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Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Diagnosing and treating common oral pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dilley, D C; Siegel, M A; Budnick, S

    1991-10-01

    When the physician is confronted with an oral pathologic condition in a child, the adage "common things happen commonly" should be applied. Congenital lesions such as palatal and alveolar cysts occur in almost 50% of newborns. Developmental conditions such as Fordyce granules and retrocuspid papillae are found in most children. Localized soft-tissue enlargements commonly seen in young children include the parulis, mucocele, papilloma, and inflammatory gingival tumors. In addition, soft-tissue pathologies and discomfort associated with herpesvirus infections or recurrent aphthous ulcerations often present as a chief complaint. The physician's knowledge and treatment recommendations for common oral pathologies should be an integral component to the overall medical management of infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:1886744

  2. Association of Mammographic Density with Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Nasrin; Movahedinia, Samaneh; Movahedinia, Sajjadeh; Shahriari, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is the first cause of death due to cancer among women. Mammography is the best screening method and mammographic density, which determines the percentage of fibro glandular tissue of breast, is one of the strongest risk factors of breast cancer. Because benign and malignant lesions may present as dense lesions in mammography so it is necessary to take a core biopsy of any suspicious lesions to evaluate pathologic findings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association between mammographic density and histopathological findings in Iranian population. Moreover, we assessed the correlation between mammographic density and protein expression profile. We indeed, determined the accuracy and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of mammographic reports in our center. Patients and Method This study is a cross-sectional study carried out among 131 eligible women who had referred to imaging center for mammographic examination and had been advised to take biopsy of breast tissue. All participants of the study had filled out the informed consent. Pathologic review was performed blinded to the density status. Patients were divided into low density breast tissue group (ACR density group 1-2) and high density breast tissue group (ACR 3, 4) and data was compared between these two groups. Statistical analysis performed using SPSS for windows, version 11.5. We used chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression test for analysis and Odds Ratio calculated where indicated. Results In patients with high breast densities, malignant cases (61.2%) were significantly more in comparison to patients with low breast densities (37.3%) (P= 0.007, OR=2.66 95% CI=1.29-5.49). After adjusting for age, density was associated with malignancy in age groups <46 years (P=0.007), and 46-60 years (P=0.024) but not in age group >60yrs (P=0.559). Adjusting for menopausal status, density showed

  3. MURCS association: ultrasonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C O; McFarland, R D; Timmons, C; Ramus, R; Twickler, D M

    1996-12-01

    MURCS association is a rare, lethal and unusual constellation of nonrandom findings that includes mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia.1-3 It has been described in 30 patients by Duncan and coworkers2 in 1979, in which report the authors proposed an embryologic cause for these defects.3 Antenatal ultrasonographic findings included a massive, cystic umbilical cord related to a patent urachus, enlarged bladder, single small kidney, and suspicion of urethral obstruction in a fetus of female phenotype. These findings are rare in a case of MURCS and were all confirmed on pathologic examination. PMID:8947863

  4. Pathological findings in the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-07-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 45 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) collected during field research on the beaches of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) from 1981 to 1985. Both males and females of all age groups, perinatal through adult, were examined. Frequent findings included parasites, trauma, cardiovascular disease (congenital and acquired), and respiratory infections. Emaciation was a common condition. All animals except neonates were infected with parasites; infection was severe in several cases. Splenic hematopoiesis was a universal histopathologic finding. Some cases exhibited lesions consistent with renal, gastrointestinal, and toxic disorders; ectopic tissue calcification; gallstones; and ophthalmologic and dental problems. PMID:1512875

  5. Novel pathologic findings in patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Jeremy J; Kamholz, John; Bessert, Denise; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked inherited hypomyelinating disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding proteolipid protein (PLP), the major structural protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Prior to our study, whether hypomyelination in PMD was caused by demyelination, abnormally thin sheaths or failure to form myelin was unknown. In this study, we compared the microscopic pathology of myelin from brain tissue of 3 PMD patients with PLP1 duplications to that of a patient with a complete PLP1 deletion. Autopsy tissue procured from PMD patients was embedded in paraffin for immunocytochemistry and plastic for electron microscopy to obtain highresolution fiber pathology of cerebrum and corpus callosum. Through histological stains, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, our study illustrates unique pathologic findings between the two different types of mutations. Characteristic of the patient with a PLP1 deletion, myelin sheaths showed splitting and decompaction of myelin, confirming for the first time that myelin in PLP1 deletion patients is similar to that of rodent models with gene deletions. Myelin thickness and g-ratios of some fibers, in relation to axon diameter was abnormally thin, suggesting that oligodendrocytes remain metabolically functional and/or are attempting to make myelin. Many fibers showed swollen, progressive degenerative changes to axons in addition to the dissolution of myelin. All three duplication cases shared remarkable fiber pathology including swellings, constriction and/or transection and involution of myelin. Characteristic of PLP1 duplication patients, many axons showed segmental demyelination along their length. Still other axons had abnormally thick myelin sheaths, suggestive of continued myelination. Thus, each type of mutation exhibited unique pathology even though commonality to both mutations included involution of myelin, myelin balls and degeneration of axons. This pathology study describes

  6. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gaitini, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography. PMID:22919552

  7. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  8. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  9. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  10. From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodríguez, Pablo; Manning, Maria A; Levine, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. PMID:25384294

  11. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  12. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Most Common Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Taipa, Ricardo; Pinho, João; Melo-Pires, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by deterioration in several cognitive domains in which there is selective and progressive loss of specific populations of neurons. The precise neurobiological basis for the different neurodegenerative dementias remains unknown. It is expected that different pathologies reflect different mechanisms, at least early in the neurodegeneration process. The next decades promise treatments directed to causes and mechanisms, bringing an outstanding challenge to clinicians due to heterogeneous clinical presentations with the same molecular pathology. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the key neuropathological features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias (Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration) and the relationship with the clinical syndromes described in clinico-pathological studies. We expect this overview contributes for the understanding of this broad topic integrating the two ends of the spectrum: clinical and pathological. PMID:22557993

  13. Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    "Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia. PMID:18382944

  14. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  15. [Radiographic and pathological findings in 4 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Hidaka, T; Ichinose, I; Tamura, K

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed the records of 4 patients with pathologically diagnosed pulmonary cryptococcosis to determine whether there was any relationship between radiographic and pathological findings. The underlying disease were diabetes mellitus (patient 1), rheumatoid arthritis treated with glucocorticoids (patient 2), and adultonset T cell leukemia (patients 3 and 4). All radiographs showed multiple nodules, and patchy and localized infiltrates, which progressed to diffuse interstitial infiltration. According to Mark's classification, the pathological findings in patients 1 and 2 showed granulomatous pneumonia, those in patient 3 showed histiocytic pneumonia, and patient 4 had intercapillary cryptococci with no inflammatory response. The granuloma appeared larger in patient 1 than in patient 2. This concurred with the clinical findings, i.e. large granulomas formed in immunocompetent patients, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates developed in those whose immune systems had been compromised. When a granuloma formed, roentgenograms showed a well defined nodular shadow, with some nodules developing in the cavity. When granuloma formation became unclear, roentgenograms tended to show localized-to-diffuse infiltration, or interstitial shadows. PMID:9071170

  16. Imaging of Common Arthroscopic Pathology of the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy of the ankle is used in the treatment and diagnosis of a spectrum of intra-articular pathology including soft tissue and osseous impingement, osteochondral lesions, arthrofibrosis, and synovitis. To help identify the correct pathology, imaging techniques are often used to aid the surgeon in diagnosing pathology and determining best treatment options. This article discusses the use of imaging in various ankle pathologies. PMID:27599435

  17. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  18. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:23341396

  19. Clinical and pathological findings of Babesia infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Irwin, P J; Hutchinson, G W

    1991-06-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of Babesia infection in 32 dogs in northern Australia are presented. Eleven different breed types were represented from 6 localities in north Queensland and one locality in northern Western Australia. Twenty three (72%) were males. Babesia-infected dogs were grouped by the degree of haematological disturbance and clinical severity: Acute babesiosis (25/32), all pups with severe haemolytic anaemia; subclinical carriers (5/32) with non-specific malaise, characterised haematologically by a normal erythrogram but marked leucopenia; chronic anaemia, observed in 2 adult dogs. Pups were azotaemic (serum urea greater than 6.6 mmol/l) and had elevated serum bilirubin levels (20.8 to 48.5 mmol/l). Total serum protein was usually within the normal range. Pups that died were also hypoglycaemic and severely hyperkalaemic (K+ greater than 10 mmol/l). Low parasitaemias in routine blood smears complicated diagnosis but smears made from ear or toe capillaries, or after haematocrit concentration, greatly enhanced finding parasitised cells. At necropsy, pallor and jaundice were the most consistent observations. Haemoglobinuric nephrosis, an active reticulo-endothelial system and capillaries packed with large numbers of infected erythrocytes were the main histopathological findings. A combination of imidocarb dipropionate at 5 mg/kg body weight, given intramuscularly, with fluid therapy and blood transfusion was the most successful treatment. PMID:1888313

  20. Pathological findings in wild harvested dugongs Dugong dugon of central Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Woolford, L; Franklin, C; Whap, T; Loban, F; Lanyon, J M

    2015-03-01

    The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines. PMID:25751852

  1. [Pathological and histopathological findings in the joints of fattening turkeys].

    PubMed

    Spindler, B; Baumgärtner, W; Hartung, J

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports on pathological and histopathological findings in the joints of male turkeys (B.U.T. Big 6) reared in two different housing systems. Pathological investigations were conducted on all animals which died between the 6th week of life and the end of fattening (585 birds, 1170 hip, knee and intertarsal joints) from four fattening periods with 3000 birds each. This study included 297 birds kept in a conventional housing system (barn 2) with a stocking density of 2.8 birds/m2, and 288 birds from a barn (1) from which the animals had access to an outdoor scratching area (stocking density 2.5 birds/m2). In all, 157 (26.5%) of the 585 fallen turkeys (barn 1:93; barn 2:70) showed at least one pathological joint alteration. and there were macroscopically detectable changes in 274 (7.8%) of the 3510 investigated joints: 152 (7.8%) of the 1728 joints from barn 1, and 122 (8.8%) of the 1782 from barn 2. In both housing systems the most frequent pathological alterations were in the intertarsal joint affecting 16% (188) of these 1170 joints (barn 1:106; barn 2:82); next most frequent were changes in the knee joint with 4.5% (53) of the 1170 joints affected (barn 1:26; barn 2:27). In both barns, synovial alterations occurred predominantly in the intertarsal and the knee joints. Bacteriological investigation of altered synovial fluids (83) most frequently showed an infection with Staphylococcus spp. (44) and E. coli (15). Macroscopic investigation showed alterations in 31 (2.7%) of the 1170 hip joints (barn 1:19; barn 2:12); 2% (22) of these showed cartilage degenerations of the femoral head (barn 1:15; barn 2:7). Histological investigation of these cartilage lesions showed that they were predominantly (70%) due to osteochondrosis with complete epiphyseolysis affecting 16 femoral heads (barn 1:10; barn 2:6). Partial epiphysiolysis was found in 24% (5) of the femoral heads (barn 1:4; barn 2:1). Furthermore, 43% (9) of the 22 femoral heads with cartilage degeneration

  2. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonsurgical treatments for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) results in unpredictable success rates. Surgical treatment may be chosen as reports show mostly encouraging but variable success rates depending on the pathology. The distribution of surgically confirmed pathologies in AT is largely unknown. Purpose: To ascertain the distributions of macroscopically observed anomalies in participants undergoing surgical treatment for chronic AT. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed. The surgeries were performed on professional and recreational athletes during the years 1976-1980, 1986-1990, 1996-2000, and 2006-2010. Surgical diagnoses, along with age- and sport-specific characteristics, were collected retrospectively from patient records. Results: The relative proportion of tendinosis increased during the study period from 4.2% to 21%, and paratenonitis decreased from 50% to 26%. Retrocalcaneal pathologies were the most common surgically confirmed lesions at 30%, while the mean age at surgery increased by 11 years over the entire study period. Conclusion: Surgically confirmed pathologies in and around the Achilles tendon showed coherent changes, chronic paratenonitis, and retrocalcaneal problems as the most prevalent findings. The classification of midportion and insertional tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis in AT should strictly be used as a clinical diagnosis. During surgical evaluations, the diagnosis is further clarified as more specific pathologies may be identified. PMID:26535293

  3. [Pathology along the liver sinusoids: endothelial and perisinusoidal findings].

    PubMed

    Fischer, H-P; Flucke, U; Zhou, H

    2008-02-01

    Sinusoidal alterations unrelated to primary hepatocellular damage present without characteristic clinical findings and in these cases the liver biopsy is particularly important. Capillarization of sinusoids is characterized by closing of fenestration, formation of a basal membrane and by the expression of CD34 and is typical for active cirrhosis. In nodular regeneratory hyperplasia, capillarization indicates a local or general disturbance of perfusion. In large regenerative nodules, focal nodular hyperplasia and liver cell adenoma CD34-positive capillaries reflect afferent parts and CD34-negative sinusoids the efferent parts of the parenchymal vascular bed. HCC generally have a completely capillarized CD34-positive vascular bed. Hepatic angiosarcomas and epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas can be easily overseen in liver biopsies, if they spread along the sinusoids without detoriation of the acinar architecture and without significant alteration of the surrounding liver cell plates. Toxic damage of endothelial cells, post-sinusoidal stasis and sinusoidal hyperperfusion are the underlying pathogenetic principles of sinusoidal injury. Rupture and loss of the perisinusoidal reticulin fibres lead to peliosis hepatis. In these cases liver biopsy might disclose occlusion of the terminal liver veins (VOD). Perisinusoidal fibrosis can be caused by intrasinusoidal accumulation of pathologic cells, advanced intrasinusoidal macrophagocytic storage diseases and by activation of the vitamin A-storing hepatic stellate cells. Perisinusoidal amyloidosis can be the first sign of an underlying B-cell neoplasia. PMID:18210108

  4. Human Hemorrhagic Pulmonary Leptospirosis: Pathological Findings and Pathophysiological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, Thales; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; da Silva, Luis Fernando Ferraz; Gonçalves da Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with protean clinical manifestations. Recently, the importance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a lethal complication of this disease has been recognized. In the present study, five human necropsies of leptospirosis (Weil‘s syndrome) with extensive pulmonary manifestations were analysed, and the antibodies expressed in blood vessels and cells involved in ion and water transport were used, seeking to better understand the pathophysiology of the lung injury associated with this disease. Principal Findings Prominent vascular damage was present in the lung microcirculation, with decreased CD34 and preserved aquaporin 1 expression. At the periphery and even inside the extensive areas of edema and intraalveolar hemorrhage, enlarged, apparently hypertrophic type I pneumocytes (PI) were detected and interpreted as a non-specific attempt of clearence of the intraalveolar fluid, in which ionic transport, particularly of sodium, plays a predominant role, as suggested by the apparently increased ENaC and aquaporin 5 expression. Connexin 43 was present in most pneumocytes, and in the cytoplasm of the more preserved endothelial cells. The number of type II pneumocytes (PII) was slightly decreased when compared to normal lungs and those of patients with septicemia from other causes, a fact that may contribute to the progressively low PI count, resulting in deficient restoration after damage to the alveolar epithelial integrity and, consequently, a poor outcome of the pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Conclusions Pathogenesis of lung injury in human leptospirosis was discussed, and the possibility of primary non-inflammatory vascular damage was considered, so far of undefinite etiopathogenesis, as the initial pathological manifestation of the disease. PMID:23951234

  5. Correlation between Radiological and Pathological Findings in Patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Studies focused on the pathological–radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M) pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT). Major three correlations were summarized. (1) Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia. (2) Cellular bronchitis in the small airways accompanied with exudates or granulation tissue in the lumen revealed as centrilobular nodules on CT. (3) Neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen radiologically demonstrated as air-space consolidation or ground-glass opacities. In M. pulmonis-infected mice model, pathologic patterns are strikingly different according to host cell-mediated immunity (CMI) levels; treatment with interleukin-2 lead to marked cellular bronchitis in the small airways and treatment with prednisolone or cyclosporin-A lead to neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen. Patients with centrilobular nodules predominant radiologic pattern have a high level of CMI, measuring by tuberculin skin test. From these findings, up-regulation of host CMI could change radiological pattern to centrilobular nodules predominant, on the other hand down-regulation of host CMI would change radiological pattern to ground-glass opacity and consolidation. It was suggested the pathological features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia may be altered by the level of host CMI. PMID:27242720

  6. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  7. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Jewells, Valerie; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts. PMID:26288757

  8. Improving the creation and reporting of structured findings during digital pathology review

    PubMed Central

    Cervin, Ida; Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, pathology reporting consists of many separate tasks, carried out by multiple people. Common tasks include dictation during case review, transcription, verification of the transcription, report distribution, and report the key findings to follow-up registries. Introduction of digital workstations makes it possible to remove some of these tasks and simplify others. This study describes the work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Methods: We explored the possibility to have a digital tool that simplifies image review by assisting note-taking, and with minimal extra effort, populates a structured report. Thus, our prototype sees reporting as an activity interleaved with image review rather than a separate final step. We created an interface to collect, sort, and display findings for the most common reporting needs, such as tumor size, grading, and scoring. Results: The interface was designed to reduce the need to retain partial findings in the head or on paper, while at the same time be structured enough to support automatic extraction of key findings for follow-up registry reporting. The final prototype was evaluated with two pathologists, diagnosing complicated partial mastectomy cases. The pathologists experienced that the prototype aided them during the review and that it created a better overall workflow. Conclusions: These results show that it is feasible to simplify the reporting tasks in a way that is not distracting, while at the same time being able to automatically extract the key findings. This simplification is possible due to the realization that the structured format needed for automatic extraction of data can be used to offload the pathologists’ working memory during the diagnostic review. PMID:27563491

  9. Intrapelvic chronic expanding hematoma: magnetic resonance imaging findings with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Jun; Akaki, Shiro; Yonezawa, Masaru; Horiguchi, Ikuyo; Nakamura, Satoko; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma is rare and occasionally misdiagnosed as malignant neoplasm. We describe a case in the female pelvis and correlate findings from pathology and magnetic resonance imaging. On diffusion-weighted images (DWI), our patient's hematoma showed 2 different signal intensities, which corresponded to pathological features of fresh and altered blood components. DWI can distinguish between such pathological features of a chronic expanding hematoma. PMID:20585198

  10. Patient-Centred Interviewing Part II: Finding Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; Weston, W. Wayne; Stewart, Moira A.

    1989-01-01

    Developing an effective management plan requires physicians and patients to reach agreement in three key areas: the nature of the problems, the goals and priorities of treatment, and the roles of the doctor and patient. Often doctors and patients have widely divergent views in each of these areas. The process of finding a satisfactory resolution is not so much one of bargaining or negotiating but rather of moving towards a meeting of minds or finding common ground. This framework reminds physicians to incorporate patients' ideas, feelings, and expectations into treatment planning. PMID:21253279

  11. Selected Background Findings and Interpretation of Common Lesions in the Female Reproductive System in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E; Vidal, Justin D.; Tarara, Ross P.; Buse, Eberhard; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.; de Rijk, Eveline P. C. T.; van Esch, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a selection of normal findings and common naturally occurring lesions in the reproductive system of female macaques, including changes in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary glands. Normal features of immature ovaries, uteri, and mammary glands are described. Common non-neoplastic lesions in the ovaries include cortical mineralization, polyovular follicles, cysts, ovarian surface epithelial hyperplasia, and ectopic ovarian tissue. Ovarian neoplasms include granulosa cell tumors, teratomas, and ovarian surface epithelial tumors. Common non-neoplastic uterine findings include loss of features of normal cyclicity, abnormal bleeding, adenomyosis, endometriosis, epithelial plaques, and pregnancy-associated vascular remodeling. Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the uterus include endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, and rarely endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Vaginitis is common. Cervical lesions include endocervical squamous metaplasia, polyps, and papillomavirus-associated lesions. Lesions in the mammary gland are most often proliferative and range from ductal hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma. Challenges to interpretation include the normal or pathologic absence of menstrual cyclicity and the potential misinterpretation of sporadic lesions, such as epithelial plaques or papillomavirus-associated lesions. Interpretation of normal and pathologic findings is best accomplished with knowledge of the life stage, reproductive history, and hormonal status of the animal. PMID:21475639

  12. Finding Common Ground Between Earth Scientists and Evangelical Christians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Ludwig, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.

  13. Preweaning mortality in the pig. Pathological findings in piglets dying between birth and weaning.

    PubMed

    Glastonbury, J R

    1977-07-01

    During a survey of preweaning mortality 538 piglets which died between birth and weaning were autopsied. The results of laboratory examinations permitted a division of the findings into a number of syndromes which were considered to be associated with the immediate cause of death. The non-infectious conditions such as trauma, starvation and suffocation were the most common. Seventy-eight piglets were included in the trauma group because of depressed cranial bone fractures or visceral rupture leading to haemorrhage into the serous cavities. An absence of alimentary tract contents was detected in each of the 92 cases of starvation, fatty metamorphosis of the liver was found in 28 while the hepatocyte cytoplasm of the remainder stained uniformally. Cyanosis and visceral congestion and haemorrhage were the main features observed in the 159 deaths ascribed to suffocation. Bacterial septicaemias and infections with enterotoxic strains of E. coli were the most prevalent infectious conditions. E. coli and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common causes of septicaemia, being isolated from 36 and 25 cases, respectively. The post-mortem findings in these cases were non-specific except for fibrinous polyserositis which was observed in 11 of the carcasses from which E. coli was recovered. Twenty-six piglets yielded E. coli in heavy pure culture from the upper small intestine and the most common serogroup involved was 08. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection was associated with the deaths of 19 piglets. Pathologically, it was characterised by myocardial degeneration and a variable influx of mononuclear inflammatory cells. No significant lesions were found in 41 piglets. PMID:200212

  14. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  15. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T

    2015-09-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  16. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging.

    PubMed

    Crary, John F; Trojanowski, John Q; Schneider, Julie A; Abisambra, Jose F; Abner, Erin L; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G; Bigio, Eileen H; Cairns, Nigel J; Dickson, Dennis W; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T; Hof, Patrick R; Hyman, Bradley T; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Kovacs, Gabor G; Knopman, David S; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A; Mackenzie, Ian R; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna H; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R; Toledo, Jonathan B; Troncoso, Juan C; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these "NFT+/Aβ-" brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  17. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  18. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli in piglets: Clinical, pathological and microbiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Claude; Drolet, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study (1980-1989) was conducted to describe the clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in 55 cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) caused by Escherichia coli in piglets. The condition occurred in weaned and suckling piglets and was associated with several serogroups of E. coli. Most of the isolates of E. coli possessed the adhesin F4 (K88) and were hemolytic. Only a few of the isolates of E. coli tested produced verotoxins. Clinical signs and pathological findings noted in these cases were compatible with shock. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423984

  19. Genetic prion disease with codon 196 PRNP mutation: clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Schelzke, Gabi; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Romero, Carlos; Varges, Daniela; Breithaupt, Maren; Taratuto, Ana L; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Zerr, Inga

    2011-04-01

    Ten percent to 15% of all human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy are characterized by a mutation in prion protein gene (PRNP). They are distinct with respect to clinical signs, disease onset, disease duration, and diagnostic findings. During our surveillance activities in Germany, we identified 7 patients with the rare mutation E196K in PRNP gene, thereof 4 patients belonging to 2 families. The clinical syndromes were characterized by nonspecific and psychiatric symptoms at disease onset and progressed to predominant motor signs. These patients showed a late median disease onset of 71 years and short disease duration of 6.5 months. In absence of family history, they mimicked sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In clinical tests they were 100% positive for 14-3-3 protein detection in cerebrospinal fluid and less sensitive for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. As a secondary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, we have seen conspicuous common involvement of the subcortical white matter in 57%. Four patients underwent autopsy-pathological lesions revealed striking similarity to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease but also involvement of the white matter. PMID:21232818

  20. Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158345.html Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study ... 15, 2016 FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts are common among ...

  1. Incidental Finding of a Rare Urachal Pathology: Urachal Mucinous Cystic Tumour of Low Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath; Tanny, Sharman Tan; Norris, Briony; Appu, Sree; Pan, David

    2016-01-01

    Urachal mucinous cystic tumours are rare pathological findings with only 23 previously reported cases in the literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidentally found urachal mucinous cystic tumour laparoscopically excised. With its known potential to cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete surgical excision is important. Long-term cystoscopic and radiological surveillance is also required. PMID:26881171

  2. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging

    PubMed Central

    Crary, John F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Schneider, Julie A.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Abner, Erin L.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E.; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Knopman, David S.; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J.; Murray, Melissa E.; Neltner, Janna H.; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W.; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L.; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R.; Toledo, Jonathan B.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We recommend a new term, “primary age-related tauopathy” (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these “NFT+/Aβ−” brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFT are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as “tangle-only dementia” and “tangle-predominant senile dementia”, are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  3. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  4. Clinician's Guide to Imaging and Pathologic Findings in Benign Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Lonzetta; Tortorelli, Cindy L.; Nassar, Aziza

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of abnormal results of breast imaging and abnormal pathologic findings can be challenging for health care professionals and often is stressful for patients. Although most imaging findings and biopsy results are negative and do not infer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, the subsequent conversation between the patient and her practitioner is more effective and informative with a thorough review of the pathologic results and an appreciation of the importance of radiologic-histologic concordance. This article provides insight into and understanding of breast imaging and biopsy techniques and of histologic findings as a means to timely and appropriate decision making and action by the patient and her health care professional. PMID:20194153

  5. Clinician's guide to imaging and pathologic findings in benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Neal, Lonzetta; Tortorelli, Cindy L; Nassar, Aziza

    2010-03-01

    The discussion of abnormal results of breast imaging and abnormal pathologic findings can be challenging for health care professionals and often is stressful for patients. Although most imaging findings and biopsy results are negative and do not infer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, the subsequent conversation between the patient and her practitioner is more effective and informative with a thorough review of the pathologic results and an appreciation of the importance of radiologic-histologic concordance. This article provides insight into and understanding of breast imaging and biopsy techniques and of histologic findings as a means to timely and appropriate decision making and action by the patient and her health care professional. PMID:20194153

  6. Perinatal differential diagnosis of cystic kidney disease and urinary tract obstruction: anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, W; Vogel, M; Dimer, J S; Luttkus, A; Büscher, U; Dudenhausen, J W

    2000-04-01

    According to the classification of Osathanondh and Potter of cystic kidney diseases an antenatal differential diagnosis is presented, which is based on the anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings. Since the ultrasound evaluation influences the obstetric and neonatal management, each second and third trimester sonography should consider the most common malformations in pediatric autopsies. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPK), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPK), multicystic renal dysplasia, obstructive multicystic kidneys and cystic renal malformations found in other syndromes with genetic linkage are discussed in this review. PMID:10725570

  7. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Mohana-Borges, Aurea V R; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. PMID:15316682

  8. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  9. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  10. Mesenchymal progenitors in osteopenias of diverse pathologies: differential characteristics in the common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Bingdong; Hu, Chenghu; Liao, Li; Chen, Yichen; Zhang, Xinyi; Fu, Xin; Zheng, Chenxi; Li, Meng; Wu, Ling; Zhao, Xinyi; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by pathologic factors such as aging, hormone deficiency or excess, inflammation, and systemic diseases like diabetes. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), the mesenchymal progenitors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes, are modulated by niche signals. In differential pathologic states, the pathological characteristics of BMSCs to osteoporoses and functional differences are unknown. Here, we detected that trabecular bone loss co-existed with increased marrow adiposity in 6 osteoporotic models, respectively induced by natural aging, accelerated senescence (SAMP6), ovariectomy (OVX), type 1 diabetes (T1D), excessive glucocorticoids (GIOP) and orchidectomy (ORX). Of the ex vivo characteristics of BMSCs, the colony-forming efficiency and the proliferation rate in aging, SAMP6, OVX, GIOP and ORX models decreased. The apoptosis and cellular senescence increased except in T1D, with up-regulation of p53 and p16 expression. The osteogenesis declined except in GIOP, with corresponding down-regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. The adipogenesis increased in 6 osteoporotic models, with corresponding up-regulation of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. These findings revealed differential characteristics of BMSCs in a common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis among different osteoporoses and between sexes, and provide theoretical basis for the functional modulation of resident BMSCs in the regenerative therapy for osteoporosis. PMID:27443833

  11. Mesenchymal progenitors in osteopenias of diverse pathologies: differential characteristics in the common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Bingdong; Hu, Chenghu; Liao, Li; Chen, Yichen; Zhang, Xinyi; Fu, Xin; Zheng, Chenxi; Li, Meng; Wu, Ling; Zhao, Xinyi; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by pathologic factors such as aging, hormone deficiency or excess, inflammation, and systemic diseases like diabetes. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), the mesenchymal progenitors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes, are modulated by niche signals. In differential pathologic states, the pathological characteristics of BMSCs to osteoporoses and functional differences are unknown. Here, we detected that trabecular bone loss co-existed with increased marrow adiposity in 6 osteoporotic models, respectively induced by natural aging, accelerated senescence (SAMP6), ovariectomy (OVX), type 1 diabetes (T1D), excessive glucocorticoids (GIOP) and orchidectomy (ORX). Of the ex vivo characteristics of BMSCs, the colony-forming efficiency and the proliferation rate in aging, SAMP6, OVX, GIOP and ORX models decreased. The apoptosis and cellular senescence increased except in T1D, with up-regulation of p53 and p16 expression. The osteogenesis declined except in GIOP, with corresponding down-regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. The adipogenesis increased in 6 osteoporotic models, with corresponding up-regulation of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. These findings revealed differential characteristics of BMSCs in a common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis among different osteoporoses and between sexes, and provide theoretical basis for the functional modulation of resident BMSCs in the regenerative therapy for osteoporosis. PMID:27443833

  12. Common pathological processes and transcriptional pathways in Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan; Kulozik, Philipp; Ostertag, Anke; Herzig, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have established a strong connection between type 2 diabetes and the risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, several pathological features have been identified as common denominators of diabetic and Alzheimer's patients, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, suggesting a close connection between the two disorders. Here we review common metabolic and inflammatory processes implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. In particular, the role of critical transcriptional checkpoints in the control of cellular metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation will be emphasized in this context. These transcriptional regulators hold great promise as new therapeutic targets in the potentially combined treatment of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease in the future. PMID:19387113

  13. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

  14. Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonner, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

  15. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  16. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K.; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  17. Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Common pathways in health benefit properties of RSV in cardiovascular diseases, cancers and degenerative pathologies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Delmas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Lots of epidemiological studies have put forward the beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols consumption in the prevention of diseases related to aging i.e vascular pathologies, neurodegeneration, cancers and associated inflammatory processes. Among polyphenols, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene, RSV), a naturally occurring stilbene widely distributed in foodstuffs such as grapes and wine, has been the most studied. Researches performed since the last decades in vitro, in animal models and in (pre)clinical studies have pointed out its pleiotropic health benefits by acting on multiple signaling pathways which go beyond its originally described direct antioxidant activity. However, its low bioavailability upon oral ingestion and lack of specificity may hamper the translation of the encouraging experimental data into human health benefits. Herein we provide an overview on the capacity of RSV to regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling and to modulate key components of signal transduction pathways which are commonly altered in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and cancer pathologies. We also have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook on RSV metabolism and biological activity of its main metabolites and discussed about the new strategies developed to circumvent its poor bioavailability and to improve its therapeutic efficacy, including synthesis of new derivatives and new formulations for its cell delivery. PMID:25601605

  19. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and

  20. Comparison of computed tomographic and pathologic findings in 17 dogs with primary adrenal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Tommaso; Mantis, Panagiotis; Benigni, Livia; Priestnall, Simon L; Lamb, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    The CT appearance of canine adrenal masses has been reported, but associations between imaging features and pathologic features of these lesions have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to test associations between different types of adrenal neoplasia and their CT and pathologic features. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of primary adrenal neoplasia, contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and surgical resection of the mass or necropsy examination. For all included dogs, CT images and histopathologic specimens were reviewed independently by two veterinary radiologists and a veterinary pathologist, respectively. Seventeen dogs met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in nine (53%) dogs, pheochromocytoma in five (29%) dogs, and adenoma in three (18%) dogs. Pheochromocytoma was associated with CT signs of vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.3-18.3, P = 0.03) and macroscopic vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.4-65.9, P = 0.02). There was excellent agreement between signs of vascular invasion in CT images and vascular invasion at surgery or necropsy (kappa = 0.86, P = 0.001). A peripheral contrast-enhancing rim in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with fibrous encapsulation of the tumor (kappa = 0.53, P = 0.05), and a heterogeneous pattern of contrast distribution in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with adrenal hemorrhage or infarction on histological examination (kappa = 0.45, P = 0.05). Findings indicated that CT enabled assessment of adrenal neoplasia features that reflected their biological behavior and pathological findings, however overlapping characteristics between tumor types limited the potential for reliably distinguishing them based on CT alone. PMID:25139015

  1. Systemic Inflammation: Methodological Approaches to Identification of the Common Pathological Process

    PubMed Central

    Zotova, N. V.; Chereshnev, V. A.; Gusev, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We defined Systemic inflammation (SI) as a “typical, multi-syndrome, phase-specific pathological process, developing from systemic damage and characterized by the total inflammatory reactivity of endotheliocytes, plasma and blood cell factors, connective tissue and, at the final stage, by microcirculatory disorders in vital organs and tissues.” The goal of the work: to determine methodological approaches and particular methodical solutions for the problem of identification of SI as a common pathological process. SI can be defined by the presence in plasma of systemic proinflammatory cell stress products—cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, and also by the complexity of other processes signs. We have developed 2 scales: 1) The Reactivity Level scale (RL)–from 0 to 5 points: 0-normal level; RL-5 confirms systemic nature of inflammatory mediator release, and RL- 2–4 defines different degrees of event probability. 2) The SI scale, considering additional criteria along with RL, addresses more integral criteria of SI: the presence of ≥ 5 points according to the SI scale proves the high probability of SI developing. To calculate the RL scale, concentrations of 4 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α) and C-reactive protein in plasma were examined. Additional criteria of the SI scale were the following: D-dimers>500ng/ml, cortisol>1380 or <100nmol/l, troponin I≥0.2ng/ml and/or myoglobin≥800ng/ml. 422 patients were included in the study with different septic (n-207) and aseptic (n-215) pathologies. In 190 cases (of 422) there were signs of SI (lethality 38.4%, n-73). In only 5 of 78 cases, lethality was not confirmed by the presence of SI. SI was registered in 100% of cases with septic shock (n-31). There were not significant differences between AU-ROC of CR, SI scale and SOFA to predict death in patients with sepsis and trauma. PMID:27153324

  2. Pathologic findings in novel influenza A (H1N1) virus ("Swine Flu") infection: contrasting clinical manifestations and lung pathology in two fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Philip, Abraham T; Stoppacher, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Although novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection has assumed pandemic proportions, there are few reports of the pathologic findings. Herein we describe the pathologic findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection based on findings in 2 autopsy cases. The first patient, a 36-year-old man, had flu-like symptoms; oseltamivir (Tamiflu) therapy was started 8 days after onset of symptoms, and he died on day 15 of his illness. At autopsy, the main finding was diffuse alveolar damage with extensive fresh intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The second patient, a 46-year-old woman with alcoholism, was found unresponsive in a basement and brought to the hospital intoxicated and confused. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died 4 days after admission. The main autopsy finding was acute bronchopneumonia with gram-positive cocci, intermixed with diffuse alveolar damage. The pathologic findings in these contrasting cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection are similar to those previously described for seasonal influenza. The main pathologic abnormality in fatal cases is diffuse alveolar damage, but it may be overshadowed by an acute bacterial bronchopneumonia. PMID:20154276

  3. Pathological findings of saccular cerebral aneurysms-impact of subintimal fibrin deposition on aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Masaaki; Nakayama, Naoki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2015-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested that aneurysmal wall inflammation and laminar thrombus are associated with the rupture of saccular aneurysms, the mechanisms leading to the rupture remain obscure. We performed full exposure of aneurysms before clip application and attempted to keep the fibrin cap on the rupture point. Using these specimens in a nearly original state before surgery, we conducted a pathological analysis and studied the differences between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms to clarify the mechanism of aneurysmal wall degeneration. This study included ruptured (n = 28) and unruptured (n = 12) saccular aneurysms resected after clipping. All of the ruptured aneurysms were obtained within 24 h of onset. Immunostainings for markers of inflammatory cells (CD68) and classical histological staining techniques were performed. Clinical variables and pathological findings from ruptured and unruptured aneurysms were compared. Patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms did not differ by age, gender, size, location, and risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. The absence or fragmentation of the internal elastica lamina, the myointimal hyperplasia, and the thinning of the aneurysmal wall were generally observed in both aneurysms. The existence of subintimal fibrin deposition, organized laminar thrombus, intramural hemorrhage, neovascularization, and monocyte infiltration are more frequently observed in ruptured aneurysms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ruptured aneurysm was associated with presence of subintimal fibrin deposition and monocyte infiltration. These findings suggest that subintimal fibrin deposition and chronic inflammation have a strong impact on degeneration of the aneurysmal wall leading to their rupture, and this finding may be caused by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25860660

  4. Postmortem computed tomography in victims of military air mishaps: radiological-pathological correlation of CT findings.

    PubMed

    Levy, Gad; Goldstein, Liav; Blachar, Arye; Apter, Sara; Barenboim, Erez; Bar-Dayan, Yaron; Shamis, Ari; Atar, Eli

    2007-10-01

    A thorough medical inquiry is included in every aviation mishap investigation. While the gold standard of this investigation is a forensic pathology examination, numerous reports stress the important role of computed tomography in the postmortem evaluation of trauma victims. To characterize the findings identified by postmortem CT and compare its performance to conventional autopsy in victims of military aviation mishaps, we analyzed seven postmortem CT examinations. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57.8% of the traumatic findings identified by postmortem CT. The most frequent findings were fractures of the rib (47%), skull (9.6%) and facial bones (8.6%). Abnormally located air accounted for 24% of findings, for which CT was superior (3.5% detected by autopsy, 100% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). The performance of autopsy in detecting injuries was superior (autopsy detected 85.8% of all injuries, postmortem CT detected 53.9%, P < 0.001), especially in the detection of superficial lesions (100% detected by autopsy, 10.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001) and solid organ injuries (100% by autopsy, 18.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). Performance in the detection of musculoskeletal injuries was similar (91.3% for autopsy, 90.3% for postmortem CT, P = not significant). Postmortem CT and autopsy have distinct performance profiles, and although the first cannot replace the latter it is a useful complementary examination. PMID:17987755

  5. Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures: Pathological findings and a new therapeutic approach using tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Iwasaki, Masaki; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is characterized by prolonged severe seizures and a high-grade fever. We experienced a boy with severe AERRPS with frequent partial seizures that exhibited right-side predominance. The patient required the continuous intravenous administration of many antiepileptic drugs and respirator management for several months. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin administration were only temporarily effective. The MRI and EEG showed the abnormality in the left occipital lobe. Although occipital lobectomy was performed, his seizures continued. His cerebrospinal fluid exhibited elevated protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels, and was positive for anti-glutamate receptor ε2 antibodies. Pathological examination showed infiltration of many neutrophilic leukocytes, T cells, and microglia in the area exhibiting severe spongiosis. We thought that the exaggerated microglia and T-cell responses were related to the pathogenesis of the patient's seizures, and we therefore initiated treatment with tacrolimus. As a result, many of the daily seizure clusters were ameliorated, and the patient was discharged. We attempted to discontinue the tacrolimus twice, but the patient's seizure clusters recurred each time. This is the first case report of the pathological findings of AERRPS and showing an effective therapeutic approach using tacrolimus. Tacrolimus may be an effective immunosuppressant, especially for patients with severe AERRPS. PMID:26906012

  6. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    PubMed

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. PMID:25209917

  7. Second case of histoplasmosis in a captive mara (Dolichotis patagonum): pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, A; Rosas-Rosas, A; Parás-García, A; Juan-Sallés, C; Taylor, M L

    2009-08-01

    A second case of histoplasmosis in a captive mara (Dolichotis patagonum) from a colony at the wildlife park Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico, is described, and the mara died with disseminated clinical form of the disease, affecting mostly the large intestine and adrenal. The pathological findings of this case 2 revealed severe granulomatous typhlocolitis and moderate granulomatous gastrohepatic lymphadenitis with numerous yeast-like cells, 2-4 mum in diameter, with a clear halo surrounding them inside the cytoplasm of macrophages, suggesting the parasitic form of Histoplasma capsulatum. Adrenocortical cells had abundant similar microorganisms in their cytoplasm without any associated lesion. Gomori's methenamine silver and periodic acid Schiff stained positively these microorganisms. Immunohistochemistry, using a rabbit anti-H. capsulatum serum, and transmission electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of H. capsulatum infection. PMID:19360479

  8. Characteristics of lung dusts and their relation to dust exposure and pathological findings in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, M; Burilkov, T; Kolev, K; Lalova, P

    1975-09-01

    Lung dusts were investigated, post-mortem, in twenty-five miners from mixed metal mines, tunnels, and quarries who had exposed to high concentrations of mixed dust containing about 20-25% free crystalline silica. The character of the relations found between the amount of quartz per 100 g dry tissue and the clinical, X-ray and pathological findings is similar to that established in coal miners. The difference lies in the fact that with equal amounts of quartz per 100 g dry tissue, there is less silicosis in coal miners than in our cases; the average residence time of retained dust is longer in coal miners, but its quartz per cent is lower. PMID:198369

  9. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

  10. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS) IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Garner, Michael M; Bonar, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. PMID:26667536

  12. Trapped neutrophil syndrome in a Border Collie dog: clinical, clinico-pathologic, and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Seira; Kawamura, Ryuta; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-06-01

    Trapped neutrophil syndrome (TNS) is an autosomal recessive inherited neutropenia known in Border Collies since the 1990's. Recently, the causative mutation has been identified in the canine VPS13B gene and a DNA-based diagnosis has now become available. The present paper describes clinical and clinico-pathologic findings in a Border Collie with TNS that was molecularly diagnosed for the first time in Japan. In a 10-week-old male Border Collie with microgenesis and symptoms related to recurrent infections, a hematological examination revealed severe leukopenia due to neutropenia, suggesting the dog to be affected by inherited neutropenic immunodeficiency. Direct DNA sequencing demonstrated that the dog was homozygous for the causative mutation of TNS and both its parents were heterozygous carriers. In addition, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction-based length polymorphism analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis was developed for the genotyping of TNS. This assay could discriminate clearly all genotypes, suggesting that it was suitable for both individual diagnosis and large-scale surveys for prevention. PMID:22240985

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Pancreatic Carcinoma: Correlation with Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Kun; Fan, Zhihui; Sun, Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We concluded that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has clinical value in identifying the pathologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas. Forty-three patients diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma through surgery were retrospectively investigated. CEUS examinations were performed on all patients before surgery. Enhancement patterns on CEUS were observed. Time-intensity curves of CEUS were generated for the regions of interest in the pancreas, and quantitative parameters were obtained. Resected cancer specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis, and the microvascular density (MVD) of the specimens was determined by CD34 immunohistochemical staining. Enhancement patterns of CEUS were compared with histopathologic findings in pancreatic carcinomas. Correlations between time-intensity curve parameters and microvascular density were analyzed. Twenty cases manifested centripetal enhancement, and 23 cases, global enhancement. The amount of tumor necrosis or mucus in the centripetally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas was greater than that in the globally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas (p = 0.027). Thirty-eight of 43 (88.4%) pancreatic carcinomas manifested hypo-enhancement with a maximum intensity (IMAX) <90%. Contrast arrival time in pancreatic carcinoma was longer than that in adjacent pancreatic tissue (p < 0.05). IMAX was positively correlated with microvascular density (r = 0.577, p < 0.05). We concluded that CEUS manifestations could reflect the histologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas and CEUS can be used to evaluate blood perfusion of tumors, as IMAX is positively correlated with microvascular density. PMID:26806440

  14. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  15. Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Findings Associated with Senecavirus A-Induced Lesions in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Leme, R A; Oliveira, T E S; Alfieri, A F; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6). Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for Senecavirus A (SenV-A) demonstrated immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus of the cerebrum, degenerate epithelium of ulcerative lesions of the tongue, the urothelium of the kidney and urinary bladder, and the superficial cells of the intestine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and/or quantitative PCR assays were used to investigate viral agents associated with vesicular and/or enteric diseases. Antigens and RNA of SenV-A were identified in multiple tissues of all piglets; molecular assays for all other viruses evaluated yielded negative results. These findings confirm the participation of SenV-A in the multiple lesions observed in these piglets. Several theories are proposed: SenV-A may be eliminated via the urinary system, neurological disease may occur due to initial invasion of choroid plexus, enteric disease may be related to atrophy and fusion of villi of the small intestine, and vertical transmission could be a form of dissemination. PMID:27473601

  16. Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards

  17. Odontogenic myxoma: clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings of a multicentric series.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mata, Guillermo; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Roman; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Contreras-Vidaurre, Elisa; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Cano-Valdéz, Ana María; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinico-pathological and immunohistochemical features of 62 cases of odontogenic myxoma (OM) diagnosed in three Oral Pathology Diagnostic Services in Latin America, as well as to describe the ultrastructural features of three of these cases. OM showed a wide age range (9-71 years), with a mean of 27.97 yr (SD: 11.01) and a male to female ratio of 1:2.2. Mandible was affected in 37 cases (59.6%) and maxilla in 25 (40.4%), with 61.3% located in the posterior region. Thirty-nine cases (62.9%) were multilocular and 23 (37.1%) unilocular. Size ranged from 1 to 13 cm, (mean: 5.2 cm). Thirty-seven multilocular (54.8%) and 6 unilocular lesions (26%) were larger than 4 cm (p<0.05). Epithelial islands were identified in 5 cases (8%) on H&E stained sections, but AE1/AE3 and CK14 disclosed these structures in 15 cases each (24.2%); CK5 was positive in 8 (12.9%); CK7 in 2 (3.2%) and CK19 in only 3 cases (4.8%). All cases were negative for CKs 8 and 18, S-100 protein, NSE and CD68, and showed a low index of expression of Bcl2 and ki-67 proteins (<1%). Mast cell antibodies showed these cells in 45 cases (72.6%). Myofibroblastic differentiation evidenced by myofilaments and fibronexi was found in one case out of the three studied by TEM and 29 cases (46.7%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for alpha actin. In conclusion, only a minority of OM had epithelial islands, and only 3 cases expressed CK 19, indicating an odontogenic epithelium origin. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggest that OM is a mesenchymal neoplasm in which several factors may contribute to its pathogenesis, including myofibroblastic differentiation and the participation of mast cell products. However, further investigations are needed to better understand the participation of these elements in this particular neoplasm. PMID:17996487

  18. Virtual endoscopy in odontogenic sinus disease. Study technique and main pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, Ezio; Leporace, Mario; Di Costanzo, Giuseppe; Mannino, Michela; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-01

    The use of CT scans in dental pathology is an established technique. The potential applications of Dentascan are further enhanced by the use of virtual navigation software, resulting in endoscopy-like imaging of the maxillary sinus, thus optimising both the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to sinus pathology of dental origin. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical-methodological aspects of maxillary sinus virtual endoscopy with Dentascan software and to document the most important and frequent diseases. PMID:15343137

  19. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, İbrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  20. Clinical, pathological and (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Burcak Yilmaz; Akbayır, Ozgur; Demirci, Emre; Ozaydin, Ipek

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous primary gynecologic malignancies are infrequently seen. In this report, we describe the clinical, pathological and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) findings of a patient with synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature. PMID:27331214

  1. Circumstances, Descriptive Characteristics, and Pathologic Findings in Dogs Suspected of Starving.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P; Reisman, R; Scarlett, J

    2016-09-01

    The authors reviewed the case circumstances, population characteristics, gross, and histopathologic findings in 40 cases of emaciated dogs with a suspected diagnosis of starvation. The dogs' estimated age ranged from 3 months to geriatric. Nineteen breeds were represented, including small-breed (n = 11), large-breed (n = 13), and pit bull-type (n = 16) dogs. The median body condition score was 1 out of 9 (Purina scale). Various diseases were identified as the cause of death in 7 dogs, while the cause of death in the other 33 dogs was starvation due to exogenous causes (SEC). Circumstances associated exclusively with SEC included being found in a vacated residence and death during temperature extremes or severe weather. Dogs with SEC did not differ significantly from diseased dogs in body condition score, sex, neuter status, or breed category (small, large, or pit bull type). Gross findings associated exclusively with SEC included severe hair matting and traumatic injuries. Diseased dogs had an empty stomach significantly more often than SEC dogs, which frequently had food and/or foreign material in the stomach. In 5 of the 7 cases where disease was the cause of death, disease involved the gastrointestinal tract. Gross and histopathologic changes commonly found in SEC and diseased dogs included the following: gross loss of muscle mass and absence of subcuticular fat; serous atrophy of omental, perirenal, epicardial, and bone marrow fat; atrophy of the liver, skin, thyroid gland, and testicle; gastric mucosal petechiae and ecchymoses; melena; and splenic hemosiderophages. PMID:25791037

  2. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  3. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  4. Pathologic Findings in Rabbit Models of Hereditary Hypertriglyceridemia and Hereditary Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuguchi, Yoko; Ito, Tsunekata; Ohwada, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the association between hyperlipidemia and the development of arteriosclerosis has been addressed in several studies. Rabbit models of hypertriglyceridemia (TGH) and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHT) have been developed at the authors' institute. TGH rabbits manifest pathology similar to that of humans with TGH, such as xanthoma, in addition to atherosclerosis of arterioles. Furthermore, PHT rabbits show visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance, with pathologic features similar to those of the metabolic syndrome assumed to be the cause of human ischemic heart disease. This study was designed to investigate the histopathologic features of TGH and PHT rabbits. TGH rabbits showed advanced aortic atherosclerosis, accompanied by intimal thickening of coronary and renal arteries, fatty liver changes, and xanthoma. PHT rabbits demonstrated aortic intimal thickening and hepatic fatty degeneration. The results of this study suggest that TGH and PHT rabbits are useful animal models for studying human hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome and the cardiovascular diseases that result from these conditions. PMID:19004373

  5. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Seth H; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Roy, Chad J

    2015-06-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  7. Pathologic Findings in Prophylactic and Nonprophylactic Hysterectomy Specimens of Patients With Lynch Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Carla; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Meireles, Catarina; Baptista, Manuela; Gouveia, Alfredo; Pinto, Carla; Shannon, Kristen M; Jerónimo, Carmen; Teixeira, Manuel R; Lopes, José M; Oliva, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma (EC) and, less frequently, ovarian carcinoma. As EC not uncommonly is the first malignancy, prophylactic hysterectomy (PH) has been increasingly implemented. In this study, we report the clinicopathologic features of a series of 70 LS patients who underwent either PH (n=39) or nonprophylactic hysterectomy (NPH) (n=31) at 3 tertiary referral centers. Among the 39 patients with PH, 2 had endometrial tumors seen grossly, whereas 37 showed no macroscopic lesions. Total inclusion of the endometrium was performed in 24/39 (61.5%). Abnormal histologic findings were identified in 9/39 (23.1%) PHs: 3 endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (EECs), including the 2 macroscopic and 1 microscopic (0.6 cm), and 4 atypical and 6 nonatypical hyperplasias. NPH included those performed for endometrial and ovarian cancer treatment. Tumor sampling followed standard protocols. ECs comprised 26 EECs and 1 clear cell carcinoma, with a median size of 3.7 cm. Hyperplasia was observed in 10 (33.3%) as background in EC, in 4 showing atypia. Eight (29.6%) tumors were centered in the lower uterine segment (all EECs). EECs were predominantly well differentiated (53.8%) and FIGO stage I (77.8%). A papillary architecture was common (51.9%) and associated with microcystic elongated and fragmented foci in 4. Mucinous differentiation was observed in 25.9% of endometrial tumors, typically representing <10%. Most endometrial tumors (81.5%) showed tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts ≥42/10 high-power fields. Four tumors showed extensive necrosis. Eight patients had ovarian tumors (4 synchronous), including 2 endometrioid carcinomas, 2 clear cell carcinomas, 1 borderline clear cell adenofibroma, 1 Müllerian carcinoma of mixed cell types, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and 1 metastatic melanoma. Total inclusion of the endometrium should be done in all LS patients' surgical specimens without macroscopic lesions as some

  8. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  9. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Varki, Nissi; Anderson, Dan; Herndon, James G; Pham, Tho; Gregg, Christopher J; Cheriyan, Monica; Murphy, James; Strobert, Elizabeth; Fritz, Jo; Else, James G; Varki, Ajit

    2009-02-01

    Heart disease is common in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and analysis of literature indicate that sudden death in chimpanzees (and in gorillas and orangutans) is commonly associated with diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis of unknown cause. In contrast, most human heart disease results from coronary artery atherosclerosis, which occludes myocardial blood supply, causing ischemic damage. The typical myocardial infarction of humans due to coronary artery thrombosis is rare in these apes, despite their human-like coronary-risk-prone blood lipid profiles. Instead, chimpanzee 'heart attacks' are likely due to arrythmias triggered by myocardial fibrosis. Why do humans not often suffer from the fibrotic heart disease so common in our closest evolutionary cousins? Conversely, why do chimpanzees not have the kind of heart disease so common in humans? The answers could be of value to medical care, as well as to understanding human evolution. A preliminary attempt is made to explore possibilities at the histological level, with a focus on glycosylation changes. PMID:25567850

  10. Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

  11. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  12. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  13. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. PMID:25107460

  14. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: common theme in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immune cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  15. Glioblastoma multiforme of the optic chiasm: A rare case of common pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lyapichev, Kirill A.; Bregy, Amade; Cassel, Adrienne; Handfield, Chelsea; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Kay, Matthew D.; Basil, Gregory; Komotar, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. Case Description: An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month. After neuro-ophthalmological examination, the decision of thither magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies was made. It showed a contrast enhancing mass in the region of the optic chiasm. In this case, imaging study was not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis and a left pterional craniotomy for biopsy and resection of the optic chiasmal mass was performed. After histological evaluation of the mass tissue, the diagnosis of GBM was made. Taking into account the patient's poor condition and unfavorable prognosis he was moved to inpatient hospice. The patient deceased within 2 months after surgery. Conclusion: Chiasmal GBM is an extremely rare condition where a biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis for such lesions can be very difficult and include demyelinating optic neuritis and non-demyelinating inflammatory optic neuropathy (e.g., sarcoid), vascular lesions (e.g., cavernoma), compressive lesions of the optic apparatus, metastatic malignancy, and primary tumors of the anterior optic pathway. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy including novel stereotaxic radiosurgery methods is still unclear and will need to be evaluated. PMID:27512611

  16. Developmental venous anomaly, capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and arteriovenous malformation: spectrum of a common pathological entity?

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Zabramski, Joseph M; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations of the central nervous system are thought to originate from abnormal developmental processes during embryogenesis. Reports have cited the dynamic nature of these lesions and their "maturation" into other types of malformations. Herein we report on three patients with vascular malformations who exhibited dynamic alterations with stepwise progression of their lesions. These cases lend support to the hypothesis that these malformations may constitute the spectrum of a single disease caused by alterations in a common developmental program and that accumulating injury (e.g., by radiation) may allow one malformation type to mature into another. This concept warrants further investigation. PMID:26743915

  17. Multilocular Radicular Cyst – A Common Pathology with Uncommon Radiological Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ankur; Haidry, Naqoosh; Yadav, Monu; Shankarnarayan, Lata

    2016-01-01

    Radicular cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst of inflammatory origin. It is almost all the times associated with pulpal necrosis leading to inflamed periapical tissues. The cyst is usually asymptomatic unless infected. Radiographically, it presents as a well defined unilocular radiolucency. Although, multilocular radiolucent radicular cysts have also been reported, which is extremely rare and there are very few reported cases. Here, we present a rare case of radicular cyst periapical to the first molar of third quadrant, presenting clinically as a painless, bony hard swelling and radiographically presented as a multilocular radiolucency. PMID:27135015

  18. Therapeutic antibodies: their mechanisms of action and the pathological findings they induce in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masami; Kato, Chie; Kato, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies can swiftly provide therapeutics to target disease-related molecules discovered in genomic research. Antibody engineering techniques have been actively developed and these technological innovations have intensified the development of therapeutic antibodies. From the mid-1990’s, a series of therapeutic antibodies were launched that are now being used in clinic. The disease areas that therapeutic antibodies can target have subsequently expanded, and antibodies are currently utilized as pharmaceuticals for cancer, inflammatory disease, organ transplantation, cardiovascular disease, infection, respiratory disease, ophthalmologic disease, and so on. This paper briefly describes the modes of action of therapeutic antibodies. Several non-clinical study results of the pathological changes induced by therapeutic antibodies are also presented to aid the future assessment of the toxic potential of an antibody developed as a therapeutic. PMID:26441475

  19. Clinical, virological, and pathological findings in a fatal case of Q fever endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, I. C.; Craik, J. E.; Grist, N. R.

    1962-01-01

    A case resembling subacute bacterial endocarditis in which blood cultures were repeatedly negative is described. The patient had had an influenza-like illness nine months before admission to hospital followed by intervening vague illness and loss of weight. Serological tests revealed a high titre of complement-fixing antibodies to phase 1 and phase 2 antigens of Rickettsia burneti. After death R. burneti was isolated from the diseased aortic valve, liver, and kidneys. Bodies morphologically resembling rickettsiae were seen in the aortic valve and in a very few renal tubule cells. No specific pathological lesions were found but there was a widespread stimulation of reticulo-endothelial cells particularly in the aortic valve cusps, spleen, lymph nodes, and renal glomeruli. It is suggested that tests for Q fever should be carried out in suspected cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis when blood culture is negative. Images PMID:13892334

  20. Some clinico-pathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni.

    PubMed

    Caple, I W; Jainudeen, M R; Buick, T D; Song, C Y

    1978-01-01

    Severe submandibular and ventral abdominal oedema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes (Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination. Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram. Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site. Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs. Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range. PMID:633508

  1. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Lindsay, Scott A.; Krockenberger, Mark; Phalen, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. In recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the N. caninum life cycle and many have been implicated as intermediate hosts. However, in many instances these studies have utilized serological and molecular techniques to detect infection in clinically normal animals, and investigation of possible associated morbidity, mortality, and pathology has been neglected. As such, the occurrence and importance of Neospora-associated disease in wildlife species are unknown. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of N. caninum infection in nondomestic species, the present review provides an up-to-date summary of clinical neosporosis and N. caninum-associated pathologic lesions in naturally and experimentally infected wildlife species. We provide a list of all free-ranging and captive wildlife species identified with N. caninum infection to date using currently available diagnostic tools. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic methods in wildlife are addressed in order to recommend optimal diagnosis of confirming N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species. Although current data would suggest that N. caninum infection does not adversely impact wildlife populations, there is a need for greater international uniformity in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species in order to assess the true consequences of parasite infection. PMID:25973393

  2. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  3. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  4. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses. PMID:26045798

  5. Acute toxicological studies on paraquat: pathological findings in beagle dogs following single subcutaneous injections.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Kono, I; Masaoka, T; Akahori, F

    1992-04-01

    Sixteen beagles were allocated into 4 groups, each group consisting of 2 males and 2 females, which were injected sc with 1,3,5 or 7 mg paraquat/kg. The beagles were observed for 2 w after the administration. At the end of the observation period all the dying and surviving dogs were studied pathologically. The LD50 was calculated as 1.8 (1.0-6.1) in males and 3.5 (2.4-10.1) mg/kg in females. Clinical laboratory tests showed increases in segmented neutrophils and monocytes, decreases in lymphocytes, slight decreases in chloride, moderate increases in BUN, GOT, GPT and phospholipids, slight increases in uric acid, total protein, creatine, total cholesterol and total bilirubin, and prolonged prothrombin times. Marked edema, congestion and hemorrhage of lungs, as well as slight congestion in various organs, were observed grossly. In histopathological examination, marked pulmonary hemorrhage and congestion, fibroblast-like cells in alveolar septa, breakdown of alveolar walls, thickening of alveolar walls and pleura, mild congestion and degeneration of the liver, and mild degeneration of renal tubules were observed. The cause of death was respiratory distress and renal failure. The surviving animals had mild atelectasis of the lungs. Electromicroscopic examination on the surviving animals revealed the appearance of spindle-shaped cells, proliferation of type II alveolar cells and fibroblasts, mitosis of fibroblasts, and abundant collagen fiber in the lung, calcium deposition, stratification and thickening of basement membranes, and localized necrotic epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of kidneys, and stratification of intramitochondrial cristae of the liver. Pulmonary fibrosis in the switchover stage was present with participation from type II alveolar cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. PMID:1509667

  6. Your Father and Grandfather's Atrial Fibrillation: A Review of the Genetics of the Most Common Pathologic Cardiac Dysrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Palatinus, Joseph A; Das, Saumya

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common pathologic dysrhythmia in humans with a prevalence of 1-2% of the total population and as high as 10% of the elderly. AF is an independent risk marker for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and given the increasing age of the population, represents an increasing burden of disease. Although age and hypertension are known risk factors for development of AF, the study of families with early onset AF revealed mutations in genes coding for ion channels and other proteins involved in electrotonic coupling as likely culprits for the pathology in select cases. Recent investigations using Genome-Wide Association Studies have revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that appear to be associated with AF and have highlighted new genes in the proximity of the SNPs that may potentially contribute to the development of the dysrhythmia. Here we review the genetics of AF and discuss how application of GWAS and next generation sequencing have advanced our knowledge of AF and further investigations may yield novel therapeutic targets for the disease. PMID:26085805

  7. Extrauterine Pelvic Serous Carcinomas: Current Update on Pathology and Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Amanullah, Farhan S; Menias, Christine O; Chen, Melissa M; Valente, Philip T; Chintapalli, Kedar N; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas includes ovarian serous carcinoma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, and primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasm, consists of two distinct entities: high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and primary fallopian tube carcinoma are rare malignancies that share many characteristics of high-grade serous carcinomas. Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of gynecologic cancers have suggested a common origin of many extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas from fallopian tube epithelium. With the exception of low-grade serous carcinomas, which arise from cortical inclusion cysts lined by tubal epithelium, most extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas are believed to originate from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and show similar clinical-biologic behaviors and natural histories. Indeed, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Committee on Gynecologic Oncology recently recognized that these cancers should be considered collectively, with a common system of staging and management strategies for ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers. A paradigm shift has occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas that has the potential to change current strategies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and management. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and combined positron emission tomography and CT are pivotal in screening, initial diagnosis, and treatment follow-up; however, because of this paradigm shift, new radiologic techniques, such as contrast material-enhanced US and molecular US imaging, and various optical imaging techniques are being investigated as important screening and diagnostic tools. Because of evolving knowledge of genetic and molecular changes underlying the

  8. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  9. DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariët J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background In systems biology it is common to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological processes underlying the data and to disentangle therein processes common to all data sources and processes distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to common and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-processing and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological processes underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for

  10. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, N. N.; Williams, A. J.; Dewar, C. A.; Blendis, L. M.; Reid, Lynne

    1977-01-01

    Stanley, N. N., Williams, A. J., Dewar, C. A., Blendis, L. M., and Reid, Lynne (1977).Thorax, 32, 457-471. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings. A case is reported of liver cirrhosis complicated by cyanosis and recurrent right hydrothorax. A diagnostic pneumoperitoneum demonstrated that direct movement of ascites through a diaphragmatic defect was responsible for the hydrothoraces. Pulmonary function tests between episodes of hydrothorax showed severe arterial hypoxaemia, a 23% right-to-left shunt, and a reduction in the carbon monoxide transfer factor to less than half of the predicted value. Evidence of abnormal intrapulmonary arteriovenous communications was obtained by perfusion scanning. At necropsy the central tendon of the diaphragm showed numerous areas of thinning which were easily ruptured. Injection of the pulmonary arterial tree demonstrated precapillary arteriovenous anastomoses and pleural spider naevi. A morphometric analysis provided quantitative evidence of pulmonary vasodilatation limited to the intra-acinar arteries, consistent with the effect of a circulating vasodilator. The scintigraphic and pathological findings suggested that shunting had been greater in the right than the left lung. Examination of thin lung sections by light microscopy showed that the walls of small veins were thickened, and electron microscopy showed that this was due to a layer of collagen. The walls of capillaries were similarly thickened, which caused an approximately two-fold increase in the minimum blood-gas distance and contributed to the reduction in transfer factor. Images PMID:929488

  11. Assessment of Invasive Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Using Whole-Tumor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Texture Analysis: Correlations With Detailed Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Sook; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lim, Yaeji; Han, Boo-Kyung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    There is no study that investigates the potential correlation between the heterogeneity obtained from texture analysis of medical images and the heterogeneity observed from histopathological findings. We investigated whether texture analysis of magnetic resonance images correlates with histopathological findings.Seventy-five patients with estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. Tumor entropy and uniformity were determined on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images under different filter levels. Two pathologists evaluated the detailed histopathological findings of the tumors including tumor cellularity, dominant stroma type, central scar, histologic grade, extensive intraductal component (EIC), and lymphovascular invasion. Entropy and uniformity values on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images were compared with detailed pathological findings.In a multivariate analysis, entropy significantly increased only on unfiltered T2-weighted images (P = 0.013). Tumor cellularity and predominant stroma did not affect the uniformity or entropy on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. High histologic grades showed increased uniformity and decreased entropy on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, whereas the opposite tendency was observed on T2-weighted images. Invasive ductal carcinoma with an EIC or lymphovascular invasion only affected the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, through increased uniformity and decreased entropy. The best uniformity results were recorded on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images at a filter level of 0.5. Entropy showed the best results at a filter level of 0.5 on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. However, on T2-weighted images, an ideal model was achieved on unfiltered images.MRI texture analysis correlated with pathological

  12. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively. PMID:23115369

  13. Pathological findings in hanging and wedging deaths in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Byard, R W

    1993-12-01

    Records of the Adelaide Children's Hospital Histopathology Department were reviewed for cases of deaths resulting from hanging or wedging occurring in early childhood and infancy. The 14 cases identified were analyzed with respect to age, sex, circumstances of death, and postmortem findings. The mean age at death was 14 months (range, 6-36 months) and the male to female ratio was 9:5. In one case, death occurred in a baby car seat, another in a pram/stroller, and in another a curtain cord was responsible. In the remaining 11 cases, death occurred in the baby's crib. In eight cases the mechanism of death was hanging with partial suspension, including six cases in which part of the infant's clothing became caught on the crib. Petechial hemorrhages on the face were found in all of the hanging deaths whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in only two cases. Only one of the wedging deaths showed facial petechiae whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in four of the six cases. Conjunctival hemorrhages were only recorded in only two of the 14 cases. PMID:8116587

  14. Periosteum: characteristic imaging findings with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bisseret, Damien; Kaci, Rachid; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Alison, Marianne; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Bousson, Valérie

    2015-03-01

    The periosteum covers most bone structures. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cambial layer that exhibits osteogenic activity. The periosteum is a dynamic structure that plays a major role in bone modeling and remodeling under normal conditions. In several disorders such as infections, benign and malignant tumors, and systemic diseases, the osteogenic potential of the periosteum is stimulated and new bone is produced. The newly formed bone added onto the surface of the cortex adopts various configurations depending on the modalities and pace of bone production. Our aim here is to describe the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the periosteum and to review the various patterns of periosteal reaction with emphasis on relations between radiological and histopathological findings. A careful evaluation of the periosteal reaction and appearance of the underlying cortex, in combination with the MRI, clinical, and laboratory data, provides valuable information on lesion duration and aggressiveness, thereby assisting in the etiological diagnosis and optimizing patient management. A solid reaction strongly suggests a benign and slow-growing process that gives the bone enough time to wall off the lesion. Single lamellar reactions occur in acute and usually benign diseases. Multilamellar reactions are associated with intermediate aggressiveness and a growth rate close to the limit of the walling-off capabilities of the bone. Spiculated, interrupted, and complex combined reactions carry the worst prognosis, as they occur in the most aggressive and fast-growing diseases: the periosteum attempts to create new bone but is overwhelmed and may be breached. PMID:25269751

  15. Finding A Common Language: How To Communicate Climate Change Science To Non-Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, H. M.; Casey, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    Successful communication about complex subjects, especially of a scientific nature, brings with it a significant set of challenges. If, in addition to being a scientifically complex concept, the topic also carries with it certain political or ideological implications, the challenges grow significantly. Climate change is a poster child for the difficulties in communicating valuable science beyond the confines of the scientific community, or even of a smaller and more specialized subgroup within that community. However, strategies exist for maximizing the reach of this important information, and for effectively disseminating the science behind climate change. Communication requires that the contingent attempting to communicate and the intended recipients of the information share a common language. The first step in finding that common language is to identify the intended audience, and then designing ways to effectively meet the needs of that specific audience.

  16. Description of common musculoskeletal findings in Williams Syndrome and implications for therapies.

    PubMed

    Copes, L E; Pober, B R; Terilli, C A

    2016-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), is a relatively rare genetic disorder affecting ∼1/10,000 persons. Since the disorder is caused by a micro-deletion of ∼1.5 Mb, it is not surprising that the manifestations of WS are extremely broad, involving most body systems. In this paper, we primarily focus on the musculoskeletal aspects of WS as these findings have not been the subject of a comprehensive review. We review the MSK features commonly seen in individuals with WS, along with related sensory and neurological issues interacting with and compounding underlying MSK abnormalities. We end by providing perspective, particularly from the vantage point of a physical therapist, on therapeutic interventions to address the most common MSK and related features seen in WS. Clin. Anat. 29:578-589, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749433

  17. Pathological, serological, and virological findings in sheep infected simultaneously with Bluetongue, Peste-des-petits-ruminants, and Sheeppox viruses.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Kale, Mehmet; Haligur, Mehmet; Yavru, Sibel

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pathological, serological and virological examinations were performed on 15 sheep from a flock of 250 sheep and lambs that suffer from simultaneous naturally occurring BTV, PPRV and SPV outbreaks. SPV was diagnosed macroscopically and histopathologically, BTV was diagnosed by ELISA, and PPRV was diagnosed pathologically and by ELISA. Clinically fever, diarrhea, depression, polypnea, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, rhinitis, erosive stomatitis, edema of eyelids, photophobia, cutaneous eruption with erythematous areas especially noticeable in wool-free parts of the body and axilla lesions evolving into papules were observed. At necropsy, the most effected organs were lungs and gut. Subepicardial hemorrhages were also commonly seen. While typical pox lesions were observed in some lambs, usually fibrinous pleuropneumonia was more prominent lung lesion. SPV and PPRV lesions were seen at the histopathological examination of the lesioned tissues, BT lesions were mild than SPV and PPRV microscopically. Serum and leukocyte samples of 15 animals were examined for PPRV and BTV by ELISA; 5 samples were positive for PPRV and 6 BTV, 4 were positive for both PPRV and BTV simultaneously. One hundred animals died, most were lambs. Mortality rates were 100% in lambs and 80% in the herd. PMID:19067219

  18. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  19. Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing--a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Jeng, Linda Jo Bone; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories. PMID:25684271

  20. Candidate genes responsible for common and different pathology of infected muscle tissues between Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiliang; Nagano, Isao; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2008-09-01

    The gene expression profiles were compared between Trichinella spiralis- and T. pseudospiralis-infected muscle tissues by means of a cDNA microarray. Out of 30,000 genes, the expressions of 55 genes were up-regulated in both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections, 24 genes were down-regulated in both Trichinella infections, 30 genes were up-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 23 genes were down-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 25 genes were up-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection, and 21 genes were down-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection. Many of these differentially expressed genes were associated with satellite cell activation and proliferation (paired box gene 7, Pax7; Pax3; desmin; M-cadherin), myogenesis and muscle development (eyes absent 2 homolog, Eya2; myocyte enhancer factor 2C, MEF2C; pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1, Pbx1; chordin-like 2, Chrdl2), cell differentiation (galectin 1; insulin like growth factors, IGFs; c-ski; msh-like 1, Msx1; Numb), cell proliferation and cycle regulation (retinoblastoma 1, Rb1; granulin; p21, CDK4, cyclin A2), and apoptosis (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, TNF-R1; programmed cell death protein 11, Pdcd11; Pdcd1; nuclear protein 1, Nuprl; clusterin, CLU). The differential expression of 17 genes was validated by quantitative real time PCR and 15 genes showed identical results with the microarray analysis. The present study listed the candidate genes that were commonly and differentially expressed between T. spiralis and/or T. pseudospiralis infection, thus suggesting that these genes need to be further investigated to reveal the mechanism of the common and/or different pathological changes induced by the two species Trichinella. PMID:18501667

  1. Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Breast: Ultrasonography, Elastography, Digital Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography, and Pathology Findings.

    PubMed

    Gkali, Christina An; Chalazonitis, Athanasios N; Feida, Eleni; Giannos, Aris; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomas constitute approximately 0.15% of malignant mammary neoplasms. Less than 0.5% of all malignant lymphomas involve the breast primarily. Primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma is usually right sided. The combined therapy approach, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is the most successful treatment. Mastectomy offers no benefit in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published case of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma reported with conventional ultrasonography, elastography (both freehand and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging), digital mammography, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and pathology findings. A 45-year-old woman presented with a lump in the right breast for 2 months. There was no evidence of systemic lymphoma or leukemia when the breast lesion was detected. Imaging findings were negative for lymphoma. Ipsilateral lymph nodes were not palpable. The mass was resected, and histopathology findings were diagnostic of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was confirmatory of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large cell type of B-cell lineage. Although primary and secondary lymphomas of the breast are rare entities, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast malignancies. PMID:25831151

  2. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings between Pathologically Proven Cases of Atypical Tubercular Spine and Tumour Metastasis: A Retrospective Study in 40 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Mohd; Sabir, Aamir Bin; Khalid, Saifullah

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To note the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences between pathologically proven cases of atypical spinal tuberculosis and spinal metastasis in 40 cases. Overview of Literature Spinal tuberculosis, or Pott's spine, constitutes less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis and can be associated with a neurologic deficit. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of metastatic bone disease cases, and spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. Thus, early diagnosis and prompt management of these pathologies are essential in preventing various complications. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 40 cases of atypical tuberculosis and metastasis affecting the spine from the year 2012 to 2014, with 20 cases each that were proven by histopathological examination. MR imaging was performed on 1.5 T MR-Scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens) utilizing standard surface coils of spine with contrast injection. Chi-square test was used for determining the statistical significance and p-values were calculated. Results The most common site of involvement was the thoracic spine, seen in 85% cases of metastasis and 65% cases of Pott's spine (p=0.144). The mean age of patients with tubercular spine was found to be 40 years and that of metastatic spine was 56 years. The following MR imaging findings showed statistical significance (p<0.05): combined vertebral body and posterior elements involvement, skip lesions, solitary lesion, intra-spinal lesions, concentric collapse, abscess formation and syrinx formation. Conclusions Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various spinal lesions including metastasis, fungal spondylodiskitis, sarcoidosis and lymphoma, particularly in endemic countries. Spinal tuberculosis is considered one of the great mimickers of disease as it could present in a variety of typical and atypical patterns, so proper imaging must be performed in order to facilitate

  3. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  4. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  5. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  6. Impact of less common and "disregarded" neurodegenerative pathologies on dementia burden in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Keage, Hannah A D; Ince, Paul G; Matthews, Fiona E; Wharton, Stephen B; McKeith, Ian G; Brayne, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the pathological bases of late onset dementia focus on classical markers such as plaques and tangles. The significance of pathologies characteristically associated with rare dementia syndromes such as Pick bodies and severe neuronal loss are considered to be well defined. The significance of other pathologies, often accepted as a feature of neurodegenerative syndromes, such as Hirano bodies and gliosis is not clear. This study investigated the significance of these rarer and 'disregarded' pathologies to dementia in the population. A total of 627 individuals aged 71-103 from the Epidemiological CLInicoPathologial Studies in Europe (EClipSE) project with clinical dementia status at death determined were assessed. Pathologies assessed included Pick bodies, severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) in the cortex and/or hippocampus, along with brainstem plaques, tangles, neuronal loss, gliosis, pigmentary incontinence, and Lewy bodies. All pathologies were associated with dementia when controlling for plaques and tangles except Hirano bodies, GVD, and brainstem plaques. These included hippocampal and entorhinal gliosis; cortical, hippocampal, and entorhinal neuronal loss; along with brainstem neuronal loss, gliosis, pigmentary incontinence, Lewy bodies, and tangles. Pick bodies were present in five individuals, all with clinical dementia. These epidemiological data indicate that dementia in old age is associated with a broad range of pathological and anatomical substrates pointing to potential areas for future research, particularly the brainstem. PMID:22045491

  7. Finding Common Ground: Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competencies in Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model is predicated on interprofessional collaborative practice and team-based care. While information on the roles of various providers is increasingly woven into the literature, the competencies of those providers have been generally profession-specific. In 2011, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative comprising the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Dental Education Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the Association of Schools of Public Health sponsored an expert panel of their members to identify and develop 4 domains of core competencies needed for a successful interprofessional collaborative practice: (1) Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice; (2) Roles/Responsibilities; (3) Interprofessional Communication; and (4) Teams and Teamwork. Their findings and recommendations were recorded in their Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel. This article explores these 4 domains and how they provide common ground for team-based care within the context of the medical home model approach to patient-centered primary care. PMID:26938181

  8. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  9. Impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system on pathological findings at and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khettry, Urmila; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Simpson, Mary Ann; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Pomposelli, James J; Lewis, W David; Jenkins, Roger L; Gordon, Fredric D

    2006-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system, a validated objective liver disease severity scale, was adopted in February 2002 to allocate cadaveric organs for liver transplantation (LT). To improve transplantability before succumbing to advanced disease, patients with low-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are given extra points in this system commensurate with their predicted mortality. Our aims were to determine 1) any change in the pathological findings at LT following the implementation of this system and 2) the impact of scoring advantage given to early-stage HCC. Clinicopathologic findings were compared before (pre-MELD, n = 87) and after (MELD, n = 58) the introduction of the MELD system. The findings in the pre-MELD vs. MELD groups were as follows: HCC, 27.5% vs. 48.3% (P = 0.001); portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 13.7% vs. 25.9% (P = 0.08); cholestasis, 16.1% vs. 32.7% (P = 0.026); inflammation grade of 2 or more, 43.7% vs. 48.3% (P = not significant); hepatitis C (HCV), 45.9% vs. 51.7% (P = not significant); HCV with lymphoid aggregates, 25% vs. 60% (P = 0.003); HCV with hyperplastic hilar nodes, 15.0% vs. 36.6% (P = 0.001); and post-LT HCC recurrence, 4.1% vs. 3.4% (P = not significant). Non-HCC-related findings were further compared in the 2 subgroups of pre-MELD (n = 57) and MELD (n = 31) after exclusion of HCC and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) cases, and only cholestasis was significantly increased in the subgroup MELD. In conclusion, increased incidence of native liver cholestasis in the MELD era may be the histologic correlate of clinically severe liver disease. The scoring advantage given to low-stage HCC did result in a significantly increased incidence of HCC in the MELD group, but it did not adversely affect the post-LT recurrence rate. PMID:16598742

  10. Pulmonary Intravascular Lymphomatosis: Clinical, CT, and PET Findings, Correlation of CT and Pathologic Results, and Survival Outcome.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min Jae; Lee, Kyung Soo; Hwang, Hye Sun; Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung-Tae; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To describe clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and positron emission tomographic (PET) features, correlation of CT and pathologic results, and survival of patients with pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study with waiver of patient consent. Forty-two patients with pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis were identified, 11 (26%) of whom showed lung involvement. CT features were correlated with histopathologic results. Clinical and survival outcomes were compared between patients with and those without pulmonary involvement by adopting the χ(2), Student t, or Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. Results At clinical presentation, all 11 patients showed B symptoms (systemic symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss), 10 had respiratory and four had neurologic symptoms, and two had skin lesions. Patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy with (n = 5) or without (n = 6) rituximab, and seven (64%) patients died. Patients with lung involvement showed reduced overall and recurrence-free survival (median; 10.8 and 18.9 months, respectively) compared with those without lung involvement (median, 18.4 and 31.0 months, respectively) (P = .338 and .065, respectively). The most common CT abnormality was bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO, n = 10), with increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at PET/CT (seven of seven patients). GGO correlated histopathologically with the expanded alveolar septal vasculatures and perivascular spaces filled with neoplastic lymphoid cells. Conclusion Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis appeared as bilateral GGO on CT images, with increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT images. GGO on CT images correlated with the area of expanded alveolar septae because of distended vessels filled with neoplastic lymphoid cells. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID

  11. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  12. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H.; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M.; Chua, Anita C.G.; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J.; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K.; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe−/−xTfr2mut mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation’ (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  13. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M; Chua, Anita C G; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J; Collingwood, Joanna F; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe (-/-) xTfr2 (mut) mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  14. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2005-06-01

    The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the

  15. FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

  16. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four

  17. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care. PMID:25410820

  18. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  19. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

  20. Evaluation of the characteristics of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Gao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Qin-Sha; Chen, Yu-Tang; Song, Yu-Piao; Yao, Zhen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the characteristics of enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver by analyzing the dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) features and correlating them with pathological findings. Patients and methods Nine males and 16 females with pathologically confirmed FNH and complete preoperative contrast-enhanced MSCT data were recruited for this study. The imaging features of FNH on the pre- and postcontrast MSCT were analyzed by two experienced radiologists by consensus. Results Pathology showed central scars and abnormal blood vessels in 17 and 21 of 25 lesions, respectively, while MSCT with multiphase enhancement showed central scars in eight of the 17 lesions (47.1%) and abnormal arteries or draining veins in 13 of the 21 lesions (61.9%). Furthermore, abnormal draining veins in five lesions were found to be diagnostic, which is another important finding. Conclusion Multiphase scanning can provide the panorama of FNH lesions and reveal their enhancement patterns and pathological characteristics. Abnormal blood vessels within or around the lesion are demonstrated more often than central scar, and both should be observed for FNH diagnosis. PMID:27578988

  1. Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

    2013-01-01

    Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma. PMID:23936651

  2. [CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE RISKS OF COMMON PATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN MERCURY PRODUCTION WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Katamanova, E V; Popkova, O V; Masnavieva, L B

    2015-01-01

    The occupational factors are assigned one out of main parts to the development of occupational and comorbid pathology. At the same time the social aspects of labor relations act as the most important factors influencing on the workers' self-assessment of health status. Quantitative risk assessment of the common pathological syndromes has identified the excess of share of persons with a minimum level of risk over the medium and high. In the structure of risks of common pathological syndromes there are prevailed risks for disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems and borderline mental disorders, which is a response to the impact of not only industrial, but also psychosocial factors. The results of self-assessment of health status and clinical examination of employees in conditions of mercury exposure show the similarity of the structure of diseases in these cases. In either event there are dominated diseases of the nervous and mental sphere, and from the comorbid pathology disorders of the cardiovascular system are prove to be important. Clinical manifestations of the mercury exposure, ranging from pre-clinical manifestations to marked changes from the side of the nervous system in toxic encephalopathy, are characterized by the presence of hyperkinetic syndrome. For pre-clinical and early forms of mercury poisoning there is also typical the presence of asthenic (emotional lability) disorders with autonomic dysfunction. Comorbidities in an internship working was manifested primarily by diseases of visual organs, cardiovascular system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Observed disorders of the nervous system and psycho-emotional sphere are caused, inter alia disturbances of the balance of catecholamines (the rise of norepinephrine in dynamics with a concomitant increase in the coefficient reflecting the degree of its metabolism: norepinephrine/epinephrine and norepinephrine/(adrenaline + Normetanephrine)) in the body. PMID:26856145

  3. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  4. Pathological and Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in a Single-Center Study of 229 Consecutive Girls with Early or Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Sørensen, Kaspar; Main, Katharina M.; Gideon, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. Objective To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Method A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. Results Thirteen out of 208 (6.3%) girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8–9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6%) had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p = 0.025); no cut of value was found as values overlapped. Conclusion A high frequency of 6–8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI. PMID:22253792

  5. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  6. Bone Marrow Suppression and Hemophagocytic Histiocytes Are Common Findings in Korean Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Yong; Cho, Oh Hyun; Bae, In Gyu

    2016-09-01

    The causes of cytopenia in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are not fully understood until now. We reviewed the bone marrow (BM) findings of patients with SFTS to unravel the cause of the cytopenia. Three Korean SFTS were enrolled in this study. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia were detected in all three patients. Severe hypocellular marrow (overall cellularity <5%) and a decreased number of megakaryocytes were noted in one patient, and hypo-/normocellular marrow and an increased number of hemophagocytic histiocytes were observed in two patients. Megakaryocytes were relatively preserved in two patients. Although a limited number of cases are available, our observations suggest that both BM suppression and peripheral destruction or sequestration are causes of cytopenia of patients with SFTS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented pathologic evaluation of Korean SFTS. PMID:27401664

  7. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima).

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Wells-Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, Daniel L; Flint, Paul L; Hollmén, Tuula

    2007-05-15

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds. PMID:17454562

  8. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  9. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  10. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang; Ung, Yee C.; Hornby, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  11. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  12. Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Bolon, Brad; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main features proposed to delineate the presence of ARDS in laboratory animals. These should include histological changes in parenchymal tissue, altered integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier, inflammation, and abnormal pulmonary function. Murine ARDS models typically are defined by such features as pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in cytological preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung sections. Common pathophysiological indicators of ARDS in mice include impaired pulmonary gas exchange and histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates into the lung. Thus, morphological endpoints remain a vital component of data sets assembled from animal ARDS models. PMID:26296628

  13. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  14. Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

  15. Experimental infection of lambs with C and S-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: immunological and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The two main genotypes of recognized isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) are cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains. An experimental infection was conducted to establish the effect of Map strain on the pathogenesis of ovine paratuberculosis. Twenty-four out of thirty 1.5-month-old Assaf lambs were divided into 4 groups of 6 and infected orally with three low passage field isolates, two of S- (22G and the pigmented Ovicap49) and one of C– (764) type, and the reference K-10 strain (C type). The remaining six animals were unchallenged controls. Animals were euthanized at 150 and 390 days post-infection (dpi). Throughout the experiment, the peripheral immune response was assessed and histological and molecular (PCR) studies were conducted on samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue. Specific antibody and IFN-γ production was significantly higher in animals infected with the C strains, while no consistent IFN- γ responses were observed in the S-type strain infected groups. A positive intradermal skin test response was detected in all infected groups. Lambs infected with S-type strains had granulomatous lesions restricted to the lymphoid tissue with no differences in the lesion intensity over time. In both C–type strain groups, lesions were more severe at 150 dpi while at 390 dpi lesions, characterized by well-demarcated granulomas with fibrosis, decreased in severity. Only infected lambs were positive to PCR. These results suggest that the strain of Map has a strong influence over the immune and pathological responses developed by the host. Lesions induced by C–type strains in lambs show a regressive character and tend to decrease as the infection progresses. PMID:24428881

  16. Biopsy Quantitative Patohistology and Seral Values of Prostate Specific Antigen-Alpha (1) Antichymotrypsine Complex in Prediction of Adverse Pathology Findings after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tomasković, Igor; Milicić, Valerija; Tomić, Miroslav; Ruzić, Boris; Ulamec, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In this prospective study we examined the utility of parameters obtained on prostate needle biopsy and prostate specific antigen-alpha(1)-antichymotripsine complex (PSA-ACT) to predict adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. 45 consecutive patients assigned for radical prostatectomy due to clinically localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Prostate biopsy parameters such as number of positive cores, the greatest percentage of tumor in the positive cores, Gleason score, perineural invasion, unilaterality or bilaterality of the tumor were recorded. PSA-ACT was determined using sandwich immunoassay chemiluminiscent method (Bayer, Tarrytown, New York). We analyzed relationship of preoperative PSA, PSA-ACTand quantitative biopsy parameters with final pathology after prostatectomy. Adverse findings were considered when extracapsular extension of cancer (pT3) was noted. Postoperatively, 29 (64.4%) patients were diagnosed with pT2 disease and 16 (35.6%) with pT3 disease. There was a significant difference in localized vs. locally advanced disease in number of positive biopsy cores (p<0.001), greatest percentage of tumor in the core (p=0.008), localization of the tumor (p=0.003) and perineural invasion (p=0.004). Logistic regression was used to develop a model on the multivariate level. It included number of positive cores and PSA-ACT and was significant on our cohort with the reliability of 82.22%. The combination of PSA-ACT and a large scale of biopsy parameters could be used in prediction of adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. Clinical decisions and patients counselling could be influenced by these predictors but further confirmation on a larger population is necessary. PMID:26898067

  17. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth. PMID:19022689

  18. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  19. MR imaging findings in 76 consecutive surgically proven cases of pericardial disease with CT and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, Phillip M; Glockner, James F; Williamson, Eric E; Morris, Michael F; Araoz, Philip A; Julsrud, Paul R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Edwards, William D; Oh, Jae K; Breen, Jerome F

    2012-06-01

    To describe findings of patients with surgically confirmed pericardial disease on state of the art MR sequences. Retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent pericardiectomy and preoperative MR over a 5 year period ending in 2009. Patients' records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial tumor. MR imaging findings of pericardial thickness, IVC diameter, presence or absence of pericardial or pleural effusion, pericardial edema, pericardial enhancement, and septal "bounce" were recorded. Patients with constriction had a larger IVC diameter (3.1 ± 0.4 cm) than patients with recurrent pain and no constriction (2.0 ± 0.4 cm). Mean pericardial thickness for the 16 patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis but no evidence of constriction was 4.8 ± 2.9 mm. Mean pericardial thickness for patients with constriction was 9.2 ± 7.0 cm with calcification, and 4.6 ± 2.1 cm without calcification. 94% of patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis had gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium, while 76% of patients with constriction had pericardial enhancement. Septal "bounce" was present in 19% of chronic recurrent pericarditis cases and 86% of constriction cases. 5 patients had a pericardial neoplasm, 1 of which was not identified preoperatively. State of the art MR techniques can identify significant and distinct findings in patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, and pericardial tumors. PMID:21735292

  20. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  1. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  2. Finding common task-related regions in fMRI data from multiple subjects by periodogram clustering and clustering ensemble.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Li, Yehua; Lazar, Nicole A; Schaeffer, David J; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-07-10

    We propose an innovative and practically relevant clustering method to find common task-related brain regions among different subjects who respond to the same set of stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data, we first cluster the voxels within each subject on a voxel by voxel basis. To extract signals out of noisy data, we estimate a new periodogram at each voxel using multi-tapering and low-rank spline smoothing and then use the periodogram as the main feature for clustering. We apply a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm to the estimated periodograms within a single subject and identify the task-related region as the cluster of voxels that have periodograms with a peak frequency matching that of the stimulus sequence. Finally, we apply a machine learning technique called clustering ensemble to find common task-related regions across different subjects. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated via a simulation study and a real fMRI data set. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26875570

  3. Type, Duration, and Incidence of Pathologic Findings after Retroorbital Bleeding of Mice by Experienced and Novice Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Joanna H; Worth, David B; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Retroorbital blood collection is a common technique in laboratory rodents due to the ease with which it can be performed and the sample volumes obtained for subsequent blood analyses. However, its use has been discouraged recently due to aesthetic discomfort and anecdotal reports of potential for ocular injury during blood collection. We hypothesized that a single standardized session of in-person training would be sufficient to learn the appropriate technique and minimize the likelihood for adverse outcomes. Experienced instructors (n = 2) conducted hands-on training classes to teach novice personnel (n = 40) to perform this procedure. Blood was collected from anesthetized mice (n = 40) via a capillary tube first placed at the medial canthus of the right eye and then advanced into the retroorbital space; the left retroorbital spaces served as unmanipulated controls. For comparison, the experienced instructors similarly collected blood from 40 additional mice. The tube could be inserted only once in each mouse, with the goal of obtaining 50 to 100 μL blood. Overall, 79 of 80 mice (98.8%) showed normal body condition, posture, and behavior throughout the 14-d study. Thus, any clinical observation scores pertained specifically to ocular lesions, which occurred at least once after sampling in 43 (53.8%) of the mice. Clinical and histopathologic scores of mice after bleeding did not differ between experienced and novice personnel. We conclude that a coordinated hands-on training program can provide consistent and sufficient instruction for research personnel to conduct retroorbital blood collection with competence in anesthetized laboratory mice. PMID:26045459

  4. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  5. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  6. The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity (Carney complex): imaging findings with clinical and pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Courcoutsakis, Nikos A; Tatsi, Christina; Patronas, Nicholas J; Lee, Chiy-Chia Richard; Prassopoulos, Panos K; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2013-02-01

    The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity, or Carney complex (CNC), is a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. CNC is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is genetically heterogeneous. Its features overlap those of McCune-Albright syndrome and other multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of the syndrome, followed by multicentric heart myxomas, which occur at a young age and are the lethal component of the disease. Myxomas may also occur on the skin (eyelid, external ear canal and nipple) and the breast. Breast myxomas, when present, are multiple and bilateral among female CNC patients, an entity which is also described as "breast-myxomatosis" and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. Affected CNC patients often have tumours of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), an adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-independent cause of Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone (GH)-secreting and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas, thyroid adenomas or carcinomas, testicular neoplasms (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumours [LCCSCT]) and ovarian lesions (cysts and cancinomas). Additional infrequent but characteristic manifestations of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMS), breast ductal adenomas (DAs) with tubular features, and osteochondromyxomas or "Carney bone tumour". Teaching Points • Almost 60 % of the known CNC kindreds have a germline inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene. • Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of CNC, followed by heart myxomas. • Indicative imaging signs of PPNAD are contour abnormality and hypodense spots within the gland. • Two breast tumours may present in CNC: myxoid fibroadenomas (breast myxomatosis) and ductal adenomas. • Additional findings of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas

  7. Association between faecal load of lawsonia intracellularis and pathological findings of proliferative enteropathy in pigs with diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study was designed to investigate correlation between histological findings of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine cases of diarrhoea and the quantitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces. A total of 156 pigs (10 to 70 days post weaning) with diarrhoea were randomly selected from 20 herds: The pigs were subjected to necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and faecal quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real time PCR. Results The median Lawsonia intracellularis excretion was significantly higher in pigs with gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: 5.92 log10 bacteria/g faeces) compared to pigs without gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: <3.3 log10 bacteria/g faeces) (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the measureable PE lesions and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.50 (P<0.001). A significantly increasing trend in Lawsonia intracellularis excretion level for increasing proliferative enteropathy histopathology and immunohistochemistry scores was demonstrated (P<0.001; P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the histopathology scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.67 (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the IHC scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.77 (P<0.001). Conclusions The histological and quantitative PCR detection of Lawsonia intracellularis were correlated in pigs with diarrhoea. Overall the results suggest that clinically important levels for Lawsonia intracellularis excretion in faeces may be established. Such clinical threshold levels may be used in practice to confirm a diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis associated diarrhoea. PMID:23092367

  8. Toxicological and pathological findings in a series of buprenorphine related deaths. Possible risk factors for fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Seldén, Tor; Ahlner, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Kronstrand, Robert

    2012-07-10

    Buprenorphine is considered to have little respiratory side effects at therapeutic doses and the partial agonistic properties should produce a "ceiling effect" for respiratory depression at higher doses. Still, there are several reports on buprenorphine related deaths. Most deaths involve drug users and the co-administration of other CNS depressant drugs as well as reduced tolerance have been suggested to be risk factors. The primary aims were to investigate if lack of tolerance and/or co-ingestion of other psychotropic drugs are significant risk factors in buprenorphine fatalities. From July 2005 to September 2009, all autopsy cases where buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine had been detected in femoral blood and where analysis of buprenorphine had been performed in urine were selected. Results from the postmortem examination and toxicology were compiled. Postmortem toxicology was performed using the routine methodology at the laboratory. In total, 97 subjects were included in the study. These were divided into four groups; Intoxication with buprenorphine (N=41), Possible intoxication with buprenorphine (N=24), Control cases where buprenorphine was not the cause of death (N=14), and Unclear (N=18). The metabolite to parent compound ratios in both blood and urine in the Intoxication group were significantly different from those in the Control and Unclear groups. An extensive poly-drug use was seen in all groups with several additional opioids in the Possible group (54%) and in the Unclear group (78%) and hypnotics or sedatives in more than 75% of the Intoxication, Possible, and Unclear cases. Illicit drugs were present in all groups but not to a great extent with amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol as the main findings. Interestingly, 4 cases in the Intoxication group presented with no other significant drugs in blood other than buprenorphine. We conclude that a lethal concentration of buprenorphine in blood cannot be defined. Instead the analysis of blood as well as

  9. Pathologic and parasitologic findings of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) stranded on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Innis, Charles; Nyaoke, Akinyi C; Williams, C Rogers; Dunnigan, Bridget; Merigo, Constance; Woodward, Denise L; Weber, E Scott; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    Necropsy reports for 28 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died between 2001 and 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Gross and microscopic lesions were compiled to describe the pathologic and parasitologic findings in turtles that were found freshly dead on the beach or that died within 48 hr of stranding. Anatomic lesions of varying severity were identified in each of the examined turtles and were identified in tissues of the alimentary, respiratory, integumentary, nervous and sensory, and urogenital systems in order of decreasing frequency. Necrotizing enterocolitis and bacterial or fungal pneumonia were the most frequently encountered lesions that were considered clinically significant. Parasites and parasitic lesions were identified primarily in tissues of the alimentary system and included intestinal cestodiasis and parasitic granulomas containing larval cestodes or nematodes. Postlarval cestodes were also found in the coelom of two turtles. In many cases, the extent and severity of lesions were judged to be insufficient to have solely caused mortality, suggesting that additional factors such as metabolic, respiratory, and electrolyte derangements; hypothermia; and drowning may be important proximate causes of death in cold-stunned turtles. Results of this study provide insight into pathologic conditions that may be of clinical relevance to rehabilitation efforts for cold-stunned sea turtles. PMID:19617470

  10. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

  11. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  12. Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. PMID:25119440

  13. Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yousefipour, Gholamali; Hashemzahi, Zabihollah; Yasemi, Masood; Jahani, Pegah

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disease caused by the inflammatory demyelinating process that causes progressive nervous system degeneration over the time. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology, which can measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as well as the diameter of the macula. The purpose of the study is evaluation OCT findings in two common types of multiple sclerosis. For doing the cross-sectional study, 63 patients with two prevalent types of multiple sclerosis (35 patients with Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and 28 patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS) were evaluated for 6 months. Exclusion criteria of the study were a history of optic neuritis, suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ocular disease, and the presence of other neurologic degenerative diseases. Then, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), as well as thickness and volume of the macula, were measured in the patients using OCT technology. The disability rate of patients was evaluated according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Finally, data was analyzed by means of SPSS software. Overall, 35 patients with RRMS (with mean age of 32.37+10.01, average disease period of 3.81+3.42 and mean EDSS of 1.84+0.45) and 28 patients with SPMS (with mean age of 39.21+9.33, average disease period of 11.32+5.87 and mean EDSS of 5.12+1.46) were assessed and compared in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer and size and thickness of macula. In all of these sections, the thicknesses were smaller in SPMS patients than patients with RRMS. But, there was a significant difference in total thickness (81.82µm versus 96.03µm with P=0.04) and thickness of temporal sector (54.5 µm versus 69.34 µm with P=0.04) of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular size at the superior sector of external ring (1.48 mm³ versus 1.58 mm³ with P=0.03), and nasal sector of external ring surrounding macula (1

  14. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. PMID:10838808

  15. Inhibition of fibrosis and inflammation by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin in rabbits with drug-induced lung injury: comparison of CT imaging and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shobu; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Ohta, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Otani, Hideji; Tomozawa, Yuki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    In a rabbit model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, computed tomography (CT) and pathological studies were conducted to investigate whether the progression of this injury is inhibited by pirfenidone and by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. We divided nine rabbits with bleomycin-induced lung injury into three equally sized groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received pirfenidone alone and group 3 was treated with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. Multidetector CT (MDCT) scans were acquired immediately after the administration of bleomycin, and further scans were performed on days 14 and 28. The area of abnormal opacity was calculated. The rabbit lungs were removed and the size of abnormal areas in macroscopic specimens was calculated and the degree of fibrosis and inflammation in microscopic specimens was scored. In order, the average size of the area of abnormal opacity on CT scans was largest in group 1, followed by groups 2 and 3. On day 28, the area of opacity was significantly smaller in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.071). The average size of the area of abnormal opacity on macroscopic findings was largest in group 1, followed in order by groups 2 and 3; the difference between group 1 and 3 was significant (P<0.05). The average fibrosis score was highest in group 3 followed by groups 2 and 1. By contrast, the average inflammation score was highest in group 2 followed by groups 1 and 3. Although the administration of pirfenidone alone slowed the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury, the triple-drug combination was more effective. PMID:24223628

  16. Bilateral invasive lobular breast cancer in a female teenager: a rare finding of a common disease--case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Enownchong, Enow-Orock George; Thomas, Egbe Obinchemti; Akum, Achidi Eric; Defang, Asonganyi Etienne; Paul, Ndom; Emmanuel, Fongang; Peter, Ndumbe

    2010-01-01

    Management of cancer patients in low-resource communities presents enormous challenges. Breast cancer is a public health problem in Cameroon and occurs mostly in elderly women. The predominant histological type is a duct carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma in teenagers is rare. In this report we present a case of bilateral invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that was confirmed on biopsies in a 22-year-old female. We present this rare finding and review the pathological, clinical and radiographic challenges of the disease. Nodules in the breast from patients of any age should be submitted for histology. Public education is beneficial and should be intensified. PMID:21436945

  17. Primary arteriovenous fistula between common iliac vessels: ultrasound, computer tomographic, and angiographic findings--a case report.

    PubMed

    Walstra, B R; Janevski, B K; Jörning, P J

    1989-03-01

    A giant aneurysm of the right common iliac artery presenting with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the iliac artery and iliac vein and deep venous thrombosis of the right lower extremity is reported. The clinical signs and the radiologic and surgical management of the condition are discussed. In addition a brief review of the literature is given. PMID:2644879

  18. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  19. Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harper, Hazel J

    2003-01-01

    Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into

  20. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID

  1. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija; Kemiläinen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A; Webb, P; Green, A.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Webb, P.; Whiteman, D.; Fung, Annie; Yashiki, June; Peuteman, Gilian; Smeets, Dominiek; Brussel, Thomas Van; Corthouts, Kathleen; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Olchers, Til; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Maniscalco, Angela; Rossi, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Tranchant, Martine; Valois, Marie-France; Turgeon, Annie; Heguy, Lea; Sze Yee, Phuah; Kang, Peter; Nee, Kang In; Mariapun, Shivaani; Sook-Yee, Yoon; Lee, Daphne; Ching, Teh Yew; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Otsukka, Meeri; Mononen, Kari; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; staff, OFBCR; Krol-Warmerdam, E.; Molenaar, J.; Blom, J.; Brinton, Louise; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata; Zatonski, Witold; Chao, Pei; Stagner, Michael; Bos, Petra; Blom, Jannet; Crepin, Ellen; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Heemskerk, Annette; Higham, Sue; Cross, Simon; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Brock, Ian; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Chua, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act

  2. The three phases of Eve: exploring the common and unique findings in oral and systemic health of differently aging women.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann

    2002-10-01

    Given that, collectively, women are the longer-lived of the human species, it is fitting that we examine the impact and correlations of aging on systemic and oral health with women as the paradigm. Aging, however, is not a homogeneous process. Its influences are as diverse as the subgroups of people affected. To exemplify the differing manifestations and progressiveness of aging, this article highlights the profiles of three differently aging women: an independent dweller in the community, a participant in an assisted living program, and a resident of a skilled nursing home. How aging has affected their lives commonly and uniquely is addressed, as are medical and oral health issues that transcend functional capability, and evolving research in preventive strategies focusing on successful aging. PMID:12790015

  3. The role of PTPN22 risk variant in the development of autoimmunity: Finding common ground between mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, David J.; Dai, Xuezhi; Buckner, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    The PTPN22 1858T variant was among the first single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. As a coding variant within the tyrosinephosphatase, Lyp, known to participate in antigen receptor signaling, the impact of this variant on the immune response and role in the development of autoimmunity has been a focus of study. These studies have utilized a series of approaches including transfected cell lines, animal models and primary human lymphocytes and have identified multiple alterations in cell signaling and function linked to the PTPN22 variant. Conflicting findings have led to questions of how best to study the role of this variant in human autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss these differences, factors that may account for them, and show how an integrated approach can lead to a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that promote autoimmunity in the context of the PTPN22 1858T risk variant. PMID:25795788

  4. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  5. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Maria A; Somwaru, Alexander S; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Levine, Marc S

    2016-07-01

    Extranodal lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms that can affect every abdominal organ, with distinctive pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features. The radiologic findings are closely related to the underlying pathophysiology, and an understanding of these characteristic features should facilitate recognition of extranodal lymphoma and its various subtypes. Within the abdomen, lymphoma is found most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. This article presents the findings in gastrointestinal tract lymphoma. PMID:27265607

  6. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  7. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  8. [Intersexuality in hornless XX-goats: pathological findings in 2 young pseudobucks, 3 young bucks with urethral diverticula and 2 pseudohermaphroditic kids].

    PubMed

    König, H; Elmiger, B; Stranzinger, G

    1992-01-01

    Dealing with the subject "polled goats intersexuality", whose problems are discussed, we studied the pathology of 7 3-month old XX-kids: 2 pseudomales, 3 males with urethral diverticulum (1 animal with 2 U.D.), and 2 testicular pseudohermaphrodites. Four horned male kids of comparable age were used as control. Urethral diverticula, seen now and then in local breeds, i.e. in "chamois-colored" mountain goats, Saanen, and Toggenburg goats, are rather unknown and only sporadically reported abroad. In agreement with previous histological studies, the testes were hypoplastic, the spermatogonia absent. In no case ovarian tissue was found. The Leydig cells appeared to be functionally active. The selection of an experimental flock of intersex-free polled goats is proposed. PMID:1609259

  9. Do you really know precise radiologic-pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic-pathological correlation. PMID:23806534

  10. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  11. Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  12. Image-Guided Cryoablation of the Spine in a Swine Model: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings with Light and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de Andrade, Celi Santos Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Ferreira, Lorraine Braga Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Cury, Patrícia Maluf

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to present the feasibility of an in vivo image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the porcine vertebral body.MethodsThe institutional animal care committee approved this study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided vertebral cryoablations (n = 22) were performed in eight pigs with short, 2-min, single or double-freezing protocols. Protective measures to nerves included dioxide carbon (CO{sub 2}) epidural injections and spinal canal temperature monitoring. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data with light (n = 20) or transmission electron (n = 2) microscopic analyses were evaluated after 6 days of clinical follow-up and euthanasia.ResultsCBCT/fluoroscopic-guided transpedicular vertebral body cryoprobe positioning and CO{sub 2} epidural injection were successful in all procedures. No major complications were observed in seven animals (87.5 %, n = 8). A minor complication was observed in one pig (12.5 %, n = 1). Logistic regression model analysis showed the cryoprobe-spinal canal (Cp-Sc) distance as the most efficient parameter to categorize spinal canal temperatures lower than 19 °C (p < 0.004), with a significant Pearson’s correlation test (p < 0.041) between the Cp-Sc distance and the lowest spinal canal temperatures. Ablation zones encompassed pedicles and the posterior wall of the vertebral bodies with an inflammatory rim, although no inflammatory infiltrate was depicted in the surrounding neural structures at light microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses evidenced myelin sheath disruption in some large nerve fibers, although neurological deficits were not observed.ConclusionsCBCT-guided vertebral cryoablation of the porcine spine is feasible under a combination of a short freezing protocol and protective measures to the surrounding nerves. Ultrastructural analyses may be helpful assess the early modifications of the nerve fibers.

  13. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, María Victoria; Pérez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Tuñon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, María Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and β-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=20, mean age 82.1 years). Relative proteome abundance measurements have revealed protein interaction networks progressively disturbed across AD stages suggesting an early imbalance in splicing factors, subsequent interrupted cycling of neurotransmitters, alteration in toxic and protective mechanisms of β-amyloid, and finally, a mitochondrial dysfunction together with disturbance in neuron-neuron adhesion. We also present novel molecular findings in the OB in an autopsy cohort composed by Lewy body disease (LBD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), mixed dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases (n = 41, mean age 79.7 years). Olfactory mediators deregulated during the progression of AD such as Visinin-like protein 1, RUFY3 protein, and Copine 6 were also differentially modulated in the OB in LBD, FTLD, and mixed dementia. Only Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 showed a specific down-regulation in AD. However, no differences were observed in the olfactory expression of this protein panel in PSP subjects. This study demonstrates an olfactory progressive proteome modulation in AD, unveiling cross-disease similarities and differences especially for specific proteins involved in dendritic and axonic distributions that occur in the OB during the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26517091

  14. A late complication of augmentation mammoplasty by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of huge galactocele formation in a puerperal woman with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Chen, Tom Yun-Cheng; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was widely used for injection augmentation mammoplasty in Eastern Europe and China although uncommon in the western countries. However, the safety of this procedure remained controversial. Herein, we report a 30-year-old woman with a history of augmentation mammoplasty by PAAG injection developed galactoceles during her pregnancy. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed huge cystic lesions in bilateral breasts; as a result, the normal breast tissue was almost completely replaced. On the basis of the imaging findings, the patient underwent mastectomy as well as immediate breast reconstruction with satisfactory outcome. It is important to be familiar with the imaging findings of this rare yet severe complication after augmentation mammoplasty in order to make an accurate diagnosis and a proper management. PMID:19054003

  15. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy were a helpful diagnostic clue of stenosis of the iliac segment proximal to the transplant renal artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, H; Saigo, K; Hasegawa, M; Akutsu, N; Maruyama, M; Otsuki, K; Matsumoto, I; Kawaguchi, T; Kitamura, H; Asano, T; Kenmochi, T; Itou, T; Matsubara, H

    2014-01-01

    Common iliac artery stenosis after renal transplantation is a rare complication; it can occur in the course of hypertension and renal dysfunction. We report a case of suspected renal allograft rejection with iliac artery stenosis proximal to a transplanted kidney. A 52-year-old man with a history of cadaveric kidney transplantation 26 years previously underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation in the left iliac fossa because of graft failure 3 years before. In June 2012, the patient had progressive renal dysfunction. In July, a percutaneous needle biopsy was taken, and it showed no rejection; however, his renal function continued to get worse through September. A percutaneous allograft renal biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance and showed hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and renin granules. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to evaluate the arteries in the pelvis and showed left common iliac artery stenosis, and a stent was placed. After percutaneous intervention, the patient's ankle brachial pressure index was within the normal range and the allograft function had improved. PMID:24656037

  16. The spectrum of gastric pathology in portal hypertension-An endoscopic and pathologic study of 550 cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Chen, Chien-Huan; Liu, Ta-Chiang

    2016-08-01

    One of the main tasks for pathologists when evaluating gastric biopsies from patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is to examine whether there is increased mucosal vasculature as suggested by endoscopy. However, the full spectrum of pathology findings in patients with portal hypertension (pHTN) is largely unknown. We systematically characterized the endoscopic and pathologic features in gastric biopsies from pHTN patients (study group) and compared with those from patients without pHTN (control group). The study group consisted of 550 consecutive surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopic (EGD) biopsies, whereas the control group included 281 consecutive EGD biopsies for a variety of indications. As expected, the endoscopic prevalence of PHG was 28%, among which two-thirds showed corresponding histopathologic evidence of increased vasculature. However, non-Helicobacter pylori gastritis was the most common finding in pHTN patients on histology (40%). In addition, hyperplastic polyp was also more common in pHTN patients than in controls (6% vs 3%; P=0.0314). In contrast, pathology findings of nonspecific reactive changes (29% vs 51%; P<0.0001), proton pump inhibitor-related changes (16% vs 30%; P<0.0001), and malignancy (1% vs 3%; P=0.0138) were less common in pHTN patients. Our results show a spectrum of gastric endoscopic and pathologic findings in pHTN patients. The predominant gastric pathology in pHTN patients may be associated with pHTN-induced gastric microcirculation impairment. PMID:27461830

  17. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25938549

  18. High viral loads despite absence of clinical and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I and in naturally FCoV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Meli, M; Kipar, A; Müller, C; Jenal, K; Gönczi, E; Borel, N; Gunn-Moore, D; Chalmers, S; Lin, F; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2004-04-01

    Specified pathogen-free cats were naturally infected with FCoV or experimentally infected with FCoV type I. Seroconversion was determined and the course of infection was monitored by measuring the FCoV loads in faeces, whole blood, plasma and/or monocytes. Tissue samples collected at necropsy were examined for viral load and histopathological changes. Experimentally infected animals started shedding virus as soon as 2 days after infection. They generally displayed the highest viral loads in colon, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Seroconversion occurred 3-4 weeks post infection. Naturally infected cats were positive for FCoV antibodies and monocyte-associated FCoV viraemia prior to death. At necropsy, most animals tested positive for viral shedding and FCoV RNA was found in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. Both experimentally and naturally infected cats remained clinically healthy. Pathological findings were restricted to generalized lymphatic hyperplasia. These findings demonstrate the presence of systemic FCoV infection with high viral loads in the absence of clinical and pathological signs. PMID:15123151

  19. Diagnosis of ligamentous and meniscal pathologies in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic findings

    PubMed Central

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Koh, Thean-Howe Bryan; Tan, Hwee-Chye Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used to diagnose or support clinical diagnoses for meniscal or ligamentous injuries prior to offering patients arthroscopic treatment. However, the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of meniscal injury is not yet 100%. Sportsmen have occasionally returned to play with undiagnosed meniscal lesions on the basis of a normal MRI examination. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic parameters of MRI in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods MRI and arthroscopic findings of 320 patients with acute ACL injury were included in this retrospective review. Patients belonged to a single surgeon from a high volume tertiary healthcare institution. All patients had either a MRI or an arthroscopic diagnosis of an acute ACL injury of one knee or both. All patients underwent therapeutic arthroscopy by the senior author routinely as part of arthroscopy-aided ACL reconstruction. Arthroscopic findings were the diagnostic reference based on which the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity and concordance strength of association of MRI were calculated for ACL, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) injuries. Results MRI was most accurate in diagnosing cruciate ligament injuries with a PPV approaching 100%. The PPV of MRI in diagnosing meniscal injuries was approximately 60%. MRI was almost 100% sensitive and specific in diagnosing ACL injuries and 82% sensitive and 100% specific in diagnosing PCL injuries. Conversely, MRI was 77% sensitive and 90% specific in diagnosing MM injuries; and 57% sensitive and 95% specific in diagnosing LM injuries. Conclusions MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosing soft tissue injuries of the knee. However, there is a false positive rate ranging from 6% to 11% for meniscal tears. PMID:26605289

  20. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  1. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  2. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Segal, Y; Segal, L; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T; Sasson, E; Poliansky, V; Loeb, E; Levy, A; Alter, A; Bregman, N

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  3. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Y.; Segal, L.; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T.; Sasson, E.; Poliansky, V.; Loeb, E.; Levy, A.; Alter, A.; Bregman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  4. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V.; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  5. Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Laudano, Melissa A.; Jamzadeh, Asha E.; Lee, Richard K.; Robinson, Brian D.; Tyagi, Renuka; Kaplan, Steven A.; Te, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options. PMID:24860605

  6. Intraoperative findings in revision chronic otitis media surgery.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Abolhassan; Motasaddi-Zarandy, Masoud; Khorsandi, Mohammad-Taghi

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we reviewed the surgical findings in a series of revision tympanomastoidectomy to determine the most common causes of failure in chronic otitis media surgery. The intraoperative findings at revision mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty of 116 patients were analyzed. The most common sites of pathologic tissue at revision surgery (with cholesteatoma and/ or granulation tissue) were unexenterated cells of the sinodural angle. The most common mechanical cause of retention of debris in canal wall down procedures was facial ridge. PMID:18298298

  7. Skoulekia meningialis n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912) a parasite surrounding the brain of the Mediterranean common two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Teleostei: Sparidae): description, molecular phylogeny, habitat and pathology.

    PubMed

    Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Raga, Juan Antonio; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a new aporocotylid genus and species, Skoulekia meningialis n. gen., n. sp. which was detected in the ectomeningeal veins surrounding the optic lobes of the brain of the common two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) from the Gulf of Valencia (Mediterranean Sea). A detailed morphological description of S. meningialis is provided, including drawings, measurements and scanning electron microscopy images as well as a phylogenetic study of S. meningialis and closely related taxa using DNA sequence data obtained from whole ITS2 and partial 18S and 28S rDNA regions. Morphology as well as molecular phylogeny strongly support the erection of a new genus and demonstrate its close relationship with the genera Psettarium (Goto & Ozaki, 1930) and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1989. Skoulekia is the second aporocotylid genus described in the Sparidae, a family including economical important fishes. In contrast to the majority of the aporocotylids, which inhabit the heart or the blood vessels of the gills, S. meningialis inhabits the ectomeningeal veins surrounding the optic lobes. Eggs were found trapped within the gill vessels. Normally, blood fluke pathology is almost exclusively related to the eggs. However, in the case of S. meningialis, main histopathological alterations were related to the adult blood flukes which were found to cause mild localised meningitis. PMID:20950706

  8. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Gadoxetic Acid–enhanced 3-T MR Imaging for Malignant Liver Lesions by Using Ex Vivo MR Imaging–matched Pathologic Findings as the Reference Standard1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Eduardo A. C.; Cunha, Guilherme M.; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Cruite, Irene; Tang, An; Marks, Robert M.; Clark, Lisa; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Sicklick, Jason K.; Hemming, Alan; Peterson, Michael R.; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine per-lesion sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the diagnosis of malignant lesions by using matched (spatially correlated) hepatectomy pathologic findings as the reference standard. Materials and Methods In this prospective, institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 20 patients (nine men, 11 women; mean age, 59 years) with malignant liver lesions who gave written informed consent underwent preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T MR imaging for surgical planning. Two image sets were independently analyzed by three readers to detect liver lesions (set 1 without and set 2 with hepatobiliary phase [HBP] images). Hepatectomy specimen ex vivo MR imaging assisted in matching gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T MR imaging findings with pathologic findings. Interreader agreement was assessed by using the Cohen k coefficient. Per-lesion sensitivity and PPV were calculated. Results Cohen k values were 0.64–0.76 and 0.57–0.84, and overall per-lesion sensitivity was 45% (42 of 94 lesions) to 56% (53 of 94 lesions) and 58% (55 of 94 lesions) to 64% (60 of 94 lesions) for sets 1 and 2, respectively. The addition of HBP imaging did not affect interreader agreement but significantly improved overall sensitivity for one reader (P < .05) and almost for another (P = .05). Sensitivity for 0.2–0.5-cm lesions was 0% (0 of 26 lesions) to 8% (two of 26 lesions) for set 1 and 4% (one of 26 lesions) to 12% (three of 26 lesions) for set 2. Sensitivity for 0.6–1.0-cm lesions was 28% (nine of 32 lesions) to 59% (19 of 32 lesions) for set 1 and 66% (21 of 32 lesions) to 69% (22 of 32 lesions) for set 2. Sensitivity for lesions at least 1.0 cm in diameter was at least 81% (13 of 16 lesions) for set 1 and was not improved for set 2. PPV was 98% (56 of 57 lesions) to 100% (60 of 60 lesions) for all readers without differences between image sets or lesion size. Conclusion

  10. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  11. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  12. DoOPSearch: a web-based tool for finding and analysing common conserved motifs in the promoter regions of different chordate and plant genes

    PubMed Central

    Sebestyén, Endre; Nagy, Tibor; Suhai, Sándor; Barta, Endre

    2009-01-01

    Background The comparative genomic analysis of a large number of orthologous promoter regions of the chordate and plant genes from the DoOP databases shows thousands of conserved motifs. Most of these motifs differ from any known transcription factor binding site (TFBS). To identify common conserved motifs, we need a specific tool to be able to search amongst them. Since conserved motifs from the DoOP databases are linked to genes, the result of such a search can give a list of genes that are potentially regulated by the same transcription factor(s). Results We have developed a new tool called DoOPSearch for the analysis of the conserved motifs in the promoter regions of chordate or plant genes. We used the orthologous promoters of the DoOP database to extract thousands of conserved motifs from different taxonomic groups. The advantage of this approach is that different sets of conserved motifs might be found depending on how broad the taxonomic coverage of the underlying orthologous promoter sequence collection is (consider e.g. primates vs. mammals or Brassicaceae vs. Viridiplantae). The DoOPSearch tool allows the users to search these motif collections or the promoter regions of DoOP with user supplied query sequences or any of the conserved motifs from the DoOP database. To find overrepresented gene ontologies, the gene lists obtained can be analysed further using a modified version of the GeneMerge program. Conclusion We present here a comparative genomics based promoter analysis tool. Our system is based on a unique collection of conserved promoter motifs characteristic of different taxonomic groups. We offer both a command line and a web-based tool for searching in these motif collections using user specified queries. These can be either short promoter sequences or consensus sequences of known transcription factor binding sites. The GeneMerge analysis of the search results allows the user to identify statistically overrepresented Gene Ontology terms that

  13. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  14. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  15. Incidental extraspinal findings on magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Turanlı, Sevim; Saltas, Hakan; Karabacak, Osman Raif; Damar, Cagrı; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to evaluate pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations that were incidentally detected on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of intervertebral discs, to find the frequencies of these incidental findings, and to emphasise the clinical importance of them. Material and methods A retrospective study including 1031 consecutive patients (730 females and 301 males, with a median age of 46 years) was conducted by evaluating a total of 1106 MRI examinations of intervertebral discs. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MRI unit. Incidental findings were classified as pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations. Results The percentages of incidental extraspinal pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations were 16.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4–18.8) and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.6–4.3), respectively. The percentage of incidental extraspinal pathological findings on cervical spinal MRI was 25.7% (95% CI: 20.1–31.7), thyroid nodules being the most common incidental findings. On thoracic spinal MRI (n = 19), inferior pole thyroid nodules were demonstrated as incidental extraspinal pathological findings, with a percentage of 10.5% (95% CI: 9.6–11.5). On lumbar spinal MRI, incidental pathological findings were detected with a percentage of 14.2% (95% CI: 11.9–16.6), while the percentage of congenital anomalies/anatomical variations was 4.8% (95% CI: 3.4–6.3). Eventually, 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6–9.4) of all cases with incidental extraspinal pathological findings underwent surgery. Conclusions On MRI examination of intervertebral discs, paying attention to incidentally detected pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations is very important due to the fact that they can alter the treatment of the patient or affect the patient's life. PMID:25276162

  16. Pathology Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ... Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small ...

  17. Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

    2011-01-01

    Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric

  18. From telepathology to virtual pathology institution: the new world of digital pathology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Kayser, G; Radziszowski, D; Oehmann, A

    Telepathology has left its childhood. Its technical development is mature, and its use for primary (frozen section) and secondary (expert consultation) diagnosis has been expanded to a great amount. This is in contrast to a virtual pathology laboratory, which is still under technical constraints. Similar to telepathology, which can also be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily is demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology (Klaus.Kayser@charite.de) at least two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories will be implemented in the near future: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (> or = 1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists (usually situated in one institution) and a centralized laboratory, which digitizes complete histological slides. Both scenarios are under intensive technical investigations. The features of virtual pathology comprise a virtual pathology institution (mode a) that accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The Internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size and number of transferred images have to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. The sender needs to possess experiences in image sampling techniques, which present with the most significant information. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. The first experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized

  19. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  1. Cscan: finding common regulators of a set of genes by using a collection of genome-wide ChIP-seq datasets

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Federico; Prazzoli, Gian Marco; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of transcription of eukaryotic genes is a very complex process, which involves interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA, as well as other epigenetic factors like histone modifications, DNA methylation, and so on, which nowadays can be studied and characterized with techniques like ChIP-Seq. Cscan is a web resource that includes a large collection of genome-wide ChIP-Seq experiments performed on TFs, histone modifications, RNA polymerases and others. Enriched peak regions from the ChIP-Seq experiments are crossed with the genomic coordinates of a set of input genes, to identify which of the experiments present a statistically significant number of peaks within the input genes’ loci. The input can be a cluster of co-expressed genes, or any other set of genes sharing a common regulatory profile. Users can thus single out which TFs are likely to be common regulators of the genes, and their respective correlations. Also, by examining results on promoter activation, transcription, histone modifications, polymerase binding and so on, users can investigate the effect of the TFs (activation or repression of transcription) as well as of the cell or tissue specificity of the genes’ regulation and expression. The web interface is free for use, and there is no login requirement. Available at: http://www.beaconlab.it/cscan. PMID:22669907

  2. Clinical and Pathologic Features of Secondary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Amy S.; Aoki, Joseph; Levis, Mark; Cowan, Kathleen; Gocke, Christopher D.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Vuica-Ross, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a relatively common form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has an excellent prognosis. In contrast, secondary acute myeloid leukemias, including therapy-related AML and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, have a relatively poor prognosis. We identified 9 cases of APL at our institution in which there was a history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic immunosuppression, or antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinical and pathologic findings in these cases of secondary APL were compared with the clinical and pathologic findings in cases of de novo APL. We found that secondary and de novo APL had abnormal promyelocytes with similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features, comparable cytogenetic findings, comparable rates of FMS-like tyrosine kinase mutations, and similar rates of recurrent disease and death. These data suggest that secondary APL is similar to de novo APL and, thus, should be considered distinct from other secondary acute myeloid neoplasms. PMID:22338051

  3. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  4. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  5. Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a common acanthocephalan of anuran and urodelan amphibians in Hokkaido, Japan, with a finding of its intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The Ezo brown frog (Rana pirica) and the Ezo salamander (Hynobius retardatus) are endemic species of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Intestinal adult acanthocephalans are common in these amphibians. A molecular identification based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers demonstrated that the parasites from the anuran and the urodelan are the same species. In the neighboring Honshu island, another acanthocephalan from ranid frogs (e.g. Rana japonica and Rana ornativentris) has been identified as Acanthocephalus lucidus. The counterpart species from the amphibians of Hokkaido was morphologically indistinguishable from A. lucidus. However, clear genetic distinctiveness between the two allopatric populations (separated by islands) indicated the entity of a cryptic species. A phylogenetic tree inferred from sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA showed that the acanthocephalans from Honshu and Hokkaido belong to the genus Pseudoacanthocephalus. Therefore, Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. is proposed for the cryptic species in Hokkaido, together with the transfer of A. lucidus in Honshu to Pseudoacanthocephalus lucidus comb. nov. The present field survey further demonstrated Ligidium japonicum, an isopod crustacean living in the litter layer of forests, to be an intermediate host of the new species. PMID:27067227

  6. Neuroimaging findings in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C; Siddiqui, A

    2014-01-01

    At least 25% of individuals with sickle cell disease will have a neurological complication over their lifetime, often as early as in childhood. Neuroradiological findings in patients with sickle cell disease are common and include acute territorial infarction, silent ischaemia and intracranial haemorrhage. Imaging abnormalities are typically, but not always, manifestations of the underlying vasculopathy. Coexisting acute and chronic pathology may pose challenges to interpretation. PMID:24847772

  7. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users’ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists’ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that

  8. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  9. Radiographic and Pathologic Manifestations of Uncommon and Rare Pulmonary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Mian, Ali; Adebowale, Adeniran; Alomari, Ahmed; Kalra, Vivek; Krejci, Elise; Shin, Myung Soo

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary opacities/nodules are common findings on computed tomography examinations, which may represent an underlying infections or malignancy. However, not every pulmonary nodule or opacity represents malignancy or infection. We present a pictorial essay illustrating common as well as obscure noninfectious, nonmalignant pulmonary lesions. Lesions discussed include organizing pneumonia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, pulmonary amyloidosis, hyalinizing granuloma, tumourlet (benign localized neuroendocrine cell proliferations), atypical alveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, papillary alveolar adenoma, plasma cell granuloma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and sclerosing hemangiomas. We discuss the clinical presentation, prevalence, radiographic clues, pathology, and diagnostic pitfalls of these rare lesions. PMID:26690551

  10. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  11. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Ros, P R; Buck, J L; Goodman, Z D; Ros, A M; Olmsted, W W

    1988-06-01

    Seventeen proved cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICAC) were reviewed to establish a radiologic-pathologic correlation. The most common appearance of ICAC at computed tomography (CT) is that of a single, homogeneous low-attenuation mass. Multiple low-attenuation lesions were present in four cases. Calcification was depicted by CT in three cases. At angiography, ICAC has a variable appearance with avascular, hypovascular, and hypervascular patterns possible. Portal obstruction was seen in only one case. The most common appearance of ICAC at sonography is that of a homogeneously hyperechoic mass, either single or multiple. In only one case was ICAC hypoechoic. Plain abdominal radiography demonstrated calcification in three patients and evidence of Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) deposition in one. Upper gastrointestinal series demonstrated abnormal gastric folds in two cases, corresponding to gastric invasion by ICAC. There were no characteristic radiographic findings, but the following features may be helpful in differentiating ICAC from other primary intrahepatic tumors, particularly typical hepatocellular carcinoma: a homogeneously echogenic or high-attenuation appearance on images that reflects the uniform nature observed at pathologic examination, the presence of calcification, and the uncommon invasion of portal or hepatic veins. Conversely, the presence of satellite lesions may blur the the distinction between ICAC and metastatic liver disease. PMID:2834769

  12. [Cystic renal pathology].

    PubMed

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  13. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  14. Castleman Disease of the Thorax: Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Correlation: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Seth J; Auerbach, Aaron; Franks, Teri J; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Castleman disease is a complex lymphoproliferative disease pathologically divided into two subtypes, the hyaline vascular variant (HVV) and the plasma cell variant (PCV). The HVV is the most common, is thought to represent a benign neoplasm of lymph node stromal cells, and is treated with surgical resection. It is most commonly found in the mediastinum, where it classically appears as a unicentric, avidly enhancing mass at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. This appearance can mimic other avidly enhancing mediastinal masses, and location, clinical history, laboratory data, and nuclear medicine single photon emission CT (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies can help narrow the differential diagnosis. Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), which in the majority of cases is composed of the PCV, is an aggressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with human herpesvirus infection, interleukin 6 dysregulation, and other systemic disorders. While it can be difficult to differentiate MCD from lymphoma, the presence of avidly enhancing lymph nodes can suggest the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, immunologic, and pathologic findings associated with both unicentric Castleman disease and MCD and discuss how the imaging findings correlate with the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:27618318

  15. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  16. Finding Common Ground: Creating Local Governance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.; And Others

    As federal, state, and local policy makers attend to the economic, educational, social, and health-related needs of children, they are beginning to share a vision of a "seamless web" of high-quality, comprehensive, continuous services for children and their families. It remains a challenging goal because of the complexity of children's needs and…

  17. Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

  18. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  19. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular

  1. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  2. Joubert syndrome: the clinical and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Ekrem; Cullu, Nesat; Karakas, Omer; Calik, Mustafa; Boyaci, Fatima Nurefsan; Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Akal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare disease characterised by clinical and radiological findings. Among the classic clinical findings of JS are hypotonia, ataxia, mental-motor retardation, respiratory and opthalmological findings. The paediatric cases included in the study comprised nine patients. There was familial consanguinty in seven cases. Clinically, all cases had mental-motor retardation and hypotonia. Episodic hyperpnoea attacks were observed in one case. Facial dysmorphism was the most common additional systemic anomaly and four cases had additional opthalmic findings. Brain MRI examination revealed that all cases had molar tooth sign, bat-wing appearance and vermian cleft. The majority of cases also had vermian hypoplasia. Cerebellar folial disorganisation was observed in approxiamtely half of the cases. Three cases had corpus callosum anomaly and atretic occipital encephalocoele. No pathology was determined in other organs. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological findings of 9 patients diagnosed with Joubert syndrome. PMID:24605724

  3. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  4. Pathology neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

    PubMed

    Graeme-Cook, F

    1996-07-01

    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are common and often hard to diagnose by endoscopic or gross examination. Biopsy or polypectomy enables diagnosis and prognostication. This article is by no means encyclopedic, but attempts to discuss the pathology of the more common intestinal polyps. PMID:8829315

  5. [Update of pathological diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor].

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Teng; Ming, Zhao; Maode, Lai

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are common in pathological practice and its pathological classification and histological grading are not exactly the same as that of those in the digestive tract and pancreas. In 2015 edition of World Health Organization classification, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are classified as carcinoid tumors (including typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid), small cell lung carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and precursor lesion diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; each category has distinctive morphological and immunohistochemical features. The morphologic features including growth patterns and cytological appearances are keys for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor, and immunohistochemical findings are also critical for its diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria vary for different types of specimen. In this article, we present a concise review and summary of the update of clinicopathological characterizations of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor, with an emphasis on its diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis. PMID:27045239

  6. Development of ovarian pathology after hysterectomy without oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    Plöckinger, B; Kölbl, H

    1994-06-01

    This study was done to determine the occurrence of disease in retained ovaries after hysterectomy. A retrospective analysis of patient charts was performed, comparing the patient reports of women who had secondary ovarian lesions with those whose ovaries showed no pathologic findings during the ten year period of observation (1980 to 1990). The study included 1,265 women with at least one ovary saved after hysterectomy for benign indications. Main outcome measures were ovarian pathologic findings after hysterectomy requiring repeat operation. The overall incidence of lesions in retained ovaries was 3.95 percent. There was a 3 percent risk of having secondary ovarian pathologic findings within three years after hysterectomy, with a decreased risk for the following seven years (mean follow-up time of 60 months, range of three to 120 months). Histologic findings at reoperation included common benign conditions of the ovary. No instance of carcinoma of the ovary was found. The risk of having pathology in the retained ovaries after hysterectomy was significantly higher in women who had only one ovary saved, compared with those who had both ovaries saved (7.63 versus 3.47 percent; p < 0.05). The mean age at hysterectomy was significantly lower in women who had ovarian disorders subsequent to hysterectomy than in those who did not (39.3 versus 43.9 years; p < 0.001). In the group of women with secondary ovarian lesions, mean parity was significantly lower than in those without reoperation (1.22 versus 1.94; p < 0.0001). Women with unilateral oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy had twice the risk of secondary ovarian lesions, compared with those without oophorectomy at hysterectomy. Determinants, such as age, parity and gravidity must be considered when deciding whether or not to perform oophorectomy at hysterectomy. PMID:8193751

  7. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  8. [Bronchial asthma: clinico-pathological study of fatalities in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Rabell, S; Piera, O M; Abdo, A; Sotolongo, R

    1975-01-01

    Due to the great amount of asthmatic patients presenting complications which could endanger their lives, a revision of the possible threatening factors is carried out. The factors concurring with the base pathologic mechanism are analyzed and it is demonstrated, that some of these factors intervene independently from bronchial asthma. The study is carried out on the basis of age, sex, hospital stay duration, clinical picture, blood gases analysis, complications and pathology findings: 1) Most of the deceased patients presented various pathologies besides bronchial asthma which contributed to the decease. 2) The physician should be alert in order to establish good therapeutic procedure in these patients which could carry other important complications; these complications are responsible for the fatal outcome in a great number of patients. A complication should always be searched for, e.g. pneumothorax. 3) The vast majority of patients who passed away in status were relatively young. 4) A female predominance was found. 5) All patients before entering our Center, presented asthma crisis at least three days prior to admission. 6) The predominant hospital stay duration was 24 hours. 7) The most common pathologic findings were: pulmonary fibroemphysema, acute bronchopneumonia, bronchial mucoid plugging, atelectasia and cerebral edema. 8) Cerebral edema and compression of the amygdale were common brain pathologic findings. 9) Bronchopneumonia was a common necropsy finding. 10) Based on these findings, ICU treatment is extremely important. 11) The critical status of the patient in the moment of admission, is due to the delay in bringing him to the hospital for proper medical surveyance. This justifies the interest of the Public Health Department in ample distribution of proper information to the asthmatic patients. PMID:1155315

  9. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  10. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  11. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  12. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  13. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  14. Description of Laryngeal Pathologies in Children Evaluated by Otolaryngologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobres, Rachel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected on 731 patients (age birth to 18) at a children's hospital otolaryngology clinic. Most frequent laryngeal pathologies were subglottic stenosis, vocal nodules, laryngomalacia, and vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal pathologies were more common to males than females, were most common in the youngest patients, and were distributed…

  15. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  16. Analysis of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Morbidity of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic T3 Disease or Positive Surgical Margins After Radical Prostatectomy Using National Cancer Institute Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Pearse, Maria; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 or positive surgical margins after RP were treated with RT plus 2 years of androgen suppression, according to a Phase II study. Acute and late GI and GU toxicity was prospectively assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was estimated using a cumulative incidence method. A Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive factors for late toxicity. Results: The median patient age was 61 years at RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. The median follow-up was 42.4 months. Of the 78 patients, 76 and 74 were available for the acute and late toxicity analysis, respectively. Of these patients, 66%, 29%, and 1% experienced Grade 1, 2, and 3 acute GI or GU toxicity, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GI toxicity at 36 months was 8.1% and 0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GU toxicity at 36 months was 16.4% and 2.7%, respectively. None had Grade 4 or greater late toxicity. The severity of acute GU toxicity (less than Grade 2 vs. Grade 2 or greater) was a significant predictor factor for Grade 2 or greater late GU toxicity after adjusting for pre-existing GU dysfunction. Conclusions: Postoperative RT was generally well tolerated. Grade 3 or greater late GI or GU toxicity was uncommon.

  17. Pathologic diagnosis of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia on horizontal sections.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-11-01

    The pathologic findings in Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) have not been studied systematically in horizontal sections. Our objective was to establish the pathologic features, and their frequency in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies obtained from patients with clinically and histologically proven CCCA. Serial horizontal sections of 51 cases were evaluated retrospectively. All biopsies were assessed at 4 levels and at least on 24 horizontal sections. The most common pathologic findings were follicular miniaturization (81% of the cases); premature desquamation of the inner root sheath (96%), focal preservation of the sebaceous glands (94%), which in most of these cases appeared as surrounding "in a hug" an intact vellus follicle; compound follicular structures with perifollicular fibrosis and/or inflammation (89%), lamellar hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis in the hair canal (79%), absent or mild inflammation (77%), and naked hair shafts (68%). Horizontal sections are useful in CCCA to identify early or focal disease and to provide the clinician with better information on the presence of follicular miniaturization, inflammation, and scarring, which can be used to tailor the treatment to the individual patient. PMID:25222198

  18. Some challenges in forensic veterinary pathology: a review.

    PubMed

    Munro, R; Munro, H M C

    2013-07-01

    Forensic veterinary pathology is a diverse discipline that is in an early phase of its development. Common challenges include estimation of the age of skin wounds and bruises, the diagnosis of drowning and estimation of the time since death. However, many details of the pathological findings related to these various aspects await validation. The 'multispecies' nature of veterinary pathology, combined with the preponderance of published observations originating from animal experimentation, rather than casework, poses two challenges. Firstly, extrapolation of results between species may jeopardize the reliability (and credibility) of the forensic opinion. Secondly, experimental studies may not truly reflect the spectrum of changes seen in actual cases (e.g. extent of injuries, infection, age and health of victim). With regard to drowning, diagnosis based on post-mortem findings remains problematical. Methods for estimation of the time since death (also known as the post-mortem interval) continue to be a major focus of study, with fresh avenues such as post-mortem diagnostic imaging offering interesting possibilities. PMID:23153727

  19. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  20. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    PubMed Central

    Franz, D.; Esposito, I.; Kapp, A.-C.; Gaa, J.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement. PMID:26937427

  2. Pathological fractures in children: Diagnosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Canavese, F; Samba, A; Rousset, M

    2016-02-01

    A fracture is defined as pathological when it arises in a bone tissue that has been modified and reshaped by a local or systemic pathological process. In children, pathological fractures can be secondary to several conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases to tumors, infections or neuromuscular pathologies. History, clinical examination and radiologic assessment are essential to making a diagnosis, to identifying the underlying cause and to planning the right treatment of a pathological fracture. Treatment must be tailored to both the fracture and the underlying cause. The objective of this work is to present the diagnostic approach and the course to follow when a child presents with a pathological fracture. The most common causes of pathological fractures, as well as their characteristics, will be described. Pathological fractures occurring in osteogenesis imperfecta and in abused children as well as stress fractures will not be discussed. PMID:26774903

  3. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  4. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  5. Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis. PMID:21674412

  6. Empiric Refinement of the Pathologic Assessment of Lewy Related Pathology in the Dementia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, James B.; Hamilton, Ronald; Tsuang, Debby W.; Schantz, Aimee; Vavrek, Darcy; Larson, Eric B.; Kukull, Walter A.; Lopez, Oscar; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Kaye, Jeffrey; Woltjer, Randall; Clark, Christopher; Trojanowski, John Q.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Lewy related pathology (LRP) is a common pathologic finding at autopsy in dementia patients. Recently criteria for categorizing types of LRP in dementia patients were published, though these criteria have yet to be systematically applied to large dementia samples. We examined a large (N = 208) referral-based autopsy sample for LRP, and applied the published criteria for LRP categorization to these cases. We found almost half (49%) of LRP positive cases from this sample were not classifiable. However, modifying the published criteria by reducing the number of regions requiring examination, allowing more variability in LRP severity scores within specific brain regions, and adding an amygdala predominant category permitted classification of 97% of LRP positive cases from the referral-based sample. Application of the modified criteria to an unrelated community-based autopsy sample (N = 226) allowed classification of 96% of LRP positive cases. Modest modifications in the published criteria permit a significantly greater number of dementia cases with LRP to be classified. In addition, this modification allows for more limited sampling of brain regions for classification of LRP. We propose that these modified criteria for the categorization of LRP be utilized in patients with a history of dementia. PMID:18241240

  7. Clinical governance and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at clinical governance and pathology. Clinical governance should be an important tool in seeking quality improvement within the Natinal Health Service. But how as pathologists should we go about it? PMID:11896066

  8. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  9. Clinical and pathological correlations in endometrial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Sajin, M; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC; Mihart, A; Baros, A; Anca, AF

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of endometrial cancer has been registering an increasing trend both in Romania and in the whole world. The paper’s aim is to analyze the diagnostic approach of endometrial pathology in the University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, on a four years period. The medium age of the patients was of 50.51 ± 10.924 years, and the median age was of 48 years. The youngest patient suffering from endometrial cancer was of 30 years. Dilation and uterine curettage represent the main method used in the performance of endometrial biopsy, based on which the certitude etiologic histopathologic diagnosis was established in 68.4% of the patients with endometrial pathology. Hyperplasias represented half of the pathology (54.9%), most of them being without atypias. Endometrial carcinoma was identified in 19% of the patients. The diagnosis of the disease in IA stage represents 5.5% of the total endometrial cases and the diagnosis of the disease in the stage of its limitation to the uterus (stage IA, IB and IC) was of 64.2%. The endometrioid adenocarcinoma represents the most encountered histopathological form and the degree of tumor differentiation established for 68,15% of the cases was predominantly 1 and 2 (88%). The main symptom, which determines the patients’ decision to go to the physician, is the abnormal uterine bleeding. 66% of the cases of endometrial cancer in the stage of the disease limited to the uterus are diagnosed in Romania based on the abnormal uterine bleeding. However, 34% of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, presenting a significantly low life expectancy. PMID:26664489

  10. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  11. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-β Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A.; Ghosh, Joy G.; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Robb, Richard M.; Kuszak, Jer R.; Clark, John I.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Hunter, David G.; Goldstein, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Aβ pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Aβ aggregates (∼5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Aβ in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Aβ with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Aβ accumulation as a key pathogenic

  13. Pathologic Evaluation of Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cheol Keun; Jung, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in women, has various treatment modalities. Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) has been used in many clinical trials because it is easy to evaluate the treatment response to therapeutic agents in a short time period; consequently, NAT is currently a standard treatment modality for large-sized and locally advanced breast cancers, and its use in early-stage breast cancer is becoming more common. Thus, chances to encounter breast tissue from patients treated with NAT is increasing. However, systems for handling and evaluating such specimens have not been established. Several evaluation systems emphasize a multidisciplinary approach to increase the accuracy of breast cancer assessment. Thus, detailed and systematic evaluation of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings is important. In this review, we compare the major problems of each evaluation system and discuss important points for handling and evaluating NAT-treated breast specimens. PMID:27068026

  14. The persistent trigeminal artery: development, imaging anatomy, variants, and associated vascular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Stephan; Spittau, Bjoern; McAuliffe, William

    2013-01-01

    The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common and most cephalad-located embryological anastomosis between the developing carotid artery and vertebrobasilar system to persist into adulthood. As such, it is frequently reported as an incidental finding in computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography studies. Here, we review the embryology, anatomy, and angiographic imaging findings, including important variants of this commonly encountered cerebrovascular anomaly (reported incidence of PTA/PTA variants ranges from 0.1% to 0.76%). Further, the aim is to present the range of associated arterial anomalies or syndromes, as well as pathologies that are associated with a PTA: aneurysms, trigeminal cavernous fistulas, and trigeminal nerve compression. Besides summarizing the risks and clinical presentation of such pathologies, their management is discussed with endovascular strategies mostly being the primary choice for aneurysms and trigeminal cavernous fistulas. Symptomatic trigeminal nerve compression can be treated with microvascular decompression surgery. As an illustrative example, a case of a trigeminal cavernous fistula on a PTA variant is included, mainly to emphasize the importance of understanding the variant anatomy for treatment planning in such pathologies. Finally, recommendations on how to manage patients with PTA-associated vascular pathologies are advanced. PMID:22170080

  15. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    95 years for ε2ε3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462

  16. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  17. Anatomic pathology laboratory information systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-03-01

    The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836

  18. Quantitative analysis and clinico-pathological correlations of different dipeptide repeat protein pathologies in C9ORF72 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Frick, Petra; Grässer, Friedrich A; Gendron, Tania F; Petrucelli, Leonard; Cashman, Neil R; Edbauer, Dieter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Prudlo, Johannes; Troost, Dirk; Neumann, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease. One consequence of the mutation is the formation of different potentially toxic polypeptides composed of dipeptide repeats (DPR) (poly-GA, -GP, -GR, -PA, -PR) generated by repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. While previous studies focusing on poly-GA pathology have failed to detect any clinico-pathological correlations in C9ORF72 mutation cases, recent data from animal and cell culture models suggested that it may be only specific DPR species that are toxic and only when accumulated in certain intracellular compartments. Therefore, we performed a systematic clinico-pathological correlative analysis with counting of actual numbers of distinct types of inclusion (neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites) for each DPR protein in relevant brain regions (premotor cortex, lower motor neurons) in a cohort of 35 C9ORF72 mutation cases covering the clinical spectrum from those with pure MND, mixed FTD/MND and pure FTD. While each DPR protein pathology had a similar pattern of anatomical distribution, the total amount of inclusions for each DPR protein varied remarkably (poly-GA > GP > GR > PR/PA), indicating that RAN translation seems to be more effective from sense than from antisense transcripts. Importantly, with the exception of moderate associations for the amount of poly-GA-positive dystrophic neurites with degeneration in the frontal cortex and total burden of poly-GA pathology with disease onset, no relationship was identified for any other DPR protein pathology with degeneration or phenotype. Biochemical analysis revealed a close correlation between insoluble DPR protein species and numbers of visible inclusions, while we did not find any evidence for the presence of soluble DPR protein species. Thus, overall our findings strongly argue against a role of DPR protein aggregation as major and

  19. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  20. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  1. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  2. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  3. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  4. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  5. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  6. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations. PMID:27265600

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  8. Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).

    PubMed

    Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

    2006-05-27

    This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Higgins, C.B.; Lanzer, P.; Lipton, M.J.; Schiller, N.; Crooks, L.E.; Botvinick, E.B.; Kaufman, L.

    1984-02-01

    Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease.

  10. [Pathology of non-reflux esophagitides].

    PubMed

    Daum, Ondřej; Dubová, Magdaléna; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The topic of non-reflux esophagitides is partially hidden in the shadow cast by the huge and modern entity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Histological investigation alone is often insufficient to reach the correct diagnosis without a correlation of the microscopic picture with clinical presentation, endoscopic gross appearance, personal and pharmacological history of the patient, results of hematological, serological, immunological and microbiological examinations. Due to their low-prevalence, individual types of non-reflux esophagitides are not routinely encountered in routine biopsies. Furthermore, the plethora of etiological agents present with only a limited range of reaction patterns, and thus a single histological picture may be common for more agents. Conversely, one cause may be associated with more morphological patterns. Due to these circumstances the pathological diagnostic management should follow a settled algorithm to prevent an inadequate narrowing of the histopathologist´s view. Histologic findings forming the base of this algorithm include distribution and type of inflammatory infiltrate, appearance of epithelial changes, and (in some cases) even the presence of causative agent in histological slides. PMID:27108553

  11. Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with custom foot orthoses for common pathologies is a rewarding experience when the proper steps are taken during foot casting and custom-orthosis prescription writing. This article describes successful methods for orthoses casting and prescription writing for custom-molded orthoses for Achilles tendonitis, pes planus, hallux limitus, plantar fasciitis/heel spurs, lateral ankle instability, metatarsalgia, and pes cavus. In addition, a summary of orthotic laboratory instructions for each pathology-designed custom orthosis is provided, which should be considered by orthotic laboratories. PMID:21276525

  12. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  13. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

  14. [Cellular pathology of neurodegenerative disorders].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. α-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Tau is a principal component of neurofibrillary and glial tangles in tauopathies. Recently, TDP-43 was identified as a component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PD is traditionally considered a movement disorder with hallmark lesions in the brainstem pigmented nuclei. However, pathological changes occur in widespread regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems in this disease. Furthermore, primary glial involvement ("gliodegeneration") can be observed in PD and MSA as well as in tauopathy. The present article reviews abnormal protein accumulation and inclusion body formation inside and outside the central nervous system. PMID:23965852

  15. Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezső; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; Tőkési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Szűcs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with α-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of α-synuclein with β-amyloid (Aβ) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble Aβ oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric Aβ with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the Aβ42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of Aβ42, α-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with Aβ was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with Aβ can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of Aβ and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049

  16. Mulberry hypertrophy and accompanying sinonasal pathologies: A review of 68 cases.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed; Solmaz, Fevzi

    2016-08-01

    Mulberry hypertrophy occasionally coexists with sinonasal pathologies. There are very few reports in the literature on this clinical entity. We conducted a retrospective study to draw attention to this condition in the context of accompanying sinonasal pathologies. Our study group was made up of 68 patients-51 males and 17 females, aged 13 to 57 years (mean: 34.9)-who had been diagnosed with mulberry hypertrophy and at least one accompanying sinonasal pathology. All patients had a long-standing chronic discharge. Forty-nine of these patients (72.1%) had unilateral mulberry hypertrophy. The most common concomitant pathologies were chronic rhinosinusitis and ostiomeatal complex disease; others included septal deviation, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, and concha bullosa. Thirty-six patients (52.9%) with varying degrees of choanal/nasal obstruction were operated on with endoscopic excision to treat the mulberry hypertrophy. In all, most patients underwent some sort of surgery to treat either the mulberry hypertrophy or the accompanying sinonasal pathology. Based on our findings, we suggest a clinical staging system to serve as a way to standardize management and guide future basic and clinical research. PMID:27551846

  17. Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Nepomuceno, Andrew R.B.; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.; Bliss, Tonya M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  18. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  19. Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lv, X-F; Qiu, Y-W; Zhang, X-L; Han, L-J; Qiu, S-J; Xiong, W; Wen, G; Zhang, Y-Z; Zhang, J

    2010-11-01

    PICCC is the rarest, most malignant primary intracranial GCT. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a series of 7 patients (6 males and 1 female; mean age, 11.9 years) with pathologically proved PICCC in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All tumors were located within the pineal (n = 6) or suprasellar (n = 1) regions. On T2-weighted MR imaging, the lesions appeared markedly heterogeneous with areas of both hypointensity and hyperintensity reflecting the histologic heterogeneity, including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cysts, or necrosis. Heterogeneous (n = 7), ringlike (n = 4), and/or intratumoral nodular (n = 3) enhancement was noted on T1-weighted images with gadolinium. These MR imaging findings, combined with patient age and serum β-HCG levels, may prove helpful in distinguishing PICCC from the more common primary brain tumors, thereby avoiding biopsy of this highly vascular tumor. PMID:20616180

  20. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  1. Eating pathology in East African women: the role of media exposure and globalization.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Hennessey, Moira; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2007-03-01

    Eating disorder (ED) pathology and its relation to media exposure and globalization were assessed in a sample of young Tanzanian females (N = 214; 19.4 years +/- 3.8 years). Participants completed Kiswahili versions of a DSM-IV ED symptom clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and a media exposure/globalization questionnaire. One third endorsed cognitive ED symptoms; bingeing (10%) and purging (5%) were less common. Four women (1.9%) met modified criteria for anorexia nervosa, one for bulimia nervosa, and 10 (4.7%) reported clinically significant ED pathology consistent with an ED not otherwise specified diagnosis. Media exposure and Western exposure (e.g., travel abroad) were positively associated with ED symptoms. The intended factor structure of the EDI was not supported. Eating pathology is present in this developing nation and is most common in subpopulations with increased exposure to Western culture. Future research should replicate these findings to clarify the role of Western media in the development of ED pathology. PMID:17468678

  2. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  3. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  4. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  5. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  6. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  7. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Letter to Council of Deans: State of Pathology Training in Medical School Help Chart the Future ... Need Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  8. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  9. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26065794

  10. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  11. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  12. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  13. Pathology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Elder, David E

    2015-04-01

    The pathology of melanoma is discussed in relation to surgical diagnosis and management. Pitfalls that may result in problems of clinicopathologic communication are emphasized. A compelling vision for the future is that all tumors will be characterized by their driving oncogenes, suppressor genes, and other genomic factors. The success of targeted therapy directed against individual oncogenes, despite its limitations, suggests that a repertoire of targeted agents will be developed that can be used against a variety of different tumors, depending on the results of genetic testing. Nevertheless, histopathologic diagnosis and surgical therapy will remain mainstays of management for melanoma. PMID:25769708

  14. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  15. Histopathologic findings in breast reduction specimens.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Tasli, Funda Alkan; Yagcı, Ayse; Sır, Emin; Canpolat, Selin; Vardar, Enver

    2014-04-01

    Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly performed operation for treatment of breast hypertrophy. It allows examination of specimens from a seemingly healthy population. Although there are many publications reporting the incidence of occult breast carcinomas, only a few studies have specifically examined the incidence of other breast lesions in reduction mammaplasty specimens. The authors conducted a single-centre retrospective chart review examining the incidence of benign and precancerous lesions in breast reduction specimens. Both age and the number of tissue sections were evaluated for the association with important pathologic findings. Of the 95 patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty, eight patients (8.4%) had atypical lesions. Fourteen patients (15%) had proliferative and 54 patients (57%) had non-proliferative breast lesions. No occult invasive breast cancer was identified in the breast reduction specimens. The existence of significant pathologic findings was not associated with age (p = 0.231, student t-test). On the other hand, it was found to be associated with the number of tissue sections (p = 0.046, Mann-Whitney U-test). This study reveals that breast reduction specimens should be analyzed histologically since a considerable amount of patients have breast lesions with increased cancer risk. Therefore, this analysis would guide the management of these patients in the follow-up period. PMID:23879776

  16. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  17. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  18. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  19. Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E

    1994-09-01

    Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924

  20. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  1. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  2. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  3. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies.

    PubMed

    Møller, Aage R

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  4. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Aage R.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  5. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  6. Pathologic aspects of skull base tumors.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Andrzej; Szylberg, Łukasz; Wiśniewski, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Skull base tumors form a highly heterogeneous group. As there are several structures in this anatomical site, a large number of different primary malignancies might develop, as well as a variety of secondary (metastatic) tumors. In this article, the most common malignancies are presented, along with a short histopathologic description. For some entities, an immunohistochemical profile is also given that should be helpful in proper diagnosis. As many pathologic diagnoses nowadays also include genetic studies, the most common genetic abnormalities in skull base tumors are presented. PMID:27330415

  7. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van't Veer, Laura J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Gantcev, Shamil Hanafievich; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Collée, J Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  8. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  9. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  10. Bone marrow lesions and subchondral bone pathology of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kon, Elizaveta; Ronga, Mario; Filardo, Giuseppe; Farr, Jack; Madry, Henning; Milano, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) around the knee are a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. However, despite the growing interest on BMLs in multiple pathological conditions, they remain controversial not only for the still unknown role in the etiopathological processes, but also in terms of clinical impact and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of conditions: traumatic contusion and fractures, cyst formation and erosions, hematopoietic and infiltrated marrow, developmental chondroses, disuse and overuse, transient bone marrow oedema syndrome and, lastly, subchondral insufficiency fractures and true osteonecrosis. Regardless the heterogeneous spectrum of these pathologies, a key factor for patient management is the distinction between reversible and irreversible conditions. To this regard, MRI plays a major role, leading to the correct diagnosis based on recognizable typical patterns that have to be considered together with coexistent abnormalities, age, and clinical history. Several treatment options have been proposed, from conservative to surgical approaches. In this manuscript the main lesion patterns and their management have been analysed to provide the most updated evidence for the differential diagnosis and the most effective treatment. PMID:27075892

  11. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R.; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for β-amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for Aβ genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain. PMID:25871402

  12. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-05-10

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for β-amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for Aβ genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain. PMID:25871402

  13. Sudden unexpected death, epilepsy and familial cardiac pathology.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, A J; Thompson, T; Vohra, J K; O'Brien, T J; Winship, I

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of epilepsy in a cohort of patients who suffered a sudden unexpected death (SUDEP), and determined the proportion of the deaths that were related to an identifiable underlying familial cardiac pathology. Epilepsy is common in people who experience a sudden unexpected death, with approximately a quarter having identifiable familial electrophysiological abnormalities. Familial cardiac pathology may be an important cause of SUDEP. A retrospective evaluation was performed of 74 families that were referred to the Royal Melbourne Hospital Cardiac Genetic Clinic over a 5 year period for investigation following a family member's sudden, presumed cardiac, death. This state-wide referral clinic includes all patients who have died from a sudden unexpected death in whom the cause of death is unascertained. An epilepsy diagnosis was categorised as either definite, probable, possible or unlikely. The family members underwent comprehensive clinical evaluations and investigations in an attempt to identify a familial cardiac cause for the sudden unexpected death. Our findings suggest that systematic referral to a cardiac genetics service is warranted for the first degree relatives of people with epilepsy who experience a sudden unexplained death, for further evaluation and to identify those who are at higher risk for sudden death. Interventions may then be instituted to potentially reduce this risk. PMID:26195332

  14. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  15. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Preoperative easily misdiagnosed telangiectatic osteosarcoma: clinical–radiologic–pathologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen-Hua; Yin, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei; Meng, Quan-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics and diagnostic methods of telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) for improving the diagnostic level. Materials and methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed patient demographics, serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) levels, preoperative biopsy pathologic reports, pathologic materials, imaging findings, and treatment outcomes from 26 patients with TOS. Patient images from radiography (26 cases) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (22 cases) were evaluated by 3 authors in consensus for intrinsic characteristics. There were 15 male and 11 female patients in the study, with an age of 9–32 years (mean age 15.9 years). Results: Eighteen of 26 patients died of lung metastases within 5 years of follow-up. The distal femur was affected more commonly (14 cases, 53.8%). Regarding serum AKP, normal (8 cases) or mildly elevated (18 cases) levels were found before preoperative chemotherapy. Radiographs showed geographic bone lysis without sclerotic margin (26 cases), cortical destruction (26 cases), periosteal new bone formation (24 cases), soft-tissue mass (23 cases), and matrix mineralization (4 cases). The aggressive radiographic features of TOS simulated the appearance of conventional high-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma, though different from aneurysmal bone cyst. MR images demonstrated multiple big (16 cases) or small (6 cases) cystic spaces, fluid-fluid levels (14 cases), soft-tissue mass (22 cases), and thick peripheral and septal enhancement (22 cases). Nine of 26 cases were misdiagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts by preoperative core-needle biopsy, owing to the absence of viable high-grade sarcomatous cells in the small tissue samples. Conclusion: The aggressive growth pattern with occasional matrix mineralization, and multiple big or small fluid-filled cavities with thick peripheral, septal, and nodular tissue surrounding the fluid-filled cavities are characteristic imaging features of

  17. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10−5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10−3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  18. Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD. PMID:21985690

  19. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Charles H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fuelled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

  20. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  1. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  2. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process. PMID:20924082

  3. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  4. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  5. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A.; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Context There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  6. miRNAs Participate in MS Pathological Processes and Its Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Chen, Guangjie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is believed that the increased migration of autoreactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be responsible for axonal demyelination of neurons. In this review, we discuss microRNAs participating in the pathological processes of MS, including periphery inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and CNS lesions, and in its therapeutic response, in order to find biomarkers of disease severity and to predict the response to therapy of the diseases. PMID:27073296

  7. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies. PMID:26210152

  8. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  9. Pathological and Protective Immunity to Pneumocystis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Taylor; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic infection in the HIV-positive population and is re-emerging as a growing clinical concern in the HIV-negative immunosuppressed population. Newer targeted immunosuppressive therapies and the discovery of rare genetic mutations have furthered our understanding of the immunity required to clear Pneumocystis infection. The immune system can also mount a pathologic response against Pneumocystis following removal of immunosuppression and result in severe damage to the host lung. The current review will examine the most recent epidemiologic studies about the incidence of Pneumocystis in the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in the developing and developed world and will detail methods of diagnosis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Finally, this review aims to summarize the known mediators of immunity to Pneumocystis and detail the pathologic immune response leading to Pneumocystis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:25420451

  10. Pathological tau deposition in Motor Neurone Disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Roya; Liu, Xiawei; Wu, Dongyue; Robinson, Andrew C; Tanaguchi-Watanabe, Sayuri; Rollinson, Sara; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Hamdalla, Hisham H M; Ealing, John; Richardson, Anna; Jones, Matthew; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Davidson, Yvonne S; Strong, Michael J; Hasegawa, Masato; Snowden, Julie S; Mann, David M A

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with motor neurone disease (MND) and those with MND combined with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (ie FTD + MND) or with FTD alone might exist on a continuum based on commonalities of neuropathology and/or genetic risk. Moreover, it has been reported that both a neuronal and a glial cell tauopathy can accompany the TDP-43 proteinopathy in patients with motor neurone disease (MND) with cognitive changes, and that the tauopathy may be fundamental to disease pathogenesis and clinical phenotype. In the present study, we sought to substantiate these latter findings, and test this concept of a pathological continuum, in a consecutive series of 41 patients with MND, 16 with FTD + MND and 23 with FTD without MND. Paraffin sections of frontal, entorhinal, temporal and occipital cortex and hippocampus were immunostained for tau pathology using anti-tau antibodies, AT8, pThr(175) and pThr(217), and for amyloid β protein (Aβ) using 4G8 antibody. Twenty four (59 %) patients with MND, 7 (44 %) patients with FTD + MND and 10 (43 %) patients with FTD showed 'significant' tau pathology (ie more than just an isolated neurofibrillary tangle or a few neuropil threads in one or more brain regions examined). In most instances, this bore the histological characteristics of an Alzheimer's disease process involving entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, temporal cortex, frontal cortex and occipital cortex in decreasing frequency, accompanied by a deposition of Aβ up to Thal phase 3, though 2 patients with MND, and 1 with FTD did show tau pathology beyond Braak stage III. Four other patients with MND showed novel neuronal tau pathology, within the frontal cortex alone, specifically detected by pThr(175) antibody, which was characterised by a fine granular or more clumped aggregation of tau without neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads. However, none of these 4 patients had clinically evident cognitive disorder, and

  11. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  12. Management of alternative pathology detected using CT KUB in suspected ureteric colic.

    PubMed

    Sarofim, Mina; Teo, Adrian; Wilson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acute flank pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), and imaging studies play an important role in establishing an accurate diagnosis. Computed Tomography of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder (CT KUB) has surpassed all other imaging modalities to become the gold standard in detection of ureteric calculi. The purpose of this study is to identify the range and management of alternative diagnoses established by CT KUB in patients with suspected ureteric colic. Two hundred and fifteen consecutive CT KUB examinations ordered in the ED of a tertiary-care centre for suspected ureteric colic were retrospectively reviewed. This comprised of 134 male (62.3%) and 81 female (37.7%) patients with a mean age of 53 years old. The positive detection rate for ureteric calculi in males was 43.3% compared to a lower rate for females of 29.6% (p < 0.05). Almost two-thirds of patients were discharged following CT KUB imaging, and admission rates were significantly higher in those with alternative radiological findings (p < 0.04) Alternative radiological findings occurred in 72 patients (33.5%), including 15 patients (7.0%) who had clinically important alternative pathology. The rate of clinically important alternative findings was significantly higher in males than females, 9.7% versus 2.5% respectively (p = 0.04). Surgical intervention was more common in patients with alternative radiological findings classified as gastrointestinal (18.2%) compared to non-gastrointestinal (3.6%), however this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). In conclusion, significant alternative pathology was identified using CT KUB in 7% of patients with suspected ureteric colic. The low rates of detection of ureteric calculi and significant alternative pathology in female patients suggests a more thorough clinical assessment is warranted to improve their management, prior to ordering investigations with exposure to radiation. PMID:27373521

  13. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  14. Radiologic–Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Kulik, Laura; Ryu, Robert K.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa; Nayar, Ritu; Wang, Ed; Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A.; Abecassis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa (κ) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have ≥85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The κ coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis. PMID:19967371

  15. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  16. Pathological features of FTLD-FUS in a Japanese population: analyses of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Zen; Kawakami, Ito; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Kondo, Hiromi; Shimomura, Yoko; Haga, Chie; Aoki, Naoya; Hasegawa, Masato; Hosokawa, Masato; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Ishizu, Hideki; Terada, Seishi; Onaya, Mitsumoto; Ikeda, Manabu; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Nakano, Imaharu; Murayama, Shigeo; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the pathological features of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with fused in sarcoma protein (FUS) accumulation (FTLD-FUS) in the Japanese population. Only one out of nine FTLD-FUS cases showed pathology that corresponds to atypical FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (aFTLD-U). Five were basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and two were neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. The last case was unclassifiable and was associated with dystrophic neurites (DNs) as the predominant FUS pathology. The results of this study indicate an ethnic difference from western countries. In Japan, BIBD is the most common subtype of FTLD-FUS and aFTLD-U is rare, a finding which contrasts with aFTLD-U being the most common form in western countries. Immunohistochemical analyses of these FTLD-FUS cases reveal that FUS abnormally accumulated in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and DNs has an immunohistochemical profile distinct from that of normal, nuclear FUS. NCIs and DNs are more readily stained than the nuclei by antibodies to the middle portion of FUS. Antibodies to the carboxyl terminal portion, on the other hand, stain the nuclei more readily than NCIs and DNs. Such an immunohistochemical profile of NCIs and DNs was similar to that of cytoplasmic granular FUS staining which we previously reported to be associated with dendrites and synapses. Redistribution of FUS from the nucleus to the cytoplasm could be associated with the formation of abnormal FUS aggregates in FTLD-FUS. PMID:24050818

  17. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  18. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  19. Speech Pathology Assistant. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Hearing and Speech Action, Silver Spring, MD.

    Part of an instructional set which includes an instructor's guide, this trainee manual is designed to provide speech pathology students with some basic and essential knowledge about the communication process. The manual contains nine modules: (1) speech pathology assistant, (2) the bases of speech (structure and function of the speech mechanism,…

  20. Pathology of eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  1. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  2. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  3. Unusual Findings in Appendectomy Specimens of Adults: Retrospective Analyses of 1466 Patients and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Ozgur Aytac, Huseyin; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Akin Tarim, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis. Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. Patients and Methods: Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients’ age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up. Results: Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology. Conclusions: Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination. PMID:24719727

  4. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration FTLD-tau: preclinical lesions, vascular, and Alzheimer-related co-pathologies.

    PubMed

    Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; von Arnim, Christine A F; Griffin, W Sue T; Mrak, Robert E; Walker, Lauren; Attems, Johannes; Arzberger, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with τ pathology (FTLD-tau) is one of a group of neurodegenerative diseases that manifests with cognitive decline. Alzheimer (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions are commonly noted in the brains of most elderly individuals, begging the question as to whether (a) coexisting AD and vascular pathology or age contribute to the development of FTLD-tau disorders and vice versa and (b) FTLD-tau-like pathology can be found in non-diseased individuals. We studied brains of FTLD-tau cases exhibiting (a) argyrophilc grain disease (AGD), (b) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), (c) corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or (d) Pick's disease (PiD) for coexisting AD and vascular pathology for comparison with that of non-diseased individuals and AD patients. We confirmed that AGD lowered the threshold for AD pathology to cause dementia. Such an effect was not seen in PSP, CBD, or PiD. In PiD, white matter degeneration and demyelination was observed in the frontal and temporal lobes in association with small vessel disease (SVD)-related changes in white matter arteries. Age at death varied among the four types of FTLD-tau. PiD cases were youngest at death followed by CBD, PSP, and finally AGD. In 9.8% of non-diseased controls, we found grains, coiled bodies, and/or τ-positive astrocytes mimicking an AGD-like pattern. Moreover, the prevalence of FTLD-tau pathology in non-diseased individuals increased with age. In summary, this study demonstrates that age impacts of the diversity of neuropathological changes in FTLD-tau. The age-related coexistence of AD-related pathology is, thereby, associated with AGD but not with PSP, CBD, and PiD. Moreover, severe SVD and white matter demyelination is associated with PiD indicating a role of vascular copathology in this type of FTLD-tau. Finally, our finding that FTLD-tau-related pathological lesions occur in non-diseased individuals suggests that preclinical stages of FTLD-tau exist. As such, our results indicate

  5. Common pathobiochemical hallmarks of progranulin-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Götzl, Julia K; Mori, Kohji; Damme, Markus; Fellerer, Katrin; Tahirovic, Sabina; Kleinberger, Gernot; Janssens, Jonathan; van der Zee, Julie; Lang, Christina M; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Arzberger, Thomas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Haass, Christian; Capell, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene and the resulting reduction of GRN levels is a common genetic cause for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43. Recently, it has been shown that a complete GRN deficiency due to a homozygous GRN loss-of-function mutation causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disorder. These findings suggest that lysosomal dysfunction may also contribute to some extent to FTLD. Indeed, Grn(-/-) mice recapitulate not only pathobiochemical features of GRN-associated FTLD-TDP (FTLD-TDP/GRN), but also those which are characteristic for NCL and lysosomal impairment. In Grn(-/-) mice the lysosomal proteins cathepsin D (CTSD), LAMP (lysosomal-associated membrane protein) 1 and the NCL storage components saposin D and subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) were all found to be elevated. Moreover, these mice display increased levels of transmembrane protein (TMEM) 106B, a lysosomal protein known as a risk factor for FTLD-TDP pathology. In line with a potential pathological overlap of FTLD and NCL, Ctsd(-/-) mice, a model for NCL, show elevated levels of the FTLD-associated proteins GRN and TMEM106B. In addition, pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 occurs in Ctsd(-/-) mice to a similar extent as in Grn(-/-) mice. Consistent with these findings, some NCL patients accumulate pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 within their brains. Based on these observations, we searched for pathological marker proteins, which are characteristic for NCL or lysosomal impairment in brains of FTLD-TDP/GRN patients. Strikingly, saposin D, SCMAS as well as the lysosomal proteins CTSD and LAMP1/2 are all elevated in patients with FTLD-TDP/GRN. Thus, our findings suggest that lysosomal storage disorders and GRN-associated FTLD may share common features. PMID:24619111

  6. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying

  7. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Protsenko, Ekaterina; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Loggia, Marco L.; Coppola, Gianluca; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache. PMID:26366304

  8. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  9. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology

    PubMed Central

    GHEORGHE, SIMONA ROXANA; CRĂCIUN, ALEXANDRA MĂRIOARA

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  10. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  11. Ganglion cyst at the fibular head causing common peroneal neuropathy diagnosed with ultrasound and electrodiagnostic examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lawrence P; Chen, Boqing; Kumar, Suneil; Desai, Raj; Mendoza, Justin; Foye, Patrick M; Stitik, Todd P

    2014-09-01

    The common peroneal nerve is a major source of innervation to the lower limb, but it is sometimes compressed or entrapped at the fibular head. The authors present what they believe is the first reported case where peroneal nerve impingement caused by ganglion cyst compression of the nerve at the fibular head was diagnosed using a combination of ultrasound imaging and electrodiagnostic studies. The authors described the history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic findings, and musculoskeletal ultrasound findings of a patient with a left foot drop caused by a ganglion cyst compressing the common peroneal nerve at the fibular head. The increasing role of ultrasound imaging to evaluate musculoskeletal pathology is discussed. PMID:24919081

  12. Ankle pain and peroneal tendon pathology.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Judith F; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; DiGiovanni, Benedict F; Flemister, A Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Chronic ankle pain can be due to multiple causes. A thorough review of the patient's history with a physical examination concentrating on anatomic structures surrounding the ankle is imperative. The most common of causes have been presented. The addition of provocative testing and radiographic examinations can aid in elucidating the pathology. After treatment of the injury, attention to training technique, shoe and insert usage as well as individual gait abnormalities are integrated into global patient education to decrease the incidence of injury recurrence. PMID:15062582

  13. Pathological alterations due to motile Aeromonas infection in red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri).

    PubMed

    Bunnajirakul, S; Pavasutthipaisit, S; Steinhagen, D

    2015-01-01

    A herd of red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) was reared in outdoor concrete ponds and suffered from occasional mortality. Moribund fishes showing abdominal dropsy and fin rots were sent for diagnosis. Gross necropsy findings showed enlargement of liver, spleen, and kidney in concurrence with congestion, and a severe accumulation of peritoneal fluid. Histopathological findings revealed an alteration of hepatocytes, with a severe diffuse accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the trunk kidney, severe accumulation of mononuclear cells together with cloudy swelling of the renal tubular epithelium was observed. From internal organs of the fish motile Aeromonas spp. were identified. The pathological findings might be associated with a long-term infection of affected fish fostered by common stressors such as improper feeding and poor pond environment condition (water temperature). Effective therapeutic measures comprised an advancement of keeping conditions and appropriate feeding to improve the health status in combination with the application of antibiotic substances. PMID:26527040

  14. Image Analysis in Surgical Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Mark C; Monaco, James P; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-06-01

    Digitization of glass slides of surgical pathology samples facilitates a number of value-added capabilities beyond what a pathologist could previously do with a microscope. Image analysis is one of the most fundamental opportunities to leverage the advantages that digital pathology provides. The ability to quantify aspects of a digital image is an extraordinary opportunity to collect data with exquisite accuracy and reliability. In this review, we describe the history of image analysis in pathology and the present state of technology processes as well as examples of research and clinical use. PMID:27241112

  15. Compulsivity Across the Pathological Misuse of Drug and Non-Drug Rewards.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Harrison, Neil A; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED), individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological video-gaming (VG) were tested with two computerized tasks: the probabilistic reversal task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors) and the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task (IED). Individuals with AD and pathological VG were slower at reversal learning irrespective of valence, with AD subjects more likely to perseverate after losses. Compared to obese subjects without BED, BED subjects were worse at reversal learning to wins but better at losses highlighting valence effects as a function of binge eating. CSB subjects demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to reward outcomes with faster acquisition and greater perseveration with higher magnitude rewards. We further show an impairment in attentional set shifting in individuals with BED and AD relative to healthy volunteers (HV). This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. We summarize studies on compulsivity subtypes within this same patient population. We emphasize commonalities in AD and BED with impairments across a range of compulsivity indices, perhaps supporting pathological binge eating as a form of behavioral addiction. We further emphasize commonalities in reversal learning across disorders and the crucial role of valence effects. These findings highlight the role of behavioral inflexibility

  16. Compulsivity Across the Pathological Misuse of Drug and Non-Drug Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Banca, Paula; Harrison, Neil A.; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED), individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological video-gaming (VG) were tested with two computerized tasks: the probabilistic reversal task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors) and the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task (IED). Individuals with AD and pathological VG were slower at reversal learning irrespective of valence, with AD subjects more likely to perseverate after losses. Compared to obese subjects without BED, BED subjects were worse at reversal learning to wins but better at losses highlighting valence effects as a function of binge eating. CSB subjects demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to reward outcomes with faster acquisition and greater perseveration with higher magnitude rewards. We further show an impairment in attentional set shifting in individuals with BED and AD relative to healthy volunteers (HV). This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. We summarize studies on compulsivity subtypes within this same patient population. We emphasize commonalities in AD and BED with impairments across a range of compulsivity indices, perhaps supporting pathological binge eating as a form of behavioral addiction. We further emphasize commonalities in reversal learning across disorders and the crucial role of valence effects. These findings highlight the role of behavioral inflexibility

  17. Pathology of congenital syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Froberg, M K; Fitzgerald, T J; Hamilton, T R; Hamilton, B; Zarabi, M

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model for congenital syphilis in the rabbit. This report provides additional information on newborn tissue pathology in animals that were infected in utero. A total of 35 pregnancies were evaluated, each containing 6 to 12 newborns. In the infected group, the mortality was approximately 50%; of the live newborns, half appeared normal and half were hyperreflexic, weak, and runty. Gross pathology in the sickly newborns was quite prevalent and involved enlarged spleens with isolated spots of necrosis; enlarged livers that were overtly congested and hemorrhagic and had numerous granular, white spots; and brains with hemorrhage in the occipital area. Histopathology was apparent in different tissues. Lymphocytes, plasma cells, and vacuolated macrophages were prominent in livers, spleens, brains, and bones. A few actively motile treponemes were visualized by dark-field microscopy within extracts of spleen and within cerebrospinal fluid. Low numbers of treponemes were also demonstrated in sections of brain and liver by using the Warthin-Starry silver stain technique. Blood hematocrits were decreased, and extramedullary hematopoiesis was prominent within spleens and livers; this is consistent with anemia. This rabbit model exhibits many of the same pathologic features commonly found in human congenital syphilis. Images PMID:8406873

  18. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    PubMed

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome. PMID:25982834

  19. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  20. Neuroimmunity: Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Foster, Simmie L; Woolf, Clifford J

    2016-05-20

    Evolution has yielded multiple complex and complementary mechanisms to detect environmental danger and protect tissues from damage. The nervous system rapidly processes information and coordinates complex defense behaviors, and the immune system eliminates diverse threats by virtue of mobile, specialized cell populations. The two systems are tightly integrated, cooperating in local and systemic reflexes that restore homeostasis in response to tissue injury and infection. They further share a broad common language of cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides that enables bidirectional communication. However, this reciprocal cross talk permits amplification of maladaptive feedforward inflammatory loops that contribute to the development of allergy, autoimmunity, itch, and pain. Appreciating the immune and nervous systems as a holistic, coordinated defense system provides both new insights into inflammation and exciting opportunities for managing acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26907213

  1. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual

  2. Misconceptions about Acne Still Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157613.html Misconceptions About Acne Still Common Skin condition isn't caused by ... of negative and mistaken beliefs about people with acne, a new study finds. Researchers showed photos of ...

  3. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  4. Cause and effect considerations in diagnostic pathology and pathology phenotyping of genetically engineered mice (GEM).

    PubMed

    McKerlie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    so that they can complement parallel phenotyping efforts, provide pathology-based data in pace with concurrent phenotyping efforts, and continue to find new utility in the collective effort of functional annotation. PMID:16547372

  5. Improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    aim #4: To assess the success of implemented interventions by quantitative measure of postinterventional errors and clinical outcomes and by qualitative assessment by project participants. Funding for this project was approved by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality in September 2002, and data collection and analysis are ongoing. Over 5000 errors have been collected in the database, and the clinical outcomes of these errors have been tracked. At a national meeting in November 2003, root cause analysis was performed to determine causes of errors. The findings of these root cause analyses have been presented at national pathology meetings and are currently being published. PMID:15555746

  6. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of

  7. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  8. Finding Common Language around Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, New Orleans has proved fertile ground for the most extensive education reform movement in the United States. As such, the educational landscape in New Orleans is a highly contested space. Yet stakeholders across the pro/anti-charter divide lack a fully developed language that accommodates the multi-vocality of participants contributing…

  9. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

  10. Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

  11. Finding common ground in public health nursing education and practice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda O; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Schoon, Patricia M; Brueshoff, Bonnie; Jost, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of the public health nursing (PHN) workforce requires public health nurses from academia and practice to collaborate. However, a shortage of PHN clinical sites may lead to competition between schools of nursing for student placements. The Henry Street Consortium, a group of 5 baccalaureate schools of nursing and 13 local health departments in the state of Minnesota, developed a model for collaboration between PHN education and practice. This paper describes the development process--the forming, storming, norming, and performing stages--experienced by the Henry Street Consortium members. The consortium developed a set of entry-level core PHN competencies that are utilized by both education and practice. It developed menus of learning opportunities that were used to design population-based PHN clinical experiences. In addition, the consortium created a model for training and sustaining a preceptor network. The members of the Henry Street Consortium collaborated rather than competed, used consensus for decision making, and respected and accepted different points of view. This collaboration significantly impacted how schools of nursing and local health departments work together. The consortium's ability to retain its relevance, energy, and momentum for both academic and agency partners sustains the collaboration. PMID:21535112

  12. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  13. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  14. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose strategies for moderating harmful effects of restoration while meeting the needs of both endangered species and the imperiled native marsh ecosystem.

  15. Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... said. Study first author Eric Jackson, a medical student at Mayo Medical School, said he recommends wellness programs in medical schools. These programs could help identify what's adding to the stress, as well as help to remove barriers to ...

  16. Finding Common Ground: How Faith Communities Support Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Saundra

    Noting that faith communities play a vital role in connecting to families and children and often become involved in and supportive of education issues important in their local community, this document discusses the development of partnerships involving public schools and faith-based communities. The document compiles a series of talking points for…

  17. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day. PMID:24590540

  18. Commonly missed orthopedic problems.

    PubMed

    Ballas, M T; Tytko, J; Mannarino, F

    1998-01-15

    When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon. PMID:9456991

  19. Molecular pathogenesis and current pathology of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A

    2016-05-01

    Following its initial description over a century ago, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) continues to challenge researchers committed to understanding its pathobiology and finding a cure. The last two decades have seen major developments in our understanding of the genetics and molecular basis of PAH that drive cells within the pulmonary vascular wall to produce obstructive vascular lesions; presently, the field of PAH research has taken numerous approaches to dissect the complex amalgam of genetic, molecular and inflammatory pathways that interact to initiate and drive disease progression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of PAH pathology and the role that genetic factors and environmental influences share in the development of vascular lesions and abnormal cell function. We also discuss how animal models can assist in elucidating gene function and the study of novel therapeutics, while at the same time addressing the limitations of the most commonly used rodent models. Novel experimental approaches based on application of next generation sequencing, bioinformatics and epigenetics research are also discussed as these are now being actively used to facilitate the discovery of novel gene mutations and mechanisms that regulate gene expression in PAH. Finally, we touch on recent discoveries concerning the role of inflammation and immunity in PAH pathobiology and how they are being targeted with immunomodulatory agents. We conclude that the field of PAH research is actively expanding and the major challenge in the coming years is to develop a unified theory that incorporates genetic and mechanistic data to address viable areas for disease modifying drugs that can target key processes that regulate the evolution of vascular pathology of PAH. PMID:26694808

  20. T-wave inversions and the role of de-training in the differentiation of athlete’s heart from pathology: is 6 months too long?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Gregory; Somauroo, John; Wilson, Mathew; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Electrocardiographic changes are common in athletes. Differentiation of a physiological from a pathological substrate is important as ECG changes may indicate underlying cardiac disease placing the athlete at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Deep T-wave inversions are uncommon in Caucasian athletes however; appear more prevalent in black athletes. Irrespective of the ethnic origin of the athlete, deep T-wave inversions require thorough follow-up. At present, 6 months de-training is recommended to assist in the differentiation of physiologic and pathologic changes where a definitive diagnosis is elusive through standard diagnostic techniques. This case study examines findings from a black and a Caucasian athlete presenting with deep T-wave inversions following a brief (ca.3 week) period of de-training resulting in normalisation of T-wave. These cases suggest that a shorter period of time may be sufficient in differentiating physiological from pathological mechanisms for deep T-wave inversions. PMID:23035157

  1. Purkinje Cell Pathology and Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juliana; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2015-11-01

    Cerebellar ataxia commonly occurs in multiple sclerosis, particularly in chronic progressive disease. Previous reports have highlighted both white matter and grey matter pathological changes within the cerebellum; and demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltrates appear commonly. As Purkinje cell axons are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, understanding pathologic processes within these cells is crucial to develop strategies to prevent their loss and thus reduce ataxia. We studied pathologic changes occurring within Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Using immunohistochemic techniques, we found changes in neurofilament phosphorylation states within Purkinje cells, including loss of dephosphorylated neurofilament and increased phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated neurofilament. We also found Purkinje axonal spheroids and Purkinje cell loss, both of which occurred predominantly within areas of leucocortical demyelination within the cerebellar cortex. These changes have important implications for the study of cerebellar involvement in multiple sclerosis and may help design therapies to reduce the burden of ataxia in the condition. PMID:25411024

  2. Myosinopathies: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tajsharghi, Homa; Oldfors, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is the molecular motor of muscle and forms the backbone of the sarcomere thick filaments. Different MyHC isoforms are of importance for the physiological properties of different muscle fiber types. Hereditary myosin myopathies have emerged as an important group of diseases with variable clinical and morphological expression depending on the mutated isoform and type and location of the mutation. Dominant mutations in developmental MyHC isoform genes (MYH3 and MYH8) are associated with distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Dominant or recessive mutations affecting the type IIa MyHC (MYH2) are associated with early-onset myopathies with variable muscle weakness and ophthalmoplegia as a consistent finding. Myopathies with scapuloperoneal, distal or limb-girdle muscle weakness including entities, such as myosin storage myopathy and Laing distal myopathy are the result of usually dominant mutations in the gene for slow/β cardiac MyHC (MYH7). Protein aggregation is part of the features in some of these myopathies. In myosin storage myopathy protein aggregates are formed by accumulation of myosin beneath the sarcolemma and between myofibrils. In vitro studies on the effects of different mutations associated with myosin storage myopathy and Laing distal myopathy indicate altered biochemical and biophysical properties of the light meromyosin, which is essential for thick filament assembly. Protein aggregates in the form of tubulofilamentous inclusions in association with vacuolated muscle fibers are present at late stage of dominant myosin IIa myopathy and sometimes in Laing distal myopathy. These protein aggregates exhibit features indicating defective degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition to protein aggregation and muscle fiber degeneration some of the myosin mutations cause functional impairment of the molecular motor adding to the pathogenesis of myosinopathies. PMID:22918376

  3. Animal Abuse and Interpersonal Violence: The Cruelty Connection and Its Implications for Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, R; Arkow, P

    2016-09-01

    The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans. PMID:26936222

  4. Pathological and Clinical Spectrum of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: With Special Reference to Astrocytic Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuichi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Shiga, Atsushi; Tada, Mari; Kitamura, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Onodera, Osamu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Someya, Toshiyuki; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a four-repeat tauopathy with tau-positive, argyrophilic tuft-shaped astrocytes (TAs). We performed a pathological and clinical investigation in 40 consecutive autopsied Japanese patients with pathological diagnoses of PSP or PSP-like disease. Unequivocal TAs were present in 22 cases, all of which were confirmed to be PSP. Such TAs were hardly detected in the other 18 cases, which instead exhibited tau-positive, argyrophilic astrocytes, appearing as comparatively small clusters with central nuclei of irregularly shaped, coarse structures (equivocal TAs). Cluster analysis of the distribution pattern of tau-related pathology for these 18 cases identified two subgroups, pallido-nigro-luysian atrophy (PNLA) Type 1 (n = 9) and Type 2 (n = 9), the former being distinguished from the latter by the presence of tau-related lesions in the motor cortex, pontine nucleus and cerebellar dentate nucleus in addition to the severely affected PNL system. The duration from symptom onset until becoming wheelchair-bound was significantly longer in PNLA Type 1. Immunoblotting of samples from the three disease conditions revealed band patterns of low-molecular-mass tau fragments at ∼35 kDa. These findings shed further light on the wide pathological and clinical spectrum of four-repeat tauopathy, representing PSP in the broad sense rather than classical PSP. PMID:25974705

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase modulates tau phosphorylation and tau pathology in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Domise, Manon; Didier, Sébastien; Marinangeli, Claudia; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Buée, Luc; Viollet, Benoit; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases commonly known as tauopathies. NFTs result from the intracellular aggregation of abnormally and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Tau functions, which include the regulation of microtubules dynamics, are dependent on its phosphorylation status. As a consequence, any changes in tau phosphorylation can have major impacts on synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was deregulated in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients where it co-localized with phosphorylated tau in pre-tangle and tangle-bearing neurons. Besides, it was found that AMPK was a tau kinase in vitro. Here, we find that endogenous AMPK activation in mouse primary neurons induced an increase of tau phosphorylation at multiple sites, whereas AMPK inhibition led to a rapid decrease of tau phosphorylation. We further show that AMPK mice deficient for one of the catalytic alpha subunits displayed reduced endogenous tau phosphorylation. Finally, we found that AMPK deficiency reduced tau pathology in the PS19 mouse model of tauopathy. These results show that AMPK regulates tau phosphorylation in mouse primary neurons as well as in vivo, and thus suggest that AMPK could be a key player in the development of AD pathology. PMID:27230293

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase modulates tau phosphorylation and tau pathology in vivo.

    PubMed

    Domise, Manon; Didier, Sébastien; Marinangeli, Claudia; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Buée, Luc; Viollet, Benoit; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases commonly known as tauopathies. NFTs result from the intracellular aggregation of abnormally and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Tau functions, which include the regulation of microtubules dynamics, are dependent on its phosphorylation status. As a consequence, any changes in tau phosphorylation can have major impacts on synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was deregulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients where it co-localized with phosphorylated tau in pre-tangle and tangle-bearing neurons. Besides, it was found that AMPK was a tau kinase in vitro. Here, we find that endogenous AMPK activation in mouse primary neurons induced an increase of tau phosphorylation at multiple sites, whereas AMPK inhibition led to a rapid decrease of tau phosphorylation. We further show that AMPK mice deficient for one of the catalytic alpha subunits displayed reduced endogenous tau phosphorylation. Finally, we found that AMPK deficiency reduced tau pathology in the PS19 mouse model of tauopathy. These results show that AMPK regulates tau phosphorylation in mouse primary neurons as well as in vivo, and thus suggest that AMPK could be a key player in the development of AD pathology. PMID:27230293

  7. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  8. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  9. CT findings in leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1984-12-01

    Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

  10. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD. PMID:25300121

  11. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  12. False uroradiologic pathology in children with urinary tract infection and fecal impaction.

    PubMed

    Pery, M; Kaftori, J K; Alon, U

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) in 5 children with urinary tract infection detected various uroradiologic abnormalities. Despite the lack of history of constipation, a common denominator to all 5 patients was the finding of fecal impaction in the rectosigmoid. In the first 3 patients, repeated complete IVP series done several weeks later and after preparatory bowel enema were normal. In the last 2 patients, the radiologic investigation was interrupted when the first exposure disclosed uroradiologic abnormalities and fecal impaction. Following immediate bowel enema, the studies were completed on the same settings to be found normal. It is concluded that in the face of fecal impaction, pathologic uroradiologic findings should be interpreted with great caution. Moreover, in such cases, intraprocedure cleansing enema is feasible and recommended. PMID:3272857

  13. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  14. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V; Aller, Raymond D; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B; Friedman, Bruce A; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  15. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  16. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression. PMID:27423282

  17. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  18. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  19. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  20. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  1. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  2. Pathology in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development. PMID:24122335

  3. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): electroencephalographic findings and seizure patterns.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Oliver; Gerwig, Markus; Frings, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2012-07-01

    To better describe seizure type, frequency, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and correlate these data with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we retrospectively assessed medical charts and EEG studies of patients with PRES treated between 2004 and 2011. Data collected included patients' underlying pathology, lesion distribution by MRI, seizure type and frequency, EEG pathologic background activity, focal pathology, and epileptogenic activity. Thirty-eight of 49 adults with PRES suffered from seizures; 17 underwent EEG and were included in the analysis. Perpetuating factors were similar to those reported in the literature. In 15 of 17 patients, MRI showed widespread involvement rather than purely occipital lesions. Nine patients had subcortical and cortical involvement. Seizures were single short grand mal (GM) in 11, serial GM in 2, recurrent GM in 2, and additional focal seizures in 2. No seizures were noted beyond the first day. After discontinuation of antiepileptic medication, no patients experienced seizure recurrence during 6-month follow-up. EEG showed diffuse theta/delta slowing in 13 patients and epileptogenic activity with focal sharp-wave and periodic lateralizing epileptiform discharges in 2 patients. Seizures in PRES are most commonly single GM and are usually of limited duration. EEG shows variable theta/delta slowing. Focal EEG pathology is seen in patients with focal seizures. Seizures occur early after disease onset and terminate spontaneously or under therapy during the first 24 h. Seizure recurrence beyond 24 h and chronic epilepsy were not seen. Seizures in PRES are frequent but appear to be uncomplicated and do not herald worse prognosis. EEG is helpful in evaluating the degree of encephalopathy and monitoring epileptic activity. Long-term antiepileptic medication does not appear to be warranted. PMID:22189837

  4. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  5. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  6. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  7. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  8. Nuclear membrane diversity: underlying tissue-specific pathologies in disease?

    PubMed Central

    Worman, Howard J.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Human ‘laminopathy’ diseases result from mutations in genes encoding nuclear lamins or nuclear envelope (NE) transmembrane proteins (NETs). These diseases present a seeming paradox: the mutated proteins are widely expressed yet pathology is limited to specific tissues. New findings suggest tissue-specific pathologies arise because these widely expressed proteins act in various complexes that include tissue-specific components. Diverse mechanisms to achieve NE tissue-specificity include tissue-specific regulation of the expression, mRNA splicing, signaling, NE-localization and interactions of potentially hundreds of tissue-specific NETs. New findings suggest these NETs underlie tissue-specific NE roles in cytoskeletal mechanics, cell-cycle regulation, signaling, gene expression and genome organization. This view of the NE as ‘specialized’ in each cell type is important to understand the tissue-specific pathology of NE-linked diseases. PMID:26115475

  9. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  10. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B.; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  11. White Matter Diseases with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Shih, Robert Y; Jones, Robert V; Horkayne-Szakaly, Iren; Oleaga, Laura; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease). Infectious processes include Lyme disease (neuroborreliosis), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy. Vascular processes include different types of small-vessel disease: arteriolosclerosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), primary angiitis of the central nervous system, Susac syndrome, and neurolupus. Toxic-metabolic processes include osmotic myelinolysis, methotrexate leukoencephalopathy, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The imaging spectrum can vary widely from small multifocal white matter lesions to confluent or extensive white matter involvement. Understanding the pathologic substrate is fundamental for understanding the radiologic manifestations, and a systematic approach to the radiologic findings, in correlation with clinical and laboratory data, is crucial for narrowing the differential diagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27618323

  12. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    PubMed

    Słodkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Michał

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

  13. Ovarian masses revisited: radiologic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, C L; McKinney, C D; Jones, J E; Gay, S B

    1992-09-01

    Diagnosis of ovarian masses can be difficult because many pathologic conditions can affect the ovary and have similar clinical and radiologic manifestations. Knowledge of pathologic, age-specific characteristics can help refine the differential diagnosis. Ovarian masses are nonneoplastic (ovarian functional cysts, polycystic ovary disease, and ovarian torsion) or neoplastic (surface epithelial, sex cord-stromal, germ cell, and metastatic tumors). Functional cysts, if complicated by hemorrhage, can have a confusing ultrasonographic (US) appearance. Polycystic disease and torsion are easily diagnosed with US. Benign and malignant forms of serous and mucinous surface epithelial tumors can usually be differentiated with US. Imaging features of surface epithelial tumors of low malignant potential are nonspecific, resembling those of benign serous and mucinous tumors. Mature (benign) teratomas are usually cystic, with components of fat, soft tissue, and calcium, and are sonographically distinct from immature (malignant) teratomas, which are mostly solid. Sex cord-stromal tumors occur more often in menopausal or postmenopausal women and are typically solid. Metastatic disease is less common than other ovarian tumors; however, its radiologic appearance may resemble those of other masses. PMID:1529129

  14. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology: clotting, inflammation, epithelial and mesenchymal healing.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  15. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the α-β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent

  16. Common Curriculum, Core Curriculum or Common Curriculum Standards--Finding a Solution for Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabback, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of possible curriculum models in post-conflict countries, taking as an example the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1996 and 2004. Following the Dayton agreement, the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided between 13 ministries administering different Bosnian, Serb and Croat cantons. Despite…

  17. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    PubMed

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  18. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-01-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  19. The pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hogg, James C; Timens, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune response to the inhalation of toxic particles and gases. Although tobacco smoking is the primary cause of this inhalation injury, many other environmental and occupational exposures contribute to the pathology of COPD. The immune inflammatory changes associated with COPD are linked to a tissue-repair and -remodeling process that increases mucus production and causes emphysematous destruction of the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. The common form of emphysema observed in smokers begins in the respiratory bronchioles near the thickened and narrowed small bronchioles that become the major site of obstruction in COPD. The mechanism(s) that allow small airways to thicken in such close proximity to lung tissue undergoing emphysematous destruction remains a puzzle that needs to be solved. PMID:18954287

  20. Autophagy in synaptic development, function, and pathology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan-Na; Zhang, Li-Hui; Wei, Er-Qing; Yang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    In the nervous system, neurons contact each other to form neuronal circuits and drive behavior, relying heavily on synaptic connections. The proper development and growth of synapses allows functional transmission of electrical information between neurons or between neurons and muscle fibers. Defects in synapse-formation or development lead to many diseases. Autophagy, a major determinant of protein turnover, is an essential process that takes place in developing synapses. During the induction of autophagy, proteins and cytoplasmic components are encapsulated in autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes. The cargoes are subsequently degraded and recycled. However, aberrant autophagic activity may lead to synaptic dysfunction, which is a common pathological characteristic in several disorders. Here, we review the current understanding of autophagy in regulating synaptic development and function. In addition, autophagy-related synaptic dysfunction in human diseases is also summarized. PMID:26139541

  1. Fatal brodifacoum rodenticide poisoning: autopsy and toxicologic findings.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R B; Alakija, P; de Baca, J E; Nolte, K B

    1999-07-01

    This report details the pathologic and toxicologic findings in the case of a 15-year-old girl who deliberately and fatally ingested brodifacoum, a commonly used rodenticide. The mechanism of death, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, has not been previously reported. Brodifacoum was quantitated in liver, spleen, lung, brain, bile, vitreous humor, heart blood, and femoral blood using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest brodifacoum concentrations were detected in bile (4276 ng/mL) and femoral blood (3919 ng/mL). No brodifacoum was detected in brain or vitreous humor. A brodifacoum concentration of 50 ng/g was observed in frozen liver while formalin fixed liver exhibited a concentration of 820 ng/g. A very high blood:liver brodifacoum concentration ratio suggested acute poisoning but the historical and pathologic findings suggested a longer period of anticoagulation. Though most cases of brodifacoum poisoning in humans are non-fatal, this compound can be deadly because of its very long half-life. Forensic pathologists and toxicologists should suspect superwarfarin rodenticides when confronted with cases of unexplained bleeding. Anticoagulant poisoning can mimic fatal leukemia or infectious diseases such as bacterial sepsis, rickettsioses, plague, and leptospirosis. A thorough death scene investigation may provide clues that a person has ingested these substances. PMID:10432620

  2. Antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Mekala R.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murphy, Matthew C.; Murray, Melissa E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy. Methods: Patients with microinfarcts (n = 22) and patients without microinfarcts (n = 44) who underwent antemortem MRI were identified from a dementia clinic–based, population–based, and community clinic–based autopsy cohort. The microinfarct and no-microinfarct groups were matched on age at MRI, age at death, sex, APOE status, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Brain infarcts were assessed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. White matter hyperintensities on FLAIR MRI and hippocampal volumes on T1-weighted MRI were quantified using automated methods. A subset of subjects with microinfarcts (n = 15) and a matched group of subjects without microinfarcts (n = 15) had serial T1-weighted MRIs and were included in an analysis of global and regional brain atrophy rates using automated methods. Results: The presence of cortical (p = 0.03) and subcortical (p = 0.02) infarcts on antemortem MRI was associated with presence of microinfarcts at autopsy. Higher numbers of cortical (p = 0.05) and subcortical (p = 0.03) infarcts on antemortem MRI were also associated with presence of microinfarcts. Presence of microinfarcts was not associated with white matter hyperintensities and cross-sectional hippocampal volume on antemortem MRI. Whole-brain and regional precuneus, motor, and somatosensory atrophy rates were higher in subjects with microinfarcts compared to subjects without microinfarcts. Conclusions: Microinfarcts increase brain atrophy rates independent of Alzheimer disease pathology. Association between microinfarct pathology and macroinfarcts on MRI suggests either common risk factors or a shared pathophysiology and potentially common preventive targets. PMID:24793188

  3. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  4. Abnormal Paraplegin Expression in Swollen Neurites, τ- and α-Synuclein Pathology in a Case of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia SPG7 with an Ala510Val Mutation.

    PubMed

    Thal, Dietmar R; Züchner, Stephan; Gierer, Stephan; Schulte, Claudia; Schöls, Ludger; Schüle, Rebecca; Synofzik, Matthis

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the SPG7 gene are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias and spastic ataxias. Ala510Val is the most common SPG7 mutation, with a frequency of up to 1% in the general population. Here we report the clinical, genetic, and neuropathological findings in a homozygous Ala510Val SPG7 case with spastic ataxia. Neuron loss with associated gliosis was found in the inferior olivary nucleus, the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the substantia nigra and the basal nucleus of Meynert. Neurofilament and/or paraplegin accumulation was observed in swollen neurites in the cerebellar and cerebral cortex. This case also showed subcortical τ-pathology in an unique distribution pattern largely restricted to the brainstem. α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies (LBs) were observed in the brainstem and the cortex, compatible with a limbic pattern of Braak LB-Disease stage 4. Taken together, this case shows that the spectrum of pathologies in SPG7 can include neuron loss of the dentate nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus as well as neuritic pathology. The progressive supranuclear palsy-like brainstem predominant pattern of τ pathology and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies in our SPG7 cases may be either coincidental or related to SPG7 in addition to neuron loss and neuritic pathology. PMID:26506339

  5. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs: a review of 51 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Chimura, Syuuichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Machida, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

  7. Renal pathology in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: a contemporary biopsy, nephrectomy, and autopsy series.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Brian T; Houghton, Donald C; Troxell, Megan L

    2016-06-01

    Renal injury in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients may be related to a combination of factors including chemotherapy, radiation, infection, immunosuppressive agents, ischemia, and graft-versus-host disease, and can involve glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular structures. We reviewed renal pathology from 67 patients at a single institution (2009-2014), including 14 patients with biopsy for clinical dysfunction, 6 patients with surgical kidney resection for other causes, and 47 autopsy patients. Kidney specimens frequently contained multiple histopathologic abnormalities. Thrombotic microangiopathy, membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were the most common glomerular findings. Pathologies not previously reported in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting included collapsing glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, and in the case of two surgical resections distinctive cellular segmental glomerular lesions that defied classification. Kidney specimens frequently demonstrated acute tubular injury, interstitial fibrosis, arteriolar hyaline, and arteriosclerosis. Other kidney findings at autopsy included leukemia and amyloid (both recurrent), diabetic nephropathy, bacterial infection, fungal invasion, and silver deposition along glomerular and tubular basement membranes. Also in the autopsy cohort, C4d immunohistochemistry demonstrated unexpected membranous nephropathy in two patients, yet C4d also colocalized with arteriolar hyaline. This retrospective hematopoietic cell transplant cohort illustrates multifaceted renal injury in patients with renal dysfunction, as well as in patients without clinically recognized kidney injury. PMID:27015134

  8. Clinical Correlations With Lewy Body Pathology in LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lang, Anthony E.; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ross, Owen A.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Marder, Karen S.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Marti-Masso, Jose F.; Ferrer, Isidre; de Munain, Adolfo López; Goldman, Samuel M.; Schüle, Birgitt; Langston, J. William; Aasly, Jan O.; Giordana, Maria T.; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Puschmann, Andreas; Canesi, Margherita; Pezzoli, Gianni; De Paula, Andre Maues; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Stoessl, A. Jon; Marras, Connie

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD. OBSERVATIONS We describe genetic, clinical, and neuropathological findings of 37 cases of LRRK2-related PD including 33 published and 4 unpublished cases through October 2013. Among the different mutations, the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation was most frequently associated with LB pathology. Nonmotor features of cognitive impairment/dementia, anxiety, and orthostatic hypotension were correlated with the presence of LBs. In contrast, a primarily motor phenotype was associated with a lack of LBs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinicopathological correlations in a series of LRRK2-related PD cases. Findings from this selected group of patients with PD demonstrated that parkinsonian motor features can occur in the absence of LBs. However, LB pathology in LRRK2-related PD may be a marker for a broader parkinsonian symptom complex including cognitive impairment. PMID:25401511

  9. Pathologic and imaging correlates of cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis: changing the paradigm of diagnosis and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiong; Baxter, Leslie C; Kuniyoshi, Sandra M

    2014-03-01

    From 1868, when Charcot first described the clinical features and the pathologic correlates, up till the present day, multiple sclerosis (MS) has commonly been characterized by the symptoms caused by inflammatory plaques in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Early use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose MS focused on detecting these white matter lesions. By the 1990s, researchers recognized that many patients with MS have cognitive deficits that can cause severe disability, and also determined the associated pathology; these findings shed more light on both the pathogenesis and progression. Since 2004, several lines of evidence have shown that the extent of white matter plaques identified on MRI does not correlate well with cognitive deficits. High-resolution MRI and advances in immunohistochemical techniques have enabled detection of cortical demyelination early in the course, correlating with cognitive deficits. Late in the course, pathologic changes in normal-looking white and gray matter correlate more closely with progressive cognitive deficits than with visual, sensory, and motor symptoms. This finding implies the need to redefine the disease and its progression. In this review, we discuss the histopathologic studies of cortical plaques in MS and early indications about their role in disease definition and progression, describe the role of high-resolution MRI in staging and determining progression of cognitive symptoms, and discuss how advances in these areas are forcing us to rethink diagnosis and determination of progression. PMID:24674960

  10. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  11. α-Synuclein: Experimental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein, which is present as a small, soluble, cytosolic protein in healthy subjects, is converted to amyloid-like fibrils in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Bulk synthesis of purified α-synuclein has made it more convenient to study the nature of the normal protein and the mechanism of its conversion to an abnormal form in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic α-synuclein fibrils and pathological α-synuclein from diseased brains can act as triggers to convert normal α-synuclein to an abnormal form via prion-like mechanisms. In this article, we describe the experimental pathologies of α-synuclein both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal models. Prion-like spreading of abnormal α-synuclein from cell to cell can account for the progression of these α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27481772

  12. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  13. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  14. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  15. Telocyte implications in human pathology: An overview.

    PubMed

    Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Rosa, Irene; Manetti, Mirko

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes are a recently described interstitial cell population widely distributed in the stromal compartment of many organs in vertebrates, including humans. Owing to their close spatial relationship with multiple cell types, telocytes are universally considered as 'connecting cells' mostly committed to intercellular signaling by converting the interstitium into an integrated system that drives organ development and contributes to the maintenance of local tissue homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that telocytes may cooperate with tissue-resident stem cells to foster organ repair and regeneration, and that telocyte damage and dysfunction may occur in several disorders. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent findings concerning the implication of telocytes in a variety of pathologic conditions in humans, including heart disease, chronic inflammation and multiorgan fibrosis. Based on recent promising experimental data, there is realistic hope that by targeting telocytes alone or in tandem with stem cells, we might be able to promote organ regeneration and/or prevent irreversible end-stage organ damage in different pathologies. PMID:26805444

  16. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  17. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  18. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  19. [Pathology of paratenonitis achilleae in Athletes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harms, J; Biehl, G; von Hohbach, G

    1977-04-22

    This is a report about the histopathological findings after excision of the inflammably overhead paratenon at top sportsmen, which were operated of cause of a paratenonitis. The good clinical results are written and the histological findings are described and discussed. The development of the paratenonitis is decleared. Pathological alterations of the paratenon at the tendon itself are difficulty to merk off. At the sportsmen the etiology of the disease is often a mechanical overloading of the tissue. PMID:860963

  20. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

  1. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

    PubMed

    Arbelo, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herráez, P; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Rivero, M; Grau-Bassas, E R; Fernández, A

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a primary T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans. PMID:24650893

  2. Exercise preconditioning attenuates pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongyi; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Chengliang; Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, is typically associated with myocytes remodeling and fibrotic replacement, cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) increases the myocardial mechanical load and enhances tolerance of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), however, is less reported in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine the effect of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, Male 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to 4 weeks of EP followed by 4-8 weeks of pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) to induce pathological remodeling. TAC in untrained controls (n=30) led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function. We observed that left ventricular wall thickness in end diastole, heart size, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, heart weight-to-tibia length ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and the reactivation of fetal genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide) were markedly increased, meanwhile left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, systolic function were significantly decreased by TAC at 4 wks after operation (P < 0.01), all of which were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (P < 0.05), but the differences of these parameters were decreased at 8 wks after operation. Furthermore, EP treatment inhibited degradation of IκBα, and decreased NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and then reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to TAC. EP can effectively attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC possibly through inhibition of degradation of IκB and blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the early stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25755743

  3. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  4. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  5. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including

  6. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting with pathologic fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Kuku, Irfan; Kaya, Emin; Unlu, Serkan; Ertem, Kadir; Nizam, Ilknur

    2014-08-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is an acute syndrome with abnormalities in multiple organ systems, which becomes manifest with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. The hereditary or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS-13 activity leads to an excess of high molecular weight von Willebrand factor multimers in plasma, leading to platelet aggregation and diffuse intravascular thrombus formation, resulting in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Thrombotic lesions occurring in TTP leads to ischemia and convulsion. Depending on the properties of the bony tissue, fractures are divided into three groups as traumatic, pathological, and stress fractures. A pathologic fracture is a broken bone caused by disease leading to weakness of the bone. This process is most commonly due to osteoporosis, but may also be due to other pathologies such as cancer, infections, inherited bone disorders, or a bone cyst. We herein report a case with a pathologic fracture due to convulsion secondary to thrombotic thrombocytopenic pupura. Thrombotic lesions occurring in TTP may lead to ischemia and convulsion, as in our patient and pathological fractures presented in our case report may occur as a result of severe muscle contractions associated with convulsive activity. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic pupura is a disease that involves many organ systems and thus may have a very wide spectrum of clinical presentations. PMID:25113918

  7. Compression neuropathy of the common peroneal nerve secondary to a ganglion cyst.

    PubMed

    Yazid Bajuri, M; Tan, B C; Das, S; Hassan, S; Subanesh, S

    2011-01-01

    There are various causes of the common peroneal nerve palsy. However, common peroneal nerve palsy caused by ganglia are uncommon. We hereby present a case of a 55-year-old man with a 1 week history of foot drop and swelling in the region of the right leg. Physical examination and nerve conduction study studies confirmed a diagnosis of common peroneal nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lobulated, elongated cystic-appearing mass anterior to the head of fibula. Surgical decompression of the nerve with removal of the mass was performed. Surgical pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of a ganglion cyst. Findings on physical examination, nerve conduction study and MRI results of this interesting case are being discussed. We wish to highlight that even a tumour which is benign and within the nerve sheath can cause compression. PMID:22262327

  8. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context. PMID:18461253

  9. [Pathology of urologic importance associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Musci, R; Meroni, T; Andres, M; De Cobelli, O; Larcher, P; Franchini, V; Bovo, G

    1993-04-01

    Infection by the HIV virus affects the urogenital system in a minor percentage of cases in comparison to other organs such as the lungs, the central nervous system and the haemolymphopoietic system. In recent years however, with the continued spread of the disease also urologists find themselves dealing with the various urogenital pathologies that are presented in seropositive or fully-blown Aids patients. The Authors present their experience and describe the problems correlated to the dealing with acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients that are affected with urogenital pathologies. PMID:8330057

  10. Tau pathology-mediated presynaptic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno, H; Morfini, G; Buitrago, L; Ujlaki, G; Choi, S; Yu, E; Moreira, J E; Avila, J; Brady, S T; Pant, H; Sugimori, M; Llinás, R R

    2016-06-14

    Brain tauopathies are characterized by abnormal processing of tau protein. While somatodendritic tau mislocalization has attracted considerable attention in tauopathies, the role of tau pathology in axonal transport, connectivity and related dysfunctions remains obscure. We have previously shown using the squid giant synapse that presynaptic microinjection of recombinant human tau protein (htau42) results in failure of synaptic transmission. Here, we evaluated molecular mechanisms mediating this effect. Thus, the initial event, observed after htau42 presynaptic injection, was an increase in transmitter release. This event was mediated by calcium release from intracellular stores and was followed by a reduction in evoked transmitter release. The effect of htau42 on synaptic transmission was recapitulated by a peptide comprising the phosphatase-activating domain of tau, suggesting activation of phosphotransferases. Accordingly, findings indicated that htau42-mediated toxicity involves the activities of both GSK3 and Cdk5 kinases. PMID:27012611

  11. [Cardiology in the Morgagni's anatomo pathological work].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde, Pedro; Aranda Fraustro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In the XVIII century, under the influence of the "systematic spirit", characteristic of the Enlightenment age, pathological anatomy was systematized in the Morgagni's fundamental treatise De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published as letters in 1761. Certain biographical data of the author are reported here as well as some his more important contributions to cardiology such as the Morgagni's, Adams', Stokes' syndrome. His points of view on sudden death and his observations on post-infarct myocardial rupture, are related also. In his global evaluation of these facts, the speculative approach always predominates. Indeed, in these anatomist's works, we find a good example of the application of epistemologic principles to the medical field. PMID:25862292

  12. [Current medicolegal and ethical issues in pathology].

    PubMed

    Robienski, J; Hoppe, N

    2013-02-01

    The increase in density of information available in relation to patients and research participants, in particular in the context of genetic diagnostics and analysis, results in an increased potential for uncovering details which were unexpected but are of particular significance for the patient. Deciding how this information is dealt with and who is entitled to receive this information, is a medicolegal and ethical balancing act. Incidental findings and the challenges posed by the advent of personalised medicine are but two areas which increasingly impact medical disciplines that do not conventionally work directly with patients. Both areas raise questions of what is legally required and morally necessary. The authors briefly sketch these two areas and the medicolegal and ethical implications for diagnostics and research in pathology. PMID:23322303

  13. Thermal Injuries in Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, P; Peters, M; Schulze, C; Baumgärtner, W

    2016-09-01

    Localized thermal injuries in animals may be caused by exposure to fire and radiant heat, contact with hot items including hot liquids or steam, inhalation of hot air, and exposure to cold temperatures. In addition, animal fire victims may have intoxications caused by smoke gas. This article reviews the causes, pathogenetic aspects, morphological findings, additional investigations, differential diagnoses, and causes of death in various forms of thermal injuries. Since these cases do not occur frequently in diagnostic pathology, they represent a challenging task in general but also with respect to forensic or criminal aspects, such as whether a lesion represents an accidental or nonaccidental effect. Besides detailed information about the circumstances at the location, thermal injuries in animals require a thorough morphological evaluation, including additional investigations in conjunction with a profound knowledge about the possible lesion spectrum and suitable additional investigations. PMID:27106739

  14. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  15. Lupus Nephritis: Animal Modeling of a Complex Disease Syndrome Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tracy L; Madaio, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Nephritis as a result of autoimmunity is a common morbidity associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). There is substantial clinical and industry interest in medicinal intervention in the SLE nephritic process; however, clinical trials to specifically treat lupus nephritis have not resulted in complete and sustained remission in all patients. Multiple mouse models have been used to investigate the pathologic interactions between autoimmune reactivity and SLE pathology. While several models bear a remarkable similarity to SLE-driven nephritis, there are limitations for each that can make the task of choosing the appropriate model for a particular aspect of SLE pathology challenging. This is not surprising given the variable and diverse nature of human disease. In many respects, features among murine strains mimic some (but never all) of the autoimmune and pathologic features of lupus patients. Although the diversity often limits universal conclusions relevant to pathogenesis, they provide insights into the complex process that result in phenotypic manifestations of nephritis. Thus nephritis represents a microcosm of systemic disease, with variable lesions and clinical features. In this review, we discuss some of the most commonly used models of lupus nephritis (LN) and immune-mediated glomerular damage examining their relative strengths and weaknesses, which may provide insight in the human condition. PMID:25722732

  16. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844

  17. Genetic–pathologic characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Joonhong; Jo, Irene; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Choi, Hayoung; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Han, Kyungja; Eom, Ki-Seong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yang, Jinyoung; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyunjung; Ko, Yoon Ho; Park, Haeil; Jin, Jong Youl; Lee, Seungok; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Yahng, Seung-Ah; Kim, Myungshin

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic–pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:27444979

  18. Genetic-pathologic characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Joonhong; Jo, Irene; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Choi, Hayoung; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Han, Kyungja; Eom, Ki-Seong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yang, Jinyoung; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyunjung; Ko, Yoon Ho; Park, Haeil; Jin, Jong Youl; Lee, Seungok; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Yahng, Seung-Ah; Kim, Myungshin

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic-pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:27444979

  19. A prospective study of shoulder pain in primary care: Prevalence of imaged pathology and response to guided diagnostic blocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of imaged pathology in primary care has received little attention and the relevance of identified pathology to symptoms remains unclear. This paper reports the prevalence of imaged pathology and the association between pathology and response to diagnostic blocks into the subacromial bursa (SAB), acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and glenohumeral joint (GHJ). Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain recruited from primary care underwent standardised x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound scan and diagnostic injections of local anaesthetic into the SAB and ACJ. Subjects who reported less than 80% reduction in pain following either of these injections were referred for a magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and GHJ diagnostic block. Differences in proportions of positive and negative imaging findings in the anaesthetic response groups were assessed using Fishers test and odds ratios were calculated a for positive anaesthetic response (PAR) to diagnostic blocks. Results In the 208 subjects recruited, the rotator cuff and SAB displayed the highest prevalence of pathology on both ultrasound (50% and 31% respectively) and MRA (65% and 76% respectively). The prevalence of PAR following SAB injection was 34% and ACJ injection 14%. Of the 59% reporting a negative anaesthetic response (NAR) for both of these injections, 16% demonstrated a PAR to GHJ injection. A full thickness tear of supraspinatus on ultrasound was associated with PAR to SAB injection (OR 5.02; p < 0.05). Ultrasound evidence of a biceps tendon sheath effusion (OR 8.0; p < 0.01) and an intact rotator cuff (OR 1.3; p < 0.05) were associated with PAR to GHJ injection. No imaging findings were strongly associated with PAR to ACJ injection (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Rotator cuff and SAB pathology were the most common findings on ultrasound and MRA. Evidence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear was associated with symptoms arising from the subacromial region, and a biceps tendon sheath effusion

  20. Computed tomography appearance of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the abdomen: CT features and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Xu, Junlong; Wang, Jiaxin; Fan, Hongguang; Ang, Xuan; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT findings of abdominal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) and the relationship with morphological character. Materials and Methods: CT examinations and pathological findings of ten intra-abdominal IMTs were retrospectively analyzed. The histopathological characteristics of the IMTs were confirmed by two pathologists and two radiologists evaluated CT findings of the lesion, with emphasis on the imaging features compared with the corresponding histopathology. Results: The most common imaging characteristics were presence of heterogeneity, all tumors showed varying degrees of contrast enhancement. Two major different CT patterns were individualized. In type one, the tumor had a distinct boundary without a lobular appearance and displayed hypo-enhanced enhancement after administration of contrast in correlated with the mainly histopathologic findings of spindle cells myxoid and hypocellular fibrous (6/10; 60%). In type two, the lesions exhibited indistinct boundaries or complete capsule, ill-defined growth patterns or low intralesional attenuation with marked heterogeneous or circumferential enhancement, which correlated well with the presence of abundance of micromodule and inflammatory cell infiltration (4/10; 40%). Conclusions: Two major different contrast enhancement CT patterns were individualized can help to determine the relationships with histopathologic findings, while cannot be reliably differentiated from other solid lesions based solely on the CT appearance, combined with diagnostic biopsy may facilitate to achieve a correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26629216

  1. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  2. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  3. Expanding the spectrum of neuronal pathology in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.; Schmeichel, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy that typically affects patients in their sixth decade of life and beyond. The defining clinical features of the disease include progressive autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia leading to significant disability. Pathologically, multiple system atrophy is characterized by glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing filamentous alpha-synuclein. Neuronal inclusions also have been reported but remain less well defined. This study aimed to further define the spectrum of neuronal pathology in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (20 male, 15 female; mean age at death 64.7 years; median disease duration 6.5 years, range 2.2 to 15.6 years). The morphologic type, topography, and frequencies of neuronal inclusions, including globular cytoplasmic (Lewy body-like) neuronal inclusions, were determined across a wide spectrum of brain regions. A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated between distinct anatomic regions of involvement (striatum, substantia nigra, olivary and pontine nuclei, hippocampus, forebrain and thalamus, anterior cingulate and neocortex, and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). The major finding was the identification of widespread neuronal inclusions in the majority of patients, not only in typical disease-associated regions (striatum, substantia nigra), but also within anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain and hypothalamus. Neuronal inclusion pathology appeared to follow a hierarchy of region-specific susceptibility, independent of the clinical phenotype, and the severity of pathology was duration-dependent. Neuronal inclusions also were identified in regions not previously implicated in the disease, such as within cerebellar roof nuclei. Lewy body-like inclusions in multiple system atrophy followed the stepwise anatomic progression of Lewy body-spectrum disease inclusion pathology in 25.7% of patients

  4. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  5. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  7. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  8. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  9. Pathological conditions re-shape physiological Tregs into pathological Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William Y.; Shao, Ying; Lopez-Pastrana, Jahaira; Mai, Jietang; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-01-01

    CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4 T cells that play an essential role in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance, controlling acute and chronic inflammation, allergy, autoimmune diseases, and anti-cancer immune responses. Over the past 20 years, significant progress has been made since Tregs were first characterized in 1995. Many concepts and principles regarding Tregs generation, phenotypic features, subsets (tTregs, pTregs, iTregs, and iTreg35), tissue specificity (central Tregs, effector Tregs, and tissue resident Tregs), homeostasis (highly dynamic and apoptotic), regulation of Tregs by receptors for PAMPs and DAMPs, Treg plasticity (re-differentiation to other CD4 T helper cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Tfh and Th17), and epigenetic regulation of Tregs phenotypes and functions have been innovated. In this concise review, we want to briefly analyze these eight new progresses in the study of Tregs. We have also proposed for the first time a novel concept that “physiological Tregs” have been re-shaped into “pathological Tregs” in various pathological environments. Continuing of the improvement in our understanding on this important cellular component about the immune tolerance and immune suppression, would lead to the future development of novel therapeutics approaches for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, allergy, allogeneic transplantation-related immunity, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. PMID:26623425

  10. The role of arthroscopy in the dysplastic hip—a systematic review of the intra-articular findings, and the outcomes utilizing hip arthroscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Suenghwan; Lee, Sang Hong; Wang, Sung Il; Smith, Bjorn; O’Donnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Acetabular dysplasia is one of the most common sources of hip arthritis. With the recent innovation in hip arthroscopy, the question has been raised whether arthroscopy can be used to treat dysplastic hip conditions. The purposes of this systematic review are (i) describe the prevalence of intra-articular pathologies and (ii) report the outcomes of dysplastic hip treatment with hip arthroscopy as a sole treatment. Medical databases were searched for articles including arthroscopic findings and treatment of dysplastic hip with predetermined criteria. PubMed, Ovid database and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched up until 7 January 2015. Two reviewers independently assess the eligibility of retrieved studies using titles, abstracts and full-text articles. Thirteen studies were eligible to be included for the systematic review. Overall, labral tear was the most common pathology with a prevalence rate of 77.3%. All of the four studies describing arthroscopic treatment for only borderline dysplasia reported favorable outcome. With regard to more severely dysplastic hips, two out of three studies reported acceptable outcomes while one study reported negative results. This review indicates that intra-articular pathology is commonly observed in symptomatic dysplastic hips with a labral tear being the most common pathology. Arthroscopic treatment of borderline dysplasia could provide benefits whereas treatment of more dysplastic hips is controversial. Nevertheless, there is a lack of evidence for using arthroscopy alone in hips with a center edge angle <20°. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. PMID:27583155

  11. The role of arthroscopy in the dysplastic hip-a systematic review of the intra-articular findings, and the outcomes utilizing hip arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Jo, Suenghwan; Lee, Sang Hong; Wang, Sung Il; Smith, Bjorn; O'Donnell, John

    2016-08-01

    Acetabular dysplasia is one of the most common sources of hip arthritis. With the recent innovation in hip arthroscopy, the question has been raised whether arthroscopy can be used to treat dysplastic hip conditions. The purposes of this systematic review are (i) describe the prevalence of intra-articular pathologies and (ii) report the outcomes of dysplastic hip treatment with hip arthroscopy as a sole treatment. Medical databases were searched for articles including arthroscopic findings and treatment of dysplastic hip with predetermined criteria. PubMed, Ovid database and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched up until 7 January 2015. Two reviewers independently assess the eligibility of retrieved studies using titles, abstracts and full-text articles. Thirteen studies were eligible to be included for the systematic review. Overall, labral tear was the most common pathology with a prevalence rate of 77.3%. All of the four studies describing arthroscopic treatment for only borderline dysplasia reported favorable outcome. With regard to more severely dysplastic hips, two out of three studies reported acceptable outcomes while one study reported negative results. This review indicates that intra-articular pathology is commonly observed in symptomatic dysplastic hips with a labral tear being the most common pathology. Arthroscopic treatment of borderline dysplasia could provide benefits whereas treatment of more dysplastic hips is controversial. Nevertheless, there is a lack of evidence for using arthroscopy alone in hips with a center edge angle <20°. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. PMID:27583155

  12. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures Mimicking Lumbar Spine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    K. L., Kalra; Acharya, Shankar; Chahal, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans. All four patients were treated for underlying osteoporosis. Two patients who underwent surgery were treated conservatively and other two were treated by sacroplasty involving injection of cement into the fracture. Sacroplasty produced immediate pain relief and early mobilization compared to the conservative group. SIFs should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting with low back symptoms. Sacroplasty can be considered for immediate pain relief and rapid mobilization. PMID:27340538

  13. Pathology of coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue

    2016-08-01

    The process of early atherosclerotic plaque progression is characterized by the development of pathologic intimal thickening (PIT) with lipid pool that may transform into the necrotic core to form fibroatheroma, where infiltration of foamy macrophages plays a crucial role. The expansion of the necrotic core is also attributable to intraplaque hemorrhage. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is characterized by a relatively large necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap measuring <65 µm typically containing numerous macrophages, and is considered to be the precursor lesion of plaque rupture which is the most common cause of coronary thrombosis. The second common cause of acute thrombosis is plaque erosion, while calcified nodules is known to be the least frequent cause of coronary thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis can occur without symptoms to form healed lesions, which contributes to an increase in plaque burden and luminal narrowing. The process of plaque progression is generally accompanied by the progression of calcification. An understanding of the histomorphological characteristics of coronary plaques should provide important insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary disease for both basic and clinical researchers as well as for clinicians. PMID:27500096

  14. Pathology of coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue

    2016-01-01

    The process of early atherosclerotic plaque progression is characterized by the development of pathologic intimal thickening (PIT) with lipid pool that may transform into the necrotic core to form fibroatheroma, where infiltration of foamy macrophages plays a crucial role. The expansion of the necrotic core is also attributable to intraplaque hemorrhage. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is characterized by a relatively large necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap measuring <65 µm typically containing numerous macrophages, and is considered to be the precursor lesion of plaque rupture which is the most common cause of coronary thrombosis. The second common cause of acute thrombosis is plaque erosion, while calcified nodules is known to be the least frequent cause of coronary thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis can occur without symptoms to form healed lesions, which contributes to an increase in plaque burden and luminal narrowing. The process of plaque progression is generally accompanied by the progression of calcification. An understanding of the histomorphological characteristics of coronary plaques should provide important insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary disease for both basic and clinical researchers as well as for clinicians. PMID:27500096

  15. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand.

    PubMed

    Dębek, Anna; Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination. PMID:26675521

  16. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures Mimicking Lumbar Spine Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, G; K L, Kalra; Acharya, Shankar; Chahal, Rupinder

    2016-06-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans. All four patients were treated for underlying osteoporosis. Two patients who underwent surgery were treated conservatively and other two were treated by sacroplasty involving injection of cement into the fracture. Sacroplasty produced immediate pain relief and early mobilization compared to the conservative group. SIFs should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting with low back symptoms. Sacroplasty can be considered for immediate pain relief and rapid mobilization. PMID:27340538

  17. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand

    PubMed Central

    Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination. PMID:26675521

  18. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in...

  19. Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological dermis through polarization second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hong, Jin-Bon; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    We used polarization-resolved, second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy at single pixel resolution for medical diagnosis of pathological skin dermis, and found that P-SHG can be used to distinguish normal and dermal pathological conditions of keloid, morphea, and dermal elastolysis. We find that the histograms of the d33/d31 ratio for the pathological skins to contain two peak values and to be wider than that of the normal case, suggesting that the pathological dermal collagen fibers tend to be more structurally heterogeneous. Our work demonstrates that pixel-resolved, second-order susceptibility microscopy is effective for detecting heterogeneity in spatial distribution of collagen fibers.

  20. Hyperthyroidism Presenting With Pathologic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Margaret D.; Corwin, Daniel J.; Harrison, Victor S.; Jacobstein, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormone directly stimulates bone resorption in in vitro organ culture, and in adults excess thyroid hormone is associated with decreased bone mineral density. There are limited data in children regarding the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism and even fewer instances in the literature of hyperthyroidism presenting with bone demineralization and fracture. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism presenting with fractures and osteoporosis. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a pathologic fracture. PMID:26746406