, Tracy J.; Huang, Eric J.; Lomvardas, Stavros; Rowitch, David H.

    2014-01-01

    In colon cancer, mutation of the Wnt repressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) leads to a state of aberrant and unrestricted “high-activity” signaling. However, relevance of high Wnt tone in non-genetic human disease is unknown. Here we demonstrate that distinct Wnt activity functional states determine oligodendrocyte precursor (OPC) differentiation and myelination. Murine OPCs with genetic Wnt dysregulation (high tone) express multiple genes in common with colon cancer including Lef1, SP5, Ets2, Rnf43 and Dusp4. Surprisingly, we find that OPCs in lesions of hypoxic human neonatal white matter injury upregulate markers of high Wnt activity and lack expression of APC. Finally, we show lack of Wnt repressor tone promotes permanent white matter injury after mild hypoxic insult. These findings suggest a state of pathological high-activity Wnt signaling in human disease tissues that lack pre-disposing genetic mutation. PMID:24609463

  20. The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22072659

  1. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  2. Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology.

    PubMed

    Graif, Moshe; Martinoli, Carlo; Rochkind, Shimon; Blank, Anat; Trejo, Leonor; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada; Derchi, Lorenzo E

    2004-02-01

    Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. PMID:12845468

  3. The Federal Commons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

  4. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  5. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  6. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V; Aller, Raymond D; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B; Friedman, Bruce A; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  7. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  8. [Labral pathology and impingement].

    PubMed

    Hauger, O; Pelé, E; Poussange, N; Fournier, C; Amoretti, N

    2011-06-01

    The acetabular labrum, a fibrocartilaginous structure essential to the proper functioning of the hip joint, may be damaged from a variety of conditions including femoroacetabular impingement. FAI is defined by abnormal contact between the femur and acetabulum and is characterized by an underlying morphological abnormality of the femur (dysplastic bump at the head/neck junction, Cam effect), acetabulum (excessive coverage, Pincer effect), or both. The abnormal morphology is suspected on plain films and additional evaluation with either CT or MR arthrography is then performed. The role of the radiologist is to describe the imaging findings while allowing the clinician to make the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms (groin pain, reduced internal rotation). Comprehensive evaluation of the underlying structural abnormalities and associated lesions is important to optimize surgical management with the goal of reducing painful symptoms, improve range of motion and prevent early hip joint degeneration. PMID:21704248

  9. Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.

    PubMed

    Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

  10. Spectrum of Histomorphologic Findings in Liver in Patients with SLE: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shrruti; Rastogi, Archana; Singh, Jyotsna; Rajbongshi, Apurba; Bihari, Chhagan

    2014-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome (SS), and scleroderma are immunologically mediated disorders that typically have multisystem involvement. Although clinically significant liver involvement is rare, liver enzyme abnormalities are common in these patients. The reported prevalence of hepatic involvement in SLE, histopathologic findings, and its significance is very variable in the existing literature. It is important to be familiar with the causes of hepatic involvement in SLE along with histomorphological features which aid in distinguishing hepatitis of SLE from other hepatic causes as they would alter the patient management and disease course. Histopathology of liver in SLE shows a wide morphological spectrum commonly due to a coexisting pathology. Drug induced hepatitis, viral etiology, and autoimmune overlap should be excluded before attributing the changes to SLE itself. Common histopathologic findings in SLE include fatty liver, portal inflammation, and vascular changes like hemangioma, congestion, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, arteritis, and abnormal vessels in portal tracts. PMID:25136456

  11. Recent developments in vulvovaginal pathology.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W G

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses recent developments in vulvovaginal pathology. A variety of morphologically bland mesenchymal lesions occur at this site with considerable histological and immunohistochemical overlap. Aggressive angiomyxoma exhibits HMGA2 immunoreactivity in approximately 50% of cases, and this nuclear transcription factor is emerging as a useful and relatively specific marker for aggressive angiomyxoma, although occasional vulvovaginal smooth muscle neoplasms are positive. HMGA2 is useful in the diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma and its distinction from mimics, in the evaluation of resection margins and in the assessment of the presence or absence of residual disease in re-excisions. Aggressive angiomyxoma is almost invariably positive with oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and there have been several reports of a dramatic reduction in size following gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy. Recent series of the relatively newly described entities cellular angiofibroma and superficial myofibroblastoma of the lower female genital tract have expanded upon the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms. Recently described mesenchymal lesions at this site include massive oedema and prepubertal vulval fibroma. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours have been described as primary neoplasms in the vagina, and rectovaginal septum and extragastrointestinal stromal tumour should be added to the differential diagnosis of a vulvovaginal mesenchymal lesion. Many mesenchymal lesions in the vulvovaginal region exhibit immunoreactivity with both CD34 and desmin, a somewhat unusual immunophenotype in mesenchymal lesions at other sites. It is now established that there are two distinct types of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), most commonly termed classic and differentiated VIN, the former associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are two corresponding types of vulval squamous carcinoma with HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated variants, the latter often arising in a vulval dystrophy and associated with p53 mutation. However, in some cases there is clinicopathological overlap between HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated squamous carcinomas, and immunohistochemistry with p16 is more reliable than morphology in predicting the presence of HPV. There have been new developments regarding Paget's disease of the vulva with the identification of markers that are useful in diagnosis and evidence that the neoplastic cells represent a proliferation of adnexal stem cells residing in sebaceous units. The newly described entity vaginal tubulo-squamous polyp typically exhibits immunopositivity with prostatic markers, possibly indicating derivation from displaced periurethral Skene's glands. PMID:18637148

  12. Personality judgment and personality pathology: self-other agreement in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M; Marsh, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W

    2007-06-01

    We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agreement across a variety of traits, particularly those traits fundamental to the pathology. In an adolescent sample including a group with Conduct Disorder (CD) and a Control group, we examine agreement between adolescents' self-reports and their mothers' informant reports. Using trait-centered and person-centered perspectives, we find support for both hypotheses. Results have implications for understanding the processes affecting personality judgment, for increasing integration of traditional personality research and personality pathology, and for personality assessment. PMID:17489894

  13. Finding Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-24

    This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Aortic Dissection and Neck Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This case documents the neck and back pain of a 71-year-old female patient. The patient's history is provided, and includes documentation of her condition throughout the duration of her treatment. The pathologic findings include images and descriptions of the gross and microscopic evaluation. In the "Final Diagnosis" section the official conclusion of the doctor is accompanied by a discussion of the diagnosis and references. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  15. Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:25211036

  16. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    More, Chandramani B; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  17. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

  18. Activated protein C resistance in the absence of factor V Leiden mutation is a common finding in multiple myeloma and is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications.

    PubMed

    Zangari, M; Saghafifar, F; Anaissie, E; Badros, A; Desikan, R; Fassas, A; Mehta, P; Morris, C; Toor, A; Whitfield, D; Siegel, E; Barlogie, B; Fink, L; Tricot, G

    2002-04-01

    Thromboembolism is not uncommon in multiple myeloma (MM) patients on treatment, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We report the results of a prospective randomized trial of 62 newly diagnosed MM patients tested at baseline for hypercoagulability and treated with intensive chemotherapy with or without thalidomide in a randomized fashion. During the induction phase, 12 patients (19%) developed evidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which was significantly more common in the thalidomide arm (36%) than in the control group (3%) (P = 0.001). Fourteen patients (23%) were found to have a baseline-reduced response to activated protein C (APC) in the absence of factor V Leiden mutation. Using a Kaplan-Meier analysis, a significantly higher proportion of patients with APC resistance developed DVT (5/14 versus 7/38; P = 0.04) irrespective of thalidomide administration. The risk of DVT was highest (50%) in patients with APC resistance on thalidomide. None of the patients with normal APC response and not receiving thalidomide developed DVT. In conclusion, in this series, acquired APC resistance was present in almost one-quarter of newly diagnosed myeloma patients and significantly increased the risk of DVT. PMID:11943931

  19. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Mental Status Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 36-year-old white male had end-stage renal disease due to sclerosing glomerulonephritis. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross neuropathologic findings, and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Diarrhea and Urinary Frequency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pasculle, A. William

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 42-year-old African male who presented to the emergency department with "intermittent fevers, up to 104 degrees, occasional chills, night sweats and rigors, periods of diarrhea, dysuria, and generalized malaise." Visitors are given patient history, admission and laboratory data, along with radiology, microscopic, and microbiological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  1. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the ?-?-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent shrinkage greatly compared to the standard antioxidant vitamin E, %shrinkage at 11.6 ±1.3 for hydroquinone and 27.8 ±2.2 for vitamin E, P = .001. Conclusion Free radicals crosslinked unsaturated lipid fatty acids into thermoset polymers through Fenton reactions when combined with acrolein. Further, hydroquinone was a superior antioxidant to vitamin E.

  2. Clinical Correlations With Lewy Body Pathology in LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lang, Anthony E.; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ross, Owen A.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Marder, Karen S.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Marti-Masso, Jose F.; Ferrer, Isidre; de Munain, Adolfo López; Goldman, Samuel M.; Schüle, Birgitt; Langston, J. William; Aasly, Jan O.; Giordana, Maria T.; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Puschmann, Andreas; Canesi, Margherita; Pezzoli, Gianni; De Paula, Andre Maues; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Stoessl, A. Jon; Marras, Connie

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD. OBSERVATIONS We describe genetic, clinical, and neuropathological findings of 37 cases of LRRK2-related PD including 33 published and 4 unpublished cases through October 2013. Among the different mutations, the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation was most frequently associated with LB pathology. Nonmotor features of cognitive impairment/dementia, anxiety, and orthostatic hypotension were correlated with the presence of LBs. In contrast, a primarily motor phenotype was associated with a lack of LBs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinicopathological correlations in a series of LRRK2-related PD cases. Findings from this selected group of patients with PD demonstrated that parkinsonian motor features can occur in the absence of LBs. However, LB pathology in LRRK2-related PD may be a marker for a broader parkinsonian symptom complex including cognitive impairment. PMID:25401511

  3. Imaging findings of extrapulmonary metastases of osteosarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Ah Choi; Sang Hyun Lee; Ja Young Choi; Sung Hwan Hong; Hye Won Chung; Heung Sik Kang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To review imaging findings of extrapulmonary metastasis from osteosarcoma and to evaluate them for any consistent pattern and correlation between imaging findings. Materials and methods: This study was retrospectively conducted in 13 patients with extrapulmonary metastasis of pathologically confirmed osteosarcoma. We evaluated the radioisotope (RI) scans (n=16), ultrasonography (USG) (n=4), computed tomography (CT) scans (n=10), MRIs (n=6), clinical records,

  4. Main Findings

    Cancer.gov

    This study looked at the ALTS patients with ASCUS who were found to have a precancerous lesion when they underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Its purpose was to find out how sensitive HPV testing was at identifying these women compared to repeat Pap testing. The study found that HPV testing was 96-percent sensitive - that is, identified 96% of the women with ASCUS who had a precancerous lesion. The authors concluded that HPV testing is a viable option for the management of ASCUS.

  5. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  6. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  7. Fossil Find

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this classroom activity, middle school students simulate a "dinosaur dig." The activity opens with background information for teachers about fossils. Working in groups, students excavate fossil sites created in advance by the teacher, or other group of students, and try to reconstruct a chicken skeleton. The activity closes with a two-page student worksheet that directs students to diagram the fossil site and includes probing questions to help them decode their findings.

  8. [Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users. PMID:22242254

  9. Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ejadi, Samuel

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Becich, Michael J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flynn, Kevin J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DeFrances, Marie C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hardy, Hunter T.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kohler, Lisa J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man with a history of renal failure complained of hemorrhoidal bleeding. Visitors are given charts, test results, transfusion information and patient history, to provide the opportunity for viewers to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Coccygeal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man has a recently enlarging coccygeal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: HIV Positive Man Died Following Bleeding from Mouth and Nose

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aronica, Patricia

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This autopsy pathology case provides the patient history, gross and microscopic description and final diagnosis of an HIV positive male. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  6. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

  7. Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A.; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic and, thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, in many of whom death was attributed to P falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathological manifestations of fatal malaria, to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages, and to catalogue co-morbidities. From available patients which included 55 patients with cerebral malaria and 45 controls, we obtained 4 cores of lung tissue for immunohistochemistry and morphological evaluation. We found that in patients with cerebral malaria, large numbers of malaria parasites were present in pulmonary alveolar capillaries, together with extensive deposits of malaria pigment (hemozoin). The number of pulmonary macrophages in this vascular bed did not differ between patients with cerebral malaria, non-cerebral malaria and non-malarial diagnoses. Co-morbidities found in some cerebral malaria patients included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and systemic activation of coagulation. We conclude that the respiratory distress seen in patients with cerebral malaria does not appear to be anatomic in origin but that increasing malaria pigment is strongly associated with cerebral malaria at autopsy. PMID:24074535

  8. Vascular and nonvascular complications of renal transplants: sonographic evaluation and correlation with other imaging modalities, surgery, and pathology.

    PubMed

    Friedewald, Sarah M; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Friedewald, John J; Dejong, Marius R; Hamper, Ulrike M

    2005-01-01

    Cadaveric or living donor renal transplantation is commonly performed in individuals with end-stage renal disease. In recent years, gray-scale sonography, coupled with color Doppler sonography (CDUS), power Doppler sonography (PDUS), or spectral Doppler sonography, has become the primary imaging modality for these patients. Postoperative serial sonography is performed to detect complications and aid in posttransplant management. In addition, sonography is used to guide percutaneous aspiration of fluid or biopsy to diagnose rejection or renal and perirenal masses. In this article we discuss the spectrum of sonographic findings, both vascular and nonvascular, of renal transplant complications, including but not limited to renal arterial and venous stenosis and thrombosis, peritransplant collections (lymphoceles, hematomas, urinomas, and seromas), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and postbiopsy complications (hematomas, pseudoaneurysms, and arteriovenous fistulas). We correlate sonographic findings with those from other imaging modalities (such as angiography, CT, and MRI) and findings at surgery and pathology when possible. PMID:15756666

  9. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (CA)); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  10. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: correlation of radiographic and pathological observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Tuchman; L. A. Alvarez; A. B. Kantrowitz; F. G. Moser; J. Llena; S. L. Moshe

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

  11. Congenital myotonic dystrophy can show congenital fiber type disproportion pathology.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kayo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goto, Kanako; Minami, Narihiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Nonaka, Ikuya; Miki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-04-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is associated with markedly expanded CTG repeats in DMPK. The presence of numerous immature fibers with peripheral halo is a characteristic feature of CDM muscles together with hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. Smaller type 1 fibers with no structural abnormality are a definitive criterion of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Nonetheless, we recently came across a patient who was genetically confirmed as CDM, but had been earlier diagnosed as CFTD when he was an infant. In this study, we performed clinical, pathological, and genetic analyses in infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD to evaluate CDM patients indistinguishable from CFTD. We examined CTG repeat expansion in DMPK in 28 infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD. Mutation screening of ACTA1 and TPM3 was performed, and we compared clinical and pathological findings of 20 CDM patients with those of the other cohorts. We identified four (14%) patients with CTG expansion in DMPK. ACTA1 mutation was identified in four (14%), and TPM3 mutation was found in two (7%) patients. Fiber size disproportion was more prominent in patients with ACTA1 or TPM3 mutations as compared to CFTD patients with CTG expansion. A further three patients among 20 CDM patients showed pathological findings similar to CFTD. From our results, CDM should be excluded in CFTD patients. PMID:20179953

  12. Coincidental Overlapping Cystic Pathological Changes: A Case against Marsupialisation.

    PubMed

    Lall, Amit Bihari; Arora, Rajiv

    2013-06-01

    It is relatively common to observe a solitary well defined periapical cystic change associated with decayed primary tooth displacing the underlying developing permanent tooth bud. Marsupialisation of such cysts is indicated so as to allow for eruption of the underlying tooth bud. A similar solitary well defined periapical cystic lesion involving the mixed dentition in a child was planned for enucleation. Surprisingly, during the surgical intervention two distinct separate cystic pathological changes were observed. Marsupialisation of the cystic defect with extraction of the primary tooth would have left the enlarged follicle with the developing tooth bud unaddressed. The pathological process associated with the dilated follicle would continue to progress further and may require an additional surgical intervention. The distinction between enlarged follicle and dentigerous cyst clinically is also important. Considering the size, extent and presence of the large bony cavity during the surgical intervention enucleation of both the pathological changes was performed. PMID:24431842

  13. Pathological non-response to chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting of breast cancer: an inter-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Balmativola, D; Marchiň, C; Maule, M; Chiusa, L; Annaratone, L; Maletta, F; Montemurro, F; Kulka, J; Figueiredo, P; Varga, Z; Liepniece-Karele, I; Cserni, G; Arkoumani, E; Amendoeira, I; Callagy, G; Reiner-Concin, A; Cordoba, A; Bianchi, S; Decker, T; Gläser, D; Focke, C; van Diest, P; Grabau, D; Lips, E; Wesseling, J; Arisio, R; Medico, E; Wells, C; Sapino, A

    2014-12-01

    To identify markers of non-response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) that could be used in the adjuvant setting. Sixteen pathologists of the European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology reviewed the core biopsies of breast cancers treated with NAC and recorded the clinico-pathological findings (histological type and grade; estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER2 status; Ki67; mitotic count; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; necrosis) and data regarding the pathological response in corresponding surgical resection specimens. Analyses were carried out in a cohort of 490 cases by comparing the groups of patients showing pathological complete response (pCR) and partial response (pPR) with the group of non-responders (pathological non-response: pNR). Among other parameters, the lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were significantly more common in pNR (p < 0.001). By ROC curve analyses, cut-off values of 9 mitosis/2 mm(2) and 18% of Ki67-positive cells best discriminated the pNR and pCR + pPR categories (p = 0.018 and < 0.001, respectively). By multivariable analysis, only the cut-off value of 9 mitosis discriminated the different response categories (p = 0.036) in the entire cohort. In the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, a mitotic count <9, although not statistically significant, showed an OR of 2.7 of pNR. A lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were independent predictors of pNR (p = 0.024 and <0.001, respectively). Classical morphological parameters, such as lobular histotype and inflammation, confirmed their predictive value in response to NAC, particularly in the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, which is a challenging breast cancer subtype from a therapeutic point of view. Mitotic count could represent an additional marker but has a poor positive predictive value. PMID:25395316

  14. Retrospective analysis of necropsy findings in patients of H1N1 and their correlation to clinical features.

    PubMed

    Prasad, H B; Puranik, S C; Kadam, D B; Sangle, S A; Borse, R T; Basavraj, A; Umarji, P B; Mave, Vidya; Ghorpade, S V; Bharadwaj, R; Jamkar, A V; Mishra, A C

    2011-08-01

    India reported its first case of H1N1 in July 2009 in Pune and since then, the number of reported cases and deaths exploded in India. Since very little data is available about histopathological findings in patients of H1N1 fatal cases in India, a retrospective chart analysis of necropsy findings of 15 cases of 2009 H1N1 fatal cases was performed. Common clinical features were fever, cough, and breathlessness followed by sore throat and rhinorrhea. Common lung findings were mononuclear cell infiltration, thick alveolar septae, intraalveolar hemorrhage. The other findings were congested pulmonary blood vessels, pulmonary edema, cytomegaly, fibrin accumulation and formation of eosinophilic membrane. These findings are suggestive of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and DAD with hemorrhage. All patients who underwent necropsy had radiographic findings suggestive of unilobar or multilobar pneumonia. This clinical finding can be correlated pathologically in these patients as all of them had either polymorphonuclear or mononuclear infiltrate. Furthermore, necrotizing pneumonitis pattern seen on these patients is the likely cause of mortality in these patients. Although clinical ARDS pattern was noted in all these patients, it was well correlated in lung pathology in all these cases. PMID:21887906

  15. Pathologies of brain attentional networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Berger; M. I Posner

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to trace the areas of the human brain involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional processes by use of imaging technology. Brain networks that subserve attention have been described. It is now possible to use these networks as model systems for the exploration of symptoms arising from various forms of pathology.

  16. Pathological Gambling: A General Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

  17. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  18. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

  20. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547

  1. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    PubMed Central

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I–IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  2. Fatal brodifacoum rodenticide poisoning: autopsy and toxicologic findings.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R B; Alakija, P; de Baca, J E; Nolte, K B

    1999-07-01

    This report details the pathologic and toxicologic findings in the case of a 15-year-old girl who deliberately and fatally ingested brodifacoum, a commonly used rodenticide. The mechanism of death, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, has not been previously reported. Brodifacoum was quantitated in liver, spleen, lung, brain, bile, vitreous humor, heart blood, and femoral blood using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest brodifacoum concentrations were detected in bile (4276 ng/mL) and femoral blood (3919 ng/mL). No brodifacoum was detected in brain or vitreous humor. A brodifacoum concentration of 50 ng/g was observed in frozen liver while formalin fixed liver exhibited a concentration of 820 ng/g. A very high blood:liver brodifacoum concentration ratio suggested acute poisoning but the historical and pathologic findings suggested a longer period of anticoagulation. Though most cases of brodifacoum poisoning in humans are non-fatal, this compound can be deadly because of its very long half-life. Forensic pathologists and toxicologists should suspect superwarfarin rodenticides when confronted with cases of unexplained bleeding. Anticoagulant poisoning can mimic fatal leukemia or infectious diseases such as bacterial sepsis, rickettsioses, plague, and leptospirosis. A thorough death scene investigation may provide clues that a person has ingested these substances. PMID:10432620

  3. Exercise preconditioning attenuates pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongyi; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Chengliang; Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, is typically associated with myocytes remodeling and fibrotic replacement, cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) increases the myocardial mechanical load and enhances tolerance of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), however, is less reported in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine the effect of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, Male 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to 4 weeks of EP followed by 4-8 weeks of pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) to induce pathological remodeling. TAC in untrained controls (n=30) led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function. We observed that left ventricular wall thickness in end diastole, heart size, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, heart weight-to-tibia length ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and the reactivation of fetal genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide) were markedly increased, meanwhile left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, systolic function were significantly decreased by TAC at 4 wks after operation (P < 0.01), all of which were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (P < 0.05), but the differences of these parameters were decreased at 8 wks after operation. Furthermore, EP treatment inhibited degradation of I?B?, and decreased NF-?B p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and then reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to TAC. EP can effectively attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC possibly through inhibition of degradation of I?B and blockade of the NF-?B signaling pathway in the early stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25755743

  4. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  5. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

  6. Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

  7. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Hughes; S E Daniel; L Kilford; A J Lees

    1992-01-01

    Few detailed clinico-pathological correlations of Parkinson's disease have been published. The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported. Seventy six had nigral Lewy bodies, and in all of these Lewy bodies were also found in the cerebral cortex. In 24 cases without Lewy bodies, diagnoses included progressive

  8. Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

    1988-01-01

    Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Malignant Melanoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Callahan, Debra L.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the condition of a 74 year-old man suspected of having either chronic lymphocytic leukemia or malignant melanoma. The patientâ??s history, images from his bone marrow biopsy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  10. War of the Roses A Case Study in Plant Pathology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa B. Riley

    2001-01-01

    In this case, students use lab techniques to determine how the protagonist of the story, a student in a plant pathology class, can find out what is wrong with his mother’s roses. The case introduces students to sources of information for the proper diagnosis of plant diseases as well as methods of controlling plant diseases. Developed for the introductory laboratory in a basic upper-level undergraduate plant pathology course, the case could also be used in other courses such as introductory agriculture, horticulture, botany, and biology, where there is an interest in the diagnosis of plant diseases.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Right Chest and Right Foot Masses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gharaibeh, Burhan

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 16-year-old woman has been admitted to the hospital with masses on her right foot and in her right chest. Visitors are given the patient history and cytogenetic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and cytogenetics.

  12. Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  13. Immunological findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack P. Antel; Neil R. Cashman

    1995-01-01

    The sporadic form of ALS is the most common form of MND and remains a syndrome of unproven etiology or etiologies. The application of increasingly sensitive immunocyto-chemical techniques to pathological specimens indicates the presence of a humoral and cellular immune response at the site of MN destruction. The magnitude of the response would seem to be quantitatively much less than

  14. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-01-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  15. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    PubMed

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  16. Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS. PMID:22397318

  17. Striatal pathology underlies prion infection-mediated hyperactivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunapala, Keith M; Chang, Daniel; Hsu, Cynthia T; Manaye, Kebreten; Drenan, Ryan M; Switzer, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Although prion diseases are most commonly modeled using the laboratory mouse, the diversity of prion strains, behavioral testing and neuropathological assessments hamper our collective understanding of mouse models of prion disease. Here we compared several commonly used murine strains of prions in C57BL/6J female mice in a detailed home cage behavior detection system and a systematic study of pathological markers and neurotransmitter systems. We observed that mice inoculated with RML or 139A prions develop a severe hyperactivity phenotype in the home cage. A detailed assessment of pathology markers, such as microglial marker IBA1, astroglial marker GFAP and degeneration staining indicate early striatal pathology in mice inoculated with RML or 139A but not in those inoculated with 22L prions. An assessment of neuromodulatory systems including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin and acetylcholine showed surprisingly little decline in neuronal cell bodies or their innervations of regions controlling locomotor behavior, except for a small decrease in dopaminergic innervations of the dorsal striatum. These results implicate the dorsal striatum in mediating the major behavioral phenotype of 139A and RML prions. Further, they suggest that measurements of activity may be a sensitive manner in which to diagnose murine prion disease. With respect to neuropathology, our results indicate that pathological stains as opposed to neurotransmitter markers are much more informative and sensitive as markers of prion disease in mouse models. PMID:20948312

  18. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  19. Clinical, radiological, and pathological investigation of asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Kato, Katsuya; Arakawa, Hiroaki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Inai, Kouki; Takeshima, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    By the radiological examination, differential diagnosis of asbestosis from chronic interstitial pneumonia such as IPF/UIP is difficult. The pathological features of asbestosis show the peribronchiolar fibrosis which suggest that asbestos fibers cause the inflammation of bronchioli. Therefore, the criteria for pathological diagnosis of asbestosis in 2010, contain the finding of peribronchiolar fibrosis again. Chest CT scanning including HRCT for total of 38 cases clinically diagnosed asbestosis were reviewed by 3 radiologists and one pulmonologist. On the other hand, the histology of lung tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy were examined by 4 pulmonological pathologists. Furthermore, the content of asbestos bodies in the lung was counted by phase-contrast microscopy. Thirteen cases were definitely diagnosed of asbestosis in the image including HRCT and 17 cases were diagnosed by the histopathological examination showing lung fibrosis with peribronchiolar fibrosis. Only 10 cases were indicated asbestosis by both the radiological and histopathological examinations. The mean value of asbestos bodies for these cases, was 2,133,255 per gram of dry lung tissue. PMID:21556185

  20. Benign esophageal lesions: Endoscopic and pathologic features

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shu-Jung; Lin, Ching-Chung; Chang, Chen-Wang; Hung, Chien-Yuan; Shieh, Tze-Yu; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Benign esophageal lesions have a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic features. Understanding the endoscopic and pathologic features of esophageal lesions is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, and management. The purpose of this review is to provide updated features that may help physicians to appropriately manage these esophageal lesions. The endoscopic features of 2997 patients are reviewed. In epithelial lesions, the frequency of occurrence was in the following order: glycogenic acanthosis, heterotopic gastric mucosa, squamous papilloma, hyperplastic polyp, ectopic sebaceous gland and xanthoma. In subepithelial lesions, the order was as follows: hemangioma, leiomyoma, dysphagia aortica and granular cell tumor. Most benign esophageal lesions can be diagnosed according to their endoscopic appearance and findings on routine biopsy, and submucosal lesions, by endoscopic resection. Management is generally based upon the confidence of diagnosis and whether the lesion causes symptoms. We suggest endoscopic resection of all granular cell tumors and squamous papillomas because, while rare, these lesions have malignant potential. Dysphagia aortica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in the elderly. PMID:25632181

  1. Pathology Case Study: Substernal Chest Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nichols, Larry

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology featuring a 49-year-old married white male school teacher was a 2 pack/day smoker with a history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and a family history of coronary artery disease. He was awakened from his sleep at 03:00 with crushing substernal chest pain which radiated to his left arm and was accompanied by shortness of breath. This case study provides learning objectives along with autopsy findings both gross and microscopic in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  2. Pathological gamblers demonstrate frontal lobe impairment consistent with that of methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, Ari D; Fong, Timothy; Rosenthal, Richard J; Davis, Alice; Vanyo, Heidi; Newton, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Using tests that are frequently administered by neuropsychologists, the authors investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities. The sample comprised 10 pathological gamblers, 25 methamphetamine-dependent subjects, and 19 matched comparison subjects. The pathological gamblers and methamphetamine-dependent subjects performed significantly less well than comparison subjects, and the gamblers' test scores were comparable to those of the methamphetamine-dependent participants. The overall magnitude of the effect size was large. These findings demonstrate that the severity of frontal lobe dysfunction in pathological gambling is similar to that observed in methamphetamine-dependent individuals on frequently used clinical measures. PMID:17827415

  3. The ongoing revolution in breast imaging calls for a similar revolution in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Tabár, L; Dean, P B; Lindhe, N; Ingvarsson, M

    2012-01-01

    COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PATHOLOGISTS AND RADIOLOGISTS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF COMMON GROUND: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

  4. Investigation of 'weight pathology' of 58 mothers of anorexia nervosa patients and 204 mothers of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Hall, A; Leibrich, J; Walkey, F H; Welch, G

    1986-02-01

    'Weight pathology'--defined by Kalucy et al. (1977) as 'deviations in weight, shape, eating behaviour and activity'--has been hypothesized to be unduly common in families with anorexia nervosa. It was investigated in this study by means of questionnaires evaluating both weight history and attitudes towards weight-related matters in 58 mothers of anorexia nervosa patients and 204 mothers of schoolgirls of similar age and socioeconomic status (SES). No support was found for the hypothesis. A family history of aberrant weight and mother's current weight and past weight histories showed no significant differences between the groups. 142 other mothers of schoolchildren and 446 attenders at Weight Watchers also completed the questionnaire on attitudes towards weight-related matters. Mothers of patients showed a lower concern on all scales than did all other groups. The findings are discussed in relation to earlier controlled studies of family factors in anorexia nervosa. PMID:3961048

  5. From the radiologic pathology archives: Adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lattin, Grant E; Sturgill, Eric D; Tujo, Charles A; Marko, Jamie; Sanchez-Maldonado, Katherine W; Craig, William D; Lack, Ernest E

    2014-01-01

    Advanced imaging often reveals adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. When adrenal disease is clinically suspected, cross-sectional imaging can be helpful in evaluating the etiology of the patient's symptoms. When adrenal disease is incidentally identified, what the clinician and patient really want to know is whether the findings are benign or malignant, as this ultimately will affect their next step in management. Using radiologic-pathologic correlation, we broadly classify common, uncommon, and rare tumors and tumor-like conditions that can occur in the adrenal as benign or malignant. This classification follows predominant trends in observed biologic behavior while acknowledging those tumors that may behave in the minority in an unpredictable manner. We review the clinical background and presentation of functional adrenal tumors including Conn syndrome, Cushing syndrome, and catecholamine-secreting tumors, as well as their relationship with adrenal anatomy. We discuss a variety of benign tumors, including adrenal cortical adenoma (including oncocytoma) and pheochromocytoma, as well as uncommonly and rarely encountered tumors such as myelolipoma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, schwannoma, ganglioneuroma, and adenomatoid tumor. A variety of tumefactive but nonneoplastic lesions are addressed, including adrenal cortical hyperplasia, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal cysts, and infections. Malignant tumors discussed include adrenal cortical carcinoma, the rare malignant pheochromocytoma, lymphoma, metastases, and sarcomas. For each tumor and tumor-like lesion, the clinical presentation, epidemiology, key imaging findings, diagnostic differential considerations, and management options are briefly addressed. Finally, an approach to the workup of suspected or incidentally discovered tumors is presented based on a selected literature survey and our clinical experience. Radiologists play an important role in identification and diagnosis of adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. PMID:24819798

  6. Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorvault, Christine

    This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  7. Other pathological processes in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Maegraith, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Research since the World War II has confirmed that, apart from the production of haemozoin from haemoglobin, most of the pathological processes in the evolution of malaria are nonspecific. A few of these nonspecific host reactions are discussed, including the production of inflammatory stasis in certain areas (including the brain) where the vascular endothelium is normally highly impermeable to heavy molecules. This production of stasis is regarded as the basic phenomenon in local obstruction to blood flow. So-called “plugging” of small vessels with “sticky” infected erythrocytes is discussed in relation to stasis and to deep intravascular schizogony. Nonspecific vasomotor effects including shock and renal and hepatic failure are also discussed. Intravascular coagulation is not regarded as a potentially important host response despite demonstrable consumption coagulopathy. The disease malaria is regarded as an example of a chain reaction of physiological—pathological responses in the host, which in the early stages are reversible. PMID:4216409

  8. Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Johnson, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographic-matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug-use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and two questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the first time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

  9. Boston University Digital Common

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

    This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  11. Attentional biases among pathological gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge Molde; Stĺle Pallesen; Bjřrn Sćtrevik; Dag K. Hammerborg; Jon C. Laberg; Bjřrn-Helge Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli were presented in a Stroop task paradigm that enabled the recording of attentional bias. The sample comprised 33 pathological slot machine gamblers (PG) and 22 control participants. The design of the study had one between-subjects factor – Group (PGs vs control), and two within-subject factors: (1) Stimulus meaning (win-related gambling stimuli vs neutral stimuli) and (2) Exposure (subliminal

  12. Risk factors for pathological gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Welte; Grace M. Barnes; William F. Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell; John C. Parker

    2004-01-01

    To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains—gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999–2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 or older. The current analyses uses data from the 2168 respondents who gambled in the year before the interview.

  13. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  14. Update on pathological skin picking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Grant; Brian L. Odlaug

    2009-01-01

    Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue\\u000a damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the\\u000a behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive

  15. Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

  16. The Common Cold

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

  17. Pathological tremors : Deterministic chaos or nonlinear

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Pathological tremors : Deterministic chaos or nonlinear stochastic oscillators? Jens Timmer \\Lambda Hospital of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79110 Freiburg, Germany Abstract. Pathological tremors exhibit apply methods from linear and nonlinear time series analysis to tremor time series. The results

  18. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  19. Pathology Case Study: Man in Coma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Al-Gahtany, Mubarak

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 67-year-old man in a post-operative coma, which required prolonged mechanical ventilation. The results from a CT scan, MRI, and EEG along with microscopic images are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  20. [Current medicolegal and ethical issues in pathology].

    PubMed

    Robienski, J; Hoppe, N

    2013-02-01

    The increase in density of information available in relation to patients and research participants, in particular in the context of genetic diagnostics and analysis, results in an increased potential for uncovering details which were unexpected but are of particular significance for the patient. Deciding how this information is dealt with and who is entitled to receive this information, is a medicolegal and ethical balancing act. Incidental findings and the challenges posed by the advent of personalised medicine are but two areas which increasingly impact medical disciplines that do not conventionally work directly with patients. Both areas raise questions of what is legally required and morally necessary. The authors briefly sketch these two areas and the medicolegal and ethical implications for diagnostics and research in pathology. PMID:23322303

  1. Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Arthralgia and Myalgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study a 35-year-old woman with a history of arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and myalgia is treated for progressive weakness, shortness of breath and a dry cough. Detailed observations examinations are available along with X-ray images and gross and microscopic descriptions of the patientâ??s condition. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť link will take you to the patientâ??s official diagnosis and notes from the contributing doctors. Students in the health sciences will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biernat, Wojciech

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, â??and a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâ?ť. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâ??s brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Parietal Lobe Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolenc-Strazar, Zvezdana

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 15-year-old girl admitted to the hospital because of a seizure attack. Images from a CT scan and MRI, and microscopic results provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Destructive Palate Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dacic, Sanja

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which examines " a 46-year-old HIV-positive man with a history of substance abuse who presented with a destructive palate lesion that eroded into nasal cavity and maxillary sinus." Visitors are given microscopic description, including images, as well as immunohistochemistry and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Occipital Bone Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Caird, J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which a "5-month old boy presented with a hard, non-tender swelling behind the left ear, first noticed when he was 2 months old." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Dementia with Motor Dysfunction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Spencer, David C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which a "77-year-old Hispanic-American man with a history of alcoholism and hepatitis C infection suffered severe bouts of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  8. Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Babak; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C W; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina

    2013-09-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer's disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ?85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-? and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and ?-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28-5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-? accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88-7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12-12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14-19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or ?-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged ?85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. PMID:23983028

  9. Central nervous system hemangiopericytoma, retrospective four year pathology case series.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Aguiló, Mario E

    2012-09-01

    Hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are uncommon, aggressive, difficult to diagnose tumors mostly found in the extremities and pelvis and very rarely within the Central Nervous System(CNS). CNS HPC closely mimics meningioma, which is a much more frequent benign tumor, while HPC is potentially lethal, thus correct diagnosis of HPC is vital. Due to the very low frequency of CNS HPC, local experience with this tumor is very limited. For this reason a retrospective four year review of CNS pathology cases was performed to observe the frequency of CNS HPC, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, correlate the proportion of HPCto meningiomas and compare these with the literature. Results showed that our past pathologic assessment of HPC as well as the incidence is consistent with the literature, while the ratio of HPC to meningioma was above expected. This is the first local study dealing with the pathology of CNS HPC, which discloses an adequate clinic-pathologic assessment within the UPR premises as reflected by pathologic-epidemiologic findings coincident with the literature. A discrepancy of the HPC to meningioma ratio was found. Further studies are warranted to delve into the etiologies of this discrepancy as the issue has major implications due to the benign and malignant behavior respectively of meningioma and HPC. PMID:23038887

  10. Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh.; Pirko, Istvan; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article summarizes the pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases and discusses neuropathologic studies that have yielded novel insights into potential mechanisms of demyelination. Recent Findings The pathologic hallmark of MS consists of focal demyelinated plaques within the CNS, with variable degrees of inflammation, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Active MS lesions show a profound pathologic heterogeneity with four major patterns of immunopathology, suggesting that the targets of injury and mechanisms of demyelination in MS may be different in different disease subgroups. Recent pathologic studies have suggested that the subarachnoid space and cortex may be initial sites and targets of the MS disease process, that inflammatory cortical demyelination is present early in MS, and that meningeal inflammation may drive cortical and white matter injury in some MS patients. Summary MS is heterogeneous with respect to clinical, genetic, radiographic, and pathologic features; surrogate MRI, clinical, genetic, serologic, and/or CSF markers for each of the four immunopatterns need to be developed in order to recognize them in the general nonbiopsied MS population. Inflammatory cortical demyelination is an important early event in the pathogenesis of MS and may be driven by meningeal inflammation. These observations stress the importance of developing imaging techniques able to capture early inflammatory cortical demyelination in order to better understand the disease pathogenesis and to determine the impact of potential disease-modifying therapies on the cortex. PMID:23917093

  11. Understanding XDP through imaging, pathology, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Paul Matthew D; Ison, Claro V; Mu?oz, Edwin L; Magpusao, Nelma S; Cheng, Anthony E; Tan, Kenneth T; Lo, Raymundo W; Teleg, Rosalia A; Dantes, Marita B; Borres, Ruth; Maranon, Elma; Demaisip, Cynthia; Reyes, Marita V T; Lee, Lillian V

    2011-01-01

    The X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) is a severe, progressive, adult-onset, X-linked endemic disorder in Filipinos, which is characterized by dystonic movements that start in the third or fourth decade, and replaced by parkinsonism beyond the 10th year of illness. Understanding the pathophysiology of XDP and development of rational therapies will depend on observations from imaging, pathological, and genetic studies. In this paper we summarize the results of these studies on patients with XDP. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging shows hyperintense putaminal rim in both dystonic and parkinsonian stages, and atrophy of the caudate head or putamen in the parkinsonian stage. Neuropathological findings show atrophy of the caudate nucleus and putamen, with mild to severe neuronal loss and gliosis. In the neostriatum, the dystonic phase of XDP shows the involvement of striosomes and matrix sparing, while the later, i.e., parkinsonian phase, shows matrix involvement as well. In the dystonic phase, the loss of striosomal inhibitory projections lead to disinhibition of nigral dopaminergic neurons, perhaps resulting in a hyperkinetic state; while in the parkinsonian phase, severe and critical reduction of matrix-based projection may result in extranigral parkinsonism. Genetic sequencing of the XDP critical region in Xq13.1 has revealed an SVA retrotransposon insertion in an intron of TAF1. This may reduce neuron-specific expression of the TAF1 isoform in the caudate nucleus, and subsequently interfere with the transcription of many neuronal genes, including DRD2. Findings from imaging, pathology, and genetics studies are gradually shedding light on the pathophysiology of XDP, which hopefully will lead to more rational and directed therapies. PMID:21034368

  12. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  13. Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar

  14. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir P. Zharov; Y. A. Menyaev; I. Z. Zharova; Dmitry O. Leviev; V. N. Tsarev; V. P. Sarantsev; Jozko Krusic

    2000-01-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and

  15. ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology, dyslexia, childhood apraxia of speech, stuttering and dysphagia. Date: Monday, 15th October 2012 Time: 1 pm CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology

  16. Reliability of small amounts of cancer in prostate biopsies to reveal pathologic grade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. King; John E. McNeal; Harcharan Gill; James D. Brooks; Sandy Srinivas; Joseph C. Presti Jr

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine grade reliability when biopsies contain very small amounts of prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy findings are known to undergrade prostate cancer compared with the pathologic specimens yet remain the only grade guiding disease management.

  17. Regionalism picks up speed: New England states find common ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuck Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Initiatives crossing northern New England state borders—including Amtrak’s Downeaster service, joint Maine and New Hampshire efforts to save Portsmouth Naval Shipyard jobs, and Northern Forest Center collaborations—suggest regional economic activity is bigger than ever.

  18. Finding Common Language around Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, New Orleans has proved fertile ground for the most extensive education reform movement in the United States. As such, the educational landscape in New Orleans is a highly contested space. Yet stakeholders across the pro/anti-charter divide lack a fully developed language that accommodates the multi-vocality of participants contributing…

  19. Scientists find 'bully' genes in common childhood tumor

    Cancer.gov

    In a genome sequencing study of 74 neuroblastoma tumors in children, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) found that patients with changes in two genes, ARID1A and ARID1B, survive only a quarter as long as patients without the changes. The discovery could eventually lead to early identification of patients with aggressive neuroblastomas who may need additional treatments.

  20. Common Breast Biopsy Finding May Be More Dangerous Than Thought

    MedlinePLUS

    ... women followed for a long time," said Robert Smith, director of cancer screening for the American Cancer ... We've always known their risk was higher," Smith said of women with the condition. However, the ...

  1. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  2. World Deltas: Finding Common Ground Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

    E-print Network

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    resources: availability and distribution; 3. Sustainable carbon-based economy, including ocean acidification Thresholds: Determine how to anticipate, recognize, avoid, and adapt to abrupt global environmental change;Regional Environmental Change: Human Action and Adaptation What does it take to meet the Belmont Challenge

  3. Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

  4. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  5. COST Action “EuroTelepath”: digital pathology integration in electronic health record, including primary care centres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Digital pathology includes the information technology that allows for the management of information, including data and images, generated in an anatomic pathology department. COST Action IC0604 The integration of digital slides in the electronic health record is one of the main objectives of COST Action IC0604 “Telepathology Network in Europe” (EURO-TELEPATH). Fostering use of medical informatics standards and adapting them to current needs is needed to manage efficiently extremely large medical images, like digital slide files. Digital slides in Pathology Digital slides can play a role in disease prevention, primary diagnosis, and second opinion. In all these tasks, automated image analysis can also be a most valuable tool. Interoperability in pathology information systems In order to achieve an efficient interoperability between pathology information systems with other clinical information systems, obtaining a seamless integration of pathology images (gross pictures and digital slides) with LIS-Pathology Information system in a web environment is an important task. Primary care information systems should also be included in the integration, since primary care centres play an essential role in the generation of clinical information and specimen collection. A common terminology, based in SNOMED CT is also needed. Conclusions Main barrier in the integration of digital slides in pathology workflow and eHealth record is the cost of current digital slide scanners. Pathology information system vendors should participate in standardization bodies. PMID:21489201

  6. Can the Follicle-Crown Ratio of the Impacted Third Molars be a Reliable Indicator of Pathologic Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Nosrati, Kamran; Abbaszadeh, Naghi; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Hakimeh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The presence of impacted third molars in the jaws is a common finding in the routine dental examination of patients. Concerning the odontogenic components of the dental follicle, it can be the origin of different types of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Purpose: The aim of this study was to find feasible radiographic criteria to help differentiate between normal and pathological dental follicles. Materials and Method: 134 asymptomatic impacted third molars were recruited in this study. Then, based on the radiographic measurements, the ratio between the diameter of the dental follicle and the mesiodistal width of the tooth crown was calculated. After surgical removal of impacted third molars, the related dental follicles were evaluated histopathologically. Statistical analyses were performed by adopting chi-square test, t-test, receiver oprating characteristic (ROC) curve, and logistic regression using SPSS-19 software. Results: The mean ratio of the dental follicle’s diameter to the mesiodistal width, in the normal and cystic follicle group was 1.18 ± 0.07 and 1.18 ± 0.08, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between this ratio and the histopathological evaluation. Based on the logistic regression analysis, only the age >20 years and inflammation had predictive value in identifying cystic changes in dental follicle. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, the ratio of dental follicle diameter to the mesiodistal width of the teeth cannot not be employed as a diagnostic index to differentiate between normal and pathological dental follicle. PMID:25469358

  7. Surgical and pathological characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dzepina, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Background. Thyroid carcinoma is a relatively rare pediatric pathology, comprising around 3% of all childhood tumors. We investigated parameters of tumor aggressiveness, multicentricity, and locoregional metastatic spread patterns in patients up to 18 years of age and made comparison with the older group. All patients were operated upon with total thyroidectomy, with or without lymph-node neck dissection. Results. Patients with papillary carcinoma present with more advanced stage, larger primary tumor, and more commonly present with palpable thyroid and/or neck node. Overall, papillary cancer demonstrated pathological aggressiveness as defined by our criteria in 60%, multicentricity in 40%, and locoregional metastatic foci in 77% of cases. Multicentric tumor foci in both thyroid lobes and tumor aggressiveness were identified as a risk factor for metastatic development. Conclusion. By observing clinicopathological parameters, we demonstrated that papillary thyroid cancer behaves more aggressively in the younger group. We recommend total thyroidectomy with careful intraoperative exploration of thyroid bed and lateral neck in search for possible metastatic spread. In case of positive findings, it is obligatory to perform a standard neck dissection, keeping in mind that neck lymphonodes are primary site of locoregional recurrence. With meticulous attention to technical aspects of operation, perioperative morbidity should be minimal. PMID:22164182

  8. Prognostic factors of primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinical and pathological analysis of 34 cases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Li, Pengfei; Xiao, Zizheng; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Xinke; Xiao, Yongbo; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PMEC) is a rare malignant neoplasm, and little is known about the prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between tumor’s histological features and clinical behaviors and to analyze the survival of patients with PMEC. A total of 34 patients with PMEC from May 2001 to April 2013 were included in the investigation. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, pathological findings, treatment strategy, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were classified into low-grade group (n = 25) and high-grade group (n = 9), based on histological grades. High-grade PMEC was more common in patient with elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (P = 0.033), advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS of all patients were 75.7% and 83.6%, respectively. Age, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were correlated with the survival of PMEC patients. Lymph node metastasis was an independent predictor of OS (HR, 0.080; P = 0.029) and PFS (HR, 0.090; P = 0. 004). A higher tumor histological grade indicated a more aggressive behavior. Patients who had undergone complete resection for PMEC without any lymph node metastasis were expected to be cured. PMID:25400760

  9. From the radiologic pathology archives imaging of osteonecrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Foreman, Kristopher L; Klassen-Fischer, Mary K; Fox, Michael G; Chung, Ellen M; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is common and represents loss of blood supply to a region of bone. Common sites affected include the femoral head, humeral head, knee, femoral/tibial metadiaphysis, scaphoid, lunate, and talus. Symptomatic femoral head osteonecrosis accounts for 10,000-20,000 new cases annually in the United States. In contradistinction, metadiaphyseal osteonecrosis is often occult and asymptomatic. There are numerous causes of osteonecrosis most commonly related to trauma, corticosteroids, and idiopathic. Imaging of osteonecrosis is frequently diagnostic with a serpentine rim of sclerosis on radiographs, photopenia in early disease at bone scintigraphy, and maintained yellow marrow at MR imaging with a serpentine rim of high signal intensity (double-line sign) on images obtained with long repetition time sequences. These radiologic features correspond to the underlying pathology of osseous response to wall off the osteonecrotic process and attempts at repair with vascularized granulation tissue at the reactive interface. The long-term clinical importance of epiphyseal osteonecrosis is almost exclusively based on the likelihood of overlying articular collapse. MR imaging is generally considered the most sensitive and specific imaging modality both for early diagnosis and identifying features that increase the possibility of this complication. Treatment subsequent to articular collapse and development of secondary osteoarthritis typically requires reconstructive surgery. Malignant transformation of osteonecrosis is rare and almost exclusively associated with metadiaphyseal lesions. Imaging features of this dire sequela include aggressive bone destruction about the lesion margin, cortical involvement, and an associated soft-tissue mass. Recognizing the appearance of osteonecrosis, which reflects the underlying pathology, improves radiologic assessment and is important to guide optimal patient management. PMID:25019438

  10. Data Set for Pathology Reporting of Cutaneous Invasive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Meagan J.; Evans, Alan; Frishberg, David P.; Prieto, Victor G.; Thompson, John F.; Trotter, Martin J.; Walsh, Maureen Y.; Walsh, Noreen M.G.; Ellis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and complete pathology report is critical for the optimal management of cutaneous melanoma patients. Protocols for the pathologic reporting of melanoma have been independently developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA), Royal College of Pathologists (United Kingdom) (RCPath), and College of American Pathologists (CAP). In this study, data sets, checklists, and structured reporting protocols for pathologic examination and reporting of cutaneous melanoma were analyzed by an international panel of melanoma pathologists and clinicians with the aim of developing a common, internationally agreed upon, evidence-based data set. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting cutaneous melanoma expert review panel analyzed the existing RCPA, RCPath, and CAP data sets to develop a protocol containing “required” (mandatory/core) and “recommended” (nonmandatory/noncore) elements. Required elements were defined as those that had agreed evidentiary support at National Health and Medical Research Council level III-2 level of evidence or above and that were unanimously agreed upon by the review panel to be essential for the clinical management, staging, or assessment of the prognosis of melanoma or fundamental for pathologic diagnosis. Recommended elements were those considered to be clinically important and recommended for good practice but with lesser degrees of supportive evidence. Sixteen core/required data elements for cutaneous melanoma pathology reports were defined (with an additional 4 core/required elements for specimens received with lymph nodes). Eighteen additional data elements with a lesser level of evidentiary support were included in the recommended data set. Consensus response values (permitted responses) were formulated for each data item. Development and agreement of this evidence-based protocol at an international level was accomplished in a timely and efficient manner, and the processes described herein may facilitate the development of protocols for other tumor types. Widespread utilization of an internationally agreed upon, structured pathology data set for melanoma will lead not only to improved patient management but is a prerequisite for research and for international benchmarking in health care. PMID:24061524

  11. Intra-operative radiological margins assessment in conservative treatment for non-palpable DCIS: correlation to pathological examination and re-excision rate.

    PubMed

    Buggi, Federico; Mingozzi, Matteo; Curcio, Annalisa; Rossi, Camilla; Nanni, Oriana; Bedei, Lucia; Sanna, Paola A; Veltri, Salvatore; Folli, Secondo

    2013-12-01

    What constitutes an adequate surgical margin in partial mastectomy is still controversial: intra-operative specimen radiogram is commonly used during partial mastectomy for nonpalpable lesions in order verify the adequacy of the resection but what margin is to be considered "adequate" is still debatable. An intraoperative specimen mammogram was performed during all consecutive conservative resections for nonpalpable DCIS and a 15-mm radiological margin was considered "adequate". Margins were pathologically assessed and classified as "negative", "close" or "positive" and the rate of margin involvement constitued the main outcome of the study. Among 272 conservative interventions, 80.51% had negative margins at final pathology, 3.31% had close margins and 16.18% had positive margins. An intraoperative "adequate" margin of 15 mm as defined on intraoperative specimen mammogram granted a high rate of histologically negative margin at primary surgery; this finding was paralleled by confirmation of the treatment as conservative in 95% of cases. PMID:23741658

  12. Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    . This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view of the history of the MGH, and a general history of the field of pathology. Book Order Form Customer InformationPathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology

  13. Pathological features of hereditary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bastacky, S I; Wojno, K J; Walsh, P C; Carmichael, M J; Epstein, J I

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pathological features of hereditary prostate cancer, a recently recognized variant of prostate cancer with an autosomal dominant inheritance of a rare highly penetrant gene associated with early onset of disease. We compared the histology at radical prostatectomy of clinical stage T2 prostate cancer, including its relationship to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, in men with a family history of prostate cancer to those without a family history of prostate cancer. Three cohorts (hereditary, familial and sporadic) were identified based on pedigree analysis. A hereditary subgroup (28 patients) met 1 of the following 3 criteria: 1) cluster of greater than 3 affected relatives within the nuclear family, 2) occurrence of prostate cancer in each of 3 generations in either the proband paternal or maternal lineage, or 3) a cluster of 2 relatives affected at an early age of less than 55 years. This subgroup was compared to an age-matched subgroup with family history of prostate cancer (26 patients) yet the aforementioned conditions for inclusion within the hereditary subgroup were not met and to a sporadic subgroup without a family history of prostate cancer (27 patients). All parameters were statistically similar among the groups except that hereditary and familial group multifocal tumors were of lower grade (p = 0.0001), sporadic cases had a greater proportion of small multifocal cancers associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.02) and the familial group had a weaker correlation between total tumor volume and grade. In conclusion, our analysis failed to demonstrate substantial pathological differences among hereditary, familial and sporadic forms of prostate cancer. Rather, our data are remarkable for the wide range of all parameters studied in each group. Even the sporadic cases had features, such as increased numbers of precursor lesions and tumor multifocality, which in other organs are commonly associated with either hereditary cancer or cancer arising in a field effect due to diffuse exposure to a carcinogen. PMID:7853589

  14. Bone Metastasis and Pathological Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A. McDuffee; Nigel Colterjohn; Gurmit Singh

    Bone metastasis commonly occurs in association with solid malignant tumors such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal cancers\\u000a (1–5). Thirty to seventy percent of cancer patients have skeletal metastasis (6), making the axial skeleton the third most common site for metastasis after lung and liver. Because all of these cancers\\u000a (breast, prostate, lung, and renal) are common, metastatic bone lesions

  15. Update on the Pharmacological Treatment of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    This is an update to a previously published article discussing the neuropsychopharmacology of pathological gambling (PG) (1). In the prior manuscript, we described how cortico-limbic circuitry and neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) have been implicated in PG. These systems represent potential targets for psychopharmacological treatments for PG, with opioid antagonists arguably showing the most consistent benefit in RCTs. In the past year and half since this publication was prepared, there has been one additional randomized clinical trial (RCT) published along with a single case study. Our original manuscript did not describe in detail findings from case studies or open-label studies so in addition to the new RCT data and a new case report involving naltrexone, here we describe case and open-label findings. A PubMed search was conducted using terms such as “pathological gambling treatment”, “clinical trials and gambling”, and “gambling psychopharmacology.” Using these search terms, numerous results were obtained, necessitating further search modifiers. For example, using just “pathological gambling treatment” results in over 1600 hits. In order to focus in on the search modalities, we searched within the initial results for specific phrases such as “psychopharmacology, clinical trial, medication, serotonergic, dopaminergic, etc.” in addition to searching for specific medications. Results not directly related to the treatment of pathological gambling were not included. The study of pathological gambling is relatively new. As such, our search did not exclude any studies due to age of material, but with a few exceptions, the majority of the studies discussed were published later than 2000. This resulted in 24 case studies and/or RCTs not previously included in our original review article. These findings in conjunction with our prior publication provide a comprehensive overview of controlled investigations and exploratory reports of pharmacotherapies for PG. PMID:25383315

  16. Sinusitis in the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

  17. Infantile hemangioendothelioma of the liver: a radiologic-pathologic-clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Dachman, A.H.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Friedman, A.C.; Hartman, D.S.

    1983-06-01

    Infantile hemangioendothelioma is the most common symptomatic vascular liver tumor of infancy. It is considered a benign tumor; however, aggressive behavior is occasionally seen microscopically, and rarely distant metastases have been reported. The exact incidence of infantile hemangioendothelioma is difficult to determine because often it has been either misdiagnosed or mislabeled as cavernous hemangioma in the literature. Cavernous hemangioma is the most common primary liver tumor in older age groups but is rarely found in infants as a clinically significant tumor. Levick and Rubie were the first to recognize an association between hemangioendothelioma of the liver and congestive heart failure, and there were subsequent reports substantiating this association. However, it is our impression and the finding of others that congestive heart failure is distinctly less common than abdominal mass or hepatomegaly as the presenting sign in infantile hemangioendothelioma. Congestive heart failure is rarely a feature of cavernous hemangioma. Because of the errors in terminology and questions regarding clinical presentation, a radiologic-pathologic-clinical correlation study of infantile hemangioendothelioma and review of the literature was undertaken.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Intrasellar Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deckert, Martina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 59-year-old woman with a three-year history of headache and fatigue is determined to have an intrasellar non contrast-enhancing lesion. Visitors are given the clinical history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Intraventricular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Visitors are given admission data, CT scan images as well as microscopic description and images in order to provide the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LaTulippe, Steven

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.