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1

[The chest CT findings and pathologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The past research of the radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan was based on morphological pathology of the untreated patient autopsy. I would like to show the chest CT scan of tuberculosis diseases with caseous granuloma at its exudative reaction, proliferative reaction, productive reaction, cirrhotic reaction until self cure. This progress reflects the normal cell mediated immunological responses. Also I would like to show the cavitation of granuloma, which results from liquefaction of caseous materials during the course and results in the formation of the source of infection. And finally I would like to show the morphological differences of acinous lesion, acino-nodular lesion and caseous lobular pneumonia. These differences reflect the amount of bacilli disseminated in the peripheral parts under the lobules. In this study, I do not show old age cases and HIV positive cases, who do not form typical granuloma due to the decreased cell mediated immnunity and whose X ray findings are atypical. PMID:19764461

Ogata, Hideo

2009-08-01

2

[Pathology along the liver sinusoids: intrasinusoidal findings].  

PubMed

Pathological findings in the liver sinusoids are mostly caused by extrahepatic or systemic diseases. Unclear fever, hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension or a mild elevation of liver enzymes are reasons for a liver biopsy leading to path-breaking diagnoses. Reactive intrasinusoidal lymphocytosis, especially with Epstein-Barr virus infections, has to be differentiated from predominantly intrasinusoidal lymphoproliferative malignancies. Intrasinusoidal megakaryocytes can be the first sign of a myeloproliferative or myelodestructive disease. Intrasinusoidal carcinosis and melanomatosis might present radiologically without tumor lesions and are easily overlooked histologically, in particular, if the critical cells have a similar size to hepatocytes. This also applies for intrasinusoidal storing macrophages. Gaucher's disease type I, and some other subtypes of inborn storage diseases might present for the first time in adulthood by hepatomegaly and Kupffer cell hypertrophy. Accompanying perisinusoidal fibrosis and immunohistochemical staining (CD68) can help to detect the large pale intrasinusoidal macrophages. In immunocompromized patients with fever, particular attention must be paid to intracellular agents, especially atypical mycobacteria and yeasts in non-granulomatous nested or dispersed Kupffer cells. Leishmaniasis with amastigotes in macrophages is accompanied by reactive sinusoidal plasmocytosis. PMID:18210115

Flucke, U; Fischer, H-P

2008-02-01

3

Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin  

E-print Network

Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin David Faye Jens Stoye Abstract In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing a quadratic time algorithm computing

Boyer, Edmond

4

Pathological findings and prognostic factors in recurrent glioblastomas.  

PubMed

Glioblastomas, which are the most common primary intracranial tumor, are associated with the poorest survival time, which is typically 1-2 years. Age at initial diagnosis, Karnofsky performance score, and O(6)-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status are the most well-documented predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Few studies have examined prognostic factors in patients with recurrent glioblastomas. At relapse, the pathological features of glioblastomas are affected by tumor regrowth and the influence of chemoradiotherapy during the initial treatment. Morphological transformations at recurrence include quantitative changes in tumor cells, such as the presence of giant cells and gemistocytic cell formation, radiation necrosis, and vascular structural changes. Therefore, we should carefully examine pathological findings at recurrence. In this report, we analyzed MGMT promoter status, the MIB-1 index, and the pathology of tumor samples at the first (primary tumor) and second (recurrent tumor) surgeries and clarified prognostic factors in patients with recurrent cases. In the multivariate analysis, we showed that MIB-1 indexes at the time of the second surgery (p = 0.004) persisted as a significant independent prognostic factor in survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PMID:22331317

Okita, Yoshiko; Narita, Yoshitaka; Miyakita, Yasuji; Ohno, Makoto; Fukushima, Shintaro; Kayama, Takamasa; Shibui, Soichiro

2012-10-01

5

From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. PMID:25384294

Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodríguez, Pablo; Manning, Maria A; Levine, Marc S

2014-01-01

6

Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

2006-01-15

7

Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

2006-01-15

8

[Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].  

PubMed

Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

2014-01-01

9

Pathological findings in human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.  

PubMed

The defects in lymphocyte apoptosis that underlie the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) are usually attributable to inherited mutations of the CD95 (Fas) gene. In this report, we present the histopathological and immunophenotypic features seen in the lymph nodes (n = 16), peripheral blood (n = 10), bone marrow (n = 2), spleen (n = 3), and liver (n = 2) from 10 patients with ALPS. Lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Interfollicular areas were expanded and populated by T cell receptor-alphabeta CD3+ CD4-CD8- (double-negative, DN) T cells that were negative for CD45RO. CD45RA+ T cells were increased in all cases studied. The paracortical infiltrate was a result of both reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation, as measured by in situ detection of DNA fragmentation and staining with MIB-1, respectively. The paracortical proliferation may be extensive enough to suggest a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Many of the paracortical lymphocytes expressed markers associated with cytotoxicity, such as perforin, TIA-1, and CD57. CD25 was negative. In addition, most lymph nodes exhibited florid follicular hyperplasia, often with focal progressive transformation of germinal centers; in some cases, follicular involution was seen. A polyclonal plasmacytosis also was present. The spleens were markedly enlarged, more than 10 times normal size. There was expansion of both white pulp and red pulp, with increased DN T cells. DN T cells also were observed in liver biopsies exhibiting portal triaditis. In the peripheral blood, the T cells showed increased expression of HLA-DR and CD57 but not CD25. CD45RA+ T cells were increased in the four cases studied. Polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis with expansion of CD5+ B cells was a characteristic finding. Taken together, the histopathological and immunophenotypic findings, particularly in lymph nodes and peripheral blood, are sufficiently distinctive to suggest a diagnosis of ALPS. Of note, two affected family members of one proband developed lymphoma (T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease, respectively). PMID:9811346

Lim, M S; Straus, S E; Dale, J K; Fleisher, T A; Stetler-Stevenson, M; Strober, W; Sneller, M C; Puck, J M; Lenardo, M J; Elenitoba-Johnson, K S; Lin, A Y; Raffeld, M; Jaffe, E S

1998-11-01

10

Baló’s concentric sclerosis: imaging findings and pathological correlation  

PubMed Central

Baló’s concentric sclerosis is a primary inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease that is considered a rare, radiographically and pathologically distinct variant of multiple sclerosis. Baló’s concentric sclerosis is characterized by alternating rings of demyelinated and myelinated axons, and it is most frequently diagnosed postmortem by autopsy or, more recently, by magnetic resonance imaging without pathologic verification. This report is of a case of Baló’s concentric sclerosis in which the patient presented with left-sided focal sensorimotor deficits. The patient’s lesion demonstrated characteristics of Baló’s concentric sclerosis by magnetic resonance imaging, but since a neoplastic process was also suspected initially, the patient underwent a surgical biopsy. This pathology sample now provides the opportunity to correlate the tissue diagnosis of demyelination with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings; this comparison is infrequently found in the literature. PMID:24421937

Darke, Maxine; Bahador, Farshad M; Miller, Douglas C; Litofsky, Norman S; Ahsan, Humera

2013-01-01

11

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko  

E-print Network

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko University of Alberta, Department; Beal 1980). This phenomenon has been termed the minimax pathology. Recently pathological behavior investigate lookahead pathology in real-time path-finding on maps from commercial computer games. Pathology

LuÂ?trek, Mitja

12

Pathological gambling: a systematic review of biochemical, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological findings.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has recently gained much attention because of its increasing prevalence and devastating personal, familial, and social consequences. Although its pathophysiology is largely unknown, the shared similarities with both addiction and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders have suggested the possibility of common psychobiological substrates. As with many other psychiatric disorders, it is believed that pathological gambling may result from the interplay between individual vulnerability and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to offer a comprehensive review of the main neurobiological aspects of pathological gambling, with particular attention to neuropsychological and related findings. A deeper understanding of the biological correlates of pathological gambling is required in order to develop effective treatment strategies. PMID:22716504

Conversano, Ciro; Marazziti, Donatella; Carmassi, Claudia; Baldini, Sara; Barnabei, Graziano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

2012-01-01

13

Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

2009-01-01

14

Cigarette smoking: CT and pathologic findings of associated pulmonary diseases.  

PubMed

The health risks associated with cigarette smoking are well known. Cigarette smoking is the most important causative factor in the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Pulmonary diseases such as chronic bronchitis, centrilobular and panacinar emphysema, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are also related to cigarette smoking. In adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common manifestation at computed tomography (CT) is a solitary pulmonary nodule; in small cell carcinoma, hilar and mediastinal adenopathy secondary to metastases; and in large cell carcinoma, a mass with central necrosis or cavitation in the lung periphery. For chronic bronchitis, the most common CT finding is bronchial wall thickening, but this finding is nonspecific. Emphysema, both centrilobular and panacinar associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, usually manifests as areas of decreased attenuation and may involve bullous changes. However, centrilobular emphysema more commonly involves the upper lungs, whereas panacinar emphysema more commonly involves the lower lungs. Most patients with RB-ILD have normal high-resolution CT scans; however, abnormalities may be present, the most common of which are areas of ground-glass attenuation. CT appearance of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis varies depending on the disease stage: In the early stage, typical CT findings include multiple nodules, usually accompanied by cystic spaces with thin, well-defined walls. As the disease progresses, the cystic spaces become more numerous and the number of nodules decreases. PMID:9084079

Hartman, T E; Tazelaar, H D; Swensen, S J; Müller, N L

1997-01-01

15

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data #  

E-print Network

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data # David Liben bounds for the Longest Increasing Subsequence (LIS) and Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) problems of #, even if the streams are permutations of each other. 1 Introduction Longest increasing and common

Liben-Nowell, David

16

Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability. PMID:22441196

Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

2012-04-01

17

Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

18

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound appearances of enhancement patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: correlation with pathological findings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between enhancement patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pathological findings. The CEUS enhancement patterns of 40 pathologically proven ICC lesions were retrospectively analysed. Pathologically, the degree of tumour cell and fibrosis distribution in the lesion was semi-quantitatively evaluated. Four enhancement patterns were observed in the arterial phase for 32 mass-forming ICCs: peripheral rim-like hyperenhancement (n = 19); heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n = 6); homogeneous hyperenhancement (n = 3); and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n = 4). Among the four enhancement patterns, the differences in tumour cell distribution were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The hyperenhancing area on CEUS corresponded to more tumour cells for mass-forming ICCs. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n = 2) and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n = 2) were observed in the arterial phase for four periductal-infiltrating ICCs. In this subtype, fibrosis was more commonly found in the lesions. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n = 1) and homogeneous hyperenhancement (n = 3) were observed in the arterial phase for four intraductal-growing ICCs. This subtype tended to have abundant tumour cells. The CEUS findings of ICC relate to the degree of carcinoma cell proliferation at pathological examination. Hyperenhancing areas in the tumour always indicated increased density of cancer cells. PMID:24802031

Loria, Francesco; Loria, Giuseppe; Basile, Salvatore; Crea, Giuseppe; Frosina, Luciano; Di Carlo, Isidoro

2014-06-01

19

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko (bulitko@ualberta.ca)  

E-print Network

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko (bulitko@ualberta.ca) University to produce better actions · Sometimes the opposite is true: pathology Setting · Path-finding in grid world of pathology: number of lookahead depths where error is larger than at the previous depth · 1,000 problems (map

LuÂ?trek, Mitja

20

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek (mitja.lustrek@ijs.si)  

E-print Network

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek (mitja.lustrek@ijs.si) Jozef Stefan to produce better actions · Sometimes the opposite is true: pathology Setting · Path-finding in grid world of pathology: number of lookahead depths where error is larger than at the previous depth · 1,000 problems (map

LuÂ?trek, Mitja

21

Human Hemorrhagic Pulmonary Leptospirosis: Pathological Findings and Pathophysiological Correlations  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with protean clinical manifestations. Recently, the importance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a lethal complication of this disease has been recognized. In the present study, five human necropsies of leptospirosis (Weil‘s syndrome) with extensive pulmonary manifestations were analysed, and the antibodies expressed in blood vessels and cells involved in ion and water transport were used, seeking to better understand the pathophysiology of the lung injury associated with this disease. Principal Findings Prominent vascular damage was present in the lung microcirculation, with decreased CD34 and preserved aquaporin 1 expression. At the periphery and even inside the extensive areas of edema and intraalveolar hemorrhage, enlarged, apparently hypertrophic type I pneumocytes (PI) were detected and interpreted as a non-specific attempt of clearence of the intraalveolar fluid, in which ionic transport, particularly of sodium, plays a predominant role, as suggested by the apparently increased ENaC and aquaporin 5 expression. Connexin 43 was present in most pneumocytes, and in the cytoplasm of the more preserved endothelial cells. The number of type II pneumocytes (PII) was slightly decreased when compared to normal lungs and those of patients with septicemia from other causes, a fact that may contribute to the progressively low PI count, resulting in deficient restoration after damage to the alveolar epithelial integrity and, consequently, a poor outcome of the pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Conclusions Pathogenesis of lung injury in human leptospirosis was discussed, and the possibility of primary non-inflammatory vascular damage was considered, so far of undefinite etiopathogenesis, as the initial pathological manifestation of the disease. PMID:23951234

De Brito, Thales; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; da Silva, Luis Fernando Ferraz; Gonçalves da Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

2013-01-01

22

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek  

E-print Network

Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek Jozef Stefan Institute Department due to the incompleteness of their search and inaccu- racies in the heuristic. Lookahead pathologies research on lookahead pathologies has focused on minimax search and small syn- thetic examples in single

LuÂ?trek, Mitja

23

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data  

E-print Network

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data David Liben-Nowell Department Increasing Subsequence (LIS) and Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) problems in the data-streaming model increasing and common subsequences. Let S = x1, x2, . . . , xn be a sequence of integers. A subsequence

Liben-Nowell, David

24

Finding Aggregate Proximity Relationships and Commonalities in Spatial Data Mining  

E-print Network

Finding Aggregate Proximity Relationships and Commonalities in Spatial Data Mining Edwin M. Knorr proximity commonalities (i.e., features) that apply to most, if not all, of the n clusters? Regarding derive many meaningful commonalities that cannot be found otherwise. Index Terms---spatial knowledge

Knorr, Edwin M.

25

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data  

E-print Network

Finding Longest Increasing and Common Subsequences in Streaming Data David Liben-Nowell dln Common Subsequence (LCS) problems in the data streaming model. For the problem of deciding whether other. 1 Introduction Longest increasing and common subsequences. Let S = x1, x2, . . . , xn

Pratt, Vaughan

26

Mental Health Woes Common Among Homeless Kids, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Mental Health Woes Common Among Homeless Kids, Study Finds Exposure to poverty, violence and ... 19, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Mental Health Homeless Health Concerns THURSDAY, Feb. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

27

PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA)  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA the survival of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), a prospective study was conducted: Dermochelys coriacea, hatchling, histopathology, leatherback sea turtle, posthatchling. INTRODUCTION

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

28

FAMCS: finding all maximal common substructures in proteins.  

PubMed

Finding the common substructures shared by two proteins is considered as one of the central issues in computational biology because of its usefulness in understanding the structure-function relationship and application in drug and vaccine design. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called FAMCS (Finding All Maximal Common Substructures) for the common substructure identification problem. Our method works initially at the protein secondary structural element (SSE) level and starts with the identification of all structurally similar SSE pairs. These SSE pairs are then merged into sets using a modified Apriori algorithm, which will test the similarity of various sets of SSE pairs incrementally until all the maximal sets of SSE pairs that deemed to be similar are found. The maximal common substructures of the two proteins will be formed from these maximal sets. A refinement algorithm is also proposed to fine tune the alignment from the SSE level to the residue level. Comparison of FAMCS with other methods on various proteins shows that FAMCS can address all four requirements and infer interesting biological discoveries. PMID:16393147

Yao, Zhen; Xiao, Juan; Tung, Anthony K H; Sung, Wing Kin

2005-05-01

29

Relationship between brainstem MRI and pathological findings in progressive supranuclear palsy — study in autopsy cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the features of MRI in brainstem and pathological findings was investigated in eight autopsy cases with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Features of T1-weighted images at midbrain level were atrophy of tegmentum and tectum, and dilatation of aqueduct. Histologically, these findings were consistent with atrophy of periaqueductal gray matter, quadrigeminal plate, and tegmentum. In these lesions, we detected

Ikuko Aiba; Yoshio Hashizume; Mari Yoshida; Satoshi Okuda; Nobuyuki Murakami; Nobuko Ujihira

1997-01-01

30

Experimental Pulmonary Fat Embolism: Computed Tomography and Pathologic Findings of the Sequential Changes  

PubMed Central

This study was done to demonstrate the computed tomography (CT) and pathologic findings of the sequential changes for experimental pulmonary fat embolism (PFE), and to correlate the CT and pathologic findings of rabbit lung. PFE was induced by an intravenous injection of 0.2 mL linoleic acid in 24 rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 6 rabbits each. CT scans were obtained sequentially at 2 hr (n=24), day 1 (n=18), day 3 (n=12) and day 7 (n=6) after fat embolization. The pathologic findings were analyzed and CT-pathologic correlation was done. CT scans showed bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and nodule in all cases. The findings of PFE at 2 hr after fat embolization were areas of decreased attenuation, GGO, consolidation and nodule. These findings were aggravated on the follow-up CT after 1 day and 3 days. The follow-up CT revealed linear density in the subpleural lungs after 7 days. On CT-pathology correlation, wedge-shaped ischemic necrosis in the subpleural lungs correlated with nodule at 2 hr. GGO and consolidation at day 1 on CT correlated with congestion and edema, and these findings at day 3 were correlated with inflammation and hemorrhagic edema. The linear density in the subpleural lungs correlated with interstitial fibrosis and pleural contraction at day 7. In conclusion, PFE was caused by using linoleic acid which is kind of free fatty acid and this study served as one model of the occurrence of nontraumatic PFE. CT accurately depicted the natural evolution of PFE in the serial followup, and this correlated well with the pathologic findings. PMID:18756059

Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Oh, Yu-Whan; Shin, Bong Kyung; Kim, Han Kyeom

2008-01-01

31

The right atrium: gateway to the heart-anatomic and pathologic imaging findings.  

PubMed

Knowledge of right atrial anatomic and pathologic imaging findings and associated clinical symptoms is important to avoid false-positive diagnoses and missed findings. Complete evaluation of the heart often requires a multimodality approach that includes radiography, echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and invasive angiography. In general, CT provides the highest spatial resolution of these modalities at the cost of radiation exposure to the patient. Echocardiography and MR imaging offer complementary and detailed information for functional evaluation without added radiation exposure. The advantages and disadvantages of each modality for the evaluation of right atrial anatomic structure, size, and pathologic findings are discussed. Cardiac MR imaging is the reference standard for evaluation of right atrial size and volume but often is too time consuming and resource intensive to perform in routine clinical practice. Therefore, established reference ranges for two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography are often used. Right atrial pathologic findings can be broadly categorized into (a) congenital anomalies (cor triatriatum dexter, Ebstein anomaly, and aneurysm), (b) disorders of volume (tricuspid regurgitation, pathologic mimics such as a pseudoaneurysm, and atrial septal defect), (c) disorders of pressure (tricuspid stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and constrictive pericarditis), and (d) masses (pseudomasses, thrombus, lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum, lipoma, myxoma, sarcoma, and metastatic disease). Familiarity with each pathologic entity and its treatment options is essential to ensure that appropriate imaging modalities are selected. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25590385

Malik, Sachin B; Kwan, Damon; Shah, Amar B; Hsu, Joe Y

2015-01-01

32

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF REINDEER (RANGIFER TARANDUS) WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS: PATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FINDINGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States all species of Cervidae are included in the uniform rules and methods for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. However, in reindeer, infection with M. bovis is rare and false positive results on diagnostic tests are common. In order to describe the pathologic changes associat...

33

Limitations in Imaging Common Conjunctival and Corneal Pathologies with Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe the limitations of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathology. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, single-center case series of 40 patients with conjunctival and cornea pathology. Results: Fourier-domain OCT imaged laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps in detail, including its relation to other corneal structures and abnormalities. Similarly, in infectious or degenerative corneal disorders, Fourier-domain OCT successfully showed the extent of infiltration or material deposition, which appeared as hyper-reflective areas. In cases with pterygium, the underlying cornea could not be imaged. All cases of common conjunctival pathologies, such as nevus or pinguecula, were successfully imaged in detail. Nevi, scleritis, pterygium, pinguecula, and subconjunctival hemorrhage were hyper-reflective lesions, while cysts and lymphangiectasia were hyporeflective. The details of the underlying sclera were not uniformly imaged in conjunctival pathologies. Fourier-domain OCT imaged the trabeculectomy bleb in detail, whereas the details of structures of the anterior chamber angle were not routinely visualized in all cases. Conclusions: Light scatter through vascularized, densely inflamed, or thick lesions limits the imaging capabilities of Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. PMID:25100905

Demirci, Hakan; Steen, Daniel W.

2014-01-01

34

Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively.Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions.Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

2015-03-01

35

Computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy: normal variants, pitfalls, and spectrum of common and rare pathology.  

PubMed

A broad spectrum of pathologies that involve the laryngotracheobronchial airway and imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating these abnormalities. Computed tomography with virtual bronchoscopy has been found to be very helpful in defining the location, extent, and nature of these lesions, and is increasingly being used even in patients with contraindications for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Ionizing radiation, associated with virtual bronchoscopy, can be minimized by using low-dose multidetector computed tomography and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques. Furthermore, retrospectively generated virtual bronchoscopy from a routinely acquired computed tomography data set eliminates additional cost and radiation. In the future, virtual bronchoscopy assisted with advanced navigational techniques will broaden the diagnostic and therapeutic landscape. This article presents the characteristic features of common and rare laryngotracheobronchial pathologies seen with virtual bronchoscopy. PMID:24785366

Das, K M; Lababidi, Hani; Al Dandan, Sadeq; Raja, Shanker; Sakkijha, Hussam; Al Zoum, Mohammad; AlDosari, Khalid; Larsson, Sven G

2015-02-01

36

Anatomical and pathological findings in hearts from fetuses and infants with cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus  

PubMed Central

Objective. The autopsy and clinical information on children dying with anti-SSA/Ro-associated cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) were examined to identify patterns of disease, gain insight into pathogenesis and enhance the search for biomarkers and preventive therapies. Methods. A retrospective analysis evaluating reports from 18 autopsies of cardiac NL cases and clinical data from the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus was performed. Results. Of the 18 cases with autopsies, 15 had advanced heart block, including 3 who died in the second trimester, 9 in the third trimester and 3 post-natally. Three others died of cardiomyopathy without advanced block, including two dying pre-natally and one after birth. Pathological findings included fibrosis/calcification of the atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node and bundle of His, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), papillary muscle fibrosis, valvular disease, calcification of the atrial septum and mononuclear pancarditis. There was no association of pathology with the timing of death except that in the third-trimester deaths more valvular disease and/or extensive conduction system abnormalities were observed. Clinical rhythm did not always correlate with pathology of the conduction system, and the pre-mortem echocardiograms did not consistently detect the extent of pathology. Conclusion. Fibrosis of the AV node/distal conduction system is the most characteristic histopathological finding. Fibrosis of the SA node and bundle of His, EFE and valve damage are also part of the anti-Ro spectrum of injury. Discordance between echocardiograms and pathology findings should prompt the search for more sensitive methods to accurately study the phenotype of antibody damage. PMID:22308531

Friedman, Deborah M.; Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M.; Tseng, Chung-E.; Dische, Renata; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Halushka, Marc; Clancy, Robert M.; Buyon, Jill P.

2012-01-01

37

Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung

2015-01-01

38

Primary tumor size predicts pathologic findings in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes in patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

To determine patient and tumor characteristics that could predict pathologic findings after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PTRMS), a total of 266 cases of PTRMS diagnosed between 1973 and 2010 were identified from a national database. RPLND dissection was performed in 67 patients, with a mean age of 14.9 years and median survival of 80 months. PTRMS occurred more often on the right side, had embryonal histology, and had an average size of 6.7 cm. Retroperitoneal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis occurred in 40 % (n?=?27) of patients. Tumor size and age were strong predictors of finding rhabdomyosarcoma in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes when examined by pathologists. Primary tumors larger than 7 cm in size developing in males 12 years or older had four times more odds of being associated with positive findings on pathologic examinations of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Patient race, histology, and tumor laterality were not significant predictors of PTRMS metastasis to the RPLN basin. Patients 12 years or older with PTRMS larger than 7 cm have a significant risk of retroperitoneal lymph nodes involvement with PTRMS. Detailed pathologic examination of the lymph nodes in these patients is recommended. PMID:25293343

Alanee, Shaheen; Holland, Bradley; Dynda, Danuta; Kamel, Onsi; Ganai, Sabha

2014-12-01

39

Transplacental infection of Coxsackievirus B3 pathological findings in the fetus.  

PubMed

Coxsackievirus intrauterine infection has been documented mostly on the basis of indirect evidence of transplacental transmission, with neonatal manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and generalized sepsis. This is the first report of prenatal findings and fetoplacental pathology in a third trimester fetus with coxsackie B3 transplacental infection confirmed by molecular techniques. Prenatal ultrasound detected severe reduction of fetal movements at the 27th week. Late onset fetal akinesia deformation sequence with mild arthrogryposis, necrotic meningoencephalitis with vascular calcifications, interstitial pneumonitis, mild myocardial hypertrophy, and chronic monocytic placental villitis were the cardinal findings at fetal autopsy following interruption of the pregnancy. PMID:17457913

Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Anninos, Hector; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Kotsiakis, Xenophon; Syridou, Garyfallia; Tsakris, Athanassios; Patsouris, Efstratios

2007-06-01

40

TTR-related amyloid neuropathy: clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings in 15 unrelated patients.  

PubMed

Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare condition caused by mutations of the transthyretin (TTR) gene and it is generally characterized by a length-dependent polyneuropathy affecting prevalently the small fibers. We reviewed clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings of 15 unrelated patients with genetically confirmed TTR-FAP. All patients presented a progressive sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Pathological findings were negative for amyloid deposits in about half of the cases. Sequence analysis of TTR gene revealed the presence of three different mutations (p.Val30Met, p.Phe64Leu, and p.Ala120Ser). The p.Val30Met was the most frequently identified mutation and it often occurred in apparently sporadic cases. Conversely, the p.Phe64Leu generally presented in a high percentage of familial cases in patients coming from Southern Italy. Clinicians should consider, to avoid misdiagnosis, the screening for TTR mutations in patients presenting with progressive axonal polyneuropathy of undetermined etiology, including apparently sporadic cases with pathological examinations negative for amyloid deposition. PMID:22592564

Luigetti, Marco; Conte, Amelia; Del Grande, Alessandra; Bisogni, Giulia; Madia, Francesca; Lo Monaco, Mauro; Laurenti, Luca; Obici, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Sabatelli, Mario

2013-07-01

41

Novel molecular aberrations and pathologic findings in a tubulocystic variant of renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is an indolent type of renal cell carcinoma with a good prognosis based on the limited number of published cases. Herein, we describe the unusual clinical, pathologic and molecular findings in a case of TRCC. Our patient with TRCC had two local recurrences and a brain metastasis following radical nephrectomy. Unusual histologic findings included focal solid growth pattern and cytologic atypia. A genome-wide molecular inversion probe assay identified copy number (CN) loss in three chromosome regions and one region with copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (copy-neutral LOH). Copy number variations (CNVs) were observed (chromosomes 4p16.1 and 17q21.31-q21.32) in both the tumor and the normal tissue, and most likely represents benign variations. The loss of entire chromosomes 9, 18 and 15 and copy-neutral LOH involving 6p22.1 was observed only in the tumor. The presence of these clinical, pathologic and molecular findings could be related to an increased risk for tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. The novel molecular findings described in TRCC might represent new targets for novel therapies. PMID:24441240

Sangle, Nikhil A; Mao, Rong; Shetty, Shashirekha; Schiffman, Joshua D; Dechet, Christopher; Layfield, Lester; Agarwal, Neeraj; Liu, Ting

2013-01-01

42

Pathologic findings in larval and juvenile anurans inhabiting farm ponds in Tennessee, USA.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations are declining globally, yet general pathologic surveys for free-ranging amphibians are uncommon. Pathologic surveys are necessary to provide insight into the impacts of humans on emergence of pathogens in amphibian populations. During 2005, 104 American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and 80 green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae and 40 green frog juveniles were collected from farm ponds in Tennessee, and complete necropsies were performed. Diagnostic testing included bacterial culture, virus testing, fecal parasite analysis, and histologic examination. Gross and histologic examination revealed that all individuals, except one bullfrog tadpole, could be classified as clinically normal. The clinically abnormal tadpole had swollen erythemic legs, and was positive for Aeromonas hydrophila but negative for Ranavirus. Parasites were common (43%) among specimens, with myxosporidium and trematodes most often noted. Commensal and opportunistic microorganisms were cultured from the tissues. Ranavirus was detected in 29% of individuals but generally not associated with significant histopathologic changes. Myxosporidia and Ranavirus coinfections occurred in 7 and 26% of green and bullfrog tadpoles, respectively, with the highest coinfection rate (83%) in bullfrog tadpoles during winter. Protozoans were most common in fecal examination. These data can serve as a baseline to evaluate the presence of clinical disease in larval and juvenile amphibians. PMID:19395741

Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Schmutzer, A Chandler; Burton, Elizabeth C; Merrill, Anita; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-04-01

43

A Presacral Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Extramedullary Hematopoiesis: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare, ubiquitous neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, with distinctive histopathological and immunohistochemical features. We herein report an unusual case of a presacral SFT diagnosed in an asymptomatic 40-year-old woman preoperatively investigated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Post-operative pathology examination showed a SFT containing foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Revision of preoperative imaging did not evidenced any findings suggesting this unusual association. The patient was free from local recurrence and metastases one year after operation. Differential radiological and histological diagnoses of solid presacral masses is briefly discussed. PMID:24416495

Savastano, Sergio; d’Amore, Emanuele S.G.; Beghetto, Mario; Borgo, Davide Dal; Franceschetti, Ilaria; Capalbo, Mirella

2013-01-01

44

COMPARISON OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC AND PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN 17 DOGS WITH PRIMARY ADRENAL NEOPLASIA.  

PubMed

The CT appearance of canine adrenal masses has been reported, but associations between imaging features and pathologic features of these lesions have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to test associations between different types of adrenal neoplasia and their CT and pathologic features. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of primary adrenal neoplasia, contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and surgical resection of the mass or necropsy examination. For all included dogs, CT images and histopathologic specimens were reviewed independently by two veterinary radiologists and a veterinary pathologist, respectively. Seventeen dogs met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in nine (53%) dogs, pheochromocytoma in five (29%) dogs, and adenoma in three (18%) dogs. Pheochromocytoma was associated with CT signs of vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.3-18.3, P = 0.03) and macroscopic vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.4-65.9, P = 0.02). There was excellent agreement between signs of vascular invasion in CT images and vascular invasion at surgery or necropsy (kappa = 0.86, P = 0.001). A peripheral contrast-enhancing rim in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with fibrous encapsulation of the tumor (kappa = 0.53, P = 0.05), and a heterogeneous pattern of contrast distribution in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with adrenal hemorrhage or infarction on histological examination (kappa = 0.45, P = 0.05). Findings indicated that CT enabled assessment of adrenal neoplasia features that reflected their biological behavior and pathological findings, however overlapping characteristics between tumor types limited the potential for reliably distinguishing them based on CT alone. PMID:25139015

Gregori, Tommaso; Mantis, Panagiotis; Benigni, Livia; Priestnall, Simon L; Lamb, Christopher R

2014-08-19

45

Malignant lymphoma in ferrets: clinical and pathological findings in 19 cases.  

PubMed

The clinical and pathological findings in 19 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with malignant lymphoma are reviewed. Peripubescent ferrets had rapidly progressive stage IV high grade immunoblastic or small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. Adult ferrets had stage II or IV low grade diffuse small lymphocytic (DSL) lymphoma, stage IV high grade small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, or stage IV high grade immunoblastic polymorphous (IBP) lymphoma. Three ferrets had concurrent IBP and DSL lymphoma involving different organs. The IBP admixture of immunoblasts, large atypical lymphocytes, Reed-Sternberg-like cells, lymphoblasts and small lymphocytes has been associated with certain retrovirally associated lymphomas and nodal hyperplasias in man, non-human primates and cats. Aleutian disease, a parvovirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease, also involves clinical and histological features similar to certain lymphomas in ferrets. Seven ferrets tested were seronegative for feline leukaemia virus antigen. Only one of eight ferrets was positive for Aleutian parvovirus antibody. The clinical and pathological findings are suggestive of a viral aetiology for certain lymphomas in ferrets. PMID:1556256

Erdman, S E; Moore, F M; Rose, R; Fox, J G

1992-01-01

46

Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

2007-01-01

47

Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

Tonner, Carol

1992-01-01

48

Triple-negative breast cancer: correlation between imaging and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study was designed to investigate the mammography and ultrasound findings of triple-negative breast cancer and to compare\\u000a the results with characteristics of ER-positive\\/PR-negative\\/HER2-negative breast cancer and ER-negative\\/PR-negative\\/HER2-positive\\u000a breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From January 2007 to October 2008, mammography and ultrasound findings of 245 patients with pathologically confirmed triple-negative\\u000a (n?=?87), ER-positive\\/PR-negative\\/HER2-negative (n?=?93) or ER-negative\\/PR-negative\\/HER2-positive breast cancers (n?=?65) were retrospectively reviewed. We also

Eun Sook Ko; Byung Hee Lee; Hyun-A Kim; Woo-Chul Noh; Min Suk Kim; Sang-Ah Lee

2010-01-01

49

Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor  

PubMed Central

Background Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown. Case We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth. Conclusion Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome. PMID:24159261

Chehade, Cynthia; Awwad, Johnny; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Wakim, Rima; Tfayli, Hala; Farra, Chantal

2013-01-01

50

Tuberculosis and Hepatic Steatosis Are Prevalent Liver Pathology Findings among HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Liver disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa has shifted as a result of HIV and the increased use of antiretroviral therapy leading to a need for updated data on common causes of liver disease. We retrospectively reviewed records from all hospitalized patients who had liver biopsy at a single hospital in South Africa from 2001 to 2009 and compared diagnosis by HIV status. During the period of study 262 patients had liver biopsy, 108 (41%) were HIV-infected, 25 (10%) were HIV-sero-negative, and 129 (49%) had unknown or unrecorded HIV status. Overall 81% of biopsies provided additional diagnostic data. Malignancy was the most common finding reported on 56 (21%) biopsies followed by granuloma or TB, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have granulomas and steatosis. Half of patients with granulomas were already on TB treatment, suggesting paradoxical reactions or drug induced liver injury may have been important causes of liver inflammation among these patients. We note that TB, paradoxical reactions during TB treatment, possible drug induced liver injury, and hepatic steatosis are important causes of liver pathology among HIV-infected hospitalized patients with unclear etiology of liver disease after initial assessment. Among HIV sero-negative patients, malignancy was the major cause of liver disease. Our findings re-enforce the importance of TB as a diagnosis among HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25668620

Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Hoffmann, Jennifer D.; Kensler, Caroline; van der Watt, Martin; Omar, Tanvier; Chaisson, Richard E.; Martinson, Neil A.; Variava, Ebrahim

2015-01-01

51

The pre-metastatic niche: finding common ground.  

PubMed

It is rapidly becoming evident that the formation of tumor-promoting pre-metastatic niches in secondary organs adds a previously unrecognized degree of complexity to the challenge of curing metastatic disease. Primary tumor cells orchestrate pre-metastatic niche formation through secretion of a variety of cytokines and growth factors that promote mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to future metastatic sites. Hypoxia within the primary tumor, and secretion of specific microvesicles termed exosomes, are emerging as important processes and vehicles for tumor-derived factors to modulate pre-metastatic sites. It has also come to light that reduced immune surveillance is a novel mechanism through which primary tumors create favorable niches in secondary organs. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of underlying mechanisms of pre-metastatic niche formation and highlights the common links as well as discrepancies between independent studies. Furthermore, the possible clinical implications, links to metastatic persistence and dormancy, and novel approaches for treatment of metastatic disease through reversal of pre-metastatic niche formation are identified and explored. PMID:23636348

Sceneay, Jaclyn; Smyth, Mark J; Möller, Andreas

2013-12-01

52

Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

2006-01-01

53

Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.  

PubMed

An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention. PMID:21441198

Martínez-Jiménez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benkö, Maria; Schöniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

2011-04-01

54

Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites with different endocrinological and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites (PH) were subjected for clinical investigation with transrectal ultrasonography, endocrinology with adoption of hCG-stimulation test, cytogenetics with analysis of sex chromosome and Y-specific DNA, and finally histological examination. Results were compared with normal calves. Case 1 was a 10-month-old calf with XX/XY chimeras, showing elevation of testosterone (T) levels, but no change in progesterone (P(4)) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes in the cavitas pelvis. Case 2 was an 18-month-old calf with SRY positive-XY chromosome, showing lower level of plasma T and P(4) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes and undifferentiated genital ducts. Both cases possessed female-like external genitalia with similar pathological findings, however endocrinological and cytogenetical aspects were different each other. PMID:20009424

Moriyama, Chiho; Tani, Mineto; Nibe, Kazumi; Kitahara, Go; Haneda, Shingo; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyake, Yoh-Iichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

2010-04-01

55

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts were incidentally detected in a 53-year-old man during the treatment of pneumonia. In chest-computed tomography, the cysts showed a thin wall and homogeneous inner density, while in endoscopy, no communication with esophageal mucosa was observed. We resected the esophageal cysts with endo-staplers under thoracoscopic surgery. No postoperative complications, including esophageal mucosal injury, occurred. A follow-up chest computed tomography revealed the complete resection of the cysts. PMID:18486485

Kang, Chul Ung; Cho, Deog Gon; Cho, Kyu Do; Jo, Min Seop

2008-07-01

56

Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in longhaired Chihuahuas: clinical, pathologic, and MRI findings.  

PubMed

Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a rare group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases characterized histopathologically by the abnormal accumulation of ceroid- or lipofuscin-like lipopigments in neurons and other cells throughout the body. The present article describes the clinical, pathologic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the NCL in three longhaired Chihuahuas between 16 mo and 24 mo of age. Clinical signs, including visual defects and behavioral abnormalities, started between 16 mo and 18 mo of age. Cranial MRI findings in all the dogs were characterized by diffuse severe dilation of the cerebral sulci, dilated fissures of diencephalons, midbrain, and cerebellum, and lateral ventricular enlargement, suggesting atrophy of the forebrain. As the most unusual feature, diffuse meningeal thickening was observed over the entire cerebrum, which was strongly enhanced on contrast T1-weighted images. The dogs' conditions progressed until they each died subsequent to continued neurologic deterioration between 23 mo and 24 mo of age. Histopathologically, there was severe to moderate neuronal cell loss with diffuse astrogliosis throughout the brain. The remaining neuronal cells showed intracytoplasmic accumulation of pale to slightly yellow lipopigments mimicking ceroid or lipofuscin. The thickened meninges consisted of the proliferation of connective tissues with abundant collagen fibers and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells suggesting neuroimmune hyperactivity. Although the etiology of this neuroimmune hyperactivity is not currently known, MRI findings such as meningeal thickening may be a useful diagnostic marker of this variant form of canine NCL. PMID:21730095

Nakamoto, Yuya; Yamato, Osamu; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nibe, Kazumi; Tamura, Shinji; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueoka, Naotami; Nukaya, Aya; Yabuki, Akira; Nakaichi, Munekazu

2011-01-01

57

Detection of cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and herpes simplex viruses in cases of intrauterine fetal death: association with pathological findings.  

PubMed

There are previous indications that transplacental transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (PB19) and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) cause fetal infections, which may lead to fetal death. In a prospective case-control study we examined the incidence of these viruses in intrauterine fetal death and their association with fetal and placenta pathological findings. Molecular assays were performed on placenta tissue extracts of 62 fetal deaths and 35 controls for the detection of CMV, PB19 and HSV-1/2 genomes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver, spleen and placenta tissues of fetal death cases were evaluated histologically. Thirty-four percent of placental specimens taken from intrauterine fetal deaths were positive for any of the three viruses (16%, 13%, and 5% positive for CMV, PB19, and HSV-1/2, respectively), whereas only 6% of those taken from full term newborns were positive (P = 0.0017). No dual infection was observed. This difference was also observed when fetal deaths with a gestational age <20 weeks or a gestational age >20 weeks were compared with the controls (P = 0.025 and P = 0.0012, respectively). Intrauterine death and the control groups differed in the detection rate of CMV DNA (16% and 3%, respectively; P = 0.047), which was more pronounced in a gestational age >20 weeks (P = 0.03). Examination of the pathological findings among the PCR-positive and PCR-negative fetal deaths revealed that hydrops fetalis and chronic villitis were more common among the former group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). In conclusion, an association was detected between viral infection and fetal death, which was more pronounced in the advanced gestational age. Fetal hydrops and chronic villitis were evidently associated with viral DNA detection in cases of intrauterine death. PMID:18712818

Syridou, Garyfallia; Spanakis, Nicholas; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Kafetzis, Dimitrios; Patsouris, Efstratios; Antsaklis, Aris; Tsakris, Athanassios

2008-10-01

58

An autopsy case of diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification: early stage pathologic findings.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with no medically remarkable past or family history gradually showed personality changes, memory disturbance, sleeplessness and abnormal behavior. Neurologic examination showed no focal signs and neither parkinsonism nor cerebellar ataxia was recognized. He died 4 years after the onset of dementia due to chronic renal failure. Neuropathologic examination revealed neuronal loss and gliosis in the temporal cortex, particularly in the subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus and entorhinal cortex, and insular cortex. NFTs were observed to be widespread in the cerebral cortex, especially the temporal cortex and brainstem, while senile plaques were not observed. Gallyas-Braak silver staining revealed the presence of numerous NFTs, glial inclusions and neuropil threads throughout the cerebral neocortex, limbic system, hippocampus and brainstem. The subiculum showed the most severe involvement; severe atrophy, severe neuron loss, and numerous ghost tangles (extracellular NFTs) were apparent. Although NFTs contained both monoclonal anti-3repeat-tau antibody (RD3) and RD4 immunoreactivity, this differed between the intracellular NFTs and ghost tangles. RD3 immunoreactivity was mainly observed in ghost tangles and neuropil threads, whereas RD4 immunoreactivity was mainly observed in intracellular NFTs and glial inclusions. Calcification was also found to be widespread in the cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellar cortex, white matter and dentate nucleus. These characteristic neuropathologic findings lead to the pathologic diagnosis of diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC). It is argued that this patient showed early stage pathologic signs of DNTC due to a short disease duration, which may provide clues regarding the progression of this rare disease. PMID:19389080

Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ito, Masumi; Mori, Keiko; Deguchi, Akira; Nagaoka, Masamitsu; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio

2009-12-01

59

Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 and Jens Stoye2  

E-print Network

clus- ters. Among others, one can mention common substrings (which require a full conservation), commonFinding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 and Jens Stoye2 1 Universit´e Paris clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Sensitization, pathologic, and imaging findings comparing symptomatic and quiescent failed renal allografts.  

PubMed

Late allograft failure (LAF) is a common cause of end stage renal disease. These patients face interrelated challenges regarding immunosuppression management, risk of graft intolerance syndrome (GIS), and sensitization. This retrospective study analyzes sensitization, pathology, imaging, and transfusion requirements in 33 LAFs presenting either with GIS (22) or grafts remaining quiescent (11). All patients underwent immunosuppression weaning to discontinuation at LAF. Profound increases in sensitization were noted for all groups and occurred in the GIS group prior to transplant nephrectomy (TxN). Patients with GIS experienced a major upswing in sensitization at, or before the time of their symptomatic presentation. For both GIS and quiescent grafts, sensitization appeared to be closely linked to immunosuppression withdrawal. Most transfusion naïve patients became highly sensitized. Fourteen patients in the GIS group underwent TxN which revealed grade II acute cellular rejection or worse, with grade 3 chronic active T-cell-mediated rejection. Blinded comparisons of computed tomography scan of GIS group revealed swollen allografts with fluid collections compared with the quiescent allografts (QAs), which were shrunken and atrophic. The renal volume on imaging and weight of explants nearly matched. Future studies should focus on interventions to avoid sensitization and GIS. PMID:25297845

Singh, Pooja; Feld, Rick I; Colombe, Beth W; Farber, John L; Herman, Jay H; Gulati, Rakesh; Maley, Warren R; Frank, Adam M

2014-12-01

61

Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats  

PubMed Central

Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning.

Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

2014-01-01

62

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

63

Sarcoidosis in Native and Transplanted Kidneys: Incidence, Pathologic Findings, and Clinical Course  

PubMed Central

Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in native and transplanted kidneys classically presents as non caseating granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, the incidence of sarcoidosis in native and transplant kidney biopsies, its frequency as a cause of end stage renal disease and its recurrence in renal allograft are not well defined, which prompted this study. The electronic medical records and the pathology findings in native and transplant kidney biopsies reviewed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1/1/2000 to 6/30/2011 were searched. A total of 51 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis and renal abnormalities requiring a native kidney biopsy were identified. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis, consistent with renal sarcoidosis was identified in kidney biopsies from 19 of these subjects (37%). This is equivalent to a frequency of 0.18% of this diagnosis in a total of 10,023 biopsies from native kidney reviewed at our institution. Follow-up information was available in 10 patients with biopsy-proven renal sarcoidosis: 6 responded to treatment with prednisone, one progressed to end stage renal disease. Renal sarcoidosis was the primary cause of end stage renal disease in only 2 out of 2,331 transplants performed. Only one biopsy-proven recurrence of sarcoidosis granulomatous interstitial nephritis was identified. Conclusions Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in the form of granulomatous interstitial nephritis was a rare finding in biopsies from native kidneys reviewed at our center, and was found to be a rare cause of end stage renal disease. However, our observations indicate that recurrence of sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may occur in the transplanted kidney of patients with sarcoidosis as the original kidney disease. PMID:25329890

Bagnasco, Serena M.; Gottipati, Srinivas; Kraus, Edward; Alachkar, Nada; Montgomery, Robert A.; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Arend, Lois J.

2014-01-01

64

Clinical and gross pathologic findings of complicated vertical fissures with digital dermatitis in a dairy herd  

PubMed Central

Careful antemortem examination and interpretation of findings, assisted by good clinical records, do much to throw light on the nature of vertical fissure in cattle. During an eight month period of investigation, 13 (3.2%) lame cows with vertical fissure out of 52 Holstein cows with different claw fissures were selected for clinical and gross pathological purposes in a commercial dairy farm with 400 milking cows in Nazarabad, Iran. The cows were 2.5 to10.5 years old. The prevalence rate of vertical fissure was 3.2 per cent. The prevalence rate of claw lesion in the hind limb (69.2%) was higher than that of fore limb (30.7%). The type of vertical fissures were 4 (38.4%), 5 (23.0%), 2 (23.0%) and 3 (15.3%), respectively. Locomotion scoring assessment of 13 culled lame cows showed score ranged from grade 3 (30.7%) to 4 (61.5%). The herd had endemic digital dermatitis infection with prevalence in the adult herd of over 34.2%. The affected claws were more boxy than normal and the abaxial wall was convex in all directions. The lame cows had typical stance such as hobbyhorse or cross legged stance. This study shows that more research is needed both on the economic impact of vertical fissures in dairy cows and on the microbiological study of spirochaetes of the genus Treponema. This study recommends that owners of dairy farm should try to control digital dermatitis with preventative herd strategies.

Nouri, Mohsen; Ashrafi Helan, Javad

2012-01-01

65

Cystic and cavitary lung lesions in children: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

Odev, Kemal; Guler, Ibrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

2013-01-01

66

Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

Odev, Kemal; Guler, ?brahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

2013-01-01

67

Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... about external links Menu Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Preliminary ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

68

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis-a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations.  

PubMed

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the National Cancer Institute (1995 to 2010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%), with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%), followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically, the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades, with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed, and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared with grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders on the basis of the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

Song, Joo Y; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H; Jaffe, Elaine S

2015-02-01

69

Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43%) from 5 ewes (56%). %). BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82%) from 6 ewes (67%). Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology. PMID:24358112

van der Sluijs, Mirjam T. W.; Schroer-Joosten, Dianne P. H.; Fid-Fourkour, Aicha; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Debyser, Isolde; Moulin, Véronique; Moormann, Rob J. M.; de Smit, Abraham J.

2013-01-01

70

Pathologic Findings in Prophylactic Oophorectomy Specimens in High-Risk Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To ascertain the frequency of significant pathologic alterations in prophylactic oophorectomy specimens in high-risk women referred to a tertiary care center.Methods. Surgical cases for prophylactic oophorectomy referred to a gynecologic oncology clinic from November 1996 to January 2001 were reviewed. Serial sections of entirely submitted tubes and ovaries were procured and reviewed by a pathologist with expertise in gynecologic

Katherine Leeper; Rochelle Garcia; Elizabeth Swisher; Barbara Goff; Benjamin Greer; Pamela Paley

2002-01-01

71

Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.  

PubMed

Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

2012-01-01

72

The Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: clinical, pathologic, and neuroimaging findings.  

PubMed

We report two patients who developed isolated visual symptoms and signs as initial manifestations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Both patients had normal conventional T1- and T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) images; in one patient, early cortical abnormalities were detected by diffusion-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results from the cerebrospinal fluid assay for the 14-3-3 brain protein were also negative in one patient, despite pathologic confirmation of CJD at autopsy. The Heidenhain variant of CJD should be considered in all patients who present with isolated visual manifestations, including homonymous hemianopsia and normal conventional brain MRI. Diffusion-weighted and FLAIR MRI may demonstrate early cortical abnormalities in patients with CJD. The CSF assay for the 14-3-3 protein may be normal, even in pathologically confirmed cases. PMID:11450911

Jacobs, D A; Lesser, R L; Mourelatos, Z; Galetta, S L; Balcer, L J

2001-06-01

73

Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy not necessary to achieve high pathological remission in breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving trastuzumab and anthracyclines at the same time is effective at treating HER-2-positive breast cancer, but there is concern that this combination can be associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and colleagues in the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, shows these agents do not need to be given concurrently to achieve a high rate of complete pathological remission.

74

Oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation versus atypical extraventricular neurocytoma: a case report of unusual pathologic findings of a spinal cord tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiating oligodendroglioma from extraventricular neurocytoma by conventional light microscopy alone can present a diagnostic\\u000a challenge. We report pathologic findings of an unusual spinal cord tumor from a 33-year-old male patient which showed hybrid\\u000a features of oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an enhancing intramedullary\\u000a mass in the cervicothoracic region (C7 through T6). Histologic examination revealed a clear

Addisalem T. Makuria; Fraser C. Henderson; Elisabeth J. Rushing; Dan-Paul Hartmann; Norio Azumi; Metin Ozdemirli

2007-01-01

75

Clincal, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Pathological Findings and Outcomes in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The early diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis remains difficult. In South Africa, the HIV epidemic has shifted the spectrum\\u000a of meningitis towards chronic infections (mainly tuberculosis [TB] and cryptococcosis). This study aimed to analyse clinical,\\u000a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pathological findings and outcomes in TB meningitis to evaluate whether HIV infection significantly\\u000a influences the characteristic findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:

C.-M. Schutte

2001-01-01

76

Finding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different data mining algorithms applied to the same data can result in similar findings, typically in the form of rules. These similarities can be exploited to identify especially powerful rules, in particular those that are common to the different algorithms. This research focuses on the independent application of association and classification mining algorithms to the same data to discover common

Karthik Rajasethupathy; Anthony Scime; Kulathur S. Rajasethupathy; Gregg R. Murray

2009-01-01

77

Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

Samour, Jaime

2014-03-01

78

Common pathological processes in Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are conditions that affect a large number of people in the industrialized countries. Both conditions are on the increase, and finding novel treatments to cure or prevent them are a major aim in research. Somewhat surprisingly, AD and T2DM share several molecular processes that underlie the respective degenerative developments. This review

Lin Li; Christian Hölscher

2007-01-01

79

The gallbladder: uncommon gallbladder conditions and unusual presentations of the common gallbladder pathological processes.  

PubMed

This article reviews a spectrum of gallbladder conditions that are either uncommon or represent unusual manifestations of common diseases. These conditions are divided into four major categories: (a) congenital anomalies and normal variants including duplication, ectopia, and lymphangioma; (b) inflammatory processes and stone-related diseases and complications including adenomyomatosis, emphysematous cholecystitis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, gangrenous and hemorrhagic cholecystitis, perforation, gallstone ileus, and Bouveret and Mirizzi syndromes; (c) gallbladder neoplasms including adenocarcinoma with associated porcelain gallbladder, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma, and neurofibroma. A thorough understanding of the imaging characteristics of each condition can help the radiologist to make a timely and accurate diagnosis, thus avoiding potentially harmful delays in patient management and decreasing morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25063238

Revzin, Margarita V; Scoutt, Leslie; Smitaman, Edward; Israel, Gary M

2015-02-01

80

Prostate Cancer: Correlation of MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy with Pathologic Findings after Radiation Therapy—Initial Experience1  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy for depiction of local prostate cancer recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy, with step-section pathologic findings as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study received institutional approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Study was compliant with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Sextant biopsy, digital rectal examination, MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, and salvage radical prostatectomy with step-section pathologic examination were performed in nine patients with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels after external-beam radiation therapy. MR imaging criterion for tumor was a focal nodular region of reduced signal intensity at T2-weighted imaging. MR spectroscopic criteria for tumor were voxels with choline (Cho) plus creatine (Cr) to citrate (Cit) ratio ([Cho + Cr]/Cit) of at least 0.5 or voxels with detectable Cho and no Cit in the peripheral zone. Sensitivity and specificity of sextant biopsy, digital rectal examination, MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy were determined by using a prostate sextant as the unit of analysis. For feature analysis, MR imaging and MR spectroscopic findings were correlated with step-section pathologic findings. RESULTS: MR imaging and MR spectroscopy showed estimated sensitivities of 68% and 77%, respectively, while sensitivities of biopsy and digital rectal examination were 48% and 16%, respectively. MR spectroscopy appears to be less specific (78%) than the other three tests, each of which had a specificity higher than 90%. MR spectroscopic feature analysis showed that a metabolically altered benign gland could be falsely identified as tumor by using MR spectroscopic criteria; further analysis of MR spectroscopic features did not lead to improved MR spectroscopic criteria for recurrent tumor. CONCLUSION: In summary, MR imaging and MR spectroscopy may be more sensitive than sextant biopsy and digital rectal examination for sextant localization of cancer recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy. PMID:15972335

Pucar, Darko; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Hricak, Hedvig; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Olgac, Semra; Ebora, Lanie E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Zakian, Kristen L.

2008-01-01

81

Bilateral intralobar sequestration of the lung with a bridging isthmus: pathologic and radiologic findings.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old boy presented with pneumonia. Computed tomography demonstrated a multicystic mass at the posteromedial bilateral lower lobe segments, which were connected by a bronchus behind the heart. Enhanced computed tomography revealed that an anomalous artery arose from the left gastric artery and inserted into the left sequestrated lung and branched to the right one. The diagnosis of bilateral intralobar sequestration (ILS) with a bridging isthmus was made. After removal of the bilateral ILS, radiologic and pathologic approaches were undertaken to reconstruct the vascular and bronchial architectures. The following observations were made: (1) histologically, the region near the anomalous artery insertion site contained bronchial structures, which looked like an ectopic pulmonary hilus. This bronchial structure was continuously observed in the isthmus and its opening of the right sequestrated lung; (2) radiologically, the shape and course of the bronchi within the ILS indicated a distinct bronchial origin that arose from the pulmonary hilus-like structure, and the anomalous artery that ran along with those bronchi, resembled a pulmonary artery. These features suggested that this bilateral ILS might have originated from an accessory lung tissue. PMID:24144479

Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Komori, Koji; Kohno, Tatsuo; Hirobe, Seiichi; Miyauchi, Jun

2014-01-01

82

Silent soft tissue pathology is common with a modern metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported to be a cause of pain in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. We assessed the incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic adverse reactions in a consecutive series of patients with a modern large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Methods We studied the early clinical results and results of routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening in a series of 79 large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (ASR; DePuy, Leeds, UK) in 68 patients. 75 hips were MRI scanned at mean 31 (12–52) months after surgery. Results 27 of 75 hips had MRI-detected metal debris-related abnormalities, of which 5 were mild, 18 moderate, and 4 severe. 8 of these hips have been revised, 6 of which were revised for an adverse reaction to metal debris, diagnosed preoperatively with MRI and confirmed histologically. The mean Oxford hip score (OHS) for the whole cohort was 21. It was mean 23 for patients with no MRI-based evidence of adverse reactions and 19 for those with adverse reactions detected by MRI. 6 of 12 patients with a best possible OHS of 12 had MRI-based evidence of an adverse reaction. Interpretation We have found a high early revision rate with a modern, large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. MRI-detected adverse rections to metal debris was common and often clinically “silent”. We recommend that patients with this implant should be closely followed up and undergo routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening. PMID:21504335

2011-01-01

83

Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

1989-01-01

84

Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.  

PubMed

In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area. PMID:2775094

Roffe, T J; Stroud, R K; Windingstad, R M

1989-01-01

85

Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

Stanley, N. N., Williams, A. J., Dewar, C. A., Blendis, L. M., and Reid, Lynne (1977).Thorax, 32, 457-471. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings. A case is reported of liver cirrhosis complicated by cyanosis and recurrent right hydrothorax. A diagnostic pneumoperitoneum demonstrated that direct movement of ascites through a diaphragmatic defect was responsible for the hydrothoraces. Pulmonary function tests between episodes of hydrothorax showed severe arterial hypoxaemia, a 23% right-to-left shunt, and a reduction in the carbon monoxide transfer factor to less than half of the predicted value. Evidence of abnormal intrapulmonary arteriovenous communications was obtained by perfusion scanning. At necropsy the central tendon of the diaphragm showed numerous areas of thinning which were easily ruptured. Injection of the pulmonary arterial tree demonstrated precapillary arteriovenous anastomoses and pleural spider naevi. A morphometric analysis provided quantitative evidence of pulmonary vasodilatation limited to the intra-acinar arteries, consistent with the effect of a circulating vasodilator. The scintigraphic and pathological findings suggested that shunting had been greater in the right than the left lung. Examination of thin lung sections by light microscopy showed that the walls of small veins were thickened, and electron microscopy showed that this was due to a layer of collagen. The walls of capillaries were similarly thickened, which caused an approximately two-fold increase in the minimum blood-gas distance and contributed to the reduction in transfer factor. Images PMID:929488

Stanley, N. N.; Williams, A. J.; Dewar, C. A.; Blendis, L. M.; Reid, Lynne

1977-01-01

86

Pulmonary involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome: an analysis of CT, clinical, and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

We tried to assess retrospectively thin-section CT findings of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) in 25 patients and to compare these findings with clinical and histopathologic findings. Of 25 patients, 19 (76%) had parenchymal abnormalities at CT; small nodules (n = 12; 63%), ground-glass opacity (n = 10; 53%), bronchial wall thickening (n = 10; 53%), and consolidation (n = 8; 42%). Parenchymal abnormalities (n = 19) were categorizable as an airway pattern in 11 and an airspace pattern in eight. Patients with an airway pattern (n = 5) had obstructive (n = 3) or combined (n = 2) PFT results, whereas those with an airspace pattern (n = 4) had restrictive (n = 3) or obstructive (n = 1) results. Parenchymal opacities at CT corresponded histologically to areas of eosinophilic pneumonia, necrotizing granulomas, and granulomatous vasculitis; small nodules to eosinophilic bronchiolitis and peribronchiolar vasculitis; and bronchial wall thickening to airway wall eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration. Patients with airspace pattern responded more readily to treatment than those with airway pattern. CT shows lung parenchymal abnormalities in about three-quarters of CSS patients and these abnormalities can be categorized as airspace or airway patterns. This classification helps predict PFT data, underlying histopathology, and treatment response. PMID:17605012

Kim, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Han, Joungho; Chong, Semin; Chung, Myung Jin; Yi, Chin A; Kim, Ha Young

2007-12-01

87

Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

2015-04-01

88

Groove Pancreatitis: Spectrum of Imaging Findings and Radiology-Pathology Correlation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the “groove” between the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are strong associations with long-term alcohol abuse, functional obstruction of the duct of Santorini, and Brunner gland hyperplasia. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, differentiating groove pancreatitis from malignancy on the basis of imaging features, clinical presentation, or laboratory markers can be extraordinarily difficult, and the vast majority of these patients ultimately undergo a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) because of an inability to completely exclude malignancy. In certain cases, however, the imaging features on CT and MRI can allow the radiologist to prospectively suggest the correct diagnosis. PMID:23789694

Raman, Siva P.; Salaria, Safia N.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2014-01-01

89

Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing-a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the association for molecular pathology.  

PubMed

Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories. PMID:25684271

Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Bone Jeng, Linda Jo; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

2015-03-01

90

Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter. Epidemiologic, clinical, and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Two children and 29 of 31 crew members aboard a grain freighter became acutely ill after inhaling the toxic fumigant phosphine; one child died. Predominant symptoms were headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, cough, and shortness of breath. Abnormal physical findings included jaundice, paresthesias, ataxia, intention tremor, and diplopia. Focal myocardial infiltration with necrosis, pulmonary edema, and widespread small-vessel injury were found at postmortem examination of the dead child. The surviving child showed ECG and echocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury and transient elevation of the MB fraction of serum creatinine phosphokinase. Illness was significantly associated with living or working amidships or on the forward deck areas of the vessel. Phosphine gas was found to have escaped from the holds through a cable housing located near the midships ventilation intake and around hatch covers on the forward deck. The outbreak illustrates the hazards associated with shipboard fumigation. PMID:7382074

Wilson, R; Lovejoy, F H; Jaeger, R J; Landrigan, P L

1980-07-11

91

Correlation of transrectal ultrasonographic findings with histo pathology in prostatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate the incidence of hyperechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, prostatic cancer in TRUS (transrectal ultrasound guided) guided prostatic specimens. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and ninety three patients with raised serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and abnormal DRE findings were subjected to TRUS-Guided prostate biopsy. Lateralized sextant biopsy plus prostatic cores from suspicious areas were obtained. Results: Out of 493 patients who were enrolled in the study, 65 (13.18) patients showed hyperechoic lesions on TRUS and 211 (42.79) patients had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS. Conclusion: Our study has revealed that hyperechoic lesions on transrectal ultrasonography have more chances of prostatic cancer as reported in previous literature, so we suggest that we should take additional biopsy of hyperechoic lesions and perhaps it should be part of the standard protocol in patients suspected cancer prostate. PMID:25013831

Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wanie, Mohd Saleem; Ganie, Shabir Ahmad; Lone, Hafezulla; Gani, Masaratul; Mir, Mohd Farooq; Khan, Naseer Ahmad

2014-01-01

92

Periosteum: Characteristic imaging findings with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic comparisons.  

PubMed

The periosteum covers most bone structures. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cambial layer that exhibits osteogenic activity. The periosteum is a dynamic structure that plays a major role in bone modeling and remodeling under normal conditions. In several disorders such as infections, benign and malignant tumors, and systemic diseases, the osteogenic potential of the periosteum is stimulated and new bone is produced. The newly formed bone added onto the surface of the cortex adopts various configurations depending on the modalities and pace of bone production. Our aim here is to describe the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the periosteum and to review the various patterns of periosteal reaction with emphasis on relations between radiological and histopathological findings. A careful evaluation of the periosteal reaction and appearance of the underlying cortex, in combination with the MRI, clinical, and laboratory data, provides valuable information on lesion duration and aggressiveness, thereby assisting in the etiological diagnosis and optimizing patient management. A solid reaction strongly suggests a benign and slow-growing process that gives the bone enough time to wall off the lesion. Single lamellar reactions occur in acute and usually benign diseases. Multilamellar reactions are associated with intermediate aggressiveness and a growth rate close to the limit of the walling-off capabilities of the bone. Spiculated, interrupted, and complex combined reactions carry the worst prognosis, as they occur in the most aggressive and fast-growing diseases: the periosteum attempts to create new bone but is overwhelmed and may be breached. PMID:25269751

Bisseret, Damien; Kaci, Rachid; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Alison, Marianne; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Bousson, Valérie

2015-03-01

93

Pathological findings of slaughtered camels' (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran.  

PubMed

The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed. PMID:25568724

Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

2014-01-01

94

Pathological findings of slaughtered camels’ (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran  

PubMed Central

The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed.

Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

2014-01-01

95

Rethinking metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 pathological findings in psychiatric disorders: implications for the future of novel therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is of marked interest as a novel therapeutic mechanism to treat schizophrenia and major depression. However, the status of mGluR5 in the pathophysiology of these disorders remains unknown. Discussion The majority of studies in the schizophrenia post-mortem brain indicate that total mGluR5 expression is unaltered. However, close examination of the literature suggests that these findings are superficial, and in actuality, a number of critical factors have not yet been considered; alterations may be highly dependent on brain region, neuronal population or molecular organisation in specific cellular compartments. A number of genetic knockout studies (mGluR5, Norbin, Homer1 etc.) continue to lend support to a role of mGluR5 in the pathology of schizophrenia, providing impetus to explore the regulation of mGluR5 beyond total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels. With regards to major depression, preliminary evidence to date shows a reduction in total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels; however, as in schizophrenia, there are no studies examining mGluR5 function or regulation in the pathological state. A comprehensive understanding of mGluR5 regulation in major depression, particularly in comparison to schizophrenia, is crucial as this has extensive implications for mGluR5 targeting novel therapeutics, especially considering that opposing modulation of mGluR5 is of therapeutic interest for these two disorders. Summary Despite the complexities, examinations of post-mortem human brain provide valuable insights into the pathologies of these inherently human disorders. It is important, especially with regards to the identification of novel therapeutic drug targets, to have an in depth understanding of the pathophysiologies of these disorders. We posit that brain region- and cell type-specific alterations exist in mGluR5 in schizophrenia and depression, with evidence pointing towards altered regulation of this receptor in psychiatric pathology. We consider the implications of these alterations, as well as the distinction between schizophrenia and depression, in the context of novel mGluR5 based therapeutics. PMID:24472577

2014-01-01

96

Associations of intrauterine growth restriction with placental pathological factors, maternal factors and fetal factors; clinicopathological findings of 257 Japanese cases.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the leading cause of fetal mortality and morbidity. As an etiology, each of placental findings, maternal factors and fetal factors has been reported to be associated with IUGR, although a comprehensive approach to examine all of these parameters as a cause of IUGR has not been reported. In the present study, therefore, we comprehensively examined the placental findings and maternal and fetal factors in the cases of IUGR (n=257, mean maternal age, 30 years; gestational weeks, 34 weeks) and normal growth pregnancies (n=258, mean maternal age, 30 years; gestational weeks, 33 weeks), and determined risk factors for IUGR. The prevalence of pregnancy hypertension (PHT) (19% vs. 8%, P<0.01), smoking habit (3% vs. 0.7%, P<0.05) and fetal anomaly (3.5% vs. 0.8%, P<0.05) were higher in IUGR cases than normal growth pregnancies. Pathologically, the prevalence of infarction (33% vs. 14%, P<0.05), fetal vessel thrombosis (22% vs. 6%, P<0.001) and chronic villitis (11% vs. 3%, P<0.001) were higher in IUGR cases than those in normal growth pregnancies. A multivariable regression analysis revealed that maternal factors (PHT), fetal factors (anomaly), and placental findings (infarction, fetal vessel thrombosis, and chronic villitis) are independently associated with increased risk of IUGR (all P<0.01). PMID:23233065

Sato, Y; Benirschke, K; Marutsuka, K; Yano, Y; Hatakeyama, K; Iwakiri, T; Yamada, N; Kodama, Y; Sameshima, H; Ikenoue, T; Asada, Y

2013-01-01

97

UCI-led study finds a drug combo better for common type of metastatic breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Postmenopausal women with the most common type of metastatic breast cancer now have a new treatment option that lengthens their lives, according a study led by UC Irvine and conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group. The findings appear in the Aug. 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. A combination of the two anti-estrogen drugs anastrozole and fulvestrant extended the median survival time of women with Stage 4 hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer by more than six months compared to those who underwent standard treatment with anastrozole alone. UC Irvine is home to the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

98

The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

1991-02-01

99

Establishment of a long-surviving murine model of myocardial infarction: qualitative and quantitative conventional microscopic findings during pathological evolution.  

PubMed

Ongoing basic molecular analyses are being performed in mice, and a simple long-surviving murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) would be very useful in this regard. Although a few studies have induced MI in mice by coronary artery ligation, the induction involves a complex technique and has a relatively high mortality rate. In addition, the identification of the basic pathological sequence is essential to the interpretation of experimental results. We developed a simple technique for the induction of MI in mice and examined qualitative and quantitative conventional microscopic findings during the pathological evolution over a 28-day observation period. Male BALB/c mice weighing approximately 25-30 g were anesthetized and then ventilated with a positive pressure ventilator. The heart was exposed by thoracotomy. Left coronary artery occlusion was performed by thermocoagulation using a thermocoagulation knife at the level of the tip of the left atrium. After establishing this surgical method, we used it to induce MI in 71 mice. The operative and postoperative mortality rates of this model were 5.6% (4/71) and 12.6% (9/71), respectively. In 3 (5.2%) of the 58 surviving mice, the area of infarct was not sufficient. The infarct area in the remaining 55 mice was 40 +/- 9% of the entire perimeter of the left ventricle. Conventional microscopic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson-trichrome staining disclosed that all of the characteristic histopathological features of MI occurred 1-2 days earlier than those in rats. Our surgical technique provides a sufficient infarct area, with an acceptable mortality rate. The present study clarified the histopathological sequence in this long surviving murine MI model. PMID:10326655

Kumashiro, H; Kusachi, S; Moritani, H; Ohnishi, H; Nakahama, M; Uesugi, T; Ayada, Y; Nunoyama, H; Tsuji, T

1999-04-01

100

Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

Faria, Sergio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: sergio.faria@muhc.mcgill.ca; Menard, Sonia [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Sirois, Christian [Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lisbona, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2008-03-15

101

Assessment of extradural degenerative disease with Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging: correlation with surgical and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

To test whether gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MR would increase the conspicuity of extradural degenerative disease in the previously unoperated patient, we prospectively studied a group of 30 patients with symptoms suggestive of disk disease. Surgical findings and pathologic correlations were used as an objective measure of accuracy. Gadolinium-DTPA increased the confidence of diagnosis at one of eight operated cervical levels (six patients) and changed the diagnosis from extradural degenerative disease to tumor in one patient. The mechanism of enhancement of the epidural space and peridiskal region appears to be related to accumulation of contrast material within the epidural venous plexus, as well as to epidural fibrosis associated with disk disruption and herniation. While the immediate clinical utility of gadolinium-DTPA for morphologic analysis seems limited to difficult cervical spine cases, the presence of enhancement as a marker of epidural fibrosis and attempted healing may prove to be of great importance in studying the natural history and basic pathophysiology of degenerative disk disease. PMID:2104701

Ross, J S; Modic, M T; Masaryk, T J; Carter, J; Marcus, R E; Bohlman, H

1990-01-01

102

First fatality associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5 in an Asian elephant: pathological findings and complete viral genome sequence.  

PubMed

Infections of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause a rapid, highly lethal, hemorrhagic disease, which primarily affects juvenile animals up to the age of four years. So far, the majority of deaths have been attributed to infections with genotype EEHV1 or, more rarely, EEHV3 and EEHV4. Here, we report the pathological characteristics of the first fatality linked to EEHV5 infection, and describe the complete viral DNA sequence. Gross post-mortem and histological findings were indistinguishable from lethal cases previously attributed to other EEHV genotypes, and the presence of characteristic herpesviral inclusions in capillary endothelial cells at several sites was consistent with the diagnosis of acute EEHV infection. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of EEHV5 DNA and was followed by sequencing of the viral genome directly from post-mortem material. The genome is 180,800?bp in size and contains 120 predicted protein-coding genes, five of which are fragmented and presumably nonfunctional. The seven families of paralogous genes recognized in EEHV1 are also represented in EEHV5. The overall degree of divergence (37%) between the EEHV5 and EEHV1 genomes, and phylogenetic analysis of eight conserved genes, support the proposed classification of EEHV5 into a new species (Elephantid herpesvirus 5). PMID:25199796

Wilkie, Gavin S; Davison, Andrew J; Kerr, Karen; Stidworthy, Mark F; Redrobe, Sharon; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Denk, Daniela

2014-01-01

103

In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

McGrew, W C

2010-10-27

104

In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

McGrew, W. C.

2010-01-01

105

CloudLCA: finding the lowest common ancestor in metagenome analysis using cloud computing.  

PubMed

Estimating taxonomic content constitutes a key problem in metagenomic sequencing data analysis. However, extracting such content from high-throughput data of next-generation sequencing is very time-consuming with the currently available software. Here, we present CloudLCA, a parallel LCA algorithm that significantly improves the efficiency of determining taxonomic composition in metagenomic data analysis. Results show that CloudLCA (1) has a running time nearly linear with the increase of dataset magnitude, (2) displays linear speedup as the number of processors grows, especially for large datasets, and (3) reaches a speed of nearly 215 million reads each minute on a cluster with ten thin nodes. In comparison with MEGAN, a well-known metagenome analyzer, the speed of CloudLCA is up to 5 more times faster, and its peak memory usage is approximately 18.5% that of MEGAN, running on a fat node. CloudLCA can be run on one multiprocessor node or a cluster. It is expected to be part of MEGAN to accelerate analyzing reads, with the same output generated as MEGAN, which can be import into MEGAN in a direct way to finish the following analysis. Moreover, CloudLCA is a universal solution for finding the lowest common ancestor, and it can be applied in other fields requiring an LCA algorithm. PMID:22426983

Zhao, Guoguang; Bu, Dechao; Liu, Changning; Li, Jing; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

2012-02-01

106

Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Preliminary study results suggest that a biomarker may ... then exposed to a rhinovirus, which causes a common cold, and quarantined for 5 days to see if ...

107

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

108

Leukoaraiosis, a Common Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding, as a Predictor of Traffic Crashes  

PubMed Central

Background There are no reported studies on the relationship between traffic crashes and brain tissue changes in healthy drivers. The relationship between traffic crashes and leukoaraiosis, a common magnetic resonance imaging finding, was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 3,930 automobile drivers (2,037 men and 1,893 women; age, 21–87 years) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging as part of total health check-ups and answered a road traffic questionnaire were examined to determine whether asymptomatic leukoaraiosis was associated with various types of traffic crashes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to elucidate the relationship between leukoaraiosis and various types of traffic crashes. Results Subcortical leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 28.52% of all subjects, whereas periventricular leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 9.57% of all subjects. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in all types of traffic crashes were not significant for subjects with periventricular leukoaraiosis; however, they were significant for subjects with multiple and large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in crashes at crossroads were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.00) for subjects with single subcortical leukoaraiosis, 3.35 (95% CI, 2.36–4.77) for subjects with multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, and 2.45 (95% CI, 2.36–4.98) for subjects with large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Periventricular leukoaraiosis was not significantly associated with crossroad crashes. Involvement in crashes of any type, parking lot crashes, and rear-end collisions showed no significant association with either subcortical or periventricular leukoaraiosis. Conclusions Multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, but not periventricular leukoaraiosis, is significantly associated with traffic crashes, in particular, crossroad crashes. This association is independent of sex, age, and driving exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence describing the relationship between brain tissue changes and traffic crashes. PMID:23437354

Park, Kaechang; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kumagai, Yasuhiko; Nagahara, Mitsuhiro

2013-01-01

109

An Autopsy Study Describing Causes of Death and Comparing Clinico-Pathological Findings among Hospitalized Patients in Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Information on causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is mainly derived from observational cohort and verbal autopsy studies. Autopsy is the gold standard to ascertain cause of death. We conducted an autopsy study to describe and compare the clinical and autopsy causes of death and contributory findings in hospitalized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients in Uganda. Methods Between May and September 2009 a complete autopsy was performed on patients that died on a combined infectious diseases gastroenterology ward in Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Autopsy cause of death and contributing findings were based on the macro- and microscopic post-mortem findings combined with clinical information. Clinical diagnoses were reported by the ward doctor and classified as confirmed, highly suspected, considered or not considered, based on information derived from the medical chart. Results are reported according to HIV serostatus. Results Fifty-three complete autopsies were performed in 66% HIV-positive, 21% HIV-negative and 13% patients with an unknown HIV serological status. Infectious diseases caused death in 83% of HIV-positive patients, with disseminated TB as the main diagnosis causing 37% of deaths. The spectrum of illness and causes of death were substantially different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients 12% of postmortem diagnoses were clinically confirmed, 27% highly suspected, 16% considered and 45% not considered. In HIV-negative patients 17% of postmortem diagnoses were clinically highly suspected, 42% considered and 42% not considered. Conclusion Autopsy examination remains an important tool to ascertain causes of death particularly in settings with limited access to diagnostic testing during life. HIV-positive patients continue to die from treatable and clinically undiagnosed infectious diseases. Until rapid-point of care testing is available to confirm common infections, empiric treatment should be further investigated. PMID:22432042

Nelson, Ann M.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Van Marck, Eric; Manabe, Yukari C.

2012-01-01

110

Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four herds the following case-definition of NNPDS was suggested: Non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first week of life, without detection of known infectious pathogens, characterized by milk-filled stomachs and flaccid intestines at necropsy. PMID:24119974

2013-01-01

111

Study finds cancer programs in Michigan follow care guidelines for common cancers  

Cancer.gov

A majority of Michigan oncology practices participating in a statewide consortium followed treatment guidelines for common cancers, but had gaps in managing symptoms and end-of-life care, according to a new study.

112

[The danger of infection and common medical pathology among adults in the Sahel. Niger as an example].  

PubMed

In Niger, the infectious risk is of real concern in the field of the pathology of the adult, mainly caused by the major endemic diseases: Parasitic diseases such as malaria, bilharziasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and recently visceral leishmaniasis, Bacterial diseases such as enterobacterial diseases, amibiasis, meningococcal diseases, tuberculosis, leprosy and treponematosis, Virus diseases such as arbovirus diseases and probably viral hepatitis. On the whole, the rate of occurrence and prevalence are not more significant than those in the neighbouring countries. On the other hand, diseases prevailing all over the world do not save the indigenous. Some recent hospital statistics demonstrate that the disease of the liver and the digestive system (28.8 pc), the respiratory diseases (16.49 pc), and the cardiovascular diseases (14.63 pc) are prevalent. PMID:6482727

Barbotin-Larrieu, M; Sankalé, M

1984-01-01

113

Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies  

PubMed Central

Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma. PMID:23936651

Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

2013-01-01

114

DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes  

E-print Network

of Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2 Translational Cardiomyology, Stem Cell Institute Leuven Department of Development and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast

115

FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

116

Extra-nigral pathological conditions are common in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: an in vivo positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Cholinergic denervation has been associated with falls and slower gait speed and ?-amyloid deposition with greater severity of axial motor impairments in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the association between the presence of extra-nigral pathological conditions and freezing of gait (FoG). Patients with PD (n?=?143; age, 65.5?±?7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.4?±?0.6; Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, 25.9?±?2.6) underwent [(11) C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase and [(11) C]dihydrotetrabenazine dopaminergic PET imaging, and clinical, including FoG, assessment in the dopaminergic "off" state. A subset of subjects (n?=?61) underwent [(11) C]Pittsburgh compound-B ?-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Normative data were used to dichotomize abnormal ?-amyloid uptake or cholinergic deficits. Freezing of gait was present in 20 patients (14.0%). Freezers had longer duration of disease (P?=?0.009), more severe motor disease (P?common in patients with diminished neocortical cholinergic innervation (23.9%, ?(2) ?=?5.56, P?=?0.018), but not in the thalamic cholinergic denervation group (17.4%, ?(2) ?=?0.26, P?=?0.61). Subgroup analysis showed higher frequency of FoG with increased neocortical ?-amyloid deposition (30.4%, Fisher Exact test: P?=?0.032). Frequency of FoG was lowest with absence of both pathological conditions (4.8%), intermediate in subjects with single extra-nigral pathological condition (14.3%), and highest with combined neocortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy (41.7%; Cochran-Armitage trend test, Z?=?2.63, P?=?0.015). Within the group of freezers, 90% had at least one of the two extra-nigral pathological conditions studied. Extra-nigral pathological conditions, in particular the combined presence of cortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy, are common in PD with FoG and may contribute to its pathophysiology. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:24909584

Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Frey, Kirk A; Studenski, Stephanie; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Constantine, Gregory M; Scott, Peter J H; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M

2014-08-01

117

Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

Fulkerson, Gregory

2009-01-01

118

Effects of Dietary Selenium on Tissue Concentrations, Pathology, Oxidative Stress, and Immune Function in Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached

J. Christian Franson; David J. Hoffman; Alicia Wells-Berlin; Matthew C. Perry; Valerie Shearn-Bochsler; Daniel L. Finley; Paul L. Flint; Tuula Hollmén

2007-01-01

119

Finding a needle in the common carotid artery 3 years after ingestion.  

PubMed

A woman presented with an ischemic stroke involving the right middle cerebral artery. Investigations revealed a foreign body in the cervical area. It was identified as a metal needle, perforating the posterior pharyngeal wall and migrating into the right common carotid artery (CCA). Three years previously, this patient had complained of odynophagia, brought on by needle ingestion. Three days before her stroke, she had hematemesis, caused by migration of the needle into the CCA. The stroke was caused by migration of the thrombus. This type of event is rarely encountered in Europe. Early recognition could avoid dangerous vascular complications. PMID:24447848

Gaudin, Marie; Couchet, Geoffroy; Carrieres, Caroline; Ribal, Jean-Pierre; Rosset, Eugenio

2014-07-01

120

Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation. Methods Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status. Conclusion BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed. PMID:24155760

Noh, Jae Myoung; Han, Boo-Kyung; Rhee, Sun Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Park, Hyojung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

2013-01-01

121

Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) in northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus.  

PubMed

This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years. PMID:19703784

Balseiro, Ana; Dalton, Kevin P; del Cerro, Ana; Márquez, Isabel; Parra, Francisco; Prieto, José M; Casais, R

2010-11-01

122

Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

2007-01-01

123

Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

2007-01-01

124

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in a fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly. Report of a case diagnosed by genetic analysis, and correlation with pathological andradiologic findings.  

PubMed

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly characterized by a disproportionate limb dwarfism, chondroectodermal dysplasia, congenital heart disease, postaxial polydactyly, and dysplastic fingernails and teeth. Only 300 cases have been published worldwide. We report a 21-week fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly detected. Gross photographs, radiologic studies and pathological study were performed leading to the clinico-pathological suspicion of EvC. DNA from fresh fetal tissue was extracted for sequencing the EVC and EVC2 genes. p.W215X and p.R677X mutations were identified in the EVC2 gene in the fetal sample. Parental sample analysis showed the p.W215X mutation to be inherited from the mother and the p.R677X mutation from the father. The clinical information is essential not only to arrive at a correct diagnosis in fetuses with pathologic ultrasound findings, but also to offer a proper genetic counseling to the parents and their relatives. PMID:22406498

Peraita-Ezcurra, Milena; Martínez-García, Mónica; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, María Eugenia; Fenollar-Cortés, María; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Ramos-Corrales, Carmen; Pastor, Ignacio; Santonja, Carlos; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

2012-05-10

125

Predictive value of 18(F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography compared to postoperative pathological findings for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the predictive value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared to that of postoperative pathological findings, for T and N staging and the associations of the metabolic parameters of the primary tumor with histological type and differentiation. The preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT and postoperative pathological findings of 112 NSCLC patients treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy combined with systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the effect of contrast-enhanced CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT on T and N staging were evaluated. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor were measured. The associations between these metabolic parameters and histological type and differentiation were also evaluated. The differences in the accuracy in overall staging and T staging between PET-CT and contrast-enhanced CT were significant (91.1 vs. 69.6%, P=0.000; and 92.9 vs. 76.8%, P=0.000, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of regional lymph node metastasis detection were 91.7, 93.0, 86.5, 95.8 and 92.6%, respectively, with PET-CT; and 71.3, 77.2, 60.6, 84.5 and 75.2%, respectively, with contrast-enhanced CT. The SUVmax (7.29±1.83 vs. 5.91±1.65, t=4.15, P=0.000) and MTV (48.20±22.47 vs. 30.21±19.72 cm(3), t=4.48, P=0.000) were significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to those for adenocarcinoma (AC). There was a positive correlation between the MTV and SUVmax of the primary tumor (Pearson's r=0.838, P=0.000). Significant differences were observed among differentiation subgroups in the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor for both SCC and AC. In conclusion, compared to the postoperative pathological findings, the predictive value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT for T and N staging in NSCLC was higher compared to that of contrast-enhanced CT. The FDG uptake of the primary tumor was associated with histological type and differentiation and the difference was statistically significant. Therefore, the SUVmax and MTV of the primary tumor may be valuable indices to partly predict the histological type and grade of differentiation of NSCLC. PMID:25469279

Xue, Jie; Zheng, Jinsong; Guo, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaohui; Han, Anqin

2015-01-01

126

Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

2004-09-01

127

Radiologic-pathologic correlation of three-dimensional shear-wave elastographic findings in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency ablation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. METHODS: RF ablation was performed in vivo in 10 rat livers using a 15-gauge expandable RF needle. 3D SWE as well as B-mode ultrasound (US) were performed 15 min after ablation. The acquired 3D volume data were rendered as multislice images (interslice distance: 1.10 mm), and the estimated ablation volumes were calculated. The 3D SWE findings were compared against digitized photographs of gross pathological and histopathological specimens of the livers obtained in the same sectional planes as the 3D SWE multislice images. The ablation volumes were also estimated by gross pathological examination of the livers, and the results were then compared with those obtained by 3D SWE. RESULTS: In B-mode US images, the ablation zone appeared as a hypoechoic area with a peripheral hyperechoic rim; however, the findings were too indistinct to be useful for estimating the ablation area. 3D SWE depicted the ablation area and volume more clearly. In the images showing the largest ablation area, the mean kPa values of the peripheral rim, central zone, and non-ablated zone were 13.1 ± 1.5 kPa, 59.1 ± 21.9 kPa, and 4.3 ± 0.8 kPa, respectively. The ablation volumes depicted by 3D SWE correlated well with those estimated from gross pathological examination (r2 = 0.9305, P = 0.00001). The congestion and diapedesis of red blood cells observed in histopathological examination were greater in the peripheral rim of the ablation zone than in the central zone. CONCLUSION: 3D SWE outperforms B-mode US in delineating ablated areas in the liver and is therefore more reliable for spatially delineating thermal lesions created by RF ablation. PMID:25206291

Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Ogawa, Saori; Honjo, Mitsuyoshi; Hara, Takeshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

2014-01-01

128

Pathological findings in a patient with Fabry disease who died after 2.5 years of enzyme replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the postmortem findings of a 47-year-old man with Fabry disease, an X-linked glycolipid storage disorder, who was on enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant ?-galactosidase A for more than 2 years. The patient had widespread atherosclerotic coronary artery disease that culminated in a massive acute myocardial infarction. Atherosclerotic lesions were seen in the right and left coronary systems, aorta,

Raphael Schiffmann; Amy Rapkiewicz; Mones Abu-Asab; Markus Ries; Hasan Askari; Maria Tsokos; Martha Quezado

2006-01-01

129

Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are non-specific: 13-year-experience at a German Heart Center  

PubMed Central

Background and aim: Ventricular assist devices (VAD) have become an established therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. The two main reasons for this development are the shortage of appropriate donor organs and the increasing number of patients waiting for heart transplantation (HTX). Furthermore, the enormous advances in the technical equipment and the rising clinical experience have improved the implantation technique, the durability and the long-term patient outcomes. Methods: We reviewed all cases of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation at our Erlangen Heart Center during January 2000-July 2013. The main aim of this study was to analyze the underlying pathology from the cardiac apex removed during the implantation. From all patients, we created a follow-up, analyzed the pathological features with the clinical diagnoses and described the overall outcome. Results: VAD implantation was performed in 266 cases at our center in the last 13 years (2.2% of the total of 12254 cardiac surgical operations in that period). From these patients, 223 underwent LVAD or biventricular (BVAD) implantation; the remaining received a right (RVAD) implantation. The most frequent underlying clinical diagnoses were dilated (n = 84, 37.7%, DCM) or ischemic (n = 61, 27.4%, ICM) cardiomyopathy. The pathological findings in the apex biopsy were generally non-specific and showed variable interstitial myocardial fibrosis with evidence of fibre loss, fatty degeneration and variable irregular atrophy of muscle fibres, consistent with dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathies as the most frequent causes of heart failure in these patients. Only a few cases showed other specific features such as myocarditis and AL-amyloidosis. Conclusions: Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during LVAD implantation are rather non-specific and they generally reflect the late stage or consequences of chronic myocardial damage in cases of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathies. Variable patchy chronic inflammatory changes may be observed in cardiomyopathies as a non-specific reaction caused by myocardial fiber damage and should not lead to misinterpretation as evidence of myocarditis or revision of original diagnosis. PMID:25337196

Strecker, Thomas; Rösch, Johannes; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

2014-01-01

130

Gastric Stromal Tumors in Carney Triad Are Different Clinically, Pathologically, and Behaviorally From Sporadic Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Findings in 104 Cases  

PubMed Central

Carney triad, as originally described in 1977, was the association of 3 tumors: gastric epithelioid leiomyosarcoma [later renamed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)], extra-adrenal paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma. The disorder affected mostly young women and was not familial. We studied the clinical and pathologic features of the gastric neoplasm in 104 patients with the syndrome. Most (88%) were young women (mean age, 22 y), and the usual presentation was gastric bleeding. The tumors, commonly antral-based (61%), were multifocal, and ranged from 0.2 to 18.0 cm in dimension. Most (86%) featured round and polygonal (epithelioid) cells. Metastasis occurred in 49 patients (47%): to gastric lymph nodes (29%), liver (25%), and peritoneum (13%). Immunopositivity was detected in the tumors tested as follows: KIT, 100%; CD34, 75%; PKCy, 21%; PDGFRA, 90%; and smooth muscle actin, 6%. Fourteen patients (13%) died of metastatic GIST at a mean age of 45 years (range, 30 to 69 y). Estimated 10 and 40-year survivals were 100% and 73%, respectively. Median survival time was 26.5 years (range, 16 to 60 y). There was no correlation between the National Institutes of Health tumor risk classification and the tumor behavior. Compared with sporadic gastric GISTs, the gastric stromal tumor in Carney triad showed distinctive features: female predilection, young patient age, epithelioid cell predominance, multifocality, frequent lymph node metastasis, serial tumor occurrence, and unpredictable behavior. Thus, the Carney triad gastric stromal tumor is different clinically, pathologically, and behaviorally from sporadic gastric GIST. PMID:19935059

Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Young, William F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Carney, J. Aidan

2013-01-01

131

Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

2013-12-01

132

A case of pulmonary choriocarcinoma metastasis with unusual FDG-PET and CT findings: correlation with pathology.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old female who had had a hydatidiform mole at 20 years of age showed high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin. Because pelvic ultrasound did not show any gestational sac in her uterus, she was suspected to have had an extrauterine pregnancy and a spontaneous abortion. About 6 months later, a pulmonary nodule in the patient's right upper lung field was found on a routine chest X-ray film. Contrast- enhanced CT scans revealed a solitary lobulated nodule 2.0 × 1.3 × 3.0 cm in diameter in the S2 segment of the right lung. CT suggested a vessel malformation. Positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG-PET) was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax = 2.0) in the nodule, which did not positively indicate malignancy. Because a follow-up CT showed a rapid increase in the size of the nodule, partial resection of S2 segment in the right upper lobe was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a metastasis from choriocarcinoma. The tumor consisted largely of necrosis and hemorrhage, and it was considered to be a major cause of the unusual FDG-PET and CT findings. PMID:22893003

Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koichiro; Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kubo, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Shinji; Yano, Tokujiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-12-01

133

Survey of pigs' kidneys with lesions consistent with PMWS and PDNS and ochratoxicosis. Part 2: pathological and histological findings.  

PubMed

One thousand condemned pigs' kidneys were collected in February 2002 from two pig abattoirs in England to assess the lesions due to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) and the possible contribution of ochratoxicosis; 174 of the kidneys were pale, 295 were swollen and 81 were abnormally firm with the gross appearance of fibrosis. The main macroscopic finding was the presence of multifocal pale cortical lesions, observed in 446 of the kidneys, and there were large cysts in 266 of them. Histopathological lesions of non-suppurative tubulointerstitial nephritis, with degeneration and fibrosis of renal tubules, were identified in 213 of 250 (85.2 per cent) of the kidneys examined. These lesions were consistent with those reported in cases of pmws and pdns. The tubular degeneration and fibrosis were also consistent with ochratoxicosis. A higher mean concentration of ochratoxin A was significantly (P=0.020) associated with the presence of multifocal pale cortical lesions consistent with ochratoxicosis, but a causal relationship was not confirmed because histochemistry was not used to detect ochratoxin in the lesions directly. There was no significant correlation between the microscopic lesions and the concentration of ochratoxin. The degenerative lesions may have been caused by previous exposure to ochratoxin that had subsequently been excreted, but the microscopic lesions also included non-suppurative interstitial nephritis, which was unlikely to have been caused by ochratoxicosis. PMID:17142623

Gresham, A; Done, S; Livesey, C; MacDonald, S; Chan, D; Sayers, R; Clark, C; Kemp, P

2006-12-01

134

MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

Thomas M. Link

135

Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. PMID:25119440

Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

2014-10-01

136

Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. RESULTS The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate- specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. CONCLUSION In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (?3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:24509182

Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N.; Türkbey, Bar??; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

2014-01-01

137

Value and Usefulness of a Collaborative Information Sharing Forum: Findings from the “Common Ground” Conference Evaluation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the value, usefulness, and impact of the “Common Ground, Common Language, Common Goals (CCC): Bringing Substance Abuse Practice and Research Together” conference, which was held April 2001 in Los Angeles, participants were surveyed regarding the effectiveness of the conference overall, the impact of the conference on attendees' collaborative behaviors, and the quality of the roundtable discussion sessions and

Natasha De Veauuse Brown

2002-01-01

138

["Hic gaudet mors succurere vitae", autopsy findings of the Mainz Institute of Pathology 1971-2010. An analysis on the occasion of the 100 year jubilee].  

PubMed

In the past numerous analyses have studied several aspects of autopsies in particular with regard to the decline of frequency; however, long-term studies spanning more than one decade have rarely been published, especially in recent years. On the occasion of the 100 year jubilee the archive data of the Institute of Pathology of the University of Mainz were analyzed for autopsies performed between 1971 and 2010. In this cohort, we focused on patients over?14 years old (n?=?14,724) who died in the University hospital. We compared the number of autopsies with the total number of deceased patients and, in addition, studied several epidemiological aspects with special relevance for the cause of death (COD). In 1973 the peak autopsy frequency was reached with a value of 73.4?% followed by a decrease to 49.1?% in 1980. In the following decade a relatively steady state was achieved (frequency 53.3?% in 1985, and 43.2?% in 1990), followed by a remarkable decline after the 1990s (1997: 26.4?%, 1998: 15.9?% and 2010: 5.6?%). The mean overall age increased during the observation period (59.1 years in 1971 and 67.5 years in 2008). Among the COD groups cardiovascular diseases were predominantly recorded (between 35?% in the 1970s and 39?% in 1995-2010), followed by infectious diseases (between 20 and 25?%). Malignancies represented the third most common COD group with an increase in frequency from approximately 10.5?% in the 1970s to 17?% observed in the last decade. Among the single specific CODs, pulmonary embolism was most often encountered in the 1970s (about 11.5?%), while in the following decades myocardial infarction predominated (up to 15.8?% between 1995 and 2010). In the overall period, lung cancer was the single most common malignancy of the CODs (between 2.5 and 3.9?%). These data confirmed previous studies showing that in Germany the autopsy frequency began to decline remarkably in the 1990s. Besides general aspects, the specific local causes for these phenomena are discussed. PMID:24957867

Hansen, T; Höring, S; Rosendahl, F; Dusolt, M; Kempe, C; Hechtner, M; Sommer, C; Kirkpatrick, C J

2014-07-01

139

Inhibition of fibrosis and inflammation by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin in rabbits with drug-induced lung injury: comparison of CT imaging and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

In a rabbit model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, computed tomography (CT) and pathological studies were conducted to investigate whether the progression of this injury is inhibited by pirfenidone and by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. We divided nine rabbits with bleomycin-induced lung injury into three equally sized groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received pirfenidone alone and group 3 was treated with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. Multidetector CT (MDCT) scans were acquired immediately after the administration of bleomycin, and further scans were performed on days 14 and 28. The area of abnormal opacity was calculated. The rabbit lungs were removed and the size of abnormal areas in macroscopic specimens was calculated and the degree of fibrosis and inflammation in microscopic specimens was scored. In order, the average size of the area of abnormal opacity on CT scans was largest in group 1, followed by groups 2 and 3. On day 28, the area of opacity was significantly smaller in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.071). The average size of the area of abnormal opacity on macroscopic findings was largest in group 1, followed in order by groups 2 and 3; the difference between group 1 and 3 was significant (P<0.05). The average fibrosis score was highest in group 3 followed by groups 2 and 1. By contrast, the average inflammation score was highest in group 2 followed by groups 1 and 3. Although the administration of pirfenidone alone slowed the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury, the triple-drug combination was more effective. PMID:24223628

WATANABE, SHOBU; NITTA, NORIHISA; SONODA, AKINAGA; NITTA-SEKO, AYUMI; OHTA, SHINICHI; TSUCHIYA, KEIKO; OTANI, HIDEJI; TOMOZAWA, YUKI; NAGATANI, YUKIHIRO; MUKAISHO, KENICHI; TAKAHASHI, MASASHI; MURATA, KIYOSHI

2013-01-01

140

Inhibition of fibrosis and inflammation by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin in rabbits with drug-induced lung injury: comparison of CT imaging and pathological findings.  

PubMed

In a rabbit model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, computed tomography (CT) and pathological studies were conducted to investigate whether the progression of this injury is inhibited by pirfenidone and by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. We divided nine rabbits with bleomycin-induced lung injury into three equally sized groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received pirfenidone alone and group 3 was treated with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. Multidetector CT (MDCT) scans were acquired immediately after the administration of bleomycin, and further scans were performed on days 14 and 28. The area of abnormal opacity was calculated. The rabbit lungs were removed and the size of abnormal areas in macroscopic specimens was calculated and the degree of fibrosis and inflammation in microscopic specimens was scored. In order, the average size of the area of abnormal opacity on CT scans was largest in group 1, followed by groups 2 and 3. On day 28, the area of opacity was significantly smaller in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.071). The average size of the area of abnormal opacity on macroscopic findings was largest in group 1, followed in order by groups 2 and 3; the difference between group 1 and 3 was significant (P<0.05). The average fibrosis score was highest in group 3 followed by groups 2 and 1. By contrast, the average inflammation score was highest in group 2 followed by groups 1 and 3. Although the administration of pirfenidone alone slowed the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury, the triple-drug combination was more effective. PMID:24223628

Watanabe, Shobu; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Ohta, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Otani, Hideji; Tomozawa, Yuki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

2013-11-01

141

UCLA stem cell scientists find tumor suppressor genes vital to regulating blood precursor cells in the common fruit fly  

Cancer.gov

UCLA scientists affiliated with the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have shown that two common tumor suppressor genes, TSC and PTEN, are vital to regulating the stem cell-like precursor cells that create the blood supply in Drosophila, the common fruit fly.

142

Do you really know precise radiologic-pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?  

PubMed

Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic-pathological correlation. PMID:23806534

Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

143

Dana-Farber researchers find that revamped radiation treatment schedule for common form of brain cancer can extend survival  

Cancer.gov

An altered radiation treatment schedule for the most common and lethal form of brain cancer extended survival times, a new study by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other organizations has shown.

144

Microprobe analysis in human pathology  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references.

Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

1985-01-01

145

Pathologic tooth migration.  

PubMed

Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication of moderate to severe periodontitis and is often the motivation for patients to seek periodontal therapy. In this review of the literature, available information concerning prevalence, etiology, treatment, and prevention of pathologic tooth migration is summarized. Prevalence of PTM among periodontal patients has been reported to range from 30.03% to 55.8%. A survey of the literature regarding chief complaints of periodontal patients support these high prevalence findings. The etiology of PTM appears to be multifactorial. Periodontal bone loss appears to be a major factor in the etiology of PTM. Many aspects of occlusion can contribute to abnormal migration of teeth, and more than one of those factors may be present in an individual patient. Soft tissue forces of the tongue, cheeks, and lips are known to cause tooth movement and in some situations can cause PTM. Also considered important in the etiology of PTM is pressure produced from inflammatory tissues within periodontal pockets. Because extrusion is a common form of PTM, clinical observations support the theory that eruption forces sometimes play a role in the etiology of PTM. Many oral habits have been associated with PTM which are often difficult for the therapist to detect. Most cases of severe PTM require a team approach to achieve success. Periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment are often required. Many patient variables enter into the selection of treatment for PTM. In early stages of PTM, spontaneous correction of migrated teeth sometimes occurs after periodontal therapy. Light intrusive forces are used successfully to treat extrusion and flaring forms of PTM. Based on the literature reviewed, it appears that many cases of PTM could be prevented through the early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, occlusal contributing factors, gingival enlargement, and oral habits. PMID:15948679

Brunsvold, Michael A

2005-06-01

146

Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links  

E-print Network

Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links list (below in alphabetical order) to jump to all other web sites. Have a site you Emeritus o Leaving o New · Emergency Alert o WVU Alert Web site o WVU Phone/Email Alert o Monongalia County

Mohaghegh, Shahab

147

Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.  

PubMed

Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into underserved communities to deliver the oral health message. Involvement and participation on all levels, with diverse and non-traditional partners will make a difference. The National Dental Association applauds the commitment of the American Dental Assistants Association to form alliances that address the issues of access and disparities. Groups working together for a common good are linked together by one common notion: Caring Counts. PMID:12861781

Harper, Hazel J

2003-01-01

148

Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10?6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10?6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10?17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10?8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10?10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija

2014-01-01

149

Arthritis Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathologic examination of failed joints, whether natural or artificial, is an indispensable part of the understanding of arthritis, as it is the last, and still best opportunity to determine or verify the correct diagnosis. Accuracy in pathologic diagnosis, based on a firm understanding of the various disease processes, provides reliable data for use in clinical registries, provides an opportunity

Edward F. DiCarlo; Michael J. Klein

150

Unforeseen renal pathological findings in a patient with type 2 cardiorenal syndrome who died after 4?years of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis  

PubMed Central

A man in his 30s with dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted to our hospital with heart failure exacerbation. Despite optimal medical treatment, his renal function progressively declined to end-stage renal failure. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) was diagnosed and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was started. He died of a brainstem infarction 4?years later. Postmortem renal pathology revealed no significant changes in the glomeruli except for shrinkage, normal arterioles and focal degeneration of the tubules with peritubular fibrosis. This suggests that renal replacement therapy can be withdrawn from some patients with type 2 CRS. PMID:23354864

Matsui, Masaru; Okayama, Satoshi; Samejima, Kenichi; Saito, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

151

Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs.

Woo, Sungmin

2015-01-01

152

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, R.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.

2000-01-01

153

Incidental Findings on Brain MR Imaging in Older Community-Dwelling Subjects Are Common but Serious Medical Consequences Are Rare: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Incidental findings in neuroimaging occur in 3% of volunteers. Most data come from young subjects. Data on their occurrence in older subjects and their medical, lifestyle and financial consequences are lacking. We determined the prevalence and medical consequences of incidental findings found in community-dwelling older subjects on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Design Prospective cohort observational study. Setting Single centre study with input from secondary care. Participants Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, a study of cognitive ageing. Main Outcome Measures Incidental findings identified by two consultant neuroradiologists on structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years; resulting medical referrals and interventions. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Prevalence of incidental findings by individual categories: neoplasms, cysts, vascular lesions, developmental, ear, nose or throat anomalies, by intra- and extracranial location; visual rating of white matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy. Results There were 281 incidental findings in 223 (32%) of 700 subjects, including 14 intra- or extracranial neoplasms (2%), 15 intracranial vascular anomalies (2%), and 137 infarcts or haemorrhages (20%). Additionally, 153 had moderate/severe deep white matter hyperintensities (22%) and 176 had cerebral atrophy at, or above, the upper limit of normal (25%) compared with a normative population template. The incidental findings were unrelated to white matter hyperintensities or atrophy; about a third of subjects had both incidental findings and moderate or severe WMH and a quarter had incidental findings and atrophy. The incidental findings resulted in one urgent and nine non-urgent referrals for further medical assessment, but ultimately in no new treatments. Conclusions In community-dwelling older subjects, incidental findings, including white matter hyperintensities and atrophy, were common. However, many findings were not of medical importance and, in this age group, most did not result in further assessment and none in change of treatment. PMID:23967214

Sandeman, Elaine M.; Hernandez, Maria del Carmen Valdes; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Corley, Janie; Henderson, Ross; Deary, Ian J.; Starr, John M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

2013-01-01

154

Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

2014-01-01

155

Cryptic deletions are a common finding in “balanced” reciprocal and complex chromosome rearrangements: a study of 59 patients  

PubMed Central

Using array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) 41 de novo reciprocal translocations and 18 de novo complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) were screened. All cases had been interpreted as “balanced” by conventional cytogenetics. In all, 27 cases of reciprocal translocations were detected in patients with an abnormal phenotype, and after array CGH analysis, 11 were found to be unbalanced. Thus 40% (11 of 27) of patients with a “chromosomal phenotype” and an apparently balanced translocation were in fact unbalanced, and 18% (5 of 27) of the reciprocal translocations were instead complex rearrangements with >3 breakpoints. Fourteen fetuses with de novo, apparently balanced translocations, all but two with normal ultrasound findings, were also analysed and all were found to be normal using array CGH. Thirteen CCRs were detected in patients with abnormal phenotypes, two in women who had experienced repeated spontaneous abortions and three in fetuses. Sixteen patients were found to have unbalanced mutations, with up to 4 deletions. These results suggest that genome?wide array CGH may be advisable in all carriers of “balanced” CCRs. The parental origin of the deletions was investigated in 5 reciprocal translocations and 11 CCRs; all were found to be paternal. Using customised platforms in seven cases of CCRs, the deletion breakpoints were narrowed down to regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. No susceptibility motifs were associated with the imbalances. These results show that the phenotypic abnormalities of apparently balanced de novo CCRs are mainly due to cryptic deletions and that spermatogenesis is more prone to generate multiple chaotic chromosome imbalances and reciprocal translocations than oogenesis. PMID:17766364

De Gregori, M; Ciccone, R; Magini, P; Pramparo, T; Gimelli, S; Messa, J; Novara, F; Vetro, A; Rossi, E; Maraschio, P; Bonaglia, M C; Anichini, C; Ferrero, G B; Silengo, M; Fazzi, E; Zatterale, A; Fischetto, R; Previderé, C; Belli, S; Turci, A; Calabrese, G; Bernardi, F; Meneghelli, E; Riegel, M; Rocchi, M; SGuerneri; Lalatta, F; Zelante, L; Romano, C; Fichera, Ma; Mattina, T; Arrigo, G; Zollino, M; Giglio, S; Lonardo, F; Bonfante, A; Ferlini, A; Cifuentes, F; Van Esch, H; Backx, L; Schinzel, A; Vermeesch, J R; Zuffardi, O

2007-01-01

156

Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology  

E-print Network

Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology 20 Pathology and Diagnostic Pathology and adenocarcinoma ·Application of molecular pathology to pathological diagnosis · Discovery of cancer therapy target and acceleration of pathological diagnostic processes Investigation of the development of EB virus

Miyashita, Yasushi

157

Pathology Reports  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the type of information that may be found in a pathology report, the document that contains results of the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or surgery.

158

The use of ultrasound-based `soft markers' for the prediction of pelvic pathology in women with  

E-print Network

pathology noted during laparoscopy. Results Seventy women had pelvic pathology, of whom 51 had endometriosis alone, 7 both endometriosis and pelvic adhesions, 6 pelvic adhesions, 1 hydrosalpinx with endometriosis common findings at laparoscopy are pelvic endometriosis and adhesions.7 However, in up to 40% of women

159

Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects—a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition\\u000a in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2–3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects\\u000a not performing long-distance running

Robert Stahl; Anthony Luke; C. Benjamin Ma; Roland Krug; Lynne Steinbach; Sharmila Majumdar; Thomas M. Link

2008-01-01

160

Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677

Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

2014-05-01

161

Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. PMID:24342092

Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

2014-02-15

162

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

163

Doppler ultrasound findings correlate with tissue vascularity and inflammation in surgical pathology specimens from patients with small intestinal Crohn’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is routinely evaluated using clinical symptoms, laboratory variables, and the CD activity index (CDAI). However, clinical parameters are often nonspecific and do not precisely reflect the actual activity of CD small-intestinal lesions. The purposes of this prospective study were to compare color Doppler ultrasound (US) findings with histological findings from surgically resected specimens and confirm the hypothesis that color Doppler US can distinguish tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Methods Among 1764 consecutive patients who underwent color Doppler US examinations, 10 patients with CD (12 small-intestinal CD lesions) who underwent US examinations before elective small-intestine resection were evaluated in the present study. Areas of thickened intestinal walls were evaluated in terms of blood flow using color Doppler US imaging. The blood flow was semiquantitatively classified as “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” according to the Limberg score. Resected lesions were macroscopically and histopathologically processed. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and vascularity were evaluated by myeloperoxidase (granulocytes), CD163 (macrophages), CD79a (B cells), CD3 (T cells), Masson’s trichrome (fibrosis), and factor VIII staining (vascular walls). All histopathological images were entered into virtual slide equipment and quantified using a quantitative microscopy integrated system (TissueMorph™). Results There were no significant differences in disease features or laboratory findings between “hypo-flow” lesions (n?=?4) and “hyper-flow” lesions (n?=?8). Histopathologically, “hyper-flow” lesions showed significantly greater bowel wall vascularity (factor VIII) (p?=?0.047) and inflammatory cell infiltration, including CD163 macrophages (p?=?0.008), CD3 T cells, and CD79a B cells (p?=?0.043), than did “hypo-flow” lesions. There was no apparent association between the blood flow and CDAI. Conclusions In this study, active CD lesions were macroscopically visible in surgical specimens of patients with increased blood flow on preoperative color Doppler US imaging. Additionally, these CD lesions exhibited significantly greater vascularity and numbers of inflammatory leukocytes microscopically. Color Doppler US may predict tissue inflammation and fibrosis in small-intenstinal CD lesions. PMID:24927748

2014-01-01

164

Pathological and immunohistochemical findings of natural highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in tufted ducks during 2010-2011 outbreaks in Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 2010-2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Katou, Yuki; Goto, Minami; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2014-09-01

165

Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

2014-09-01

166

Incidental extraspinal findings on magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral discs  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to evaluate pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations that were incidentally detected on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of intervertebral discs, to find the frequencies of these incidental findings, and to emphasise the clinical importance of them. Material and methods A retrospective study including 1031 consecutive patients (730 females and 301 males, with a median age of 46 years) was conducted by evaluating a total of 1106 MRI examinations of intervertebral discs. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MRI unit. Incidental findings were classified as pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations. Results The percentages of incidental extraspinal pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations were 16.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4–18.8) and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.6–4.3), respectively. The percentage of incidental extraspinal pathological findings on cervical spinal MRI was 25.7% (95% CI: 20.1–31.7), thyroid nodules being the most common incidental findings. On thoracic spinal MRI (n = 19), inferior pole thyroid nodules were demonstrated as incidental extraspinal pathological findings, with a percentage of 10.5% (95% CI: 9.6–11.5). On lumbar spinal MRI, incidental pathological findings were detected with a percentage of 14.2% (95% CI: 11.9–16.6), while the percentage of congenital anomalies/anatomical variations was 4.8% (95% CI: 3.4–6.3). Eventually, 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6–9.4) of all cases with incidental extraspinal pathological findings underwent surgery. Conclusions On MRI examination of intervertebral discs, paying attention to incidentally detected pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations is very important due to the fact that they can alter the treatment of the patient or affect the patient's life. PMID:25276162

Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Turanl?, Sevim; Saltas, Hakan; Karabacak, Osman Raif; Damar, Cagr?; Hekimoglu, Baki

2014-01-01

167

Lone atrial fibrillation: Pathologic or not?  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation risk has been strongly associated with increasing age and visceral obesity. These characteristics are strongly associated with diabetes, decreased heart rate variability, and chronic inflammation. Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) on the other hand exhibits a predilection for the physically fit and the middle aged, especially males. Given these opposing features it is postulated that pathologic AF is due to cardiac fibrosis and other age related changes while LAF is due to physiologic neurohormonal changes related to autonomic tone, insulin sensitivity, and electrolyte imbalance and that pathologic AF and LAF can be reliably differentiated via an anthropometric approach using weight, height, hip, and waist measurements. An anthropometric study is undertaken from an LAF database to test this hypothesis. Such individuals in addition to being younger and predominantly male appear to be taller with less central adiposity vs. those with pathologic AF. The ramifications of these findings with respect to insulin resistance, sympathetic tone, inflammation and hypertension, often associated with pathologic atrial fibrillation, are discussed. Speculation is drawn about possible etiologic link with mitral valve prolapse, which is commonly encountered in the tall and thin and which shares multiple clinical features with LAF. PMID:17005327

Chambers, Patrick William

2007-01-01

168

Nicotine and Pathological Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Aims This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. Main methods An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Key findings Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes; that these nAChRs are largely of the ?7 homomeric type; and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. Significance These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis. PMID:22796717

Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P.

2013-01-01

169

APSnet: Advanced Plant Pathology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.

170

The molecular pathology of noroviruses.  

PubMed

Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. Noroviruses are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus-induced disease is limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long-term chronic infections are now recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to norovirus pathology and the underlying mechanisms that have been characterized to date. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25312350

Karst, Stephanie M; Zhu, Shu; Goodfellow, Ian G

2015-01-01

171

Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

2013-01-01

172

Microprobe analysis in human pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the

D. Baker; K. G. Kupke; P. Ingram; V. L. Roggli; J. D. Shelburne

1985-01-01

173

Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on endoscopic and pathologic alterations of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders of Iranian patients with common\\u000a variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Nineteen of 39 CVID patients (48%) had GI complaints. The most common symptom was chronic\\u000a diarrhea (28%). In endoscopic examination of small intestines, 15 patients had no abnormal finding. Duodenal biopsy revealed\\u000a villous atrophy in eight and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Ahmad Khodadad; Asghar Aghamohammadi; Nima Parvaneh; Nima Rezaei; Fatemeh Mahjoob; Mohammad Bashashati; Masoud Movahedi; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Fariborz Zandieh; Zahra Roohi; Sina Abdollahzade; Ali Salavati; Ali Kouhi; Bahram Talebpour; Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

2007-01-01

174

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

175

Pathological hangman's fracture after successful renal transplantation.  

PubMed

Renal osteodystrophy and post renal transplantation bone disease are increasingly common causes of pathological fracture. The authors present the first case of a pathological hangman's fracture in a patient after successful renal transplantation. An anterior instrumented C2-C4 fusion was performed. PMID:17260620

Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Khan, Aadil A; Lucas, Jonathon D; Lam, Khai S

2006-12-01

176

Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.  

PubMed

Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

2014-05-01

177

Astrocytic TDP-43 Pathology in Alexander Disease  

PubMed Central

Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of GfapR236H/+ knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in GfapR236H/+ mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

Daniels, Christine M. LaPash; Goldman, James E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

2014-01-01

178

Clinical and Pathological Features of Korean Patients with DNM2-Related Centronuclear Myopathy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is characterized by the presence of central nuclei within a large number of muscle fibers. Mutations of the dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) are common causes of autosomal dominant or sporadic CNM. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and pathological features of CNM relative to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Methods Six patients with clinical and pathological features of CNM were recruited. Detailed clinical and pathological findings were analyzed according to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Results We detected DNM2 mutations in four of the six sporadic CNM patients, and identified the following distinct clinical and pathological features in those patients with DNM2 mutations: preferential involvement of the distal lower limbs, typical nuclear centralization, and radially distributed sarcoplasmic strands in muscle pathology. In contrast, those without DNM2 mutations exhibited rather diffuse muscular involvement, and nuclear internalization and myofibrillar disorganization were more pronounced features of their muscle pathology. Conclusions These findings suggest the presence of specific features in Korean CNM patients. A detailed clinical and pathological examination of CNM patients would be helpful for molecular genetic analyses of this condition. PMID:24465259

Park, Young-Eun; Choi, Young-Chul; Bae, Jong-Suk; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyang-Suk; Shin, Jin-Hong

2014-01-01

179

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology November 21st MDCL ­ 3020 2:00 ­ 3:00 pm Dr. J. Waye McMaster University CSI Pathology: Confirmation

Haykin, Simon

180

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2011 / 2012 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p Standards2 Quality ­ Guidelines for Quality Management in Surgical Pathology Professional Practices Sciences GI Pathology November 10th MDCL ­ 2232 Dr. Robin Edwards McMaster University Professionalism

Thompson, Michael

181

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2010 / 2011 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang SPEAKER: TOPIC: January 13th MDCL ­ 3023 Dr. F. DeNardi HRLMP ­ McMaster University TBA ­ GI Pathology

Thompson, Michael

182

Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these…

Cravey, Nancy

2013-01-01

183

St. Jude study finds that tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in 90 percent of most common childhood bone tumor  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital—Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project finds TP53 gene is altered in nearly all osteosarcomas and results help explain how tumors withstand radiation therapy.

184

Focal Lesion in the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum on FLAIR MR Images: A Common Finding with Aging and after Brain Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal high signal intensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images is generally considered an abnormal MR finding. We identified high signal intensity in the splenium on FLAIR images in patients of advanced age with otherwise normal images and in patients who had received brain radiation therapy. We undertook an investigation to

Joseph S. Pekala; Alexander C. Mamourian; Heather A. Wishart; William F. Hickey; James D. Raque

185

Antiparkinsonian medication and pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is a common condition, usually treated by dopaminergic agents, both ergot and non-ergot. Many behavioural abnormalities are associated with such usage, including impulse control disorders (ICDs), dopamine dysregulation syndrome and 'punding'. Pathological gambling, a form of ICD, comprises persistent and maladaptive gambling of various types that disrupts personal, family or occupational activity. Pathological gambling may be associated with other abnormal actions such as pathological shopping, hoarding and hypersexuality. The incidence varies widely from study to study but may be up to 7% of users of dopaminergic agents. Recognition of this problem has led drug regulatory agencies to add precautions concerning pathological gambling to official drug information for the entire class of antiparkinsonian medications. The literature is not entirely consistent and opinions differ greatly, but pramipexole (a dopamine D2 and D3 agonist), and perhaps ropinirole (also a D2/D3 agonist), may be especially likely to be associated with pathological gambling, although the precise nature of the relationship is unclear. Treatment involves reducing the dose of the medication or switching to another medication; unfortunately, the Parkinson's disease may worsen. The mechanism of this adverse effect is believed to be excessive dopaminergic stimulation but probably not specifically involving D3 receptors. A parallel to addictive behaviour with stimulant drugs has been noted. PMID:18399709

Lader, Malcolm

2008-01-01

186

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

187

[Periarticular pathology of the hip].  

PubMed

The hip region is the seat of a rich and common periarticular pathology, with a variable involvement, depending of the location, and needs better knowledge. Anyway the clinical examination takes the major place in the diagnostic. Trochanteric bursitis and tendinitis are the more common clinical syndrome in that regional pathology. Local injections of corticosteroid are still the mean modality of the conservative treatment but are not sufficient to avoid recurrence or chronicity which may lead to tendon tears. A better knowledge of the physiopathology will lead to a better and early recovery. Apatite calcifications are not rare around the hip. Great trochanter is the first location, but the femoral insertion of the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis on the linea aspera, the lateral side of the acetabulum and the ischial tuberosity are worth known. Iliopsoas bursitis, which has some analogy with the popliteal cyst, is often underrecognized, like ischial bursitis and tendinopathy. PMID:12001413

Bard, Hervé

2002-03-15

188

Alexithymia and Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between alexithymia and gambling in a community sample of pathological gamblers. Pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers were recruited from the community via advertisements and completed an assessment of their gambling behavior and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia was higher among male pathological gamblers who identified slot machines, cards, and lotteries

Tony Toneatto; Julia Lecce; Michael Bagby

2009-01-01

189

Diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis: radiologic/pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

We present the radiologic and pathologic findings in a boy who presented with diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and whose clinical status deteriorated over the course of 5 years. During this period, MR images showed progression of the enhancement in the subarachnoid spaces, formation of intraaxial cysts, and hydrocephalus. Autopsy findings revealed diffuse oligodendroglioma throughout the leptomeninges of the brain and spine, with no definite intraaxial focus. The radiologic and pathologic features of diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis are reviewed. PMID:10871026

Armao, D M; Stone, J; Castillo, M; Mitchell, K M; Bouldin, T W; Suzuki, K

2000-01-01

190

Surgical Pathology of the Skull Base  

PubMed Central

A significant diversity of tissue types interface at the base of the skull and contribute to the diagnostic challenges of skull base surgical pathology. Advances in surgical technique now permit biopsy and resection of lesions previously termed “inoperable.” Retrospective review was made of all pathology specimens from skull base surgeries performed at the University of California Davis Medical Center from 1990 to 1996. Surgical biopsies and resections were performed on 186 patients who had 33 distinctive diagnoses. Any preoperative biopsy or tissue from referring institutions was reviewed prior to skull base surgery. One hundred eighteen patients had benign lesions, the most frequent of which were pituitary adenoma (55) and acoustic neuroma (27). Other benign lesions included angiofibroma, meningioma, fibrous dysplasia, and paraganglioma. Sixty-eight patients had malignant tumors, 32 of which were squamous cell earcinoma. Other malignancies included salivary carcinomas, basal cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma, melanoma, and several sarcomas. Unexpected findings were two metastatic carcinomas and five inflammatory lesions. Nearly 1500 intraoperative consultations were performed to establish resection margins and less commonly to confirm the diagnosis. The discrepancy rate between the intraoperative and final diagnosis was 1.8%. Immunohistochemistry and/or electron microscopy was utilized in 44% of the specimens to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical pathology is an essential ingredient to a successful skull base surgery program. Pathologists are involved in both pre- and intraoperative decisions. The diversity of lesions that arise from the skull base often has overlapping histologies that require careful attention to morphology and the use of ancillary studies for accurate diagnosis. The need for frequent intraoperative interpretations contributes to the significant challenge for the surgical pathologist. PMID:17171065

Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Donald, Paul J.; Boggan, James E.

1998-01-01

191

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John

192

Joubert syndrome: the clinical and radiological findings.  

PubMed

Joubert syndrome is a rare disease characterised by clinical and radiological findings. Among the classic clinical findings of JS are hypotonia, ataxia, mental-motor retardation, respiratory and opthalmological findings. The paediatric cases included in the study comprised nine patients. There was familial consanguinty in seven cases. Clinically, all cases had mental-motor retardation and hypotonia. Episodic hyperpnoea attacks were observed in one case. Facial dysmorphism was the most common additional systemic anomaly and four cases had additional opthalmic findings. Brain MRI examination revealed that all cases had molar tooth sign, bat-wing appearance and vermian cleft. The majority of cases also had vermian hypoplasia. Cerebellar folial disorganisation was observed in approxiamtely half of the cases. Three cases had corpus callosum anomaly and atretic occipital encephalocoele. No pathology was determined in other organs. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological findings of 9 patients diagnosed with Joubert syndrome. PMID:24605724

Karakas, Ekrem; Cullu, Nesat; Karakas, Omer; Calik, Mustafa; Boyaci, Fatima Nurefsan; Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Akal, Ali

2014-01-01

193

Ubiquilin 2 Is Not Associated with Tau Pathology  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aberrant proteins in inclusion bodies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Impairment of proteolytic systems is a common event in these protein misfolding diseases. Recently, mutations in the UBQLN 2 gene encoding ubiquilin 2 have been identified in X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, ubiquilin 2 is associated with inclusions in familial and sporadic ALS/dementia, synucleinopathies and polyglutamine diseases. Ubiquilin 2 exerts a regulatory role in proteostasis and thus it has been suggested that ubiquilin 2 pathology may be a common event in neurodegenerative diseases. Tauopathies, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied with dementia, are characterized by inclusions of the microtubule-binding protein tau. In the present study, we investigate whether ubiquilin 2 is connected with tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Pick’s disease (PiD) and familial cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We show that ubiquilin 2 positive inclusions are absent in these tauopathies. Furthermore, we find decreased ubiquilin 2 protein levels in AD patients, but our results do not indicate a correlation with tau pathology. Our data show no evidence for involvement of ubiquilin 2 and indicate that other mechanisms underly the proteostatic disturbances in tauopathies. PMID:24086754

Nölle, Anna; van Haastert, Elise S.; Zwart, Rob; Hoozemans, Jeroen J. M.; Scheper, Wiep

2013-01-01

194

Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure  

E-print Network

Molecular Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure Department Chair (Howell) Vice Chair, Strategic Technology (Levenson) Vice Chair, Research (Wan) Senior Director, Anatomic Pathology (Bishop) Vice (Jin) Surgical Pathology (Bishop) Directors of: Senior Director, Clinical Pathology (Gregg) Progenitor

Leistikow, Bruce N.

195

Pathology of deaths associated with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual

C M Milroy; J C Clark; A R Forrest

1996-01-01

196

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

197

Handheld computing in pathology  

PubMed Central

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-01-01

198

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

199

[The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].  

PubMed

As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America. PMID:24758866

Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

2014-01-01

200

Learning Community: Finding Common Ground in Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume explores multiple layers of educational community and the conditions that contribute to their resilience and growth. Using a backdrop of the experiences of different schools, the discussion depicts community as a process rather than a commodity and illustrates how ideas of community develop. Issues of identity, leadership, voice, and…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

201

Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... of Obstetrics and Gynaecology . Nearly 75 percent of women experience painful sexual intercourse, known as dyspareunia, at some point in their lives, which can stem from many causes, according to the American College ...

202

DICKENS ARTICLE FINDING COMMON GROUND IN THE  

E-print Network

OF LEGAL REASONING IN CLICKWRAP CASES ROBERT LEE DICKENS* INTRODUCTION .....................383 A. UETA and the Enforceability of Electronic Documents..........383 B. The Impersonal Nature to thank Professors Lynn Crossett and Walter Wright as well as the rest of the Legal Studies staff at Texas

Shamos, Michael I.

203

Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

2005-01-01

204

Primary common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary or stasis stones in the common duct are a distinct clinical, anatomical, and pathological entity. In the older patient with chills, fever, and jaundice, it is axiomatic that a primary or stasis stone will be found in a common duct that measures 20 mm or more in diameter. Furthermore, about 20% of such patients will not have stones in

John L. Madden

1978-01-01

205

Pathology annual. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

206

Network bistability mediates spontaneous transitions between normal and pathological brain states.  

PubMed

Little is known about how cortical networks support the emergence of remarkably different activity patterns. Physiological activity interspersed with epochs of pathological hyperactivity in the epileptic brain represents a clinically relevant yet poorly understood case of such rich dynamic repertoire. Using a realistic computational model, we demonstrate that physiological sparse and pathological tonic-clonic activity may coexist in the same cortical network for identical afferent input level. Transient perturbations in the afferent input were sufficient to switch the network between these two stable states. The effectiveness of the potassium regulatory apparatus determined the stability of the physiological state and the threshold for seizure initiation. Our findings contrast with the common notions of (1) pathological brain activity representing dynamic instabilities and (2) necessary adjustments of experimental conditions to elicit different network states. Rather, we propose that the rich dynamic repertoire of cortical networks may be based on multistabilities intrinsic to the network. PMID:20702704

Fröhlich, Flavio; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Bazhenov, Maxim

2010-08-11

207

Network bistability mediates spontaneous transitions between normal and pathological brain states  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how cortical networks support the emergence of remarkably different activity patterns. Physiological activity interspersed with epochs of pathological hyperactivity in the epileptic brain represents a clinically relevant yet poorly understood case of such rich dynamic repertoire. Using a realistic computational model, we demonstrate that physiological sparse and pathological tonic-clonic activity may co-exist in the same cortical network for identical afferent input level. Transient perturbations in the afferent input were sufficient to switch the network between these two stable states. The effectiveness of the potassium regulatory apparatus determined the stability of the physiological state and the threshold for seizure initiation. Our findings contrast with the common notions of (1) pathological brain activity representing dynamic instabilities and (2) necessary adjustments of experimental conditions to elicit different network states. Rather, we propose that the rich dynamic repertoire of cortical networks may be based on multistabilities intrinsic to the network. PMID:20702704

Fröhlich, Flavio; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bazhenov, Maxim

2010-01-01

208

Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Dacic, Sanja

209

Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2009-05-07

210

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

211

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

212

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

213

Pathology Case Study: Cervicomedullary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This neuropathology case is centered on a 22-month-old female patient with a history of posterior neck discomfort, episodic crying, scratching, and hard coughing. MRI images of the patient along with the patient's history and microscopic descriptions allow readers to test their diagnostic skills and develop an understanding of the patient's condition. The "Final Diagnosis" section contains the official conclusions of the patient's condition. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Hamilton, Ronald

2007-10-16

214

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Celebrating the Centennial Through the Lens of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology Records  

PubMed Central

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is now considered the most prevalent autoimmune disease, as well as the most common endocrine disorder. It was initially described in 1912, but only rarely reported until the early 1950s. To celebrate this centennial, we reviewed the surgical pathology archives of the Johns Hopkins hospital for cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, spanning the period from May 1889 to October 2012. Approximately 15,000 thyroidectomies were performed at this hospital over 124 years. The first surgical case was reported in 1942, 30 years after the original description. Then, 867 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were seen from 1942 to 2012, representing 6% of all thyroidectomies. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was the sole pathological finding in 462 cases; it accompanied other thyroid pathologies in the remaining 405 cases. The most commonly associated pathology was papillary thyroid cancer, an association that increased significantly during the last two decades. The most common indication for thyroidectomy was a thyroid nodule that was cytologically suspicious for malignancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis remains a widespread, intriguing, and multifaceted disease of unknown etiology one century after its description. Advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis and preoperative diagnosis will improve recognition and treatment of this disorder, and may one day lead to its prevention. PMID:23151083

De Remigis, Alessandra; Chuang, Kelly; Dembele, Marieme; Iwama, Akiko; Iwama, Shintaro

2013-01-01

215

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: celebrating the centennial through the lens of the Johns Hopkins hospital surgical pathology records.  

PubMed

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is now considered the most prevalent autoimmune disease, as well as the most common endocrine disorder. It was initially described in 1912, but only rarely reported until the early 1950s. To celebrate this centennial, we reviewed the surgical pathology archives of the Johns Hopkins hospital for cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, spanning the period from May 1889 to October 2012. Approximately 15,000 thyroidectomies were performed at this hospital over 124 years. The first surgical case was reported in 1942, 30 years after the original description. Then, 867 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were seen from 1942 to 2012, representing 6% of all thyroidectomies. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was the sole pathological finding in 462 cases; it accompanied other thyroid pathologies in the remaining 405 cases. The most commonly associated pathology was papillary thyroid cancer, an association that increased significantly during the last two decades. The most common indication for thyroidectomy was a thyroid nodule that was cytologically suspicious for malignancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis remains a widespread, intriguing, and multifaceted disease of unknown etiology one century after its description. Advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis and preoperative diagnosis will improve recognition and treatment of this disorder, and may one day lead to its prevention. PMID:23151083

Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Chuang, Kelly; Dembele, Marieme; Iwama, Akiko; Iwama, Shintaro

2013-02-01

216

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

217

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

218

Pathologic femoral neck fractures in children.  

PubMed

Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union. PMID:19340370

Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J

2009-02-01

219

ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY  

E-print Network

ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY/HEMATOPATHOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment

Bogyo, Matthew

220

Careers in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )

2004-01-01

221

Filtering Voluntary Motion for Pathological Tremor Compensation  

E-print Network

, it may decrease considerably the person's quality of life, since the ability to perform simple daily tasks is reduced. It is the most common movement disorder found in human pathology. An absolutely the filter ro- bustness to multiple motions and different sensors. To accomplish that, models are assumed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

The Animal Cancer Center Molecular Pathology Laboratory  

E-print Network

The Animal Cancer Center Molecular Pathology Laboratory "Veterinary immunodiagnostics for the clinic and the lab" Tumor Profile - Cutaneous Mast Cell-Canine The Animal Cancer Center's Molecular-of-function mutations in the extracellular domain of KIT are common in canine mast cell tumors. Mol Cancer Res, 6(7): p

Stephens, Graeme L.

223

Pathology of toxoplasmosis in captive new world primates.  

PubMed

Clinical information was available for 32 of 33 New World primates with fatal toxoplasmosis, all of which were subjected to a variable number of pathological observations. Death without apparent clinical signs occurred in 43.7% of cases. The most common clinical findings were malaise (40.6%), dyspnoea (18.7%), hypothermia (15.6%) and a sero-sanguinous or foamy nasal discharge (12.5%). Nutritional status was good in 71.8%, average in 18.7% and poor in 9.4%. The most common post-mortem findings were pulmonary congestion (78.8%), pulmonary oedema (75.8%), splenomegaly (57.6%) and mesenteric lymphadenitis (54.6%). The most common histopathological findings were multifocal necrotic hepatitis (97%), lymphadenitis (95.4%), interstitial pneumonia (90.3%) and necrotic splenitis (71.4%). The gross post-mortem changes in cebids were more variable than those observed in callitrichids, a fact that may complicate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cebids. PMID:12921726

Epiphanio, S; Sinhorini, I L; Catão-Dias, J L

2003-01-01

224

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

PubMed

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

225

Pathology Case Study: Cervical Adenopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old male who presented with a 6 month history of cervical adenopathy. Visitors are given patient history, microscopic description, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Craig, Fiona; Krishnamurti, Uma

2008-03-27

226

Pathology Case Study: Complete Heart Block  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case outlines the medical complications of a 9 year old patient following a small bowel and kidney transplantation. The patient's clinical history and autopsy findings, which include microscopic images, are provided, and the "Final Diagnosis" section details the official findings and diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Dickman, Paul S.

227

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-print Network

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories

Baker, Chris I.

228

Effectiveness of Pharmacotherapy for Pathological Gambling: A Chart Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although pathological gambling is a relatively common disorder, there exists only limited information regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for this illness. This study examines which medications may be effective, dose and duration of medication trials needed to achieve response, and possible predictors of response. Using a chart review, 50 adult outpatients with DSM-IV pathological gambling treated in clinical practice were

Jon E. Grant; Suck Won Kim

2002-01-01

229

THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE  

E-print Network

THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE September 3 - 6, 2014 The Rimrock Resort Hotel Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine University of Calgary and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Alberta http://.banffpathology.ucalgary.ca Ms Carol Burrows

MacMillan, Andrew

230

A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.  

PubMed

The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak. PMID:24447163

Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

2014-06-01

231

Early Experience after Developing a Pathology Laboratory in Malawi, with Emphasis on Cancer Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Background Despite increasing cancer burden in Malawi, pathology services are limited. We describe operations during the first 20 months of a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional study of specimens from the Kamuzu Central Hospital pathology laboratory between July 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. Patient and specimen characteristics, and final diagnoses are summarized. Diagnoses were categorized as malignant, premalignant, infectious, other pathology, normal or benign, or nondiagnostic. Patient characteristics associated with premalignancy and malignancy were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2772 specimens, 2758 (99%) with a recorded final diagnosis were included, drawn from 2639 unique patients. Mean age was 38 years and 63% were female. Of those with documented HIV status, 51% had unknown status, and 36% with known status were infected. Histologic specimens comprised 91% of cases, and cytologic specimens 9%. Malignant diagnoses were most common overall (n?=?861, 31%). Among cancers, cervical cancer was most common (n?=?117, 14%), followed by lymphoma (n?=?91, 11%), esophageal cancer (n?=?86, 10%), sarcoma excluding Kaposi sarcoma (n?=?75, 9%), and breast cancer (n?=?61, 7%). HIV status was known for 95 (11%) of malignancies, with HIV prevalence ranging from 9% for breast cancer to 81% for cervical cancer. Increasing age was consistently associated with malignancy [bivariable odds ratio 1.24 per decade increase (95% CI 1.19–1.29) among 2685 patients with known age; multivariable odds ratio 1.33 per decade increase (95% CI 1.14–1.56) among 317 patients with known age, gender, and HIV status], while HIV infection and gender were not. Conclusions Despite selection and referral bias inherent in these data, a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe has created a robust platform for cancer care and research. Strategies to effectively capture clinical information for pathologically confirmed cancers can allow these data to complement population-based registration. PMID:23950924

Horner, Marie-Josephe; Shores, Carol G.; Alide, Noor; Kamiza, Steve; Kampani, Coxcilly; Chimzimu, Fred; Fedoriw, Yuri; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Hoffman, Irving F.

2013-01-01

232

Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Klionsky, Bernard

233

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

234

Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Davie, James

235

Plant Pathology Career Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

236

Transplant Pathology Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.

237

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-12-12

238

Pathology Case Study: Hyperammonemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Diven, Warren

239

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong

2008-03-26

240

Clinical and multimodal biomarker correlates of ADNI neuropathological findings  

PubMed Central

Background Autopsy series commonly report a high percentage of coincident pathologies in demented patients, including patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). However many clinical and biomarker studies report cases with a single neurodegenerative disease. We examined multimodal biomarker correlates of the consecutive series of the first 22 Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative autopsies. Clinical data, neuropsychological measures, cerebrospinal fluid A?, total and phosphorylated tau and ?-synuclein and MRI and FDG-PET scans. Results Clinical diagnosis was either probable DAT or Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-type mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at last evaluation prior to death. All patients had a pathological diagnosis of AD, but only four had pure AD. A coincident pathological diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), medial temporal lobe pathology (TDP-43 proteinopathy, argyrophilic grain disease and hippocampal sclerosis), referred to collectively here as MTL, and vascular pathology were present in 45.5%, 40.0% and 22.7% of these patients, respectively. Hallucinations were a strong predictor of coincident DLB (100% specificity) and a more severe dysexecutive profile was also a useful predictor of coincident DLB (80.0% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). Occipital FDG-PET hypometabolism accurately classified coincident DLB (80% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Subjects with coincident MTL showed lower hippocampal volume. Conclusions Biomarkers can be used to independently predict coincident AD and DLB pathology, a common finding in amnestic MCI and DAT patients. Cohorts with comprehensive neuropathological assessments and multimodal biomarkers are needed to characterize independent predictors for the different neuropathological substrates of cognitive impairment. PMID:24252435

2013-01-01

241

Finding Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity serves as a kid-friendly how-to manual about searching for fossils. In Not Just Any Rock Will Do, kids learn that fossils "hide out" in sedimentary rock and see examples of shale and sandstone. Do's and Don'ts for Fossil Hunters gives kids practical tips and a list of fossil-hunting supplies. In Fossils You May Find, there are photos of common invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils to guide kids. Paleontology Clubs and Web Sites lists resources to help kids determine where to hunt for fossils. In Keeping a Field Journal, kids are shown a sample journal entry that points out the types of information they should record.

242

Osteopoikilosis: A radiological and pathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomico-pathological and radiological studies of osteopoikilosis were performed in two cases, one involving a femoral head, excised after a fracture of a femoral neck, in an elderly man and the other following biopsy of an iliac crest in a young woman. In both patients wide-spread radiological evidence of the disorder was present as an incidental finding. The radiological appearance of

R. Lagier; A. Mbakop; A. Bigler

1984-01-01

243

Pathology of endometrium treated with tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To determine the type of endometrial abnormalities associated with prolonged tamoxifen treatment and to investigate the correlation between tamoxifen dose and any abnormalities detected. METHODS--Endometria from 19 prospectively collected breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen were ascribed a pathological diagnosis and the findings compared with those in a control group matched for age and presentation. The abnormalities were related to

S M Ismail

1994-01-01

244

Genetic Susceptibility for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuritic Plaque Pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) impact neuritic plaque pathology and to additionally identify novel risk loci for this trait. Design Candidate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and GWAS in a joint clinicopathologic cohort study, followed by targeted validation in independent neuroimaging cohorts. Participants and Setting 725 deceased subjects from the Religious Orders and Rush Memory and Aging Project, two prospective, community-based studies of aging; the validation neuroimaging cohort consisted of 114 subjects from multiple clinical and research centers. Main Outcome Measures A quantitative measure of neuritic plaque pathologic burden, based on assessments of silver-stained tissue averaged from multiple brain regions. Validation based on ?-amyloid load by immunocytochemistry, and replication with fibrillar ?-amyloid Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B or florbetapir. Results Besides the previously reported APOE and CR1 loci, we find that ABCA7 (rs3764650, P=0.02) and CD2AP (rs9349407, P=0.03) AD susceptibility loci are associated with neuritic plaque burden. In addition, among the top results of our GWAS, we discovered a novel variant near the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP, rs2829887) that is associated with neuritic plaques (P=3.3×10?6). This polymorphism was associated with postmortem ?-amyloid load, as well as fibrillar ?-amyloid in two independent cohorts of adults with normal cognition. Conclusion These findings enhance understanding of AD risk factors by relating validated susceptibility alleles to increased neuritic plaque pathology and implicate common genetic variation at the APP locus in the earliest, pre-symptomatic stages of AD. PMID:23836404

Shulman, Joshua M.; Chen, Kewei; Keenan, Brendan T.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Fleisher, Adam; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Roontiva, Auttawut; McCabe, Cristin; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Yu, Lei; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Evans, Denis A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.

2013-01-01

245

Kidney Pathology Precedes and Predicts the Pathological Cascade of Cerebrovascular Lesions in Stroke Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has been hypothesized to be an age-dependent disease accompanied by similar vascular changes in other organs. SHRSP feature numerous vascular risk factors and may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD. Here we compare renal histopathological changes with the brain pathology of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Material and Methods We histologically investigated the brains and kidneys of 61 SHRSP at different stages of age (12 to 44 weeks). The brain pathology (aggregated erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, microbleeds, microthromboses) and the kidney pathology (aggregated erythrocytes within peritubular capillaries, tubular protein cylinders, glomerulosclerosis) were quantified separately. The prediction of the brain pathology by the kidney pathology was assessed by creating ROC-curves integrating the degree of kidney pathology and age of SHRSP. Results Both, brain and kidney pathology, show an age-dependency and proceed in definite stages whereas an aggregation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles, we parsimoniously interpreted as stases, represent the initial finding in both organs. Thus, early renal tubulointerstitial damage characterized by rather few intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and tubular protein cylinders predicts the initial step of SHRSPs' cerebral vascular pathology marked by accumulated erythrocytes. The combined increase of intravasal erythrocyte aggregations and protein cylinders accompanied by glomerulosclerosis and thrombotic renal microangiopathy in kidneys of older SHRSP predicts the final stages of SHRSPs' cerebrovascular lesions marked by microbleeds and thrombotic infarcts. Conclusion Our results illustrate a close association between structural brain and kidney pathology and support the concept of small vessel disease to be an age-dependent systemic pathology. Further, an improved joined nephrologic and neurologic diagnostic may help to identify patients with CSVD at an early stage. PMID:22031827

Schreiber, Stefanie; Bueche, Celine Z.; Garz, Cornelia; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Amann, Kerstin; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Goertler, Michael; Reymann, Klaus G.; Braun, Holger

2011-01-01

246

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

247

Vascular pathology and osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced

D. M. Findlay

2007-01-01

248

Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins  

PubMed Central

The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with ?-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of ?-synuclein with ?-amyloid (A?) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble A? oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric A? with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the A?42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of A?42, ?-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with A? was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with A? can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of A? and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049

Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezs?; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; T?kési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Sz?cs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit

2011-01-01

249

Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

2014-01-01

250

Ultrasonographic findings of type IIIa biliary atresia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) findings of type IIIa biliary atresia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a medical database of patients pathologically confirmed to have biliary atresia, Kasai type IIIa, between January 2002 and May 2013 (n=18). We evaluated US findings including the visible common bile duct (CBD), triangular cord thickness, gallbladder size and shape, and subcapsular flow on color Doppler US; laboratory data; and pathological hepatic fibrosis grades. We divided them into two groups-those with visible (group A) and invisible (group B) CBD on US-and compared all parameters between the two groups. Results: CBD was visible on US in five cases (27.8%; group A) and invisible in 13 cases (72.2%; group B). US was performed at an earlier age in group A than in group B (median, 27 days vs. 60 days; P=0.027) with the maximal age of 51 days. A comparison of the US findings revealed that the triangular cord thickness was smaller (4.1 mm vs. 4.9 mm; P=0.004) and the gallbladder length was larger (20.0 mm vs. 11.7 mm; P=0.021) in group A. The gallbladder shape did not differ between the two groups, and the subcapsular flow was positive in all cases of both groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory data between the two groups. Upon pathological analysis, group A showed low-grade and group B showed low- to high-grade hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: When CBD is visible on US in patients diagnosed with type IIIa biliary atresia, other US features could have a false negative status. A subcapsular flow on the color Doppler US would be noted in the type IIIa biliary atresia patients. PMID:25036753

2014-01-01

251

Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

Anhalt, John P.

252

Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hari, Raj

2009-04-15

253

Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix  

PubMed Central

The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2015-01-01

254

Pathology Case Study: Lethargy and Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the health conditions of a male baby born prematurely (28 weeks gestational age). The patientâ??s history, gross and microscopic descriptions, ultrasound images, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Heyner, Robert

255

Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Krisky, David

2009-05-06

256

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

257

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

258

Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing âÂÂfainting spellsâ is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Peng, Yan

2009-01-16

259

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden.  

PubMed

Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924

Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E

1994-09-01

260

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

261

Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.  

PubMed

This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns. PMID:22640539

St Leger, Judy

2012-05-01

262

Pathology of Intestinal Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The advent of immunohistological and molecular techniques has enabled the comprehensive characterization of many lymphoma\\u000a entities. Furthermore, it has increased the consensus in lymphoma classification among pathologists. In this review we describe\\u000a the pathological features of primary intestinal lymphomas classified according to the revised European-American classification\\u000a of lymphoid neoplasms. The majority of primary intestinal lymphomas are of Bcell lineage and

H.-D. Foss; H. Stein

263

Update on pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological gambling (PG) is a signi.cant public health concern associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and\\u000a mortality. Although research into the biology of PG is still in an early stage, recent advances in our understanding of motivation,\\u000a reward, and addiction have provided substantial insight into the possible pathophysiology of this disorder. In addition, over\\u000a the past 5 years, extraordinary

Jon E. Grant; Kyle A. Williams; Suck Won Kim

2006-01-01

264

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

265

Pathological findings in equine herpesvirus 9-induced abortion in rats.  

PubMed

Pregnant rats were infected experimentally with equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus serologically similar to EHV-1, during the first and third trimesters. The inoculated dams had mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead fetuses or undersized pups. Rats inoculated during the first and last trimesters had varying degrees of encephalitis as well as abnormalities of the placentas in the form of marked dilation of maternal blood sinusoids and varying degrees of atrophy and necrosis of the trophoblast cells of the labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and the giant cell layer. Virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the brain and the trophoblast cells of labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and giant cell layer of the placenta in rats inoculated during the first trimester. Virus antigen was detected in fetuses from rats inoculated in the first and last trimesters. Virus DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the placenta and fetuses of inoculated rats. EHV-9 may induce fetal death and abortion in pregnant dams, possibly caused by direct EHV-9 infection of the placenta and/or fetus as well as the secondary effect of vascular injury. PMID:25304504

El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Haridy, M; Nayel, M; Abdelaziz, A A; Fukushi, H; Kuroda, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

2014-11-01

266

College of Medicine PAT Pathology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped as MI 598.) PAT 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, PATHOLOGY. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his or her of Pathology. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity for exploration and study in an area which

MacAdam, Keith

267

Gastrointestinal pathology in juvenile and adult CFTR-knockout ferrets.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 ?g elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E; Hayden, Hillary S; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T; Keiser, Nicholas W; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R; Goeken, J Adam; Kinyon, Joann M; Radey, Matthew C; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J; Kaminsky, Paul M; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Miller, Samuel I; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K; Hoffman, Lucas R; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A; Engelhardt, John F

2014-05-01

268

Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology: SY21-2 PERINATAL LIVER PATHOLOGY.  

PubMed

The pathologist may encounter perinatal liver disease at autopsy, when examining a stillbirth or neonatal death, or on liver biopsy to investigate the cause of neonatal jaundice or liver failure. This presentation aims to discuss the pathology of liver disease of intrauterine or neonatal onset. A pattern based approach is used. Even when a specific diagnosis is not reached, identification of the pattern of liver injury, in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings often narrows the differential diagnosis and thereby assists in further decision making. Neonatal liver disease most commonly manifests with cholestatic jaundice/conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Other presentations include neonatal liver failure, fetal hydrops, IUGR and stillbirth. Neonatal jaundice may be idiopathic, due to infection (viral, bacterial), metabolic or endocrine disorders, or toxic/drug related. The main causes of perinatal liver failure are neonatal hemochromatosis, inherited metabolic disorders and viral infections. In neonatal hemochromatosis the liver typically shows signs of subacute or chronic liver injury. Hepatic necrosis is characteristically seen in neonatal viral infections, or drug induced liver injury and metabolic disorders. Steatosis, cholestatic rosetting and storage cells strongly suggest an underlying metabolic disorder. Use of special stains or electronmicroscopy in many cases will allow identification of storage material. PMID:25188143

Brundler, Marie-Anne

2014-10-01

269

Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and those pregnant women with medium obesity and obesity (p = 0.046). Body mass index (BMI) during normal pregnancy development is lower (p = 0.002) but the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL in blood are higher Blood pressure in pregnant women with pathological pregnancy was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were found in 19 pregnant women with the pathological pregnancy. Statistically, in those women, a significantly higher appearance of psychological symptoms and disorders was observed in comparison to the pregnant women without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). The research has shown that 87.8% from all pregnant women included in this study have been hospitalized due to premature birth, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes in pregnancy, and also due to bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943

Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

2012-09-01

270

Formaldehyde in pathology departments.  

PubMed Central

Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

Clark, R P

1983-01-01

271

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

272

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

273

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

274

Pathological features of FTLD-FUS in a Japanese population: analyses of nine cases.  

PubMed

We investigated the pathological features of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with fused in sarcoma protein (FUS) accumulation (FTLD-FUS) in the Japanese population. Only one out of nine FTLD-FUS cases showed pathology that corresponds to atypical FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (aFTLD-U). Five were basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and two were neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. The last case was unclassifiable and was associated with dystrophic neurites (DNs) as the predominant FUS pathology. The results of this study indicate an ethnic difference from western countries. In Japan, BIBD is the most common subtype of FTLD-FUS and aFTLD-U is rare, a finding which contrasts with aFTLD-U being the most common form in western countries. Immunohistochemical analyses of these FTLD-FUS cases reveal that FUS abnormally accumulated in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and DNs has an immunohistochemical profile distinct from that of normal, nuclear FUS. NCIs and DNs are more readily stained than the nuclei by antibodies to the middle portion of FUS. Antibodies to the carboxyl terminal portion, on the other hand, stain the nuclei more readily than NCIs and DNs. Such an immunohistochemical profile of NCIs and DNs was similar to that of cytoplasmic granular FUS staining which we previously reported to be associated with dendrites and synapses. Redistribution of FUS from the nucleus to the cytoplasm could be associated with the formation of abnormal FUS aggregates in FTLD-FUS. PMID:24050818

Kobayashi, Zen; Kawakami, Ito; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Kondo, Hiromi; Shimomura, Yoko; Haga, Chie; Aoki, Naoya; Hasegawa, Masato; Hosokawa, Masato; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Ishizu, Hideki; Terada, Seishi; Onaya, Mitsumoto; Ikeda, Manabu; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Nakano, Imaharu; Murayama, Shigeo; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2013-12-15

275

Endocrine Pathology: SY08-2 PARAGANGLIOMA.  

PubMed

Paraganglioma normally occurs in sites that parallel the sympathetic and parasympathetic chain ganglions. Common locations of paraganglioma include tumours of paraganglionic system in head and neck region like carotid body paraganglioma and jugulotypmanic paraganglioma. There are also paragangliomas that occur outside the usual distribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. Pathological diagnosis of paraganglioma depends on the characteristic histological features and immnohistochemical detection of neuroendocrine marker(s). Composite paragangliomas (paragangliomas with features of ganglioneuroma or ganglioneuroblastoma) are sometimes noted. The malignant potential of paraganglioma is difficult to be assessed. Assessment systems have been proposed in the pathology reporting of paraganglioma in order to predict the malignant behaviour of the tumour. In this context, proliferative activity obtained from Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining should be provided in the reporting of paraganglioma. Recent developments in molecular genetics have expanded the spectrum of disorders associated with paragangliomas. The relevant clinical impact in pathology is the role of pathologist in the detection of SDHB by immunohistochemistry in paraganglioma as SDHB mutations are strongly correlated with head and neck paraganglioma, presence of metastasis and poor prognosis. A high index of suspicion should be applied as paraganglioma occur in diverse sites. Also, awareness of the need of updated pathological and immunological data are essential for proper management of patients with paraganglioma. PMID:25188066

Lam, Alfred King-Yin

2014-10-01

276

Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

Shepherd, N A

1991-01-01

277

Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

1996-03-01

278

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

279

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

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280

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

281

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

1994-01-01

282

Radiologic–Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization  

PubMed Central

To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa (?) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have ?85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The ? coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis. PMID:19967371

Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Kulik, Laura; Ryu, Robert K.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa; Nayar, Ritu; Wang, Ed; Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A.; Abecassis, Michael

2010-01-01

283

Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization  

SciTech Connect

To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa ({kappa}) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have {>=}85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The {kappa} coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis.

Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Gates, Vanessa [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Nayar, Ritu [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology (United States); Wang, Ed [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.ed [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

2010-12-15

284

ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology  

E-print Network

ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology The Department of Pathology and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality basic science research-eligible in Clinical Pathology or Anatomic Pathology/Clinical Pathology, are encouraged to apply. The successful

Bogyo, Matthew

285

Practical pathology of aging mice  

PubMed Central

Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

2011-01-01

286

Practical pathology of aging mice.  

PubMed

Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

2011-01-01

287

Pathological and protective immunity to Pneumocystis infection.  

PubMed

Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic infection in the HIV-positive population and is re-emerging as a growing clinical concern in the HIV-negative immunosuppressed population. Newer targeted immunosuppressive therapies and the discovery of rare genetic mutations have furthered our understanding of the immunity required to clear Pneumocystis infection. The immune system can also mount a pathologic response against Pneumocystis following removal of immunosuppression and result in severe damage to the host lung. The current review will examine the most recent epidemiologic studies about the incidence of Pneumocystis in the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in the developing and developed world and will detail methods of diagnosis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Finally, this review aims to summarize the known mediators of immunity to Pneumocystis and detail the pathologic immune response leading to Pneumocystis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:25420451

Eddens, Taylor; Kolls, Jay K

2015-03-01

288

Protein tyrosine phosphatases in pathological process.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) modulate the cellular level of tyrosine phosphorylation under normal and pathological conditions, and thus exert either stimulatory or inhibitory effect on signal transduction. Hence, PTPs are potential pharmacological targets for novel drugs being developed in order to treat numerous pathologies including cancer. For example, PTPs have been found to play a key role in pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, allergic response, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, among others Alzheimer\\'s disease. Moreover, since many PTPs fine-tune subtle regulation of microbial biochemistry controlling the viability and virulence, they can be candidates for new therapies of infection diseases. In this review, authors summarize the current knowledge on PTPs implication in etiopathogenesis of most common human diseases focusing on PTPs as potential therapeutical targets. PMID:25553456

Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Gorska, Magdalena; Knap, Narcyz; Cappello, Francesco; Wozniak, Michal

2015-01-01

289

Social cost of pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities. PMID:24234973

Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C

1994-12-01

290

Pathology Case Study: Girl in Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 15-year-old girl found unresponsive near her bed. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with laboratory findings, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Najjar, Hazim

291

Pathology Case Study: Acute Onset of Epistaxis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 77-year-old white male who presented to the emergency department with persistent nose bleeding. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, treatment data, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Hassett, Andrea C.; Zheng, Su

2009-04-16

292

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

293

DSM-5 pathological personality traits and the personality assessment inventory.  

PubMed

Section 3 of the DSM-5 will include a pathological personality trait system rooted in the quantitative epistemology of personality and clinical psychology. This system has the potential to enhance the clinical utility of the diagnostic nosology by providing a means for the dimensional assessment of individuals with psychopathology. However, there is limited research on the associations of DSM-5 traits with common mental disorders and related clinical phenomena as measured by currently popular assessment instruments. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the convergence of the DSM-5 trait system with a well-validated broadband clinical instrument, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Bivariate correlations were examined and factor analytic methods were used to examine the degree to which the DSM-5 traits and PAI capture common variance in personality and mental health. In a student sample (N = 1,001), we found broad convergence between the DSM-5 traits and PAI, which could be organized effectively using five factors. The implications of these findings for using traits to address issues related to diagnostic co-occurrence and heterogeneity in routine clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:23610235

Hopwood, Christopher J; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F; Schade, Nick; Markon, Kristian E; Morey, Leslie C

2013-06-01

294

Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

2012-01-20

295

Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

296

Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2-2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

Bullock, Scott A; Potenza, Marc N

2012-02-01

297

Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the âÂÂPatient Historyâ and âÂÂLaboratory Investigationsâ sections, students should proceed on to the âÂÂQuestionsâ section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the âÂÂDiagnosisâ section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nambiar, Ashok

2009-02-06

298

Rabies: ocular pathology.  

PubMed

Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. PMID:2920157

Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

1989-01-01

299

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D.E.

2003-01-01

300

An Unusual Presentation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Pathological Fracture  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by a pathological fracture is very uncommon. We present a case of a 54-year-old female patient who was admitted with fracture of her right femur. She underwent closed intramedullary reconstruction nailing with bipolar locking. The pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism with brown tumor. Further tests showed increased both calcium level and PTH level. A parathyroidectomy was performed. She made an uneventful recovery and was discharged to home. PMID:23198216

Khaoula, Ben Abdelghani; Kaouther, Ben Abdelghani; Ines, Chelly; Sami, Turki; Zakraoui, Leith; Khedher, Adel

2011-01-01

301

Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Holst, Valerie

302

Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Hari, Raj

2009-03-24

303

Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case from the collection documents a sixty-five year old female patient with enlarged lymph nodes in the jugular region, and a nodule of the thyroid. The patient's history is presented, as well as the gross and microscopic descriptions of her thyroid and lymph nodes (including images). Images from an electron microscopic examination are also included to aid in diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-

304

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Zagzag, David

2009-03-16

305

Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

Pushkar, Irina; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-17

306

Ureteritis Cystica: A Radiologic Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

Ureteritis cystica (UC) is a benign condition that commonly affects the ureter and can mimic other conditions such as transitional cell carcinoma, blood clots, air bubbles, radiolucent stones, fibroepithelial polyps, and sloughed renal papillae. Radiographically, UC is characterized by multiple small, round, lucent defects, which cause scalloping of the ureteral margins when seen in profile. The scalloping is produced by the projection of the submucosal cysts into the lumen and represents an important differential feature of this disease. We present a case of UC with a radiological pathological correlation. PMID:21966620

Rothschild, Jennifer G; Wu, Guan

2011-01-01

307

Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

308

Clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. It varies with respect to the morphologic, cytogenetic, molecular and immunologic features of the neoplastic cells reflecting the variable clinical-pathologic presentations and outcome of the patients. The aim of the study was to observe the clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics in newly diagnosed adult ALL patients. A total number of 61 patients morphologically diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aged 15 and above assigned for this observational study. The study was carried out in the Department of Haematology, BSMMU from January 2007 to December 2008. Among 61 patients, aged 15 to 80 years with median age 25 years, 79% were male and 21% were female. Most of the patients presented with anaemia (67%), fever (66%), lymphadenopathy (64%) and splenomegaly (57%). Other common clinical findings were hepatomegaly (39%), bone tenderness (44%) and bleeding manifestations (34%). Among haemato-pathological findings 67% patients had Hb level ?10gm/dl, 46% patients had WBC count ?30×10?/L, 67% patients had platelet count ?100×10?/L, 93% patients had blast in peripheral blood and 61% patients had ?90 % blasts in the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis. In this study adult ALL patients were analyzed only for their clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics. But their biologic characteristics were not analyzed due to lack of availability of facility. A progressive understanding of the biologic and genetic characteristics of ALL will allow us to identify different prognostic subgroups with specific molecular and cellular features. All the necessary measures have to be developed in our country in order to identify prognostically distinct subgroups of patients. PMID:24858155

Islam, N; Rahman, M M; Aziz, M A; Begum, M; Ferdous, J; Rahman, M J

2014-04-01

309

Static Versus Dynamic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for Detection of Plantar Plate Pathology.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is a common modality used to examine plantar plate pathology. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of static versus dynamic ultrasound has not been previously published. The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the value of using preoperative static and dynamic ultrasound findings to diagnose plantar plate pathology using intraoperative inspection as the standard of reference. Patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty clinic from August 2012 to June 2013 with clinically suspected plantar plate pathology that was unresponsive to conservative care served as the study population. Static and dynamic ultrasound exams were performed by a single experienced rater and compared to intraoperative findings. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for static and dynamic ultrasound exams. Thirty-six patients (45 lesser metatarsophalangeal joints) were included in this analysis. Of the 36 patients, 29 were females and 7 were males with average age of 57.9 ± 7.8 years (range, 38-73). There were 38 plantar plate tears (84.4%) noted on intraoperative examination. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the static US exam were 80.0%, 81.6%, 71.4%, 93.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. The same values for the dynamic US exam were 88.9%, 100%, 28.6%, 88.3%, and 100%, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasound techniques are each highly sensitive methods for assessing plantar plate pathology. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of the exam is best when dynamic assessment of the plantar plate is employed. Caution should be used when relying solely on static images to diagnose subtle injuries in this area of the foot. PMID:25027985

Feuerstein, Catherine A; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott; Klein, Erin E; Fleischer, Adam; Argerakis, Nicholas G

2014-07-15

310

Imaging anatomy and pathology of extraocular muscles in adults.  

PubMed

The extraocular muscles (EOM) are involved in a variety of disease processes with characteristic findings on imaging. EOM anatomy is described, followed by a review of adult EOM pathology. The imaging characteristics are explained with examples. The pattern of EOM disease on imaging, in corroboration with clinical findings, can often lead the radiologist towards a specific diagnosis. PMID:25267374

van der Pol, Christian B; Chakraborty, Santanu; Gao, Jennifer; Nguyen, Thanh; Torres, Carlos; Glikstein, Rafael

2014-11-01

311

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

312

Eosinophilic lung diseases: a clinical, radiologic, and pathologic overview.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic lung diseases are a diverse group of pulmonary disorders associated with peripheral or tissue eosinophilia. They are classified as eosinophilic lung diseases of unknown cause (simple pulmonary eosinophilia [SPE], acute eosinophilic pneumonia [AEP], chronic eosinophilic pneumonia [CEP], idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome [IHS]), eosinophilic lung diseases of known cause (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis [ABPA], bronchocentric granulomatosis [BG], parasitic infections, drug reactions), and eosinophilic vasculitis (allergic angiitis, granulomatosis [Churg-Strauss syndrome]). The percentages of eosinophils in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are essential parts of the evaluation. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrates a more characteristic pattern and distribution of parenchymal opacities than does conventional chest radiography. At CT, SPE and IHS are characterized by single or multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass-opacity halo, AEP mimics radiologically hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and CEP is characterized by nonsegmental airspace consolidations with peripheral predominance. ABPA manifests with bilateral central bronchiectasis with or without mucoid impaction. The CT manifestations of BG are nonspecific and consist of a focal mass or lobar consolidation with atelectasis. The most common CT findings in Churg-Strauss syndrome include sub-pleural consolidation with lobular distribution, centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening, and interlobular septal thickening. The integration of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings facilitates the initial and differential diagnoses of various eosinophilic lung diseases. PMID:17495282

Jeong, Yeon Joo; Kim, Kun-Il; Seo, Im Jeong; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Ki Nam; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Woon Jung

2007-01-01

313

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

314

Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

2011-01-01

315

A consensus curriculum for laboratory management training for pathology residents.  

PubMed

Through the combined efforts of the American Pathology Foundation (APF), the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), and the Program Directors Section (PRODS) of the Association of Pathology Chairs (APC), a needs assessment was performed via a survey on the PRODS listserv, workshops at the APC/PRODS annual meetings in 2009 and 2010, and a Work Group of representatives of APF, ASCP, and PRODS. Residency program needs and resource constraints common to training pathology residents in practice and laboratory management were identified. In addition, a consensus curriculum for management training was created to serve as a resource for residency training program directors and others. The curriculum was converted into a "wiki" design tool for use by program directors, residents, and faculty. PMID:22031303

Weiss, Ronald L; McKenna, Barbara J; Lord-Toof, Melissa; Thompson, Nancie Noie

2011-11-01

316

Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

Crook, Shirley, Ed.

317

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

318

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

319

Utilization management in anatomic pathology.  

PubMed

There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. PMID:24140174

Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

2014-01-01

320

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-08-17

321

From the archives of the AFIP: Inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Although the vast majority of bladder tumors are epithelial neoplasms, a variety of nonneoplastic disorders can cause either focal bladder masses or diffuse mural thickening and mimic malignancy. Some of these entities are rare and poorly understood such as inflammatory pseudotumor, which produces ulcerated, bleeding polypoid bladder masses. These masses may be large and have an extravesical component. Bladder endometriosis manifests as submucosal masses with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features consisting of hemorrhagic foci and reactive fibrosis. Nephrogenic adenoma has no typical features, and pathologic evaluation is required for diagnosis. Although imaging features of malacoplakia are also nonspecific, characteristic Michaelis-Gutmann bodies are found at pathologic evaluation. The various types of cystitis (cystitis cystica, cystitis glandularis, and eosinophilic cystitis) require pathologic diagnosis. Bladder infection with tuberculosis and schistosomiasis produces nonspecific bladder wall thickening and ulceration in the acute phase and should be suspected in patients who are immunocompromised or from countries where these infections are common. The diagnosis of chemotherapy cystitis and radiation cystitis should be clinically evident, but imaging may be used to determine severity and to assess complications. Extrinsic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease and diverticulitis may be associated with fistulas to the bladder and focal bladder wall abnormality. The extravesical findings allow the diagnosis to be made easily. Finally, extrinsic masses arising from the prostate or distal ureter may cause filling defects, which can be confused with intrinsic bladder masses. PMID:17102055

Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Woodward, Paula J; Manning, Maria A; Davis, Charles J

2006-01-01

322

Pathological effects of drugs on the gastrointestinal tract: a review.  

PubMed

Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is increasingly common but generally under-recognized. Although there is an overwhelming number of drugs that are associated with adverse GI effects, there is a limited number of characteristic injury patterns that should prompt consideration of drug-induced GI pathology. These include the following: erosions, ulcers, and strictures; crystal deposition; parietal cell changes; reactive gastropathy; pseudodysplastic changes; microscopic colitis; infectious or necrotizing enterocolitis; ischemic colitis; focal active colitis; and increased epithelial apoptosis. This article reviews morphological and pathophysiological features of some of the more common and pathologically recognizable drug-related injury patterns and provides a practical guide for the recognition and diagnosis of drug-induced pathology in the upper and lower GI tract. PMID:17367604

Parfitt, Jeremy R; Driman, David K

2007-04-01

323

MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis.  

PubMed

We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

2013-01-01

324

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2010-10-01

325

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

326

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2013-10-01

327

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology  

E-print Network

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

328

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2014-10-01

329

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2012-10-01

330

Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology  

E-print Network

Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine "The Challenge patient journeys Display: Real time diagnostics in surgery and molecular pathology approaches that have potential to be disruptive healthcare tools Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory

Leistikow, Bruce N.

331

Parallel states of pathological Wnt signaling in neonatal brain injury and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

In colon cancer, mutation of the Wnt repressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) leads to a state of aberrant and unrestricted “high-activity” signaling. However, relevance of high Wnt tone in non-genetic human disease is unknown. Here we demonstrate that distinct Wnt activity functional states determine oligodendrocyte precursor (OPC) differentiation and myelination. Murine OPCs with genetic Wnt dysregulation (high tone) express multiple genes in common with colon cancer including Lef1, SP5, Ets2, Rnf43 and Dusp4. Surprisingly, we find that OPCs in lesions of hypoxic human neonatal white matter injury upregulate markers of high Wnt activity and lack expression of APC. Finally, we show lack of Wnt repressor tone promotes permanent white matter injury after mild hypoxic insult. These findings suggest a state of pathological high-activity Wnt signaling in human disease tissues that lack pre-disposing genetic mutation. PMID:24609463

Fancy, Stephen P.J.; Harrington, Emily P.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Silbereis, John C.; Shiow, Lawrence R.; Yuen, Tracy J.; Huang, Eric J.; Lomvardas, Stavros; Rowitch, David H.

2014-01-01

332

Pathological Consequences of Copper Deficiency and Cobalt Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the pathology of copper deficiency in several species, and cobalt deficiency in sheep, are summarized. An attempt is made to interpret morphological changes in copper-deficient animals in terms of biochemical defects. The common denominator may be mitochondrial lesions, with a generalized effect on energy-dependent synthetic functions of the cell. In copper deficiency, such defects can be attributed to

B. F. Fell

1981-01-01

333

Demystified … Molecular pathology in oncology  

PubMed Central

In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology. PMID:12456768

Crocker, J

2002-01-01

334

Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

2014-06-01

335

Pathology Case Study: Post-operative bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves an 83-year-old woman with post-operative bleeding and anemia. Laboratory values are provided in Table 1. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kiss, Joseph; Puca, Kathleen; Qu, Lirong; Triulzi, Darrell

2008-04-04

336

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

337

DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology  

E-print Network

DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology provides diagnostic services

Bogyo, Matthew

338

DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology  

E-print Network

DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, neuropathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology

Bogyo, Matthew

339

Finding Perimeter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore a real world problem based on the Marilyn Burns book Spaghetti and Meatballs for All!. The problem and further practice finding the distance around rectangles will lead them to discover efficient strategies and formulas for solving perimeter.

Strickland, Susanna

2012-07-27

340

Spectrum of Histomorphologic Findings in Liver in Patients with SLE: A Review  

PubMed Central

Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome (SS), and scleroderma are immunologically mediated disorders that typically have multisystem involvement. Although clinically significant liver involvement is rare, liver enzyme abnormalities are common in these patients. The reported prevalence of hepatic involvement in SLE, histopathologic findings, and its significance is very variable in the existing literature. It is important to be familiar with the causes of hepatic involvement in SLE along with histomorphological features which aid in distinguishing hepatitis of SLE from other hepatic causes as they would alter the patient management and disease course. Histopathology of liver in SLE shows a wide morphological spectrum commonly due to a coexisting pathology. Drug induced hepatitis, viral etiology, and autoimmune overlap should be excluded before attributing the changes to SLE itself. Common histopathologic findings in SLE include fatty liver, portal inflammation, and vascular changes like hemangioma, congestion, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, arteritis, and abnormal vessels in portal tracts. PMID:25136456

Grover, Shrruti; Rastogi, Archana; Singh, Jyotsna; Rajbongshi, Apurba; Bihari, Chhagan

2014-01-01

341

The molecular pathology of rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 10 million Americans. Although the phenotypes of rosacea are clinically heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of chronic facial skin inflammation. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease has been poorly understood and limited to descriptions of factors that exacerbate or improve this disorder. Recent molecular studies suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular and inflammatory disease seen in patients with rosacea. These findings may help explain the benefits of current treatments and suggest new therapeutic strategies helpful for alleviating this disease. This article discusses the possible molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of rosacea from current clinical observations and laboratory research. PMID:19481425

Yamasaki, Kenshi; Gallo, Richard L.

2009-01-01

342

Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings  

PubMed Central

Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22096219

Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P

2012-01-01

343

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

344

[Coronaviruses in pathology].  

PubMed

The crown-like projections on the surface of the particles permits differentiation of coronaviruses from other riboviruses and their individualization as a distinct family. Recognition of their role in the aetiology of respiratory, enteral and encephalitic infections has promoted investigations for the finding of preventive vaccines. Selection of the strains showed that their immunogenicity depends upon the density and salience of the crown-like projections, the antigenic relationship of the projections determining cross serologic reactions between different species. At present experiments are being carried out on animals with vaccines prepared with antigenically related heterologous cornavirus species, not pathogenic for the host, and with subunitary vaccines prepared from the projections of the homologous species. The Coronaviridae family established on morphologic criteria is thus confirmed by the immunologic relationship and specificity of its members. PMID:6246565

Diosi, P; Plavo?in, L; Herzog, G

1980-01-01

345

The radiological spectrum of orbital pathologies that involve the lacrimal gland and the lacrimal fossa.  

PubMed

CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. Although many diseases that affect the lacrimal gland and fossa are specifically diagnosed by imaging, it is frequently very difficult to differentiate each specific disease on the basis of image characteristics alone due to intrinsic similarities. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a non-enhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. A careful clinical evaluation and moreover, a pathologic verification, are needed. In this pictorial review, the various imaging spectrums of pathologic masses involving the lacrimal gland and fossa are presented, along with appropriate anatomy and pathology reviews. PMID:17673845

Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai

2007-01-01

346

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

347

Main Findings  

Cancer.gov

This study looked at the ALTS patients with ASCUS who were found to have a precancerous lesion when they underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Its purpose was to find out how sensitive HPV testing was at identifying these women compared to repeat Pap testing. The study found that HPV testing was 96-percent sensitive - that is, identified 96% of the women with ASCUS who had a precancerous lesion. The authors concluded that HPV testing is a viable option for the management of ASCUS.

348

Molecular pathology and future developments.  

PubMed

There has already been a 'molecular' revolution in pathology. Demonstrating transcription of specific single genes or small gene sets and their protein products by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry is routine in diagnostic and experimental pathology. A perhaps-greater revolution is imminent with the application of more recently established and emergent technologies in pathology. These include new approaches to polymerase chain reaction (PCR); simultaneous studies of multiple genes and their expression using oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays; serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE); expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing, subtractive cloning and differential display; high-throughput sequencing; comparative genomic hybridization, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (spectral karyotyping); reverse chromosome painting; knockout and transgenic organisms; laser microdissection and micro-machining; and new methods in bio-informatics, 'data mining' and data visualisation. Molecular methods will profoundly change diagnosis, prognosis and treatment targeting in oncology and elucidate fundamental mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. Individual susceptibility to specific diseases will become assessable and screening will be refined. The new molecular biology will be most fruitful in partnership with classical approaches to pathology: the expectation that molecular methods alone will answer all pathological questions is unrealistic. A further challenge for the biomedical community in the 'genome era' will be to ensure that the benefits of these sophisticated technologies are enjoyed globally. PMID:10711232

Going, J J; Gusterson, B A

1999-12-01

349

Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25211036

Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

2015-01-01

350

Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: a challenge in perinatal pathology.  

PubMed

Autopsies were performed in 40 cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis during the period from 1975 to 1983. In 25 cases specific anatomic diagnoses, including hematologic disorders, infections, chromosomal abnormalities, congenital anomalies, and tumors, were made. In the majority the diagnosis of hydrops fetalis was made prenatally by ultrasonography. The mean gestational age at delivery was 30 weeks; 23 infants were stillborn, and 17 died during the neonatal period. Body weights were consistently increased; peripheral edema and ascites were present in all cases and pleural effusions in all but two cases. Hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, and pulmonary hypoplasia were frequent findings. The most consistent microscopic changes involved endocrine organs. Islet cell hyperplasia and Leydig cell hyperplasia were common, and thyroid hyperplasia was found occasionally. The fetal zone of the adrenal cortex was often thick and composed of swollen, vacuolated cells. Enhanced extramedullary erythropoiesis was observed in all cases. Thirty-nine placentas were examined; 34 were edematous (mean weight, 547 g), with villous edema, excess erythroblastemia and normoblastemia, and occasional intravillous hematopoiesis. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis has a range of known causes. Thorough autopsy, including placental examination, is the most useful approach for determining the etiology. In 23 cases the probable or possible cause was established in this manner. Antibody studies should also be performed in all cases to exclude an immunologic etiology. Synthesis of clinical, serologic, and pathologic data offers prospects for rational management and prediction of recurrence. PMID:4018776

Mostoufi-Zadeh, M; Weiss, L M; Driscoll, S G

1985-08-01

351

Pulmonary Hypertension Related to Left-Sided Cardiac Pathology  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the end result of a variety of diverse pathologic processes. The chronic elevation in pulmonary artery pressure often leads to right ventricular pressure overload and subsequent right ventricular failure. In patients with left-sided cardiac disease, PH is quite common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This article will review the literature as it pertains to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of PH related to aortic valve disease, mitral valve disease, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Moreover, therapeutic strategies, which focus on treating the underlying cardiac pathology will be discussed. PMID:21660234

Kiefer, Todd L.; Bashore, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

352

Integrating veterinary pathology into basic research  

E-print Network

Integrating veterinary pathology into basic research Tuesday 17 April 2012 University of Surrey in veterinary pathology, to develop an integrated approach to the study of pathology. The seminar will focus on advances in basic pathology techniques including tissue sampling,morphometric imaging

Doran, Simon J.

353

Postdoctoral Fellowship Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Fellowship Pathology and Molecular Medicine The Department of Pathology and Molecular and validation, biomarker discovery, and teaching. The Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine or e-mail as soon as possible. Murray Potter, MD Associate Professor Pathology and Molecular Medicine

Haykin, Simon

354

ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012  

E-print Network

ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology.Yuen@curtin.edu.au Telephone +61 8 9266 7984 or visit psych.curtin.edu.au School of Psychology & Speech Pathology Monday 15th

355

ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology  

E-print Network

ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology The Department of Pathology related to molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality of the Department of Pathology. Applicants must have a Ph.D., M.D., or M.D./Ph.D. degree. Applicants who are board

Bogyo, Matthew

356

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol  

E-print Network

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl Alcohol C00117E/00117-68 AMENDED PATHOLOGY Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing Address: 615 Davis Drive P.O. Box 12766 Suite 500 RTP, NC 27709 Durham, NC 27713 (919) 998-9407 October 6, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories

Baker, Chris I.

357

Clinical image and pathology of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features, and treatment experiments of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). The clinical findings, MRI, and pathological appearances of 9 patients with HCP were analyzed retrospectively. The thickened dura mater was markedly enhanced after contrast media injection. The lesion near the brain hemisphere presented long regions of T1- and T2-weighted abnormal signal intensities. The abnormal signal intensities of the brain tissue were decreased significantly. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation changes, with cerebral dura mater fibrous tissue showing obvious hyperplasia, and the periphery of the blood vessel showing a great quantity of infiltrating phlegmonosis cells. HCP mainly presents headache and paralysis of multiple cranial nerves. The distinctive signs on brain MRIs involve strengthening the signal in the cerebral dura. PMID:25511033

Shi, C H; Niu, S T; Zhang, Z Q

2014-01-01

358

Pathology Case Study: Aortic Dissection and Neck Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This case documents the neck and back pain of a 71-year-old female patient. The patient's history is provided, and includes documentation of her condition throughout the duration of her treatment. The pathologic findings include images and descriptions of the gross and microscopic evaluation. In the "Final Diagnosis" section the official conclusion of the doctor is accompanied by a discussion of the diagnosis and references. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Monnin, Kimberly

2007-09-21

359

Forensic pathology and the miscarriage of justice.  

PubMed

A case of conviction for rape-murder that was eventually overturned based on a post-conviction re-evaluation of the findings at autopsy is described. The main issue elucidated on post-conviction review was that postmortem anal dilation and postmortem hypostatic hemorrhages of the neck were misinterpreted as injuries. After review of the autopsy findings, the prosecution agreed with the appellant that a miscarriage of justice had occurred and the conviction was quashed by an appellate court. This case underscores the need for an awareness of key pitfalls that can be encountered at autopsy, such as the proper interpretation of postmortem artefacts. The evolving role of the evidence-based framework for forensic pathology is explored as a systemic solution to enhance the administration of justice. PMID:22116733

Pollanen, Michael S

2012-09-01

360

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Mental Status Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 36-year-old white male had end-stage renal disease due to sclerosing glomerulonephritis. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross neuropathologic findings, and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio); Nichols, Larry; Wang, Jianzhou

2009-10-05

361

Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features of Primary Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Review of 51 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

YAMAMOTO, Shinya; HOSHI, Katsuichiro; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; CHIMURA, Syuuichi; KOBAYASHI, Masayuki; MACHIDA, Noboru

2013-01-01

362

The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used  

PubMed Central

Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I–IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF.

Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

2015-01-01

363

The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.  

PubMed

Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

2015-01-01

364

Systems pathology—taking molecular pathology into a new dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of morphological, histological, and molecular data from human cancers available to pathologists means that pathology is poised to become a truly quantitative systems science. By measuring morphological parameters such as tumor stage and grade, and by measuring molecular biomarkers such as hormone receptor status, pathologists have sometimes accurately predicted what will happen to a patient's tumor. While 'omic'

Robert G. Clyde; John W. Crawford; David J. Harrison; Dana Faratian

2009-01-01

365

Pathology Case Study: Renal Failure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has had two kidney transplants. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

366

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

367

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

368

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon

369

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.

370

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-04-28

371

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

2008-10-16

372

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

373

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-25

374

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

375

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon

376

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man with a history of renal failure complained of hemorrhoidal bleeding. Visitors are given charts, test results, transfusion information and patient history, to provide the opportunity for viewers to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Kohler, Lisa J.

377

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

2008-12-31

378

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

379

Pathology Case Study: HIV Positive Man Died Following Bleeding from Mouth and Nose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This autopsy pathology case provides the patient history, gross and microscopic description and final diagnosis of an HIV positive male. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Aronica, Patricia; Ndimbie, Oliver

2007-10-25

380

Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the roles of pathological disorders in Internet addiction disorder and identify the pathological problems in IAD, as well as explore the mental status of Internet addicts prior to addiction, including the pathological traits that may trigger Internet addiction disorder.Methods and Findings59 students were measured by Symptom CheckList-90 before and after they became addicted to the

Guangheng Dong; Qilin Lu; Hui Zhou; Xuan Zhao; Jeremy Miles

2011-01-01

381

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

382

Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.  

PubMed

The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

S?odkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Micha?

2008-01-01

383

Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria  

PubMed Central

Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic and, thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, in many of whom death was attributed to P falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathological manifestations of fatal malaria, to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages, and to catalogue co-morbidities. From available patients which included 55 patients with cerebral malaria and 45 controls, we obtained 4 cores of lung tissue for immunohistochemistry and morphological evaluation. We found that in patients with cerebral malaria, large numbers of malaria parasites were present in pulmonary alveolar capillaries, together with extensive deposits of malaria pigment (hemozoin). The number of pulmonary macrophages in this vascular bed did not differ between patients with cerebral malaria, non-cerebral malaria and non-malarial diagnoses. Co-morbidities found in some cerebral malaria patients included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and systemic activation of coagulation. We conclude that the respiratory distress seen in patients with cerebral malaria does not appear to be anatomic in origin but that increasing malaria pigment is strongly associated with cerebral malaria at autopsy. PMID:24074535

Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A.; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

2013-01-01

384

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: correlation of radiographic and pathological observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

R. F. Tuchman; L. A. Alvarez; A. B. Kantrowitz; F. G. Moser; J. Llena; S. L. Moshe

1989-01-01

385

katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology  

E-print Network

katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology Pathology and multi-function printers, which also allow scanning. Whole Slide Scanning for Virtual Pathology: Use be dropped off in Surgpath Available Spectrum Server/ Pathology Digital Slide Collection Use Path course

386

Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology  

E-print Network

Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Robert Young, MD. The rich history of pathology at the Massachusetts General. This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view

Mootha, Vamsi K.

387

Fatal brodifacoum rodenticide poisoning: autopsy and toxicologic findings.  

PubMed

This report details the pathologic and toxicologic findings in the case of a 15-year-old girl who deliberately and fatally ingested brodifacoum, a commonly used rodenticide. The mechanism of death, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, has not been previously reported. Brodifacoum was quantitated in liver, spleen, lung, brain, bile, vitreous humor, heart blood, and femoral blood using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest brodifacoum concentrations were detected in bile (4276 ng/mL) and femoral blood (3919 ng/mL). No brodifacoum was detected in brain or vitreous humor. A brodifacoum concentration of 50 ng/g was observed in frozen liver while formalin fixed liver exhibited a concentration of 820 ng/g. A very high blood:liver brodifacoum concentration ratio suggested acute poisoning but the historical and pathologic findings suggested a longer period of anticoagulation. Though most cases of brodifacoum poisoning in humans are non-fatal, this compound can be deadly because of its very long half-life. Forensic pathologists and toxicologists should suspect superwarfarin rodenticides when confronted with cases of unexplained bleeding. Anticoagulant poisoning can mimic fatal leukemia or infectious diseases such as bacterial sepsis, rickettsioses, plague, and leptospirosis. A thorough death scene investigation may provide clues that a person has ingested these substances. PMID:10432620

Palmer, R B; Alakija, P; de Baca, J E; Nolte, K B

1999-07-01

388

Bilateral Renal Infarction in a Lupus Patient: An Unusual Pathology  

PubMed Central

Acute renal infarction is still an underdiagnosed pathology. Most cases are secondary to arterial embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation or other cardiac illnesses; however, a less known etiology is the vascular affection of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal infarction in lupus patients normally appears with positive antiphospholipid antibodies or lupus anticoagulant in the context of an antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This is characterized by a state of hypercoagulability potentially affecting all segments of the vascular bed with thrombosis. A differential diagnosis with lupus nephritis, a very common pathology in SLE patients, must be carried out. We have to suspect this pathology in patients with SLE and APS who come to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pains or a renal colic. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman who was diagnosed of bilateral segmental renal infarction in the context of recently diagnosed SLE with no other vascular manifestations. PMID:23761987

Padilla-Fernández, Bárbara; García-Casado, Diana; Martín-Izquierdo, Manuela; Manzano-Rodríguez, Carmen; García-García, Javier; Lorenzo-Gómez, María F.

2013-01-01

389

Cardiac pathology in fatal electrocution.  

PubMed

Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995

Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas

2014-11-01

390

Direct Simulation of Pathological Detonations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers we have demonstrated how the direct simulation Monte Carlo method can be used to simulate detonations. Those simulations were limited to exothermic reactions. In this paper exothermic and endothermic reactions are simulated. Under these circumstances, one obtains pathological detonations. That is, these simulations cannot be predicted using the well-known Chapman-Jouguet hypothesis. The details of these simulations can

James B. Anderson; Lyle N. Long

2003-01-01

391

ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Kenny, Paraic

392

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

393

Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones. PMID:24198547

Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

394

Application of immunohistochemistry in thyroid pathology.  

PubMed

Context .- Accurate classification of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions is not always an easy task on routine surgical hematoxylin-eosin-stained or cytologic fine-needle aspiration specimens. The diagnostic challenges are partially due to differential diagnostic criteria that are often subtle and subjective. In the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in molecular gene profiling of tumors and diagnostic immunohistochemistry, aiding in diagnostic accuracy and proper patient management. Objective .- To evaluate the diagnostic utility of the most commonly studied immunomarkers in the field of thyroid pathology by review of the literature, using the database of indexed articles in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) from 1976-2013. Data Sources .- Literature review, authors' research data, and personal practice experience. Conclusions .- The appropriate use of immunohistochemistry by applying a panel of immunomarkers and using a standardized technical and interpretational method may complement the morphologic assessment and aid in the accurate classification of difficult thyroid lesions. PMID:25549145

Liu, Haiyan; Lin, Fan

2015-01-01

395

Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS), disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease. PMID:22811939

Martin, Brandon S.; Huntsman, Molly M.

2012-01-01

396

Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).  

PubMed

This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a primary T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans. PMID:24650893

Arbelo, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herráez, P; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Rivero, M; Grau-Bassas, E R; Fernández, A

2014-01-01

397

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

398

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

399

A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

2012-01-01

400

Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

401

Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

1988-01-01

402

Gamma-synuclein pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The prominent histopathological feature of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the presence of intracellular inclusions in degenerating neurons and their axons. The appearance and localization of these pathological structures depend on an aggregated protein that forms their scaffold. We investigated if ?-synuclein, an aggregation-prone protein highly expressed in healthy motor neurons, and predominantly localized in their axons and synaptic terminals is involved in ALS pathology. Methods Immunostaining of histological sections and sequential protein extraction from postmortem neural samples followed by immunoblotting. Results Immunohistochemical screening revealed a subset of sporadic (9 of 31) and familial (8 of 23) ALS cases with a novel type of pathology characterized by the accumulation of ?-synuclein in distinct profiles within the dorsolateral column. Sequential fractionation of proteins from the spinal cord tissues revealed detergent-insoluble ?-synuclein species specifically in the dorsolateral corticospinal tracts of a ALS patient with ?-synuclein-positive profiles in this region. These profiles are negative for protein markers commonly found in pathological inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients and most probably represent degenerated axons of upper motor neurons that have lost their neurofilaments. A subset of these profiles was found in association with phagocytic cells positive for Mac-2/Galectin-3. A smaller subset of studied ALS cases (4 of 54) contained large cytoplasmic inclusions in the cell body of remaining spinal motor neurons. Interpretation Our observations suggest that pathological aggregation of ?-synuclein might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS.

Peters, Owen M; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana; Highley, John Robin; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Troakes, Claire; Ninkina, Natalia; Buchman, Vladimir L

2015-01-01

403

PGC-1? Regulates Normal and Pathological Angiogenesis in the Retina  

PubMed Central

Neovascular diseases of the eye are the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The mechanisms underlying pathological neovascularization in the retina remain incompletely understood. PGC-1? is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular metabolism. In skeletal muscle, PGC-1? induces VEGFA expression and powerfully promotes angiogenesis, suggesting a similar role in other tissues. This study investigates the role of PGC-1? during normal and pathological vascularization in the retina. We show that PGC-1? induces the expression of VEGFA in numerous retinal cells, and that PGC-1? expression is strongly induced during postnatal retinal development, coincident with VEGFA expression and angiogenesis. PGC-1??/? mice have a significant reduction of early retinal vascular outgrowth, and reduced density of capillaries and number of main arteries and veins as adults. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model of retinopathy of prematurity, PGC-1? expression is dramatically induced in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, suggesting that PGC-1? drives pathological neovascularization. In support of this, PGC-1??/? mice subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy had decreased expression of VEGFA and were protected against pathological neovascularization. These results demonstrate that PGC-1? regulates VEGFA in the retina and is required for normal vessel development and for pathological neovascularization. The data highlight PGC-1? as a novel target in the treatment of neovascular diseases of the eye. PMID:23141926

Saint-Geniez, Magali; Jiang, Aihua; Abend, Stephanie; Liu, Laura; Sweigard, Harry; Connor, Kip M.; Arany, Zoltan

2014-01-01

404

War of the Roses A Case Study in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students use lab techniques to determine how the protagonist of the story, a student in a plant pathology class, can find out what is wrong with his mother’s roses. The case introduces students to sources of information for the proper diagnosis of plant diseases as well as methods of controlling plant diseases. Developed for the introductory laboratory in a basic upper-level undergraduate plant pathology course, the case could also be used in other courses such as introductory agriculture, horticulture, botany, and biology, where there is an interest in the diagnosis of plant diseases.

Melissa B. Riley

2001-01-01

405

Pathology Case Study: Abnormal Preoperative RBC Type and Crossmatch Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old woman has presented to the hospital for a radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma. Visitors are given the immuohematological findings, including patient charts, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Horn, Kevin D.; Triulzi, Darrell

2009-10-15

406

Pathology Case Study: Right Chest and Right Foot Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 16-year-old woman has been admitted to the hospital with masses on her right foot and in her right chest. Visitors are given the patient history and cytogenetic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and cytogenetics.

Gharaibeh, Burhan; Molina, J. T.; Surti, Urvashi

2009-03-31

407

Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Fernandes, Shaila; Pasculle, A. W.; Wang, Jianzhou

2008-11-27

408

Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS. PMID:22397318

2012-01-01

409

Pathologic Characteristics of Transplanted Kidney Xenografts  

PubMed Central

For xenotransplantation to become a clinical reality, we need to better understand the mechanisms of graft rejection or acceptance. We examined pathologic changes in ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pig kidneys transplanted into baboons that were treated with a protocol designed to induce immunotolerance through thymic transplantation (n=4) or were treated with long-term immunosuppressants (n=3). Hyperacute rejection did not occur in ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout kidney xenografts. By 34 days, acute humoral rejection led to xenograft loss in all three xenografts in the long-term immunosuppression group. The failing grafts exhibited thrombotic microangiopathic glomerulopathy with multiple platelet-fibrin microthrombi, focal interstitial hemorrhage, and acute cellular xenograft rejection. Damaged glomeruli showed IgM, IgG, C4d, and C5b-9 deposition. They also demonstrated endothelial cell death, diffuse endothelial procoagulant activation with high expression of tissue factor and vWF, and low expression of the ectonucleotidase CD39. In contrast, in the immunotolerance group, two of four grafts had normal graft function and no pathologic findings of acute or chronic rejection at 56 and 83 days. One of the remaining kidneys had mild but transient graft dysfunction with reversible, mild microangiopathic glomerulopathy, probably associated with preformed antibodies. The other kidney in the immunotolerance group developed unstable graft function at 81 days and developed chronic xenograft glomerulopathy. In summary, the success of pig-to-primate xenotransplantation may necessitate immune tolerance to inhibit acute humoral and cellular xenograft rejection. PMID:22114174

Yamada, Kazuhiko; Robson, Simon C.; Sachs, David H.; Colvin, Robert B.

2012-01-01

410

Pathology Case Study: Substernal Chest Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology featuring a 49-year-old married white male school teacher was a 2 pack/day smoker with a history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and a family history of coronary artery disease. He was awakened from his sleep at 03:00 with crushing substernal chest pain which radiated to his left arm and was accompanied by shortness of breath. This case study provides learning objectives along with autopsy findings both gross and microscopic in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Nichols, Larry

2009-10-07

411

Benign esophageal lesions: Endoscopic and pathologic features  

PubMed Central

Benign esophageal lesions have a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic features. Understanding the endoscopic and pathologic features of esophageal lesions is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, and management. The purpose of this review is to provide updated features that may help physicians to appropriately manage these esophageal lesions. The endoscopic features of 2997 patients are reviewed. In epithelial lesions, the frequency of occurrence was in the following order: glycogenic acanthosis, heterotopic gastric mucosa, squamous papilloma, hyperplastic polyp, ectopic sebaceous gland and xanthoma. In subepithelial lesions, the order was as follows: hemangioma, leiomyoma, dysphagia aortica and granular cell tumor. Most benign esophageal lesions can be diagnosed according to their endoscopic appearance and findings on routine biopsy, and submucosal lesions, by endoscopic resection. Management is generally based upon the confidence of diagnosis and whether the lesion causes symptoms. We suggest endoscopic resection of all granular cell tumors and squamous papillomas because, while rare, these lesions have malignant potential. Dysphagia aortica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in the elderly.

Tsai, Shu-Jung; Lin, Ching-Chung; Chang, Chen-Wang; Hung, Chien-Yuan; Shieh, Tze-Yu; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Jen

2015-01-01

412

The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology  

PubMed Central

Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

Tabár, L.; Dean, P. B.; Lindhe, N.; Ingvarsson, M.

2012-01-01

413

Pathology of femoral head collapse following transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for osteonecrosis.  

PubMed

We investigated the pathology of femoral head collapse following transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy. Six femoral heads were obtained during total hip arthroplasty some 2-12 years after osteotomy. In all cases, the preoperatively necrotic lesions exhibited mostly osteonecrosis with accumulation of bone marrow cell debris and trabecular bone with empty lacunae, although repair tissue such as granulation tissue and appositional bone formation were observed in limited areas in some cases. In the transposed intact articular surface of the femoral head, osteoarthritic changes such as fissure penetration to the subchondral bone and osteophyte formation were commonly observed. In newly created subchondral areas at weight-bearing sites, trabecular thickness and the number of trabecular bones had decreased, with few osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes being present, resulting in a coarse lamellar structure of the trabecular bone. These findings suggest that transposed areas in cases of failure consist mostly of low-turnover osteoporotic lesions which could cause collapse of the femoral head. PMID:11011665

Nakai, T; Masuhara, K; Nakase, T; Sugano, N; Ohzono, K; Ochi, T

2000-01-01

414

From the radiologic pathology archives: Adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in the adult: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Advanced imaging often reveals adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. When adrenal disease is clinically suspected, cross-sectional imaging can be helpful in evaluating the etiology of the patient's symptoms. When adrenal disease is incidentally identified, what the clinician and patient really want to know is whether the findings are benign or malignant, as this ultimately will affect their next step in management. Using radiologic-pathologic correlation, we broadly classify common, uncommon, and rare tumors and tumor-like conditions that can occur in the adrenal as benign or malignant. This classification follows predominant trends in observed biologic behavior while acknowledging those tumors that may behave in the minority in an unpredictable manner. We review the clinical background and presentation of functional adrenal tumors including Conn syndrome, Cushing syndrome, and catecholamine-secreting tumors, as well as their relationship with adrenal anatomy. We discuss a variety of benign tumors, including adrenal cortical adenoma (including oncocytoma) and pheochromocytoma, as well as uncommonly and rarely encountered tumors such as myelolipoma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, schwannoma, ganglioneuroma, and adenomatoid tumor. A variety of tumefactive but nonneoplastic lesions are addressed, including adrenal cortical hyperplasia, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal cysts, and infections. Malignant tumors discussed include adrenal cortical carcinoma, the rare malignant pheochromocytoma, lymphoma, metastases, and sarcomas. For each tumor and tumor-like lesion, the clinical presentation, epidemiology, key imaging findings, diagnostic differential considerations, and management options are briefly addressed. Finally, an approach to the workup of suspected or incidentally discovered tumors is presented based on a selected literature survey and our clinical experience. Radiologists play an important role in identification and diagnosis of adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. PMID:24819798

Lattin, Grant E; Sturgill, Eric D; Tujo, Charles A; Marko, Jamie; Sanchez-Maldonado, Katherine W; Craig, William D; Lack, Ernest E

2014-01-01

415

Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

416

Common Painkillers May Help Prevent Certain Skin Cancers, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... For one thing, these drugs are associated with risks of their own. "Don't rely on aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to protect your skin," said Dr. Joshua Zeichner, director of cosmetic and clinical research at Mount Sinai Hospital in ...

417

World Deltas: Finding Common Ground Efi Foufoula-Georgiou  

E-print Network

of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change on Work of Climate Change Adaptation Task Force #12;America's Climate Choices America's Climate Choices, adapting to the impacts of climate change, advancing the science of climate change, and informing effective

Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

418

Common Breast Biopsy Finding May Be More Dangerous Than Thought  

MedlinePLUS

... women followed for a long time," said Robert Smith, director of cancer screening for the American Cancer ... We've always known their risk was higher," Smith said of women with the condition. However, the ...

419

Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

Hondius, Dienke

2010-01-01

420

Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

2014-01-01

421

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: part 1 - introduction, pathology and pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease with many genotype and phenotype variations. Earlier terminologies, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and idiopathic hypertrophic sub-aortic stenosis are no longer used to describe this entity. Patients present with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Resting or provocative LVOT obstruction occurs in 70% of patients and is the most common cause of heart failure. The pathology and pathophysiology of HCM includes hypertrophy of the left ventricle with or without right ventricular hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of mitral valve, dynamic and mechanical LVOT obstruction, mitral regurgitation, diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, and fibrosis. Thorough understanding of pathology and pathophysiology is important for anesthetic and surgical management. PMID:24732610

Varma, Praveen Kerala; Neema, Praveen Kumar

2014-01-01

422

Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Dorvault, Christine; Fernandes, Shaila; Yousem, Sam

2007-10-29

423

Differences in Molecular Pathologic Characteristics of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma between Egyptian and Moroccan Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pancreatic cancer has not been well studied, especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods We studied the variations in genetic mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma between Moroccan and Egyptian populations. The molecular pathology of 30 tumors from a large hospital in Casablanca, Morocco were examined and compared with the findings of 44 tumors from the Gharbiah Governate in Egypt. K-ras mutations in codons12 and 13 in addition to p53 mutations in exons 5–8 were evaluated. Results Overall, differences in the rates of K-ras mutations were not statistically significant (48.00 and 34.09%, respectively); however differences in rates of p53 mutations were statistically significant with p53 mutations more common in Moroccan tumors than in Egyptian tumors (46.67 and 16.28%, respectively). GT mutations of the K-ras gene were most commonly seen Egyptian tumors, whereas G ? A mutations were the most common type of mutations in Moroccan tumors. Logistic regression analysis showed that a p53 mutation in any exon as well as a p53 mutation in exon 5 predicted the country of residence and those mutations occurred more frequently in Moroccan patients. Conclusion Our study shows that differences exist within the Arab population in the molecular pathology of both the K-ras and p53 genes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the differences in molecular pathways of pancreatic cancer in the Middle East and to investigate the role of environmental and/or genetic factors related to those pathways.

Robinson, Sara; Soliman, Amr; Karkouri, Mehdi; Omer, Hoda Gad; Greenson, Joel F.

2014-01-01

424

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

425

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.; Kovacs, Kalman; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Vidal, Sergio

2009-08-18

426

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

PubMed Central

The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

427

Update on pathological skin picking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue\\u000a damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the\\u000a behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive

Jon E. Grant; Brian L. Odlaug

2009-01-01

428

Pathology of hereditary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1-associated breast cancers have distinct morphology, being more often medullary-like, triple negative and showing a ‘basal’ phenotype. On the other hand, BRCA2 and BRCAX cancers are a heterogeneous group without a specific phenotype. When incorporated into risk assessment models, pathology data improves prediction of carrier

Leonard Da Silva; Sunil R Lakhani

2010-01-01

429

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

Contis, Lydia C.

430

Pathology Case Study: Parietal Lobe Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 15-year-old girl admitted to the hospital because of a seizure attack. Images from a CT scan and MRI, and microscopic results provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

Dolenc-Strazar, Zvezdana

431

Pathology Case Study: Prolonged Oral Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 2-year-old boy presenting with prolonged oral bleeding. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of the patientâÂÂs physical exam, as well as lab test results and additional workup are all included in the case study. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Bontempo, Franklin; Sheikh, Hina

2009-01-02

432

Pathology Case Study: Dyspnea and Malaise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old man who was hospitalized 4 weeks before his death with a history of over 3 months of increasing dyspnea and malaise. Visitors are given clinical history, postmortem examination data, and histology, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Baldwin, Lindsay; Ellison, David W.; Poller, David

2009-04-09

433

Pathology Case Study: Destructive Palate Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which examines " a 46-year-old HIV-positive man with a history of substance abuse who presented with a destructive palate lesion that eroded into nasal cavity and maxillary sinus." Visitors are given microscopic description, including images, as well as immunohistochemistry and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Dacic, Sanja

2008-11-10

434

Pathology Case Study: Dementia with Motor Dysfunction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which a "77-year-old Hispanic-American man with a history of alcoholism and hepatitis C infection suffered severe bouts of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Spencer, David C.

435

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

436

Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ?85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-? and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and ?-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28–5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-? accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88–7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12–12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14–19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or ?-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged ?85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. PMID:23983028

Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C. W.; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina

2013-01-01

437

Resveratrol prevents pathological but not physiological cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

The mechanisms responsible for how resveratrol inhibits pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) but not physiological LVH have not been elucidated. Herein, we show that in rat cardiomyocytes, lower concentrations of resveratrol (0.1 and 1 ?M) are efficient at selectively inhibiting important regulators involved in pathological LVH (such as nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)) while not affecting pathways involved in physiological LVH (Akt and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K)). These differential responses are also observed in both mouse and rat models of in vivo physiological and pathological LVH. Interestingly, in all of the experiments involving a low concentration of resveratrol (1 ?M), the observed effects on Akt, p70S6K, and NFAT were independent from AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation while these effects at higher concentrations of resveratrol (50 ?M) were potentiated by AMPK activation. In summary, we show that resveratrol can concentration/dose selectively inhibit various pro-hypertrophic signaling pathways and that resveratrol has differential effects on the modification of these signaling cascades in response to pathological stimuli versus physiological stimuli. This has important clinical implications as our findings support the concept that resveratrol may be useful in the selective treatment of pathological LVH. PMID:25394677

Dolinsky, Vernon W; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn M; Rogan, Kyle J; Chan, Anita Y M; Nagendran, Jeevan; Wang, Shaohua; Dyck, Jason R B

2014-11-15

438

Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

2012-01-01

439

Six Additional Systematic Lateral Cores Enhance Sextant Biopsy Prediction of Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the contribution of 6 additional systematically obtained, laterally directed biopsy cores to traditional sextant biopsy for the prediction of final pathological findings in the radical prostatectomy specimen.

HERB SINGH; EDUARDO I. CANTO; SHAHROKH F. SHARIAT; DOV KADMON; BRIAN J. MILES; THOMAS M. WHEELER; KEVIN M. SLAWIN

2004-01-01

440

Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar

Ferrara, Katherine W.