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1

Pathology findings with acrylic implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the pathological findings in cases of acrylic implants obtained by direct intratumoral injection of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA). Direct intratumoral injection of acrylic implants was performed for a variety of primary and secondary bone lesions. These types of treatments have been used at our institution in the last 4 years for 40 vertebroplasty (PMMA) procedures and for

D San Millán Ruíz; K Burkhardt; B Jean; M Muster; J. B Martin; J Bouvier; J. H. D Fasel; D. A Rüfenacht; A. M Kurt

1999-01-01

2

Typical findings in pathological grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients exhibiting pathological grief reactions are those in the middle portion of a spectrum between those on one end with “normal” grief and those on the other end who suffer from full-blown neurosis, psychosomatic symptoms, etc., which are directly related to aknown loss. After examining 23 cases, the author suggests that patients who suffer from pathological grief share a

Vamik Volkan

1970-01-01

3

Thoracic findings in gastrointestinal pathology.  

PubMed

A large variety of gastrointestinal and abdominal pathologic processes can be diagnosed or suspected by their direct effects on the chest. The chest radiograph, as often the first admission film, can aid the radiologist in recommending the appropriate follow-up examinations. PMID:6382420

Gedgaudas-McClees, R K; Torres, W E; Colvin, R S; McClees, E C; Baron, M G

1984-09-01

4

Protozoan Parasites and Pathological Findings in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues from 23 Australian water rats (Hydromys chrysogaster) collected from five localities in central and northern Queens- land, Australia, between February 1992 and May 1993, were examined for protozoan para- sites and additional pathological changes. We found Kiossiella hydromyos in the kidneys, Toxoplasma gondii in the brain and skeletal miuuiscles and Sarcocystis sp. in the somatic mus- culatimre. Other pathological

Mount Pleasant Labo; Kings Meadows

1996-01-01

5

Shoulder MRI: Part 2. Overview of common pathological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the identification of shoulder pathologies, determined on clinical examination, using orthopaedic and magnetic resonance imaging. Illustrative examples are provided, with the discussion of commonly encountered disorders of the shoulder pertinent to investigation by this form of special imaging. These include sub-acromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff pathology and biceps tendonopathy. Normal MRI appearance of the

Julie-Marthe Grenier; Peter J. Scordilis; Michelle A Wessely

2005-01-01

6

Multifocal posterior uveitis: clinical and pathological findings.  

PubMed Central

A pathological study was performed on the necropsy eyes of a 59-year old-woman who had suffered for nine years from multifocal posterior uveitis. The disease had been controlled by steroid therapy with good preservation of visual function. Extensive investigation did not reveal the aetiology. On macroscopic examination numerous focal lesions with various degrees of pigmentation were observed scattered across the fundi. These lesions were studied by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. There was ongoing chorioretinal inflammation in the foci, producing destruction of Bruch's membrane, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and the outer retina. The focal scars showed migration of RPE and glial cells and neovascularisation. Capillary and venule endothelial cells were swollen at the inflammatory sites. Attempts to establish a cause for this condition were unsuccessful. Images

Charteris, D G; Lee, W R

1990-01-01

7

Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities. PMID:16418244

Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Tae Sung

2006-01-01

8

Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

2006-01-15

9

Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

2006-01-15

10

Review of pathologic findings in remnant hearts following valve donation.  

PubMed

The failure of medical examiners/coroners (ME/C) to allow heart valve donation is a major problem encountered by tissue agencies. Even though many ME/C favor tissue donation they remain responsible for determination of cause and manner of death. In 2001, the Jesse E. Edwards Registry of Cardiovascular Disease was approached by one of the nation's largest tissue procurement agencies (The American Red Cross--ARC) for the purpose of performing cardiovascular pathologic examinations following valve donation. The affiliation existed from October 2001 to January 2005. This study was undertaken to review all 593 postvalve recovery heart remnants received during that time period to tabulate the abnormalities identified and to determine whether donation interfered with the determination of cause of death. For each case, a preliminary cause of death was provided by the ARC. The decedent's body height and weight were also provided. Using the preliminary cause of death, the 593 cases were divided into natural and nonnatural manner of death groups. This division of the cases resulted in 106 cases placed in the natural manner of death group and 487 cases in the nonnatural manner of death group. For each case, all cardiac findings including significant conditions, additional findings, incidental findings, and congenital abnormalities were tabulated. Within the natural manner of death group, 15 cases had a noncardiac cause of death and 91 cases had a cause of death suspected to be cardiac related. In the 91 cases, a total of 132 significant cardiac findings were identified and there were six structurally normal hearts including two infants. In the nonnatural manner of death group, 214 significant cardiac findings were identified and 222 cases had a structurally normal heart. In both natural and nonnatural groups, the most common cardiac abnormality was atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Other frequently encountered conditions were also identified including 11 cases with acute angle of origin of a coronary artery (five cases natural group; six cases nonnatural group). An important feature of this review was the recognition of potentially inheritable conditions that were diagnosed in both natural and nonnatural manner of death groups. There were three cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (one natural; two nonnatural), three cases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (one natural; two nonnatural), and one case of mitral valve prolapse (natural). In reviewing these cases, we did not feel that valve donation severely impaired cardiac pathologic examination. The benefits of cardiovascular pathologic examination by a cardiac pathologist include the identification of significant and incidental findings and recognition of potentially inheritable conditions. PMID:17456097

Mackey-Bojack, Shannon; Roe, Susan; Titus, Jack L

2007-05-01

11

Porcine Haemophilus pleuropneumonia: microbiologic and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from 11% of porcine lung specimens submitted to the University of Illinois Diagnostic Laboratory during 1979-1982. Acute necrotizing fibrinous bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis; 65% of lungs had severe involvement of the caudal lobes; 10% of lungs had unilateral involvement only. In 46% of lungs, a second pathogen was isolated. Isolates of H pleuropneumoniae tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method were most sensitive to nitrofurazone (100%), polymyxin B (97%), chloramphenicol (95%), gentamicin (94%), sulfachloropyridazine (87%), ampicillin (83%), and penicillin (77%). Isolates were less sensitive to 9 other antimicrobials tested. Over 4 years in 1 herd, succeeding isolates of H pleuropneumoniae developed resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, bacitracin, lincomycin, penicillin, and tetracycline. PMID:6725106

Didier, P J; Perino, L; Urbance, J

1984-03-15

12

[Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].  

PubMed

Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

2014-01-01

13

Hepatic malignancies: Correlation between sonographic findings and pathological features.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) findings are inevitably based on pathological features. Knowledge of the pathological features of hepatic malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastasis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is essential for correct US diagnosis and appropriate management. One type of hepatocarcinogenesis is step-wise development from a low-grade dysplastic nodule (DN), high-grade DN, high-grade DN with malignant foci, and well-differentiated HCC, to classical HCC. The intranodular blood supply changes in accordance with this progression. Moreover, the malignant potential tends to change as the macroscopic configuration progresses. Therefore, typical US findings of advanced HCC are a mosaic pattern, septum formation, peripheral sonolucency (halo), lateral shadow produced by fibrotic pseudocapsule, posterior echo enhancement, arterial hypervascularity with dilated intratumoral blood sinusoids, and perinodular daughter nodule formation. Bull's eye appearance is a common presentation of metastases from gastrointestinal (GI) adenocarcinomas, and represents histological findings that show an area of central necrosis surrounded by a zonal area of viable tumor. Thick zonal area reflects the layer of viable cells that are fed by minute tumor vessels. US imaging features of liver metastases from the GI tract are as follows: Bull's eye appearance, multiple masses, irregular tumor border, arterial rim-like enhancement, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. Most intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are ductal adenocarcinomas. The bile ducts peripheral to the tumor are usually dilated because of obstruction by tumors. US imaging features of mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma are as follows: peripheral bile duct dilatation, irregular tumor border, arterial enhancement due to minute intratumoral blood sinusoids, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. PMID:21160664

Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

2010-07-28

14

Common postoperative findings unique to laparoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

The interpretation of images obtained in patients who have recently undergone abdominal or pelvic surgery is challenging, in part because procedures that were previously performed with open surgical techniques are increasingly being performed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic) techniques. Thus, it is important to be familiar with the normal approach used for laparoscopic surgeries. The authors describe the indications for various laparoscopic surgical procedures (eg, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hernia repair) as well as normal postoperative findings. For example, port site hernias are more commonly encountered in patients with trocar sites greater than 10 mm and occur at classic entry sites (eg, the periumbilical region). Similarly, preperitoneal air can be encountered postoperatively, often secondary to trocar dislodgement during difficult entry or positioning. In addition, intraperitoneal placement of mesh during commonly performed ventral or incisional hernia repairs typically leads to postoperative seroma formation. Familiarity with normal findings after commonly performed laparoscopic surgical procedures in the abdomen and pelvis allows accurate diagnosis of common complications and avoidance of diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:24428286

Hindman, Nicole M; Kang, Stella; Parikh, Manish S

2014-01-01

15

Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia.  

PubMed

"Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia. PMID:18382944

Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C

2008-03-01

16

Finding lowest common ancestors in parallel  

SciTech Connect

Two parallel algorithms for finding the lowest common ancestors of a set of vertex pairs Q (the query set) in a directed tree are presented. With all the overheads taken into account, these algorithms take O(((n + absolute value of Q)/p) log/sub 2/n) and O(n/sup 2//p + log/sub 2/n) time, respectively, with p(>0) processors (n is the size of the tree). These results are better than the best known result in that the first achieves the O(log/sub 2/n) time bound with only n + absolute value of Q processors which the second reduces the number of processors used by a factor of log/sub 2/n which is optimal for large query sets when 0 < p less than or equal to n/sup 2//log/sub 2/n. The computer model the authors use here is the PRAM which is an SIMD model allowing read but not write conflicts. The results also imply the following improvements: the processor bound for finding a set of fundamental cycles in an undirected graph is improved by a factor of log/sub 2/n and the result is optimal for dense graphs; the implementations of some other sequential and parallel algorithms are also simplified.

Tsin, Y.H.

1986-08-01

17

Bal?'s concentric sclerosis: imaging findings and pathological correlation  

PubMed Central

Baló’s concentric sclerosis is a primary inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease that is considered a rare, radiographically and pathologically distinct variant of multiple sclerosis. Baló’s concentric sclerosis is characterized by alternating rings of demyelinated and myelinated axons, and it is most frequently diagnosed postmortem by autopsy or, more recently, by magnetic resonance imaging without pathologic verification. This report is of a case of Baló’s concentric sclerosis in which the patient presented with left-sided focal sensorimotor deficits. The patient’s lesion demonstrated characteristics of Baló’s concentric sclerosis by magnetic resonance imaging, but since a neoplastic process was also suspected initially, the patient underwent a surgical biopsy. This pathology sample now provides the opportunity to correlate the tissue diagnosis of demyelination with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings; this comparison is infrequently found in the literature.

Darke, Maxine; Bahador, Farshad M; Miller, Douglas C; Litofsky, Norman S; Ahsan, Humera

2013-01-01

18

Incidental Findings: A Common Law Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal regulations governing human subjects research do not address key questions raised by incidental neuroimaging findings, including the scope of a researcher's disclosure with respect to the possibility of incidental findings and the question of whether a researcher has an affirmative legal duty to seek, detect and report incidental findings. The scope of researcher duties may, however, be mapped with

Stacey A. Tovino

2009-01-01

19

A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

Haladyna, Tom

20

Psychological test findings on pathological gamblers in treatment.  

PubMed

A sample of 23 veterans entering the Pathological Gambling Treatment Program at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Miami, Florida, were administered a battery of tests including the following: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Findings on the intelligence testing indicated that on the average the pathological gamblers were of bright normal intelligence with a mean WAIS Full Scale IQ of 116.78, mean Verbal IQ of 119.30, and a mean Performance IQ of 111.30. Group profile results on the MMPI showed significant mean clinical scale elevations on two of the nine clinical scales: Scale 2, Depression; and Scale 4, Psychopathic Deviate. Group profile results on the EPPS indicated relatively high scores on the variables of achievement, exhibition, autonomy, dominance, and heterosexuality; and relatively low scores on the variables of deference, order, and endurance. Group profile results on the POI were essentially within normal limits with a tendency toward time incompetency noted, suggesting difficulty living fully in the present here and now. PMID:6642793

Moravec, J D; Munley, P H

1983-10-01

21

Spontaneous pathology of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus mystax)  

PubMed Central

Background Marmosets and tamarins are increasingly used in research, but their pathology remains poorly defined compared to old world primates. Methods Necropsy records of 129 marmosets and 52 tamarins were reviewed; none were used experimentally. Results The most common marmoset lesions were dehydration, emaciation, nephritis, colitis and inanition. The most common tamarin lesions were dehydration, ascites, emaciation and congestive heart failure. Colitis and heart disease were the most common cause of death in marmosets and tamarins, respectively. Immature marmoset and tamarin deaths often occurred within the first month of life. Immature marmosets usually died from inanition, stillbirth and colitis; immature tamarins from atelectasis, stillbirth, heart failure and colitis. Lymphoma was the most common neoplasm for both marmosets and tamarins. Conclusion The findings were similar to prior reports with differences in frequency and severity. We report the first case of endometriosis in a marmoset.

David, John M.; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2009-01-01

22

Bone and gallium scan findings in malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report with radiographic and pathologic correlation  

SciTech Connect

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in adults. The Ga-67 citrate scan findings of an extremity-located MFH, the most common location of this neoplasm, have never been published in English language journals to the best of the authors' knowledge. Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP scans of the thigh mass accurately depicted the tumor's local extent, including the presence of central ischemic necrosis within the tumor, and the absence of adjacent osseous involvement and distant metastases, as correlated with computed tomography, angiography, and pathologic examinations.

Mackey, J.K.; Alexieva-Jackson, B.; Fetters, D.V.; Edwards, S.M.; McBride, J.P.; Cole, R.L.; Trapp, W.G.

1987-01-01

23

Abdominopelvic actinomycosis: spectrum of imaging findings and common mimickers  

PubMed Central

Background Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease that may mimic other inflammatory conditions on imaging. Its invasive nature may lead to mass formation and atypical presentation thus making accurate diagnosis quite difficult. Purpose To describe the different aspects of abdominopelvic actinomycosis on cross-sectional imaging and indicate discriminative findings from other inflammatory or neoplastic diseases. Material and Methods In our study we analyzed 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; age range, 25–75 years; mean age, 50 years) with pathologically proved abdominopelvic actinomycosis. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) had been performed in all patients. Eleven patients had a history of using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Bowel site, wall thickness and enhancement degree, inflammatory infiltration, and features of peritoneal or pelvic mass were evaluated at CT. Results The sigmoid colon was most commonly involved. Most patients showed concentric bowel wall-thickening, enhancing homogenously and inflammatory infiltration of pericolonic fat was mostly diffuse. In 11 patients, one or more pelvic abscesses were revealed, while a peritoneal or pelvic mass adjacent to the involved bowel segment was seen in three cases. Infiltration into the abdominal wall was seen in three cases while in one case there was thoracic dissemination. Conclusion Actinomycosis is related not only to long-term use of intrauterine contraceptive devices and should be included in the differential diagnosis when cross-sectional imaging studies show concentric bowel wall-thickening, intense contrast enhancement, regional pelvic or peritoneal masses, and extensive inflammatory fat infiltration with abscess formation.

der Molen, Aart Van; Es, Ad CMG Van; Giannila, Maria

2014-01-01

24

Pathological findings in enucleated eyes after intravitreal melphalan injection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the pathological findings of the eye after intravitreal melphalan for viable vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma. All enucleated eyes receiving an intravitreal injection of melphalan (10-50 ?g in 0.05 cc) were evaluated for histological changes. Of 25 treated cases, 8 eyes needed enucleation because of phthisis, parent request, or new tumor development. One of the cases was excluded from the study because of a history of intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan. There was no case of needle-site scleral involvement by retinoblastoma cells. In two eyes receiving 50 ?g melphalan, no viable retinoblastoma cell was detectable in the eye. Severe gliosis, vascular occlusion, retinal necrosis, hemorrhage and neovascularization were seen. Histologically, intravitreal melphalan for recalcitrant or recurrent vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma appears to provide acceptable vitreous seed control. It seems that higher doses could be destructive causing ischemic necrosis in the retina, severe gliosis and secondary neovascular changes as well as having a destructive effect on retinoblastoma cells. PMID:24043335

Ghassemi, Fariba; Amoli, Fahimeh Asadi

2014-06-01

25

Contrast-enhanced sonography of pancreatic carcinoma: correlations with pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We examined contrast-enhanced harmonic gray-scale sonographic findings of pancreatic carcinoma in relation to the pathological findings in resected specimens to evaluate correlations between observations made by this modality and the pathological findings. Methods. The pathological findings of surgical specimens obtained from 16 patients were examined in relation to the contrast-enhanced harmonic gray-scale sonography findings. Lesion vascularity was examined by

Kazushi Numata; Yutaka Ozawa; Noritoshi Kobayashi; Toru Kubota; Hiroshi Shimada; Akinori Nozawa; Yukio Nakatani; Kazuya Sugimori; Kenichi Matsuo; Toshio Imada; Katsuaki Tanaka

2005-01-01

26

Human Hemorrhagic Pulmonary Leptospirosis: Pathological Findings and Pathophysiological Correlations  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with protean clinical manifestations. Recently, the importance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a lethal complication of this disease has been recognized. In the present study, five human necropsies of leptospirosis (Weil‘s syndrome) with extensive pulmonary manifestations were analysed, and the antibodies expressed in blood vessels and cells involved in ion and water transport were used, seeking to better understand the pathophysiology of the lung injury associated with this disease. Principal Findings Prominent vascular damage was present in the lung microcirculation, with decreased CD34 and preserved aquaporin 1 expression. At the periphery and even inside the extensive areas of edema and intraalveolar hemorrhage, enlarged, apparently hypertrophic type I pneumocytes (PI) were detected and interpreted as a non-specific attempt of clearence of the intraalveolar fluid, in which ionic transport, particularly of sodium, plays a predominant role, as suggested by the apparently increased ENaC and aquaporin 5 expression. Connexin 43 was present in most pneumocytes, and in the cytoplasm of the more preserved endothelial cells. The number of type II pneumocytes (PII) was slightly decreased when compared to normal lungs and those of patients with septicemia from other causes, a fact that may contribute to the progressively low PI count, resulting in deficient restoration after damage to the alveolar epithelial integrity and, consequently, a poor outcome of the pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Conclusions Pathogenesis of lung injury in human leptospirosis was discussed, and the possibility of primary non-inflammatory vascular damage was considered, so far of undefinite etiopathogenesis, as the initial pathological manifestation of the disease.

De Brito, Thales; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; da Silva, Luis Fernando Ferraz; Goncalves da Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

2013-01-01

27

Peripancreatic intranodal haemangioma mimicking pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: imaging and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

Haemangiomas are common benign tumours that are generally detected within the skin, mucosal surfaces and soft tissues. However, intranodal haemangiomas are extremely rare and are among the benign primary vascular abnormalities of the lymph nodes that include lymphangioma, haemangioendothelioma, angiomyomatous hamartoma and haemangiomas. In this case report, we present the imaging and pathological findings of an intranodal haemangioma in the pancreatic head simulating a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intranodal haemangioma in this location.

Karaosmanoglu, A D; Arellano, R; Baker, G

2011-01-01

28

Breast pathology practice: most common problems in a consultation service.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made in understanding breast lesions utilizing molecular methods, but conventional morphology, simple immunohistochemical stains and common sense still prevail in diagnosing the vast majority of breast disease. The focus of this review is to identify the most common breast lesions sent to our consultation practice, and to reiterate salient diagnostic features, differential diagnoses and common pitfalls in identifying these lesions. Separation of epithelial proliferative lesions and differentiation between usual epithelial hyperplasia (UEH) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are the most common problems encountered in our Consultation practice. Differentiation between UEH and ADH is based on the assumption that ADH is a clonal process, recognized by a uniform phenotype and more recently described immunohistochemical markers such as differential cytokeratin and also hormone receptor expression. Difficulty in subtyping invasive carcinomas and exclusion of in situ and/or invasive carcinoma in a sclerosing lesion is also commonly noted. Finally, problems in distinguishing various papillary and fibroepithelial lesions are also encountered. The use of common immunohistochemical stains such as various cytokeratin and myoepithelial markers, E-cadherin and hormone receptors is helpful in solving most of these diagnostic dilemmas. PMID:16241992

Putti, T C; Pinder, S E; Elston, C W; Lee, A H S; Ellis, I O

2005-11-01

29

Language Problems Common for Kids with ADHD, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Language Problems Common for Kids With ADHD, Study Finds Anxiety often goes hand ... times more likely to have language problems than kids without ADHD, according to new research. And those ...

30

Transrectal electrical impedance tomography of the prostate: Spatially coregistered pathological findings for prostate cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common malignancies and currently represents the second leading cancer-specific cause of death in men. The current use of single modality transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance has a limited sensitivity and specificity for accurately identifying cancerous lesions within the prostate. This study introduces a novel prostate cancer imaging method that combines TRUS with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and reports on initial clinical findings based on in vivo measurements. Methods: The ultrasound system provides anatomic information, which guides EIT image reconstruction. EIT reconstructions are correlated with semiquantitative pathological findings. Thin plate spline warping transformations are employed to overlay electrical impedance images and pathological maps describing the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, with the latter used as reference for data analysis. Clinical data were recorded from a total of 50 men prior to them undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment. Student's t-tests were employed to statistically examine the electrical property difference between cancerous tissue and benign tissue as defined through histological assessment of the excised gland. Results: Example EIT reconstructions are presented along with a statistical analysis comparing EIT and pathology. An average transformation error of 1.67% is found when 381 spatially coregistered pathological images are compared with their target EIT reconstructed counterparts. At EIT signal frequencies of 0.4, 3.2, and 25.6 kHz, paired-testing demonstrated that the conductivity of cancerous regions is significantly greater than that of benign regions (?p < 0.0304). Conclusions: These preliminary clinical findings suggest the potential benefits electrical impedance measurements might have for prostate cancer detection.

Wan, Yuqing; Borsic, Andrea; Heaney, John; Seigne, John; Schned, Alan; Baker, Michael; Wason, Shaun; Hartov, Alex; Halter, Ryan

2013-01-01

31

Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology  

PubMed Central

Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up.

Guarnieri, A.; Cesaretti, M.; Tirone, A.; Francioli, N.; Piccolomini, A.; Vuolo, G.; Verre, L.; Savelli, V.; Di Cosmo, L.; Carli, A.F.

2009-01-01

32

Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: a case with typical imaging features and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign joint disorder that has been reported in only a few studies. However, we recently encountered a pathologically proven case of this disorder. This case also showed the typical imaging findings on panoramic radiographs and on CT and MR images. Therefore, we report this case and the imaging and pathological findings.

Lim, S W; Jeon, S J; Choi, S S; Choi, K H

2011-01-01

33

Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: a case with typical imaging features and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign joint disorder that has been reported in only a few studies. However, we recently encountered a pathologically proven case of this disorder. This case also showed the typical imaging findings on panoramic radiographs and on CT and MR images. Therefore, we report this case and the imaging and pathological findings. PMID:22011825

Lim, S W; Jeon, S J; Choi, S S; Choi, K H

2011-11-01

34

Pathology of Stented Common Carotid Aneurysm in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Summary To elucidate focal successive histological responses of the neck of wide-necked aneurysm after single stent implantation and stent-assisted coiling, an experimental wide-necked aneurysm model was surgically created in bilateral common carotid arteries of adult dogs. Balloon-expandable porous stents were positioned across the aneurysm necks on both sides. The aneurysm cavity of one side was additionally loosely coiled with Gugliemi detachable coils after stent implantation. The dogs were followed up with ultrasonography and angiography, then sacrificed at two days, one month, and one year and the aneurysm specimen was subjected to macro, micro, and electron microscopic observation. Stent implantation and coiling was successful in eight dogs. This investigation observed that single stent implantation slowed down the blood flow within the aneurysm, but barely induced thrombosis within the aneurysm. There was neointima formation over the stent mesh without thrombus within the aneurysm cavity, but it did not cover the whole aneurysm neck at one year. Aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling showed thrombosis within the aneurysms and neointima formation over the whole aneurysm orifice. These results suggest that the neointima could develop over bare stent filament without thrombus within the aneurysm cavity, coils could enhance thrombosis within the aneurysm cavity and facilitate neointima formation over the aneurysm orifice. Stent-assisted coiling may be an alternative option for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms.

Liu, J.M.; Zhao, W.Y.; Zhang, X.; Xu, Y.; Hong, B.; Huang, Q.H.

2005-01-01

35

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

36

Adrenal cytomegaly is a frequent pathologic finding in hemoglobin bart hydrops fetalis.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical cytomegaly (AC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon but tends to occur in certain situations, including specific congenital anomalies and hydrops due to maternal-fetal Rhesus incompatibility. Because the pathology in the latter condition does not differ greatly from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart hydrops fetalis, we performed a retrospective review of fetal and perinatal autopsy cases with Hb Bart to determine the prevalence of AC in that condition. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010) at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, there were 16 hydropic cases confirmed to have Hb Bart. Adrenocortical cytomegaly was found in 13 cases (81%). For comparison, we determined the occurrence of AC in cases of hydrops fetalis not due to Hb Bart (n ?=? 33) and a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies (n ?=? 34). Adrenocortical cytomegaly was identified in only 1 case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and 2 cases of anencephaly. Thus, AC is a common finding in cases of Hb Bart, a finding not previously documented. Moreover, our study suggests that Hb Bart is one of the conditions most commonly associated with AC. The reasons for this are not known. The mean Hb levels for the hydrops cases with Hb Bart and those with other forms of anemia showed no significant difference (P ?=? 0.63), nor was there any significant difference in Hb levels between cases of Hb Bart with and without AC. Nonetheless, the consistency of AC in cases of Hb Bart suggests that further study of this particular group of patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of this poorly understood pathologic finding. PMID:22257311

Taweevisit, Mana; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul S

2012-01-01

37

Pathological findings in dogs after multiple Africanized bee stings.  

PubMed

This retrospective study included 19 dogs that died by intoxication due to multiple Africanized bee stings. Bee accidents occurred in rural and urban areas of the Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Although bee stings were associated with edema and hyperemia in several regions of the body, head and neck were the most commonly and massively affected areas. Stingers and bees were also observed in the digestive tract. Dark-colored kidneys, dark-red urine, splenomegaly, and dark red lungs were the main gross changes. Histologically, all the dogs had kidney tubular degeneration and necrosis, which were associated with tubular pigment accumulation in most cases. Other lesions included muscular necrosis, hemorrhage in different organs, marked congestion of the spleen and pulmonary edema and congestion. PMID:17383705

Oliveira, Eduardo C; Pedroso, Pedro M O; Meirelles, Adriana E W B; Pescador, Caroline A; Gouvêa, Aline S; Driemeier, David

2007-06-15

38

Magnetic resonance imaging of fetal heart: anatomical and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Abstract Congenital heart disease is one of the most frequent prenatal malformation representing an incidence of 5/1000 live births; moreover, it represents the first cause of death in the first year of life. There is a wide range of severity in congenital heart malformations from lesions which require no treatment such as small ventricular septal defects, to lesions which can only be treated with palliative surgery such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A good prenatal examination acquires great importance in order to formulate an early diagnosis and improve pregnancy management. Nowadays, echocardiography still represents the gold standard examination for fetal heart disease. However, especially when preliminary ultrasound is inconclusive, fetal MRI is considered as a third-level imaging modality. Preliminary experiences have demonstrated the validity of this reporting a diagnostic accuracy of 79%. Our article aims to outline feasibility of fetal MRI in the anatomic evaluation, the common indication to fetal MRI, its role in the characterization of congenital heart defects, and at last its main limitations. PMID:24102352

Manganaro, L; Vinci, V; Bernardo, S; Sollazzo, P; Sergi, M E; Saldari, M; Ventriglia, F; Giancotti, A; Rizzo, G; Catalano, C

2014-08-01

39

[Clinical and pathological findings of patients with interstitial lung disease associated with antisynthetase].  

PubMed

Autoantibodies against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) are known to associate with myositis, arthritis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Anti Jo-1 antibody is a common diagnostic tool of this syndrome and is available on a commercial basis, while other anti-ARS antibodies such as anti-EJ, anti-PL7 and anti-OJ antibodies are less commonly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of 9 ILD patients who were positive for anti-ARS antibodies including anti-EJ, anti-PL7 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies. In physical examination, muscle pain and/or skin rash (including mechanic's hand) were observed frequently. In laboratory findings, levels of myogenic enzymes were slightly elevated, and anti-nucleus antibody was detected in most cases. Air-space consolidation with traction bronchiectasis, ground glass opacities and characteristic volume loss of both lower lobes were observed in radiological examination. Organization in alveolar spaces and lymphoid alveolitis that did not destroy existing pulmonary structures were main pathological findings. Immunosupressive therapy was effective and the prognosis appears satisfactory in these cases. Although anti-ARS antibodies had been measured as a marker of myositis, we suggest that they are useful as markers of interstitial pneumonia. PMID:16366363

Hara, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yasushi; Sato, Tetsuo

2005-11-01

40

Characteristic Findings of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis on Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography: Which is the Most Common Finding?  

PubMed Central

Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease and one of the most common indications for liver transplantation in adults. There are conflicting data regarding characteristic findings of PSC disease on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP). We undertook this study to clarify whether there is a specific pattern of involvement of the biliary tract in patients with PSC and to evaluate features of PSC disease on ERCP in order to be able to manage this disease better. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients admitted to Taleghani Hospital in 2004–2010 and diagnosed to have PSC on the basis of typical cholangiographic findings in combination with clinical and laboratory data. Patients suspected to have secondary sclerosing cholangitis were excluded. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, along with cholangiographic findings and the frequency of large duct and small duct PSC. Results Forty-five patients of mean age 34.8 (range 15–66) years were included. Twenty-nine patients (64.4%) had inflammatory bowel disease, and the frequency of large duct PSC and small duct PSC was 93.4% and 6.6%, respectively. The intrahepatic ducts alone were involved in 11 (24.4%) patients and the extrahepatic ducts were involved in 14 (31.1%), with 17 (37.7%) patients having both intrahepatic and extrahepatic PSC. Three (6.6%) patients did not have bile duct involvement on ERCP, and their disease was diagnosed by liver biopsy as small duct PSC. The most common type of cholangiographic feature of intrahepatic duct involvement was type 2, found in 15 (33.3%) patients, with type 3 being the most common type of extrahepatic duct involvement and detected in 16 (35.5%) patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the most common PSC finding on ERCP is involvement of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, with small duct PSC being less common than large duct PSC.

Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad; Shahnazi, Anahita; Rasoulzadeh, Aida; Shams, Esmaeel; Mohammadi, Manijeh; Darabi, Farideh; Behdad, Mahnaz

2012-01-01

41

Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven sheep of the four most common Swiss breeds and the English breed Poll Dorset were experimentally infected with a northern European field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Animals of all breeds developed clinical signs, viremia and pathological lesions, demonstrating that BTV-8 is fully capable of replicating and inducing bluetongue disease (BT) in the investigated sheep. Necropsy performed between 10 and 16 days post-infectionem (d.p.i.) revealed BT-typical hemorrhages, effusions, edema, erosions and activation of lymphatic tissues. Hemorrhages on the base of the Arteria pulmonalis and the left Musculus papillaris subauricularis were frequently present. Histology confirmed the macroscopical findings. Using a score system, clinical manifestation and pathology were found to be significantly related. Furthermore, clinical signs and fever were shown to be indicative for the concurrent presence of high amounts of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) in blood. Spleen, lung, lymph nodes and tonsils from all animals were analyzed regarding viral RNA loads and infectivity using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation in cell culture, respectively. The highest amount of viral RNA was detected in spleen and lung and rRT-PCR revealed to be a more sensitive method for virus detection compared to virus isolation. A long-term follow-up was performed with three sheep showing that BTV-8 viral RNA in blood was present up to 133 d.p.i. and in certain tissues even on 151 d.p.i. No significant breed-related differences were observed concerning clinicopathological picture and viremia, and the Swiss sheep were as susceptible to BTV-8 infection as Poll Dorset sheep, demonstrating a remarkably high virulence of BTV-8 for indigenous sheep breeds. PMID:20153937

Worwa, Gabriella; Hilbe, Monika; Chaignat, Valérie; Hofmann, Martin A; Griot, Christian; Ehrensperger, Felix; Doherr, Marcus G; Thür, Barbara

2010-08-26

42

[CT imaging features and their correlation with pathological findings of solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas].  

PubMed

To analyze the CT features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas (SPTP), and correlation with the pathological findings of the disease so as to improve the diagnostic abilities, the CT images and the clinical manifestations, we retrospectively analyzed the pathological materials of 23 cases with surgery and pathology proved SPTP. In the 23 patients, 21 cases were female (91.3%) and 2 were male (8.7%). The most common symptom was abdominal discomfort with dull pain in 12 patients (52.2%). Others included the pancreatic mass that was detected incidentally during physical examination in 9 patients (39.1%), nausea/vomiting in 2 patients (8.7%). And 1 case of female patients had 2 lesions. In the 24 tumors, 6 cases were located at the head (25.0%), 3 were at neck (12.5%), 8 cases were at body (33.3%), and 7 cases were at tail of pancreas respectively (29.2%). The long-axis diameter ranged from 2.1 cm to 20.1 cm (mean 6.4 cm). 9 tumors were mostly solid component (37.5%), 10 tumors were contained similar proportion of solid and cystic part (41.7%), and mainly cystic components in 5 tumors (20.8%). In 9 of the 23 patients, calcification was found in the tumor (39.1%). In 2 of the 23 patients, bleeding was seen in the mass (8.7%). The dilation of intrahepatic bile duct was found in 1 patient (8.7%). Liver metastasis was showed in one patient (8.7%). On post-contrast CT scan, solid parts demonstrated mild enhancement at the arterial phase. At the portal phase, solid parts were enhanced continuously in all cases, and the enhancement degrees were lower than normal pancreatic tissue. The cystic parts of all lesions showed no enhancement. Pseudo papillary structure, hemorrhage, necrosis, or cystic degeneration were found in all patients by histological study. In a word, SPTP has comparatively characteristic CT imaging features consistent with histological features, when combined with clinical manifestations, could be correctly diagnosed and differentially diagnosed. PMID:24804494

Zheng, Xingju; Tan, Xianzheng; Wu, Bing

2014-02-01

43

Chondrosarcoma in a simmental cow: Clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic and pathological findings of a chondrosarcoma diagnosed in an 8-year-old Simmental cow are reported. The primary site was located in the cartilage of the right scapula at the angulus cranialis. The tumour had already spread to the lungs at the time of diagnosis. This is the first report of a bovine scapula chondrosarcoma.

Birgit Martinek; Zoltan Bago; Martina Flöck; Werner Hochsteiner; Franz Schilcher; Johann Kofler

2006-01-01

44

Chondrosarcoma in a simmental cow: Clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic and pathological findings of a chondrosarcoma diagnosed in an 8-year-old Simmental cow are reported. The primary site was located in the cartilage of the right scapula at the angulus cranialis. The tumour had already spread to the lungs at the time of diagnosis. This is the first report of a bovine scapula chondrosarcoma. PMID:16772145

Martinek, Birgit; Bago, Zoltan; Flöck, Martina; Hochsteiner, Werner; Schilcher, Franz; Kofler, Johann

2006-07-01

45

Clinician's Guide to Imaging and Pathologic Findings in Benign Breast Disease  

PubMed Central

The discussion of abnormal results of breast imaging and abnormal pathologic findings can be challenging for health care professionals and often is stressful for patients. Although most imaging findings and biopsy results are negative and do not infer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, the subsequent conversation between the patient and her practitioner is more effective and informative with a thorough review of the pathologic results and an appreciation of the importance of radiologic-histologic concordance. This article provides insight into and understanding of breast imaging and biopsy techniques and of histologic findings as a means to timely and appropriate decision making and action by the patient and her health care professional.

Neal, Lonzetta; Tortorelli, Cindy L.; Nassar, Aziza

2010-01-01

46

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: MRI findings with pathological comparison  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize MRI findings of synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by correlation with their pathological findings. Methods 22 patients with synovial chondromatosis in unilateral TMJ were referred for plain MRI prior to surgical management and pathological examinations. Parasagittal and coronal proton density-weighted imaging and T2 weighted imaging were performed for each case. Results MRI demonstrated multiple chondroid nodules and joint effusion in all patients (100%) and amorphous iso-intensity signal tissues within expanded joint space and capsule in 19 patients (86.4%). On T2 weighted imaging, signs of low signal nodules within amorphous iso-intensity signal tissues were used to determine the presence of attached cartilaginous nodules in pathology, resulting in 100% sensitivity, 60% specificity and 90.9% accuracy. Signs of low and intermediate signal nodules within joint fluids were used to detect loose cartilaginous nodules and resulted in 80% sensitivity, 42.9% specificity and 68.2% accuracy. Conclusions MRI of synovial chondromatosis in TMJ was characterized by multiple chondroid nodules, joint effusion and amorphous iso-intensity signal tissues within the expanded space and capsule. The attached cartilaginous nodules in pathology were better recognized than the loose ones on MRI. Plain MRI was useful for clinical diagnosis of the disorder.

Wang, P; Tian, Z; Yang, J; Yu, Q

2012-01-01

47

Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases Scientists have long known that genetic variations play ... Nature Genetics suggests that the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and ...

48

Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

49

Fetal Musculoskeletal Malformations with a Poor Outcome: Ultrasonographic, Pathologic, and Radiographic Findings  

PubMed Central

The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article.

Lee, Soo-Hyun; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee-Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

2002-01-01

50

Enhanced deposition of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a common feature in fibrotic skin pathologies.  

PubMed

Skin fibrosis is characterized by activated fibroblasts and an altered architecture of the extracellular matrix. Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and altered cytokine levels in the dermal collagen matrix are common to several pathological situations such as localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis, keloids, dermatosclerosis associated with venous ulcers and the fibroproliferative tissue surrounding invasively growing tumors. Which factors contribute to altered organization of dermal collagen matrix in skin fibrosis is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) functions as organizer of the dermal collagen I network in healthy human skin (Agarwal et al., 2012). Here we show that COMP deposition is enhanced in the dermis in various fibrotic conditions. COMP levels were significantly increased in fibrotic lesions derived from patients with localized scleroderma, in wound tissue and exudates of patients with venous leg ulcers and in the fibrotic stroma of biopsies from patients with basal cell carcinoma. We postulate enhanced deposition of COMP as one of the common factors altering the supramolecular architecture of collagen matrix in fibrotic skin pathologies. Interestingly, COMP remained nearly undetectable in normally healing wounds where myofibroblasts transiently accumulate in the granulation tissue. We conclude that COMP expression is restricted to a fibroblast differentiation state not identical to myofibroblasts which is induced by TGF? and biomechanical forces. PMID:23507196

Agarwal, Pallavi; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Andreasson, Kristofer; Heinegård, Dick; Paulsson, Mats; Mauch, Cornelia; Eming, Sabine A; Eckes, Beate; Krieg, Thomas

2013-08-01

51

On Finding Lowest Common Ancestors: Simplification and Parallelization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the following problem. Suppose a rooted tree T is available for preprocessing. Answer on-line queries requesting the lowest common ancestor for any pair of vertices in\\u000a T. We present a linear time and space preprocessing algorithm which enables us to answer each query in O (1) time, as in Harel and Tarjan [HT-84]. Our algorithm has the advantage

Baruch Schieber; Uzi Vishkin

1988-01-01

52

Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

Tonner, Carol

1992-01-01

53

Finding Current Evidence: Search Strategies and Common Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more than 100 orthopaedic, sports medi- cine, or hand surgery journals indexed in MED- LINE, it is no longer possible to keep abreast of developments in orthopaedic surgery by read- ing a few journals each month. Electronic re- sources are easier to search and more current than most print sources. We provide a practical approach to finding useful information

Lesley Diane Gillespie; William John Gillespie

2003-01-01

54

Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1  

PubMed Central

Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%–2.5% and 75%–96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time.

Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

2005-01-01

55

MRI findings of mucoepidermois carcinoma of the parotid gland: correlation with pathological features  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to correlate the MRI appearance and pathological findings in each grade of the mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the parotid gland. Methods We reviewed surgically proven MECs of parotid glands in 20 patients. Pathologically, 5 tumours were high-grade, 3 were intermediate and 12 were low-grade. MR images were evaluated with emphasis on signal intensities on T2 weighted images, margin characteristics and lymph node metastasis, correlating these with pathological features. Results Among the high-grade MECs, four out of five tumours showed inhomogeneous low to intermediate signal intensity on T2 weighted images, reflecting high cellularity. All tumours had an ill-defined margin, reflecting invasive tumour growth. Among the intermediate-grade MECs, all three tumours showed intermediate signal intensity on T2 weighted images and two tumours had an ill-defined margin. Among the low-grade MECs, 11 of the 12 tumours had a hyperintense area on T2 weighted images because of the existence of abundant mucin secreting cells. Seven tumours had an ill-defined margin, reflecting peritumoural inflammatory changes rather than invasive tumour growth. Lymph node metastasis was seen in three high-grade MECs. Conclusion MECs of the parotid gland show variable MRI findings reflecting their histological nature, which seems to have certain tendencies depending on the tumour grade.

Kashiwagi, N; Dote, K; Kawano, K; Tomita, Y; Murakami, T; Nakanishi, K; Araki, Y; Mori, K; Tomiyama, N

2012-01-01

56

TTR-related amyloid neuropathy: clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings in 15 unrelated patients.  

PubMed

Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare condition caused by mutations of the transthyretin (TTR) gene and it is generally characterized by a length-dependent polyneuropathy affecting prevalently the small fibers. We reviewed clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings of 15 unrelated patients with genetically confirmed TTR-FAP. All patients presented a progressive sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Pathological findings were negative for amyloid deposits in about half of the cases. Sequence analysis of TTR gene revealed the presence of three different mutations (p.Val30Met, p.Phe64Leu, and p.Ala120Ser). The p.Val30Met was the most frequently identified mutation and it often occurred in apparently sporadic cases. Conversely, the p.Phe64Leu generally presented in a high percentage of familial cases in patients coming from Southern Italy. Clinicians should consider, to avoid misdiagnosis, the screening for TTR mutations in patients presenting with progressive axonal polyneuropathy of undetermined etiology, including apparently sporadic cases with pathological examinations negative for amyloid deposition. PMID:22592564

Luigetti, Marco; Conte, Amelia; Del Grande, Alessandra; Bisogni, Giulia; Madia, Francesca; Lo Monaco, Mauro; Laurenti, Luca; Obici, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Sabatelli, Mario

2013-07-01

57

Hyperacute rejection of a pulmonary allograft. Immediate clinical and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

The clinical and pathologic findings seen in hyperacute rejection are well documented in renal and cardiac allografts. We describe the second case of hyperacute rejection in a pulmonary allograft and detail the immediate clinicopathologic findings. The patient underwent a single lung transplant for severe COPD with postoperative course complicated by acute rejection and graft failure. Eleven days later, the patient underwent a second transplant with intra-operative course complicated by rapid pulmonary edema and copious production of frothy, pink fluid from the bronchial orifice of the allograft followed by death within four hours of anastomoses. Intraoperative biopsy and autopsy demonstrated platelet/fibrin thrombi, marked interstitial neutrophilia, alveolar edema, and antibody deposition on the endothelial surface and vasculature walls. Prior to the first transplant, the patient's serum had 0% panel reactive antibody and was crossmatch compatible with the first allograft. The patient's serum prior to the second transplant contained cross-reacting antibodies to the donor's B and T lymphocytes. The immediate clinical findings in this case are similar to the findings in a previously reported case. This report is the first documentation of the immediate pathologic features of hyperacute rejection in a lung allograft which are similar to those seen with other organ allografts. PMID:10471633

Choi, J K; Kearns, J; Palevsky, H I; Montone, K T; Kaiser, L R; Zmijewski, C M; Tomaszewski, J E

1999-09-01

58

Clinical-Pathological Findings of Catamenial Pneumothorax: Comparison between Recurrent Cases and Non-Recurrent Cases.  

PubMed

Purpose: Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is classified as thoracic endometriosis syndrome. There are few reports of CP, and the clinical manifestations of this disease are unclear. The aim of the present study is to clarify the features of CP.Methods: The clinical and pathological files of the 92 female patients pathologically diagnosed with thoracic endometriosis are included in this study. The clinical data and pathological findings of the recurrent and non-recurrent groups are compared.Results: Thirty-six patients (39.1%) experienced recurrence, 37 (40.2%) patients did not, and 19 (20.4) patients could not be evaluated. The ratio of the endometrial gland in the diaphragm is significantly higher in the recurrent cases in comparison to non-recurrent cases (66.7% vs. 37.8%, P = 0.01).Conclusions: The recurrence rate of CP is high. Further study of the optimal management strategies is needed, especially for CP cases with the endometrial gland in the diaphragm. PMID:23698374

Haga, Takahiro; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Ebana, Hiroki

2014-06-21

59

Pathologic findings of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: a 5-year review on 51 cases at Taleghani general hospital  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze histopathologic parameters of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens at Taleghani general hospital pathology department. Background The Whipple procedure is performed for variety of tumors involving the head of the pancreas, ampulla of Vater, common bile duct, or duodenum. Patients and methods Records of all cases of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2007 and 2011were retrospectively reviewed and pathological details of diagnosis and staging were extracted. Results A total of 51 patients underwent Whipple procedure during a 5-year period, including 37 males and 14 females. The average age was 57 years (18-82 years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were jaundice and weight loss. Forty-four patients (86.3%) had malignant and 7 (13.7%) had benign lesions. Among malignant lesions, 27 (61.4%) were ampullary carcinomas, 12 (27.3%) were pancreatic carcinomas and 5 (11.4%) were cholangiocarcinomas. The pathological stage of most of the tumors was T3 (50%); followed by T2 (29.5%), and T1 (15.9%); only 4.5% were T4. Mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (0.2-7 cm). Duodenal and common bile duct margins were tumor-free in most cases (95.5 %). The pancreatic margin was free in 81.8% of patients; this margin had not been evaluated in 5 patients. Nearly 38.6% of all tumors showed vascular invasion while 68.2% showed perineural invasion. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 4 (range 1-15); although in 25% of specimens, no lymph nodes had been found. Twelve specimens (35.3%) had lymph node metastases. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that most of our patients are diagnosed with malignancy, at advanced stage, and further research is needed to develop practical methods for earlier diagnosis. The fact that 25% of specimens had no lymph nodes needs more consideration.

Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Zare, Khandan

2012-01-01

60

A Presacral Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Extramedullary Hematopoiesis: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare, ubiquitous neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, with distinctive histopathological and immunohistochemical features. We herein report an unusual case of a presacral SFT diagnosed in an asymptomatic 40-year-old woman preoperatively investigated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Post-operative pathology examination showed a SFT containing foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Revision of preoperative imaging did not evidenced any findings suggesting this unusual association. The patient was free from local recurrence and metastases one year after operation. Differential radiological and histological diagnoses of solid presacral masses is briefly discussed.

Savastano, Sergio; d'Amore, Emanuele S.G.; Beghetto, Mario; Borgo, Davide Dal; Franceschetti, Ilaria; Capalbo, Mirella

2013-01-01

61

Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.  

PubMed

Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185

Donaldson, J K

1992-01-01

62

Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Cairn Terrier dog that had been in contact with sea water containing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was euthanized because of acute hepatic failure and anuria after a 5-day illness. Histologic findings included lytic and hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and renal tubular necrosis. The cyanotoxin nodularin was detected in liver and kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the algal species Nodularia spumigena. The intensity of algal blooms has increased during the past decades in the Baltic Sea region, thus increasing the risk for intoxications in domestic and wild animals. The authors describe the pathologic findings of cyanobacterial toxicosis in a dog with direct identification of the toxin from organ samples. PMID:21825312

Simola, O; Wiberg, M; Jokela, J; Wahlsten, M; Sivonen, K; Syrjä, P

2012-09-01

63

Description of a formal clinical pathology on-call simulation workshop in preparing pathology residents to address common after-hours phone calls.  

PubMed

Objectives Residents take clinical pathology call beginning in the second year of residency. However, this additional responsibility often causes anxiety in residents who may have had only limited contact with laboratory sections they will be covering on call. We set out to improve the practical knowledge and comfort of the residents before taking clinical pathology call. Methods A scenario-based simulation-style workshop was developed to acquaint residents with the common issues that arise, and guide them through acquiring the necessary data and developing an action plan. A nine-question survey was given before and after the workshop to determine if the workshop improved their comfort level with taking call. Results Of the nine questions, the six questions dealing with clinical pathology laboratory section-specific knowledge showed that residents were less anxious and more confident about taking call after the workshop. Conclusions A scenario-based workshop is an effective way to acquaint residents with the basics of taking call, and teaches practical approaches to common clinical pathology issues. PMID:24713732

Olson, Jordan; George, Melissa

2014-05-01

64

Hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in goats naturally infection with Cysticercus tenuicollis.  

PubMed

In Iran, Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic. The migration of this parasite causes traumatic hepatitis and death in young animals. The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in 50 goats infected with C. tenuicollis in comparison with 50 non-infected goats, as control group. This study was carried out as case-control. Blood and liver samples were taken from the goats, analyzed for hematology and biochemical parameters and liver samples were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further microscopic study in pathology laboratory. Significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total protein (P < 0.05) and significant increase in white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in infected goats (P < 0.05), compared with those in non-infected control group. The microscopic lesion in liver included large concentric foci of hemorrhage in migration stage and decreased number of hepatocytes, dilation of sinusoids, presence of inflammatory cells in portal areas and double layered parasitic cyst formation in chronic stages. In conclusion, various changes in parameters could have deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality of the herd. PMID:24505181

Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj

2014-03-01

65

Relation between clinical findings and progression of cerebral cortical pathology in MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Proposed staging of cerebral cortical pathology.  

PubMed

In our pathologic observation of the cerebral cortex including the neocortex, hippocampus, and limbic cortex in 43 Japanese patients with MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the earliest pathologic finding was spongiform change and next was gliosis. Subsequently, neuropil rarefaction appeared, followed by neuron loss. On the basis of these observations, we propose the following cortical pathologic staging: Stage I, spongiform change; Stage II, hypertrophic astrocytosis; Stage III, neuropil rarefaction; Stage IV, neuron loss; Stage V, status spongiosus; and Stage VI, large cavity formation. We also suggest a more simple staging classification: Stages I and II, mild; Stages III and IV, moderate; and Stages V and VI, severe involvement. Based on statistical analysis of the cases, strong correlation coefficients were obtained between the neocortical and limbic pathologic stage and both total disease duration and brain weight. We estimated that the first observation times of cortical hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging, myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes on the electroencephalogram approximately correspond to the early phase of Stage II of the neocortex. The time to reach the akinetic mutism state approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage II of the neocortex. Therefore, we think that approximate clinical manifestations at death, total disease duration, and brain weight can be estimated according to the pathologic stage of the neocortex or limbic cortex. Panencephalopathic-type pathology appeared approximately 12months after disease onset, and this time approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage III of the neocortex. PMID:24787503

Iwasaki, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mari

2014-06-15

66

Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites with different endocrinological and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites (PH) were subjected for clinical investigation with transrectal ultrasonography, endocrinology with adoption of hCG-stimulation test, cytogenetics with analysis of sex chromosome and Y-specific DNA, and finally histological examination. Results were compared with normal calves. Case 1 was a 10-month-old calf with XX/XY chimeras, showing elevation of testosterone (T) levels, but no change in progesterone (P(4)) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes in the cavitas pelvis. Case 2 was an 18-month-old calf with SRY positive-XY chromosome, showing lower level of plasma T and P(4) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes and undifferentiated genital ducts. Both cases possessed female-like external genitalia with similar pathological findings, however endocrinological and cytogenetical aspects were different each other. PMID:20009424

Moriyama, Chiho; Tani, Mineto; Nibe, Kazumi; Kitahara, Go; Haneda, Shingo; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyake, Yoh-Iichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

2010-04-01

67

Angiocentric glioma: report of clinico-pathologic and genetic findings in 8 cases.  

PubMed

Angiocentric glioma has recently been described as a novel epilepsy associated tumor with distinct clinico-pathologic features. We report the clinical and pathologic findings in 8 additional cases of this rare tumor type and extend its characterization by genomic profiling. Almost all patients had a history of long-standing drug-resistant epilepsy. Cortico-subcortical tumors were located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Seizures began at 3 to 14 years of age and surgery was performed at 6 to 70 years. Histologically, the tumors were characterized by diffuse growth and prominent perivascular tumor cell arrangements with features of astrocytic/ependymal differentiation, but lacking neoplastic neuronal features. Necrosis and vascular proliferation were not observed and mitoses were sparse or absent. MIB-1 proliferation indices ranged from <1% to 5%. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, protein S100B, variably for podoplanin, and showed epithelial membrane antigen-positive cytoplasmic dots. Electron microscopy showed ependymal characteristics in 2 of 3 cases investigated. An analysis of genomic imbalances by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization revealed loss of chromosomal bands 6q24 to q25 as the only alteration in 1 of 8 cases. In 1 of 3 cases, a high-resolution screen by array-comparative genomic hybridization identified a copy number gain of 2 adjacent clones from chromosomal band 11p11.2 containing the protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ) gene. All patients are seizure free and without evidence of tumor recurrence at follow-up times ranging from 1/2 to 6.9 years. Our findings support 2 previous reports proposing that angiocentric glioma is a novel glial tumor entity of low-grade malignancy. PMID:18059228

Preusser, Matthias; Hoischen, Alexander; Novak, Klaus; Czech, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Baumgartner, Christoph; Woermann, Friedrich G; Tuxhorn, Ingrid E; Pannek, Heinz W; Bergmann, Markus; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Villagrán, Rafael; Weber, Ruthild G; Hans, Volkmar H

2007-11-01

68

Pathological Findings of Pemphigus Vulgaris Showing Giant Cobblestone-Like Conjunctival Papillae  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the pathophysiological findings of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) showing giant conjunctival papillae. Methods A 64-year-old man who had mucosal-dominant PV with giant conjunctival papillae, resembling those of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), underwent an ophthalmological workup. The clinical and pathological findings were investigated. Results Ophthalmic interventions were unable to provide the desired beneficial effects, and multiple excisions were necessary to remove the proliferative conjunctival lesions. Histopathological investigations of the excised tissues demonstrated acantholysis and a subconjunctival infiltration with numerous inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. However, in contrast to typical VKC, mast cells and eosinophils were rarely found in the subconjunctival tissues. Direct immunofluorescent staining showed a significant deposition of immunoglobulin G and complement component 3 in the epithelial intercellular substance, consistent with mucosal-dominant PV. Then, the patient was hospitalized because of oral erosion exacerbation and malnutrition. Because of the patient's declining general condition, we administered an increasing dose of a systemic steroid with an intravenous immunoglobulin, after which his ocular lesions and symptoms improved. Conclusions The histological conjunctival papilla findings were quite different from those of VKC papillae. If PV causes a lesion in a patient, systemic immunosuppression might be more effective than topical ophthalmic treatment because of overall immunological involvement.

Namba, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Mari; Sugano, Akira; Murata, Ichidai; Suzuki, Tamio; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

69

Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in longhaired Chihuahuas: clinical, pathologic, and MRI findings.  

PubMed

Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a rare group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases characterized histopathologically by the abnormal accumulation of ceroid- or lipofuscin-like lipopigments in neurons and other cells throughout the body. The present article describes the clinical, pathologic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the NCL in three longhaired Chihuahuas between 16 mo and 24 mo of age. Clinical signs, including visual defects and behavioral abnormalities, started between 16 mo and 18 mo of age. Cranial MRI findings in all the dogs were characterized by diffuse severe dilation of the cerebral sulci, dilated fissures of diencephalons, midbrain, and cerebellum, and lateral ventricular enlargement, suggesting atrophy of the forebrain. As the most unusual feature, diffuse meningeal thickening was observed over the entire cerebrum, which was strongly enhanced on contrast T1-weighted images. The dogs' conditions progressed until they each died subsequent to continued neurologic deterioration between 23 mo and 24 mo of age. Histopathologically, there was severe to moderate neuronal cell loss with diffuse astrogliosis throughout the brain. The remaining neuronal cells showed intracytoplasmic accumulation of pale to slightly yellow lipopigments mimicking ceroid or lipofuscin. The thickened meninges consisted of the proliferation of connective tissues with abundant collagen fibers and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells suggesting neuroimmune hyperactivity. Although the etiology of this neuroimmune hyperactivity is not currently known, MRI findings such as meningeal thickening may be a useful diagnostic marker of this variant form of canine NCL. PMID:21730095

Nakamoto, Yuya; Yamato, Osamu; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nibe, Kazumi; Tamura, Shinji; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueoka, Naotami; Nukaya, Aya; Yabuki, Akira; Nakaichi, Munekazu

2011-01-01

70

Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection.

Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

2013-01-01

71

Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

2009-02-01

72

Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

2006-01-01

73

Coracoid tip position on frontal radiographs of the shoulder: a predictor of common shoulder pathologies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coracoacromial arch is a static anterior-superior stabilizer of the humeral head. Thus coracoacromial arch inclination, which varies depending on coracoid tip position, may be related to shoulder pathologies. Therefore, we retrospectively analysed coracoid tip positions in the true anterior posterior view of different shoulder pathologies: reference shoulders (n527), shoulders with rotator cuff tear (supraspinatus tear n529; subscapularis tear n521)

C U Schulz; H ANETZBERGER; C GLASER; Ludwig Maximilians

2005-01-01

74

[Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].  

PubMed

Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection. PMID:24920091

Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

2014-06-12

75

Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards to disease category and the categorical variables of species (common ringtail possums v others) and sex. Animals with clinical lesions were significantly more likely to be male common ringtail possums. Conclusions/Significance There is significant disease burden in common ringtail possums (especially males) in some areas of Victoria endemic for M. ulcerans disease. The natural history of the disease generally remains unknown, however it appears that some mildly affected common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums can spontaneously overcome the infection, whereas some severely affected animals, especially common ringtail possums, may become systemically, and potentially fatally affected. Subclinical gut carriage of M. ulcerans DNA in possums is quite common and in some common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums this is transient. Further work is required to determine whether M. ulcerans infection poses a potential threat to possum populations, and whether these animals are acting as environmental reservoirs in certain geographical areas.

O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

2014-01-01

76

[Epidemiological study of anencephaly in Italy and anatomo-pathological findings in cases observed by us].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic study of anencephaly in Italy and anatomo-pathological analysis of our series. Out of about 1,000,000 new-borns enrolled in the IPIMC Register (Italian Multicenter Study on Congenital Malformations) from 1978 to 1986, 205 were found with isolated anencephaly and 59 with anencephaly associated with other independent malformations, for a total of 284 cases. The study of preferentially associated malformations has pointed out that anencephaly is mainly associated with three kinds of malformations: cleft lip and/or palate, ambiguous genitalia, gastroschisis. Yet these combinations did not result to be the most common with spina bifida, thus proving the heterogeneity of these two neural canal defects. The total rate is 2.7 (/10,000), higher in the South (3.2) than in the North (2.3). The highest rate was reported in Sardinia (6.0). Moreover, a 58.1% trend reduction between 1978-80 and 1984-86 with seasonal peak in January (3.6%) was reported. The following major new-born and mother characteristics have been studied: sex (M/F = 0.76), twin pregnancies (6.4%), vitality (live births: 60, from them 40 died in the same day, 16 between day 1 and 7, 4 after day 7 since birth; still births: 47; born with unknown vitality: 10), mother age (no influence), consanguinity (4.4%), average weight (1,891 gr.), mean gestational age (246 days), intrauterine growth retardation (52.9%). The importance of a proper and careful examination during autopsy is stressed to identify and describe possible associated malformations. Immunohistochemical data (4 cases) on the cerebro-vascular area are reported, mainly to identify any neural buds and related structures (glia, neurofilaments, ganglia, nerves, ependyma, choroid plexus) as well as the connection between osteocartilaginous and epithelial and/or vascular rudiments. PMID:2392336

Abrate, M; Baracchini, P; Fulcheri, E; Lapertosa, G; Pantarotto, M F; Mastroiacovo, P

1990-01-01

77

Breast fibroadenomas in the pediatric population: common and uncommon sonographic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sonography is usually requested to evaluate palpable pediatric breast lumps, and solid masses are almost always fibroadenomas.\\u000a Lack of familiarity with the findings of fibroadenomas can lead to diagnostic uncertainty and sometimes unnecessary biopsy\\u000a and excision. We sought to review the spectrum of sonographic findings in our cases of pathology proven pediatric fibroadenomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The purpose of this retrospective study was

Ramon Sanchez; Maria F. Ladino-Torres; John A. Bernat; Annette Joe; Michael A. DiPietro

2010-01-01

78

Pathological findings associated with locomotory disturbances in lactating and recently weaned sows.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen lactating or recently weaned sows that had a history of lameness, weakness or paralysis were studied at necropsy. Ten sows had osteoporosis and pathological fractures while six had lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis. Values for bone ash, specific gravity of bone and the cortical to total ratio were significantly reduced in sows with osteoporosis and pathological fractures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Doige, C E

1982-01-01

79

Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children.

Odev, Kemal; Guler, Ibrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Huseyin

2013-01-01

80

Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43%) from 5 ewes (56%). %). BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82%) from 6 ewes (67%). Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology.

van der Sluijs, Mirjam T. W.; Schroer-Joosten, Dianne P. H.; Fid-Fourkour, Aicha; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Debyser, Isolde; Moulin, Veronique; Moormann, Rob J. M.; de Smit, Abraham J.

2013-01-01

81

Developing Asymmetry Identified on Mammography: Correlation with Imaging Outcome and Pathologic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Developing asymmetry on mammography is a focal asymmetric deposit that has appeared or increased in size or conspicuity since a previous examination. We exam- ined the frequency, imaging outcome, and pathologic significance of developing asymmetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was performed in a retrospective cohort manner. We searched for all cases of developing asymmetry consecutively entered in our

Jessica W. T. Leung; Edward A. Sickles; Leung JWT; Sickles EA

82

Pulmonary involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is a specific pathologic finding independent of inflammatory infiltration.  

PubMed

Pulmonary infiltrates in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are usually secondary to infection, but a subset is due to pathologic infiltration of malignant lymphocytes into the lung parenchyma. In cases with both CLL/SLL and inflammatory infiltrates, it is unknown whether the CLL infiltrate represents a nonspecific "passenger effect" secondary to ongoing inflammation or pathologic leukemic pulmonary infiltration (LPI). We reviewed 49 lung biopsies taken from 38 patients with CLL/SLL. LPI was found in 2 of 21 cases (9.5%) with acute inflammation, 0 of 10 cases of chronic inflammation and in 7 of 18 cases (38.8%) without any pathologic findings of acute or chronic inflammation (p = 0.01). These results demonstrate that LPI identified in biopsies with concurrent inflammation is uncommon, and that most inflammatory infiltrates in patients with CLL do not cause "passenger effect" CLL infiltration. Therefore, LPI usually represents a specific pathologic process. We conclude that bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy is an effective tool for guiding treatment decisions for symptomatic patients with CLL with pulmonary infiltrates. Moreover, LPI by CLL is not a bystander effect secondary to acute inflammation, but instead represents a distinct pathologic process in a subset of patients. PMID:21929283

Hill, Brian T; Weil, Andrew C; Kalaycio, Matt; Cook, James R

2012-04-01

83

Biochemical and pathological findings on sheep and calves dying of experimental cerebrocortical necrosis.  

PubMed

For observing biochemical and morphopathological changes in experimental cerebrocortical necrosis, 6 sheep and 6 calves were given amprolium (600 mg/kg/day). All of the amprolium-dosed animals showed neurological signs and died on days 35 to 57 after the onset of daily administration. They were pathologically confirmed as cerebrocortical necrosis. Total thiamine levels in blood and tissues were markedly reduced at death. Blood total thiamine level decreased significantly on day 7 of amprolium administration, and reached to the level as low as that seen at death about 2 weeks before the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms. Significant decrease in a thiamine-dependent enzyme, erythrocyte transketolase activity, and increase in thiamine pyrophosphate effect were detected about 2 weeks before the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms. Pathological changes and cerebral autofluorescence observed under ultraviolet light were also examined at death. PMID:7948377

Horino, R; Itabisashi, T; Hirano, K

1994-06-01

84

Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy not necessary to achieve high pathological remission in breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving trastuzumab and anthracyclines at the same time is effective at treating HER-2-positive breast cancer, but there is concern that this combination can be associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and colleagues in the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, shows these agents do not need to be given concurrently to achieve a high rate of complete pathological remission.

85

Expanded PTFE prostheses as arterial Substitutes in humans: Late pathological findings in 73 excised grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through collaboration of surgeons, pathologists and bioengineers at five centers in Canada and France, this study analyzed\\u000a the late pathology and structural changes in 73 expanded PTFE arterial prostheses harvested from patients at autopsies and\\u000a reoperations. The degree of tissue encapsulation Increased with the duration of implantation but was reduced by the presence\\u000a of infection. In several cases, the fibrous

Maxime J. Formichi; Robert G. Guidoin; Jean-Michel Jausseran; John A. Awad; K. Wayne Johnston; Martin W. King; Robert Courbier; Michel Marois; Claude Rouleau; Michel Batt; Jean-Francois Girard; Camille Gosselin

1988-01-01

86

Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

2012-06-01

87

Interpretation of computed tomography does not correlate with laboratory or pathologic findings in surgically confirmed acute appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Computed tomography (CT) is used increasingly to diagnose acute appendicitis, despite variable technique and interpretation. We hypothesized that CT interpretation would not reflect actual clinical-pathologic findings in all demographic patient groups. Methods: A prospective university hospital database of 625 consecutive patients (1995-1999), all of whom were operated on for appendicitis (261, or 41.8%, within 24 hours of discretionary CT), was

Michael J. Weyant; Soumitra R. Eachempati; Mary A. Maluccio; David E. Rivadeneira; Stephen R. Grobmyer; Lynn J. Hydo; Philip S. Barie

2000-01-01

88

Review of commonly used clinical pathology parameters for general gastrointestinal disease with emphasis on small animals.  

PubMed

A wide variety of markers are available to assess the function and pathology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This review describes some of these markers with special emphasis given to markers used in dogs and cats. Small intestinal disease can be confirmed and localized by the measurement of serum concentrations of folate and cobalamin. Fecal ?1-proteinase inhibitor concentration can increase in individuals with excessive GI protein loss. A wide variety of inflammatory markers are available for a variety of species that can be used to assess the inflammatory activity of various types of inflammatory cells in the GI tract, although most of these markers assess neutrophilic inflammation, such as neutrophil elastase, calprotectin, or S100A12. N-methylhistamine can serve as a marker of mast cell infiltration. Markers for lymphocytic or eosinophilic inflammation are currently under investigation. Exocrine pancreatic function can be assessed by measurement of serum concentrations of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI). Serum PLI concentration is increased in individuals with pancreatitis and has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for pancreatitis. Serum TLI concentration is severely decreased in individuals with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. PMID:24129757

Steiner, Jörg M

2014-01-01

89

[Clinical and pathological findings on acute phase in two-kidney Goldblatt hypertensive rats].  

PubMed

Clinical and pathological changes were investigated on acute phase in two-kidney Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and juxtaglomerular cell count (JGCC) increased slightly as early as 7 days after operation. Systolic blood pressure and plasma renin activity rose in the course of time after operation. Juxtaglomerular index (JGI) and JGCC of the clipped kidneys increased and JGI of the opposite kidneys decreased with the increase in systolic blood pressure. These results suggested that juxtaglomerular cells had an important role on acute phase in two-kidney Goldblatt hypertensive rats. PMID:2044664

Yamakoshi, J; Ohshita, K; Takahashi, R

1991-04-01

90

Pathologic findings in hatchling and posthatchling leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) from Florida.  

PubMed

In an attempt to identify critical health issues affecting the survival of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), a prospective study was conducted in several dead-in-nest hatchlings and captive posthatchlings to examine pathologic changes and presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Numerous histopathologic changes were identified. Although bacterial etiologies were suspected in deaths of captive individuals, a single causative organism was not identified but rather, a mixed population of bacterial flora was cultured. Muscle degeneration observed in most samples implicates a potential environmental factor in species survival and needs future investigation. PMID:19901372

Miller, Debra L; Wyneken, Jeanette; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Perrault, Justin; Mader, Douglas R; Weege, James; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-10-01

91

Intraparenchymal pulmonary lipoma: pathologic-radiologic correlation of a rare presentation of a common neoplasm.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of pulmonary intraparenchymal lipoma. Lipomas are benign adipocytic tumors, which are ubiquitous in distribution, particularly in the subcutis and soft tissue. Visceral lipomas, in particular, pulmonary lipomas, are rarely reported. Even rarer are intraparenchymal lipomas, such as this case, of which less than 10 have been reported in the medical literature. The radiologic (computed tomographic scan) findings of pulmonary lipoma may be somewhat difficult to evaluate. In this case, on initial review, the computed tomographic findings were not diagnostic, but retrospective analysis revealed attenuation values suggestive of an adipocytic lesion. A high index of suspicion and careful attention to attenuation values are therefore required for radiologic diagnosis. Excision is necessary for histologic confirmation, which is generally relatively straight forward, although admixture with fibrous tissue and some cytologic atypia may pose diagnostic challenges. PMID:24818636

Parsons, Lauren; Shahir, Kaushik; Rao, Nagarjun

2014-08-01

92

Some clinico-pathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni.  

PubMed

Severe submandibular and ventral abdominal oedema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes (Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination. Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram. Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site. Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs. Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range. PMID:633508

Caple, I W; Jainudeen, M R; Buick, T D; Song, C Y

1978-01-01

93

A Common STEP in the Synaptic Pathology of Diverse Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Synaptic function is critical for proper cognition, and synaptopathologies have been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase that normally opposes synaptic strengthening by dephosphorylating key neuronal signaling molecules. STEP targets include N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the tyrosine kinase Fyn. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation promotes the internalization of NMDARs and AMPARs and the inactivation of ERK and Fyn. Regulation of STEP is complex, and recent work has implicated STEP dysregulation in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Both high levels and low levels of STEP are found in a diverse group of illnesses. This review focuses on the role of STEP in three disorders in which STEP levels are elevated: Alzheimer’s disease, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. The presence of elevated STEP in all three of these disorders raises the intriguing possibility that cognitive deficits resulting from diverse etiologies may share a common molecular pathway.

Johnson, Micah A.; Lombroso, Paul J.

2012-01-01

94

Pulmonary Pathologic Findings of Fatal 2009 Pandemic Influenza A\\/H1N1 Viral Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

observed most commonly in the epithelium of the tracheobronchial tree but also in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. Most cases were reverse transcrip- tion-polymerase chain reaction positive for influenza. Histologic and microbiologic autopsy evidence of bac- terial pneumonia was detected in 55% of cases. Underlying medical conditions including cardiorespira- tory diseases and immunosuppression were present in 91% of cases. Obesity

James R. Gill; Zong-Mei Sheng; Susan F. Ely; Donald G. Guinee Jr; Mary B. Beasley; James Suh; Charuhas Deshpande; Daniel J. Mollura; David M. Morens; Mike Bray; William D. Travis; Jeffery K. Taubenberger

95

Expanded PTFE prostheses as arterial substitutes in humans: late pathological findings in 73 excised grafts.  

PubMed

Through collaboration of surgeons, pathologists and bioengineers at five centers in Canada and France, this study analyzed the late pathology and structural changes in 73 expanded PTFE arterial prostheses harvested from patients at autopsies and reoperations. The degree of tissue encapsulation increased with the duration of implantation but was reduced by the presence of infection. In several cases, the fibrous tissue penetrated the wall of the prosthesis and partitioned off the thin outer layer, thus disrupting the delicate microporous structure of the wall. The presence of aneurysms was observed in models that had no external reinforcing layer and among grafts that apparently suffered from surgical trauma. Wrinkling of grafts was noted at areas of flexion and was often associated with thickening of the external capsule and reduced luminal diameters. Endothelialization was found within only a few millimeters of the anastomoses. The luminal surfaces were generally not well healed. The PTFE structure was usually readily visible under a thin covering of loosely adhering thrombotic deposits. Bacteria were observed in 46% of the cases, even though only 29% were considered clinically infected. The incidence of lipid or cholesterol deposits was high. Avoiding iatrogenic trauma to the external wall of the prosthesis during implantation is important. Those features where design improvements are required to provide longer term structural integrity and dimensional stability in future models of expanded PTFE prostheses should be identified. PMID:3228535

Formichi, M J; Guidoin, R G; Jausseran, J M; Awad, J A; Johnston, K W; King, M W; Eng, P; Courbier, R; Marois, M; Rouleau, C

1988-01-01

96

Silent soft tissue pathology is common with a modern metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported to be a cause of pain in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. We assessed the incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic adverse reactions in a consecutive series of patients with a modern large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Methods We studied the early clinical results and results of routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening in a series of 79 large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (ASR; DePuy, Leeds, UK) in 68 patients. 75 hips were MRI scanned at mean 31 (12–52) months after surgery. Results 27 of 75 hips had MRI-detected metal debris-related abnormalities, of which 5 were mild, 18 moderate, and 4 severe. 8 of these hips have been revised, 6 of which were revised for an adverse reaction to metal debris, diagnosed preoperatively with MRI and confirmed histologically. The mean Oxford hip score (OHS) for the whole cohort was 21. It was mean 23 for patients with no MRI-based evidence of adverse reactions and 19 for those with adverse reactions detected by MRI. 6 of 12 patients with a best possible OHS of 12 had MRI-based evidence of an adverse reaction. Interpretation We have found a high early revision rate with a modern, large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. MRI-detected adverse rections to metal debris was common and often clinically “silent”. We recommend that patients with this implant should be closely followed up and undergo routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening.

2011-01-01

97

Physical and Clinical Pathological Findings Associated with Experimentally Induced Rupture of the Equine Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Two mature horses were examined for changes in laboratory and physical findings after experimentally induced bladder rupture. The postrupture laboratory diagnostic changes, which provide valuable information for a correct diagnosis are described. Hematology, serum and peritoneal fluid sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, urea nitrogen, albumin and peritoneal fluid components were measured and evaluated versus time. Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia occurred, as well as increased concentrations of peritoneal fluid potassium and inorganic phosphorus. In addition, peritoneal fluid creatinine:serum creatinine and peritoneal fluid urea nitrogen:serum urea nitrogen ratios were followed with time. Hematology and cytology of the peritoneal fluid showed an inflammatory response to urine contamination of the abdominal cavity. Physical findings of tachypnea and tachycardia as well as a mild colic were absent until nearly 50 hours postrupture. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the peritoneal fluid creatinine:serum creatinine ratio was the most useful antemortem laboratory diagnostic aid.

Genetzky, Roger M.; Hagemoser, Wayne A.

1985-01-01

98

Uncommon pathological findings in sural nerve biopsy from a patient with Churg-Strauss related multiple mononeuropathy.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with severe multiple mononeuropathy associated with hypereosinophilia, asthma and pulmonary non cavitating micronodules. Sural nerve biopsy revealed marked perineural thickening and microfasciculation with inflammatory infiltrates in the perinerium and in the epinerium. The patient markedly improved with steroid therapy. Our final diagnosis was Churg-Strauss related multiple mononeuropathy. Thus, we report a case of Churg-Strauss related multiple mononeuropathy with uncommon pathological findings on sural nerve and we underline the importance of clinical evaluation for this diagnosis. PMID:24435033

Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Romano, Angela; Sabatelli, Mario

2013-01-01

99

Groove Pancreatitis: Spectrum of Imaging Findings and Radiology-Pathology Correlation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the “groove” between the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are strong associations with long-term alcohol abuse, functional obstruction of the duct of Santorini, and Brunner gland hyperplasia. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, differentiating groove pancreatitis from malignancy on the basis of imaging features, clinical presentation, or laboratory markers can be extraordinarily difficult, and the vast majority of these patients ultimately undergo a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) because of an inability to completely exclude malignancy. In certain cases, however, the imaging features on CT and MRI can allow the radiologist to prospectively suggest the correct diagnosis.

Raman, Siva P.; Salaria, Safia N.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2014-01-01

100

Clinical and pathologic findings of Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz tumors with ALK fusions.  

PubMed

Spitz tumors represent a group of melanocytic neoplasms that typically affect young individuals. Microscopically, the lesions are composed of cytologically distinct spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, with a range in the architectural display or the cells, their nuclear features, and secondary epidermal or stromal changes. Recently, kinase fusions have been documented in a subset of Spitz tumors, but there is limited information on the clinical and pathologic features associated with those lesions. Here, we report a series of 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) with spitzoid neoplasms showing ALK fusions (5 Spitz nevi and 12 atypical Spitz tumors). The patients' ages ranged from 2 years to 35 years (mean=17 y; median=16 y). Most lesions were located on the lower extremities and presented clinically as polypoid nodules. All tumors were compound melanocytic proliferations with a predominant intradermal growth. Tumor thickness ranged from 1.1 to 6 mm (mean=2.9 mm; median=2.5 mm). The most characteristic histopathologic feature of the tumors (seen in all but 2 lesions) was a plexiform dermal growth of intersecting fascicles of fusiform melanocytes. All but 2 tumors were amelanotic. All tumors were strongly immunoreactive for ALK. The ALK rearrangements were confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the fusion partner was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) in 11 cases and DCTN1 (dynactin 1) in 6 cases. None of the 8 tumors that were analyzed by FISH for copy number changes of 6p, 6q, 9p, or 11q met criteria for melanoma. Two patients underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and in both cases melanocyte nests were found in the subcapsular sinus of the node. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these 2 tumors revealed no chromosomal gains or losses. In conclusion, our study revealed that Spitz nevi/tumors with ALK rearrangement show a characteristic plexiform morphology and that ALK immunohistochemistry and FISH enable the accurate identification of this morphologic and genetic distinct subset of spitzoid neoplasms. PMID:24698967

Busam, Klaus J; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Wiesner, Thomas

2014-07-01

101

Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares. Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms. A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported. IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test. The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms.

Szeredi, L.; Haake, D. A.

2009-01-01

102

Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne's disease.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne's disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively. PMID:23115369

Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

2012-05-01

103

Malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging findings and pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation is a rare complication of endometriosis. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers are seen more often in younger women than are ovarian cancers without endometriosis, and early detection is important to improve the prognosis and preserve fertility. However, normal decidual change of the ectopic endometrium in an endometrioma during pregnancy must be differentiated from malignant transformation. The finding that is most important for a diagnosis of malignant change is the presence of one or more contrast material-enhanced mural nodules within a cystic mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging is useful in depicting small contrast-enhanced nodules within the hyperintense endometrioma on T1-weighted images. Intracystic coagulate may mimic a mural nodule; the absence of contrast enhancement is the diagnostic clue to its benignity. Enlargement of the endometrioma and the disappearance of shading within the mass on T2-weighted images are suggestive of malignant transformation. PMID:16549606

Takeuchi, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Uehara, Hisanori; Nishitani, Hiromu

2006-01-01

104

Correlation of transrectal ultrasonographic findings with histo pathology in prostatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate the incidence of hyperechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, prostatic cancer in TRUS (transrectal ultrasound guided) guided prostatic specimens. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and ninety three patients with raised serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and abnormal DRE findings were subjected to TRUS-Guided prostate biopsy. Lateralized sextant biopsy plus prostatic cores from suspicious areas were obtained. Results: Out of 493 patients who were enrolled in the study, 65 (13.18) patients showed hyperechoic lesions on TRUS and 211 (42.79) patients had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS. Conclusion: Our study has revealed that hyperechoic lesions on transrectal ultrasonography have more chances of prostatic cancer as reported in previous literature, so we suggest that we should take additional biopsy of hyperechoic lesions and perhaps it should be part of the standard protocol in patients suspected cancer prostate.

Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wanie, Mohd Saleem; Ganie, Shabir Ahmad; Lone, Hafezulla; Gani, Masaratul; Mir, Mohd Farooq; Khan, Naseer Ahmad

2014-01-01

105

Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.  

PubMed

Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes. PMID:24309907

Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

2014-01-01

106

[Magnetic resonance imaging in study of the temporo-mandibular joint. II. Pathologic findings].  

PubMed

A total of 107 temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were examined with two superconductive MR units at 1T and 1.5T. In 73 TMJs, MR revealed 55 disk displacements, 7 disk perforations, 10 joint space adhesions, 33 osteoarthrities, 3 avascular necroses of the mandibular condyle, and 25 joint effusions. These abnormalities are described and discussed. In spite of some limitations--e.g., motion artifacts and patients' claustrophobia--MR imaging is the procedure of choice in abnormal TMJs, because it yields useful information as to therapeutic choice (conservative versus surgical). Arthrography can be used as a complementary study technique in the patients with marked disagreement between clinical and MR findings. Arthroscopy should be used as a surgical procedure in abnormal TMJs selected by previous MR studies. PMID:1857784

Olivetti, L; Grazioli, L; Cerri, G; Superti, G; Caudana, R; Fugazzola, C

1991-06-01

107

UCI-led study finds a drug combo better for common type of metastatic breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Postmenopausal women with the most common type of metastatic breast cancer now have a new treatment option that lengthens their lives, according a study led by UC Irvine and conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group. The findings appear in the Aug. 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. A combination of the two anti-estrogen drugs anastrozole and fulvestrant extended the median survival time of women with Stage 4 hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer by more than six months compared to those who underwent standard treatment with anastrozole alone. UC Irvine is home to the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

108

Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in sheep: clinical, laboratory and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Eleven native sheep, 1-2 years old, of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, 6 sheep being allocated to the experimental group and 5 serving as controls. The sheep in the experimental group were fed 80% Tribulus terrestris and 20% alfalfa hay and wheat straw, while the control sheep were given a mixture of 40% alfalfa hay and 60% wheat straw. Clinical signs of hepatogenous photosensitivity were observed from day 11, including reddening and crust formation on the muzzle, nose, ears and eyelids, depression, weight loss, icterus, conjunctivitis, and yellow discoloration of the urine. Laboratory findings on weekly samples indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) in white blood cell count, total plasma protein and fibrinogen, total and direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, and aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. There were no significant differences in the packed cell volume, in the neutrophil, lymphocyte or eosinophil counts, or in the serum calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium or chloride concentrations. At necropsy of the experimental animals, there were various degrees of generalized icterus and the livers were swollen and discolored by bile pigment. Histopathological examination revealed varying amounts of crystalloid material in the bile ducts and renal tubules, hepatocellular degeneration, biliary fibrosis and proliferation, renal tubular necrosis and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle. PMID:12625403

Aslani, M R; Movassaghi, A R; Mohri, M; Pedram, M; Abavisani, A

2003-01-01

109

Retrovirus-like activity in an immunosuppressed dog: pathological and immunological findings.  

PubMed

A putative retrovirus was isolated from a dog with a severe, acquired immunodeficiency-like syndrome. The haematological abnormalities and immunological deficiencies included anaemia, leucopenia (lymphopenia and neutropenia), thrombocytopenia, decreased humoral immunity, and ineffective T-cell responses in-vitro. The necropsy findings included generalized lymphoid depletion, severe bone marrow hypoplasia, plasmacytic infiltrates in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, and severe secondary infections. Supernates of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from the affected dog contained an agent with manganese-dependent reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that sedimented at a density of 1.122 g/ml. RT activity was also found post-mortem in extracts prepared from the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and small intestine. The lymph nodes and small intestine expressed a 3.8 kb mRNA that was recognized by a bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) pol DNA probe by Northern blotting. DNA isolated from the lymph nodes and small intestine from the affected dog showed distinct band patterns by Southern analysis, suggesting an exogenous retrovirus. The retrovirus could be propagated in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or short-term canine lymphocyte cell lines in-vitro, and was cytopathogenic for cells of canine, but not human, origin. These results suggest the existence of a pathogenic canine retrovirus capable of producing disease of the type associated with retroviruses in other species. PMID:7539463

Modiano, J F; Getzy, D M; Akol, K G; Van Winkle, T J; Cockerell, G L

1995-02-01

110

New onset pancytopenia in adults: a review of underlying pathologies and their associated clinical and laboratory findings.  

PubMed

Abstract Pancytopenia is regularly encountered in hematology practice, yet there exist few published assessments of the frequencies of various etiologies, and these frequencies exhibit substantial geographic variation. We reviewed bone marrow specimens from pancytopenic adults to determine the most common etiologies and to identify associations with clinical and laboratory findings. Of 132 patients with no history of hematolymphoid neoplasia, no prior bone marrow study for pancytopenia and no recent cytotoxic chemotherapy, 64% had clonal hematopoietic disorders. Most common were myeloid processes: 26% of patients had acute myeloid leukemia, and 17% had myelodysplasia. Less common were lymphoid neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6%), hairy cell leukemia (5%) and precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4%). Among non-clonal cases, the most common specific diagnoses were aplastic anemia (5%), megaloblastic anemia (2%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related changes (2%). Clonal diagnoses were associated with more severe cytopenias than non-clonal cases. Circulating nucleated erythroid precursors, immature granulocytes and blasts were seen more frequently in clonal cases. Nearly two-thirds of cases of new onset pancytopenia in adults in our North American practice setting have a clonal etiology, with myeloid neoplasms being most common. Blood counts and peripheral smear findings can provide insights into the likelihood of a clonal etiology. PMID:23829306

Devitt, Katherine A; Lunde, John H; Lewis, Michael R

2014-05-01

111

In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage.

McGrew, W. C.

2010-01-01

112

MR cholangiopancreatography at 3.0 T in children: diagnostic quality and ability in assessment of common paediatric pancreatobiliary pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the diagnostic quality of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) at 3.0?T in children and to assess its diagnostic ability in answering the clinical query. Also, to determine the frequency of artefacts and anatomic variations in ductal anatomy. Methods: Consecutive MRCPs performed in children using a 3-T scanner were retrospectively reviewed to note indications, findings, imaging diagnosis, normal variants, quality and artefacts. Analysis was performed based on the final diagnosis assigned by pathology or the combination of clinical, laboratory, imaging features and follow-up to determine whether it was possible to answer the clinical query by MRCP findings. Results: There were 82 MRCPs performed at 3.0?T on 77 children. 42/82 (51%) MRCPs were of good quality, 35/82 (43%) MRCPs were suboptimal but diagnostic and the remaining 5/82 (6%) MRCPs were non-diagnostic. MRCP answered the clinical query in 61/82 (74%) cases; however, it did not answer the clinical query in 11/82 (14%) cases and was equivocal in 10/82 (12%) cases. There was significant association between the quality of MRCP and the ability of MRCP to answer the clinical query (p<0.0001). 64/82 (78%) MRCP examinations had at least 1 artefact. Variation in the bile duct anatomy was seen in 27/77 (35%) children. Conclusion: MRCP performed at 3.0?T is of diagnostic quality in most cases and is able to provide an answer to the clinical query in the majority of cases. Advances in knowledge: 3-T MRCP is feasible and useful in the assessment of pancreatobiliary abnormalities in children.

Almehdar, A

2013-01-01

113

Impaired cardiovascular function caused by different stressors elicits a common pathological and transcriptional response in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Zebrafish embryos have been widely used to study the genes and processes needed for normal vertebrate heart development. We recently observed that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or retinoic acid (RA) produces very similar signs of heart failure in developing zebrafish via divergent molecular pathways. The fact that diverse stressors and mutations cause severe pericardial edema and circulatory collapse in developing zebrafish has been largely unexplored. We hypothesized that unrelated chemicals can trigger a common pathological response leading to the same end-stage heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of TCDD, RA, carbaryl, valproic acid, and morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown of TBX5 on the developing heart in zebrafish embryos. These model stressors have all been previously reported to affect zebrafish heart development, and elicited very similar signs of embryonic heart failure. Microarray analysis showed that one cluster of 92 transcripts affected by these different treatments was significantly downregulated by all treatments. This gene cluster is composed of transcripts required for chromosome assembly, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. We refer to this cluster as the cell cycle gene cluster (CCGC). Immunohistochemistry revealed that downregulation of the CCGC precedes a halt in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the hearts of zebrafish exposed to any of the treatments. Previous work has shown that the initial response to TCDD is a decrease in cardiac output. Since this precedes the signs of edema, heart failure, and fall in CCGC expression, we postulated that any factor that decreases cardiac output will produce the same syndrome of heart failure responses. To test this, we used MO knockdown of cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2) to specifically block contractility. The TNNT2-MO produced exactly the same signs of cardiotoxicity as the other treatments, including downregulation of the signature CCGC. Our results indicate that agents altering cardiac output can have amplified consequences during specific periods in development. PMID:23837677

Chen, Jing

2013-09-01

114

Impaired Cardiovascular Function Caused by Different Stressors Elicits a Common Pathological and Transcriptional Response in Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish embryos have been widely used to study the genes and processes needed for normal vertebrate heart development. We recently observed that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or retinoic acid (RA) produces very similar signs of heart failure in developing zebrafish via divergent molecular pathways. The fact that diverse stressors and mutations cause severe pericardial edema and circulatory collapse in developing zebrafish has been largely unexplored. We hypothesized that unrelated chemicals can trigger a common pathological response leading to the same end-stage heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of TCDD, RA, carbaryl, valproic acid, and morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown of TBX5 on the developing heart in zebrafish embryos. These model stressors have all been previously reported to affect zebrafish heart development, and elicited very similar signs of embryonic heart failure. Microarray analysis showed that one cluster of 92 transcripts affected by these different treatments was significantly downregulated by all treatments. This gene cluster is composed of transcripts required for chromosome assembly, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. We refer to this cluster as the cell cycle gene cluster (CCGC). Immunohistochemistry revealed that downregulation of the CCGC precedes a halt in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the hearts of zebrafish exposed to any of the treatments. Previous work has shown that the initial response to TCDD is a decrease in cardiac output. Since this precedes the signs of edema, heart failure, and fall in CCGC expression, we postulated that any factor that decreases cardiac output will produce the same syndrome of heart failure responses. To test this, we used MO knockdown of cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2) to specifically block contractility. The TNNT2-MO produced exactly the same signs of cardiotoxicity as the other treatments, including downregulation of the signature CCGC. Our results indicate that agents altering cardiac output can have amplified consequences during specific periods in development.

2013-01-01

115

Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

Faria, Sergio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: sergio.faria@muhc.mcgill.ca; Menard, Sonia [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Sirois, Christian [Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lisbona, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2008-03-15

116

Leukoaraiosis, a Common Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding, as a Predictor of Traffic Crashes  

PubMed Central

Background There are no reported studies on the relationship between traffic crashes and brain tissue changes in healthy drivers. The relationship between traffic crashes and leukoaraiosis, a common magnetic resonance imaging finding, was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 3,930 automobile drivers (2,037 men and 1,893 women; age, 21–87 years) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging as part of total health check-ups and answered a road traffic questionnaire were examined to determine whether asymptomatic leukoaraiosis was associated with various types of traffic crashes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to elucidate the relationship between leukoaraiosis and various types of traffic crashes. Results Subcortical leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 28.52% of all subjects, whereas periventricular leukoaraiosis was diagnosed in 9.57% of all subjects. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in all types of traffic crashes were not significant for subjects with periventricular leukoaraiosis; however, they were significant for subjects with multiple and large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Adjusted odds ratios for involvement in crashes at crossroads were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.00) for subjects with single subcortical leukoaraiosis, 3.35 (95% CI, 2.36–4.77) for subjects with multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, and 2.45 (95% CI, 2.36–4.98) for subjects with large multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis. Periventricular leukoaraiosis was not significantly associated with crossroad crashes. Involvement in crashes of any type, parking lot crashes, and rear-end collisions showed no significant association with either subcortical or periventricular leukoaraiosis. Conclusions Multiple subcortical leukoaraiosis, but not periventricular leukoaraiosis, is significantly associated with traffic crashes, in particular, crossroad crashes. This association is independent of sex, age, and driving exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence describing the relationship between brain tissue changes and traffic crashes.

Park, Kaechang; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kumagai, Yasuhiko; Nagahara, Mitsuhiro

2013-01-01

117

Pathological findings following radical prostatectomy in patients who are candidates for active surveillance: impact of varying PSA levels  

PubMed Central

Active surveillance is an acceptable treatment option in men with a low-risk prostate cancer. In the present study, we have retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 509 men who fit the criteria for active surveillance but selected radical prostatectomy. Then, the impact of varying prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels on the risk of upstaging and upgrading in these patients was assessed. Pathological characteristics of patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria under three active surveillance criteria—those of the University of California–San Francisco, the National Cancer Institute and the European Association of Urology—were examined. The proportion of men who were deemed candidates for active surveillance but were subsequently upstaged or upgraded was determined. Of 509 patients, 186 (36.5%), 132 (25.9%) and 88 (17.3%) men fulfilled the active surveillance criteria, respectively. Upgrading (Gleason scores 7–10) ranged from 32.8% to 38.6%, while upstaging (?pT3) ranged from 10.2% to 12.5%, depending on the three active surveillance criteria. After a median follow-up of 24 months, three patients developed a biochemical recurrence. When the impact of varying PSA levels was examined using a test for trend analysis in the context of PSA for each protocol, rates of upstaging were lower in men with PSA <4 ng ml?1. However, there was no impact of varying PSA levels on upgrading. In conclusion, commonly used active surveillance protocols carry the risks of upgrading and upstaging. More reliable and accurate markers are needed to better stratify the risks of men who are appropriate candidates for active surveillance.

Kang, Dong Il; Jang, Thomas L.; Jeong, Jeongyun; Choi, Eun Young; Johnson, Kelly; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Isaac Yi

2011-01-01

118

Study finds cancer programs in Michigan follow care guidelines for common cancers  

Cancer.gov

A majority of Michigan oncology practices participating in a statewide consortium followed treatment guidelines for common cancers, but had gaps in managing symptoms and end-of-life care, according to a new study.

119

Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the antigen distribution in the various organs, and the amount of antigen varied among both species. Therefore, the diagnostician may choose organs for histology and immunohistochemistry as well as RT-PCR depending on the investigated species in order to avoid false-negative results. PMID:16094831

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

2005-06-01

120

Pathologic findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project (protocol no. 4). I. Observations concerning the multicentricity of mammary cancer.  

PubMed

Microscopic foci of multicentric cancer were detected in 121 of 904 breasts surgically removed for a clinically overt, invasive cancer. This incidence of 13.4% is regarded as a conservative estimate since examples of such lesions occurring in the same quadrant as the dominant mass, except in those instances in which the latter was present within the tail of the breast or beneath the nipple, were excluded from the analysis. Further, this data was obtained from only one randomly selected block of the quadrants, and in 41% of the cases only one or two were available for study. Multiple multicentric cancers were found in the same breast in two and three quadrants in 11.6% and 5.8% of the cases respectively. In 9.3% of the cases the multicentric cancers were designated as noninvasive (lobular in situ and/or intraductal) and in 4.1% invasive. An attempt to correlate the occurrence of multicentric cancers with a large number of pathologic and some clinical features disclosed a statistically significant association between multicentricity and grossly nonencapsulated dominant cancers with maximum diameters greater than 5 cm, the presence of a moderate or marked intraductal component and noninvasive cancer in its vicinity, and tumor involvement of the nipple. In addition, it was noted that there was a greater likelihood that the primary tumor was of the lobular invasive type and that the overlying skin was involved when the multicentric cancer was invasive rather than noninvasive. Lymphatic tumor emboli were observed in quadrants in 18 or 2.0% of the cases. Although the number of examples is small, nevertheless positive associations were noted with the occurrence of primary tumors that were in the left breast or beneath the nipple and were not grossly circumscribed, but exhibited a nuclear grade of 1, intralymphatic and blood vessel invasion, calcium, and involvement of the overlying skin as well as nipple. In addition, patients with such intralymphatic extension were more likely to have clinically detectable lymph nodes of which four or more contained metastases. The relationship of these findings to the rationale of such procedures as segmental resection in the surgical treatment of breast cancer is discussed. PMID:1109771

Fisher, E R; Gregorio, R; Redmond, C; Vellios, F; Sommers, S C; Fisher, B

1975-01-01

121

Quadratic Time Algorithms for Finding Common Intervals in Two and More Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A popular approach in comparative genomics is to locate groups or clusters of orthologous genes in multiple genomes and to pos- tulate functional association between the genes contained in such clus- ters. To this end, genomes are often represented as permutations of their genes, and common intervals, i.e. intervals containing the same set of genes, are interpreted as gene clusters.

Thomas Schmidt; Jens Stoye

2004-01-01

122

FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

123

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

124

Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four herds the following case-definition of NNPDS was suggested: Non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first week of life, without detection of known infectious pathogens, characterized by milk-filled stomachs and flaccid intestines at necropsy.

2013-01-01

125

Finding Common Ground: An Analysis of Librarians' Expressed Attitudes Towards Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information literacy listservs provide opportunities to discuss a range of instruction-related issues. One common theme is librarian-faculty relationships, including positive interactions and complaints. Content analysis is used to investigate librarians' discussions of faculty in BI-L\\/ILI-L postings from 1995 to 2002. By isolating and anonymizing postings reflecting librarian-faculty relationships and examining these through the authors' experiences as trained librarians and full-time

Lisa M. Given; Heidi Julien

2005-01-01

126

Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP) were investigated. Methods Sixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]); group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty); and group III (incidental or normal findings). Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed. Results Brain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74%) with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30%) with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88%) with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT), and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01) and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05) than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05). Conclusion Earlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up.

Choi, Keun Hee; Chung, Seung Joon; Kang, Min Jae; Yoon, Ju Young; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ah; Yang, Sei Won

2013-01-01

127

Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.  

PubMed

To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

2012-11-01

128

[A case of bilateral sudden hearing loss and vertigo caused by bilateral temporal bone metastasis from pancreatic carcinoma--comparison of clinical findings and temporal bone pathological findings].  

PubMed

We report temporal bone pathology in a 25-year-old man with bilateral temporal bone adenocarcinoma which was caused by metastasis from a primary lesion in the pancreas. The initial symptoms began with vertigo and headache and the patient noticed left hearing loss in the left ear on the following day. A few days later, he noticed hearing loss in the right ear, and bilateral hearing was totally lost within two weeks of the onset. In addition to severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, left IInd, bilateral Vth and VIIIth cranial nerve paralysis occurred. Brain CT showed multiple metastatic lesions in the brain. The patient's general condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died of acute pneumonia on the 42nd day after onset. At autopsy it was revealed adenocarcinoma of the tail and body of the pancreas and its metastasis to the brain and meninges. Pathological study of the temporal bone showed infiltration of carcinomatous cells along the VIIth and VIIIth nerves in the bilateral internal auditory canals. PMID:2019918

Ohira, Y; Kaga, K; Kodama, A

1991-01-01

129

Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies  

PubMed Central

Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma.

Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

2013-01-01

130

Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: finding common grounds.  

PubMed

A flow of key information links marine spatial planning (MSP) and oil spill risk analysis (OSRA), two distinct processes needed to achieve true sustainable management of coastal and marine areas. OSRA informs MSP on areas of high risk to oil spills allowing a redefinition of planning objectives and the relocation of activities to increase the ecosystem's overall utility and resilience. Concomitantly, MSP continuously generates a large amount of data that is vital to OSRA. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping system emerges as an operational tool to implement the MSP-OSRA link. Given the high level of commonalities between ESI and MSP data (both in biophysical and human dimensions), ESI tools (both paper maps and dynamic GIS-based product) are easily developed to further inform MSP and oil spill risk management. Finally, several other benefits from implementing the MSP-OSRA link are highlighted. PMID:23941806

Frazão Santos, Catarina; Michel, Jaqueline; Neves, Mário; Janeiro, João; Andrade, Francisco; Orbach, Michael

2013-09-15

131

Pathological and Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in a Single-Center Study of 229 Consecutive Girls with Early or Precocious Puberty  

PubMed Central

Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. Objective To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Method A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. Results Thirteen out of 208 (6.3%) girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8–9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6%) had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p?=?0.025); no cut of value was found as values overlapped. Conclusion A high frequency of 6–8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI.

Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; S?rensen, Kaspar; Main, Katharina M.; Gideon, Peter; Juul, Anders

2012-01-01

132

Further exploration during open appendicectomy; assessment of some common intraoperative findings  

PubMed Central

Objective: Very few studies are available to relate the final histology of excised appendix with the detailed intra-operative findings during appendectomy, both open and laparoscopic. This study was aimed to correlate the histological features of appendix specimen with the intra operative findings at open appendicectomy (OA) in a bid to determine when to change the planned procedure to include further exploration. Methods : A prospective study that observes the condition of the greater omentum (GO), the vermiform appendix and peritoneal exudates at all OA done for uncomplicated appendicitis. Histological examination of the appendices done using the H&E stain. Results : Eighty-five patients had emergency open OA, their’ ages range from 6 to 62 yrs (median = 23yrs). Histology showed 7 normal appendix (HNA), 56 acute (HAA) and 22 “non acute” appendicitis (HNAA). Negative appendicectomy rate was 8.2%. The GO was sighted more in patients with HAA than HNAA (p=0.00015) and also significantly more inflamed in the former (p=0.00028). It is not significantly inflamed in those with HNAA (p=0.945). The negative predictive value (NPV) of absent GO is 35.7% while the positive predictive value (PPV) of sighted normal GO and inflamed GO are 92.8% and 100% respectively. The PPV and NPV of presence of pus for diseased appendix are 95.8% and 9.8% respectively while those of excess fluid are 94.8% and 10.8%. The PPV and NPV of macroscopic assessment of the appendix for inflammation are 97% and 45.5% respectively giving the diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. A significant trend of increasing probability of histologically inflamed appendix with increasing severity of macroscopic feature was seen (X2 = 004 df=1, p<0.005). Conclusion: High positive and low negative predictive values are similar for all the three parameters assessed. The macroscopic appearance of the appendix has a predictive likelihood ratio for further exploration.

Saliu Oguntola, Adetunji; Layiwola Adeoti, Moses; Olayide Agodirin, Sulaiman; Adeniyi Oremakinde, Adetunji; O Ojemakinde, Kunle

2014-01-01

133

Further exploration during open appendicectomy; assessment of some common intraoperative findings.  

PubMed

Objective: Very few studies are available to relate the final histology of excised appendix with the detailed intra-operative findings during appendectomy, both open and laparoscopic. This study was aimed to correlate the histological features of appendix specimen with the intra operative findings at open appendicectomy (OA) in a bid to determine when to change the planned procedure to include further exploration. Methods : A prospective study that observes the condition of the greater omentum (GO), the vermiform appendix and peritoneal exudates at all OA done for uncomplicated appendicitis. Histological examination of the appendices done using the H&E stain. Results : Eighty-five patients had emergency open OA, their(') ages range from 6 to 62 yrs (median = 23yrs). Histology showed 7 normal appendix (HNA), 56 acute (HAA) and 22 "non acute" appendicitis (HNAA). Negative appendicectomy rate was 8.2%. The GO was sighted more in patients with HAA than HNAA (p=0.00015) and also significantly more inflamed in the former (p=0.00028). It is not significantly inflamed in those with HNAA (p=0.945). The negative predictive value (NPV) of absent GO is 35.7% while the positive predictive value (PPV) of sighted normal GO and inflamed GO are 92.8% and 100% respectively. The PPV and NPV of presence of pus for diseased appendix are 95.8% and 9.8% respectively while those of excess fluid are 94.8% and 10.8%. The PPV and NPV of macroscopic assessment of the appendix for inflammation are 97% and 45.5% respectively giving the diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. A significant trend of increasing probability of histologically inflamed appendix with increasing severity of macroscopic feature was seen (X(2) = 004 df=1, p<0.005). Conclusion: High positive and low negative predictive values are similar for all the three parameters assessed. The macroscopic appearance of the appendix has a predictive likelihood ratio for further exploration. PMID:24772134

Saliu Oguntola, Adetunji; Layiwola Adeoti, Moses; Olayide Agodirin, Sulaiman; Adeniyi Oremakinde, Adetunji; O Ojemakinde, Kunle

2014-03-01

134

Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels.

Tosun, Ozgur [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: ztosun@yahoo.com; Sanlidilek, Umman [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Cetin, Huseyin [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Ozdemir, Ozcan [Ankara Akay Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kurt, Aydin; Sakarya, Mehmet Emin; Tas, Ismet [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-09-15

135

PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

Wu Kailiang [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ung, Yee C., E-mail: yee.ung@sunnybrook.c [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hornby, Jennifer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

136

Discrepancy between preoperative MRI evaluation and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Preoperative radiological evaluation of the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very important in planning curative surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of preoperative radiological evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the extent of local invasion in maxillary SCC. A retrospective study was conducted of 33 patients who underwent a maxillectomy for maxillary SCC. We compared the MRI findings for 18 structures around the maxillary sinus with intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings. Discrepancies were found between preoperative MRI findings and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for 22 patients (66.7%). Overall, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI were 83.4%, 83.0%, 64.5%, and 90.4%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures including the pterygoid plate, pterygoid muscle, and infratemporal fossa had a lower area under the curve (0.614) and a significantly lower accuracy when compared with the other structures (P=0.294, 95% confidence interval 0.405-0.822). In conclusion, as the accuracy of preoperative MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures is low, careful evaluation of local extension to the posterolateral structures is needed when planning curative surgery for maxillary SCC. PMID:24393570

Lee, D J; Lee, M J; Kwon, K H; Chung, E J; Yoon, D Y; Rho, Y S

2014-06-01

137

Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

2004-09-01

138

Traumatic esophago-bronchopleural fistula-CT finding and treatment using glue: A procedure not so commonly performed  

PubMed Central

Bronchopleural fistulas can occur from a number of causes (infective, traumatic, or neoplastic). Combined esophageal-pleural and bronchopleural fistula is not a common entity and previously has been reported after pneumonectomy. We describe the imaging findings and procedure of endoscopic glue injection in a case of combined esophageal-pleural and bronchopleural fistula after penetrating thoracic trauma. The treatment included esophageal exclusion for esophageal-pleural fistula, followed by endoscopic injection of glue for closure of bronchopleural fistula. The fistulae were completely sealed.

Jana, Manisha; Gamanagatti, Shivanand R.; Kumar, Atin; Mishra, Biplab

2011-01-01

139

Discrepancy between the Clinical Image and Pathological Findings of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Harboring an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutation That Was Surgically Resected after Gefitinib Treatment  

PubMed Central

We herein describe a discrepancy between the clinical image and pathological findings in a non-small cell lung cancer patient with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation who underwent surgical resection after gefitinib treatment. The patient was a 66-year-old female with c-stage IIIA lung adenocarcinoma harboring an EGFR gene mutation; she was surgically treated after receiving gefitinib. The pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma, and the pathologically therapeutic effect was considered to be slight or of no response. EGFR T790M mutation and MET amplification were not present. The pathologically therapeutic effect is generally well correlated with the response rate after induction therapy. In this case, there was a discrepancy between the clinical image and pathological findings. Our findings, therefore, raise questions about the role of surgery after EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.

Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Oka, Soichi; Nagata, Shuya; Shimokawa, Hidehiko; So, Tomoko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Fumihiro

2014-01-01

140

Doppler ultrasound findings correlate with tissue vascularity and inflammation in surgical pathology specimens from patients with small intestinal Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is routinely evaluated using clinical symptoms, laboratory variables, and the CD activity index (CDAI). However, clinical parameters are often nonspecific and do not precisely reflect the actual activity of CD small-intestinal lesions. The purposes of this prospective study were to compare color Doppler ultrasound (US) findings with histological findings from surgically resected specimens and confirm the hypothesis that color Doppler US can distinguish tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Methods Among 1764 consecutive patients who underwent color Doppler US examinations, 10 patients with CD (12 small-intestinal CD lesions) who underwent US examinations before elective small-intestine resection were evaluated in the present study. Areas of thickened intestinal walls were evaluated in terms of blood flow using color Doppler US imaging. The blood flow was semiquantitatively classified as “hyper-flow” and “hypo-flow” according to the Limberg score. Resected lesions were macroscopically and histopathologically processed. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and vascularity were evaluated by myeloperoxidase (granulocytes), CD163 (macrophages), CD79a (B cells), CD3 (T cells), Masson’s trichrome (fibrosis), and factor VIII staining (vascular walls). All histopathological images were entered into virtual slide equipment and quantified using a quantitative microscopy integrated system (TissueMorph™). Results There were no significant differences in disease features or laboratory findings between “hypo-flow” lesions (n?=?4) and “hyper-flow” lesions (n?=?8). Histopathologically, “hyper-flow” lesions showed significantly greater bowel wall vascularity (factor VIII) (p?=?0.047) and inflammatory cell infiltration, including CD163 macrophages (p?=?0.008), CD3 T cells, and CD79a B cells (p?=?0.043), than did “hypo-flow” lesions. There was no apparent association between the blood flow and CDAI. Conclusions In this study, active CD lesions were macroscopically visible in surgical specimens of patients with increased blood flow on preoperative color Doppler US imaging. Additionally, these CD lesions exhibited significantly greater vascularity and numbers of inflammatory leukocytes microscopically. Color Doppler US may predict tissue inflammation and fibrosis in small-intenstinal CD lesions.

2014-01-01

141

Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease): report of a case with genetic diagnosis and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II), also known as Pompe disease, is a rare autosomial recessive disease due to deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The infantile-onset form is the most severe, and most patients present with hypotonia and cardiomyopathy in early infancy. We report on a typical case of Pompe disease in a patient who died at 8 months of age due to aspiration pneumonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Genetic studies showed deficient GAA activity and mutation of the GAA gene with Gly615Arg (exon 13, G1845A). On autopsy, glycogen had markedly accumulated in the liver, myocardium and skeletal muscle. The neurons of the anterior horn of the spinal cord and medulla were also involved, but the cortex was spared. These neurological-histologic findings may explain the clinical features of poor motor function, decreased deep tendon reflexes and lack of mental retardation. PMID:15366815

Teng, Yao-Tun; Su, Wen-Jen; Hou, Jia-Wei; Huang, Shiu-Feng

2004-05-01

142

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rotator Cuff Pathology Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ranges from a normal, asymptomatic aging process to ...

143

Prenatal diagnosis of a large epignathus teratoma using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound: correlation with pathological findings.  

PubMed

Epignathus teratomas are rare tumors that originate in the region of the palate or pharynx and are known as Rathke pouch. They may be associated with other malformations such as a cleft palate and bifid tongue or nose. The prenatal diagnosis can be established by two-dimensional ultrasonography showing a heterogeneous mass protruding through the mouth of the fetus. The three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode permits better understanding of this anomaly by the parents, facilitating the counseling. The importance of prenatal diagnosis lies in the fact that this tumor may obstruct the airways, thus leading to death at birth due to respiratory insufficiency. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of epignathus teratoma in the 30th week of pregnancy by two-dimensional ultrasonography. We focus on the importance of three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode for demonstrating the spatial relationships of the tumor with the oral cavity and provide correlations between the ultrasound images and the anatomopathological findings. PMID:23398485

Takagi, Maira Mariko; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Araujo Júnior, E; Drummond, Carolina Leite; Herbst, Sandra Regina Silva; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Aldrighi, José Mendes

2014-05-01

144

A case of pulmonary choriocarcinoma metastasis with unusual FDG-PET and CT findings: correlation with pathology.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old female who had had a hydatidiform mole at 20 years of age showed high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin. Because pelvic ultrasound did not show any gestational sac in her uterus, she was suspected to have had an extrauterine pregnancy and a spontaneous abortion. About 6 months later, a pulmonary nodule in the patient's right upper lung field was found on a routine chest X-ray film. Contrast- enhanced CT scans revealed a solitary lobulated nodule 2.0 × 1.3 × 3.0 cm in diameter in the S2 segment of the right lung. CT suggested a vessel malformation. Positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG-PET) was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax = 2.0) in the nodule, which did not positively indicate malignancy. Because a follow-up CT showed a rapid increase in the size of the nodule, partial resection of S2 segment in the right upper lobe was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a metastasis from choriocarcinoma. The tumor consisted largely of necrosis and hemorrhage, and it was considered to be a major cause of the unusual FDG-PET and CT findings. PMID:22893003

Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koichiro; Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kubo, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Shinji; Yano, Tokujiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-12-01

145

[Interesting radiological and pathological findings of the internal carotid artery observed in a case of cavernous sinusitis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgical department of Nagasaki University Hospital with complaints of high fever, deteriorated conciousness and nonpulsating exophthalmus on the left side. The first carotid angiography which had been done 2 days prior to admission, showed only an irregular narrowing in the cavernous portion of the left carotid artery. The right carotid angiogram did not show any recognizable abnormality. The second angiography which was performed 4 days after the admission, revealed an cylindrical aneurysmal opacification about 0.8 cm in diameter in the left intracavernous portion. The right angiography could not be done at that time. On the 47th hospital day, the third angiogram was performed. There noted again, the aneurysmal opacification in the left carotid artery and furthermore, the right carotid artery was occluded completely at its entrance into the cavernous sinus. On post-mortem examination, the cavernous sinus was filled with coagulated blood which drived from the ruptured left internal carotid artery. Microscopic examination revealed marked invasion of leucocytes to the wall of the internal carotid artery at the cavernous portion in both sides. These findings suggested that a mycotic aneurysm which resulted from the cavernous sinusitis ruptured into the left cavernous sinus and spelled blood compressed the opposite (right) carotid artery within the carvernous sinus which resulted in occlusion of the artery. PMID:560642

Moriyama, T; Fujita, Y; Ono, H; Mori, K

1977-06-01

146

Association between faecal load of lawsonia intracellularis and pathological findings of proliferative enteropathy in pigs with diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

Background The study was designed to investigate correlation between histological findings of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine cases of diarrhoea and the quantitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces. A total of 156 pigs (10 to 70 days post weaning) with diarrhoea were randomly selected from 20 herds: The pigs were subjected to necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and faecal quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real time PCR. Results The median Lawsonia intracellularis excretion was significantly higher in pigs with gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: 5.92 log10 bacteria/g faeces) compared to pigs without gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: <3.3 log10 bacteria/g faeces) (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the measureable PE lesions and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.50 (P<0.001). A significantly increasing trend in Lawsonia intracellularis excretion level for increasing proliferative enteropathy histopathology and immunohistochemistry scores was demonstrated (P<0.001; P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the histopathology scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.67 (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the IHC scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.77 (P<0.001). Conclusions The histological and quantitative PCR detection of Lawsonia intracellularis were correlated in pigs with diarrhoea. Overall the results suggest that clinically important levels for Lawsonia intracellularis excretion in faeces may be established. Such clinical threshold levels may be used in practice to confirm a diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis associated diarrhoea.

2012-01-01

147

Clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings of a patient with CMT2 due to the p.Ala738Val mitofusin 2 mutation.  

PubMed

Mutations in the gene encoding mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are responsible of about 20% of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) case. A great variability exists among CMT2A concerning severity and associated clinical features. Generally patients with an early onset CMT2A disclose a severe phenotype while the cases with a late onset present a more benign clinical course. We describe clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings of a patient with a mild CMT2A due to the c.2213C>T, p.Ala738Val MFN2 mutation. This mutation has been already described to be only associated with an early onset and moderately severe CMT2A phenotype. PMID:21601224

Luigetti, M; Fabrizi, G M; Taioli, F; Conte, A; Del Grande, A; Sabatelli, M

2011-08-15

148

MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

Thomas M. Link

149

Quantitative analysis of lung elastic fibers in idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE): comparison of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)  

PubMed Central

Background The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The amount of elastic fibers (EF) and detailed differences between IPPFE and IPF have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to quantify the EF and identify the differences between IPPFE and IPF. Methods We evaluated six patients with IPPFE and 28 patients with IPF who underwent surgical lung biopsy or autopsy. The patients’ clinical history, physical findings, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathological features of lung specimens were retrospectively evaluated. The amounts of EF in lung specimens were quantified with Weigert’s staining using a camera with a charge-coupled device and analytic software in both groups. Results Fewer patients with IPPFE than IPF had fine crackles (50.0% vs. 96.4%, p?=?0.012). Patients with IPPFE had a lower forced vital capacity (62.7?±?10.9% vs. 88.6?±?21.9% predicted, p?=?0.009), higher consolidation scores on HRCT (1.7?±?0.8 vs. 0.3?±?0.5, p?

2014-01-01

150

Comparison of prevalence, clinical course, and pathological findings of left ventricular systolic impairment versus normal systolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Impaired left ventricular systolic function (ILVSF) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is a risk factor for sudden death and a determinant of high mortality. We determined its prevalence, clinical parameters, long-term outcome, and pathologic findings of explanted hearts. We retrospectively analyzed 382 patients with HC; ILVSF was characterized by LV ejection fraction <50% at rest and was identified in 24 patients (6.3%). Patients with ILVSF were younger than patients with normal SF (43.5 ± 14.1 vs 55.3 ± 20.4 years, p = 0.001) and had larger LV end-diastolic cavity diameter (53.2 ± 12.2 vs 43.8 ± 6.2 mm, p = 0.001), larger left atrium (51.2 ± 6.5 vs 44.3 ± 8 mm, p <0.001), and lower fractional shortening (30.7 ± 11.1% vs 45.5% ± 10.3%, p <0.001). A combined end point (heart failure death or heart transplantation) was considered. Median follow-up was 3 years (1.2 to 6.3). Fourteen patients with ILVSF (58.3%) had the end point compared to 3 (0.8%) with normal SF (p <0.001). In explanted hearts, fibrosis represented 30.5 ± 12.5% of the left ventricle; we observed a direct correlation between fibrosis and ventricular dilation (r = 0.794, p = 0.001) and an inverse correlation between fibrosis and ejection fraction (r = -0.623, p = 0.023). Number and length density of small arterioles (<50 ?m in diameter) were significantly decreased. In conclusion, ILVSF in HC has a poor prognosis and is associated with fibrosis and selective decreased development of small arterioles. PMID:21624540

Fernández, Adrián; Vigliano, Carlos A; Casabé, J Horacio; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana E; Guevara, Eduardo; Favaloro, Roberto R; Laguens, Rubén P

2011-08-15

151

Radiologic-pathologic correlation of uncommon mesenchymal liver tumors.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal liver tumors are rarely encountered in clinical practice. We review the spectrum of mesenchymal liver tumors with radiologic-pathologic correlation. There is an overlap of cross-sectional imaging findings of mesenchymal liver tumors with that of the more common malignant epithelial tumors. Familiarity with the radiologic findings and its pathologic basis would help radiologists to include these uncommon liver tumors in their differential diagnosis. PMID:24070712

Bhargava, Puneet; Iyer, Ramesh S; Moshiri, Mariam; Yeh, Matthew M; Upton, Melissa P; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Gupta, Rajan T

2013-01-01

152

Harvard-led study finds diagnostic and invasive procedures common in women with breast-conserving surgery  

Cancer.gov

Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have high rates of diagnostic and invasive breast procedures after treatment with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) according to a study published April 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast-conserving surgery is the most common treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ and has proven to be an effective alternative to mastectomy in most women; however, the necessity for and likelihood of further diagnostic mammograms and invasive procedures following BCS are unknown.

153

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J. C.; Hollmen, R.; Poppenga, R. H.; Hario, M.

2000-01-01

154

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

SciTech Connect

In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

2000-05-01

155

Vocal cord paralysis secondary to a benign parathyroid cyst: a case report with clinical, imaging and pathological findings (2008:6b)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid cysts are uncommon entities. Symptomatic parathyroid cysts are extremely rare with approximately only 200 cases\\u000a reported in the literature. Only ten cases have been reported with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and none in the radiological\\u000a literature. We present a case of parathyroid cyst and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis with illustrations of the clinical,\\u000a radiological and pathological appearances as well

E. K. Woo; R. Simo; B. Conn; S. E. J. Connor

2008-01-01

156

Do you really know precise radiologic-pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?  

PubMed

Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic-pathological correlation. PMID:23806534

Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

157

Unforeseen renal pathological findings in a patient with type 2 cardiorenal syndrome who died after 4 years of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

A man in his 30s with dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted to our hospital with heart failure exacerbation. Despite optimal medical treatment, his renal function progressively declined to end-stage renal failure. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) was diagnosed and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was started. He died of a brainstem infarction 4 years later. Postmortem renal pathology revealed no significant changes in the glomeruli except for shrinkage, normal arterioles and focal degeneration of the tubules with peritubular fibrosis. This suggests that renal replacement therapy can be withdrawn from some patients with type 2 CRS. PMID:23354864

Matsui, Masaru; Okayama, Satoshi; Samejima, Kenichi; Saito, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

158

Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects  

PubMed Central

Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance.

Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

2012-01-01

159

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

160

A Further Comparison of Pathologies after Thoracic Irradiation among Different Mouse Strains: Finding the Best Preclinical Model for Evaluating Therapies Directed Against Radiation-Induced Lung Damage  

PubMed Central

The human lung is among the most sensitive and critical tissues of concern in localized and systemic radiation exposures, and it is a subject of active preclinical research for evaluating mitigating therapies within the radiation countermeasures program. Our previous study comparing C57BL/6, CBA and C57L mice after whole-thorax irradiation pointed to the problems of late pleural effusions that prevented the full development of lung injury in C57BL/6 mice and suggested that the CBA and C57L strains are more favorable for modeling lung injury in humans (Jackson et al., Radiat. Res. 173, 10–20, 2010). We extended these comparisons to include three other mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BR/J and A/J mice) irradiated with 10, 12.5 or 15 Gy. Most of these mice were unable to survive the first 6 months and presented with a mixture of lung injury and pleural effusions as determined from gross pathology, histology and micro-CT. The independent and varying development of compressive pleural effusions of ill-defined etiology represents a concern for these strains in that they may not satisfy the preclinical requirements for approval of medical countermeasures (e.g. radiation mitigators) for human use. Thus, among the various different mouse strains studied so far for these pathologies, only three (CBA, C3H and C57L) appear to be desirable in exhibiting an early wave of pulmonary dysfunction attributed exclusively to radiation pneumonitis and for further assessment of radioprotective and mitigating therapies. C57L mice are particularly relevant in that they show significant lung damage at lower radiation doses that are closer to what is predicted for humans.

Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Down, Julian D.

2011-01-01

161

Common structure and toxic function of amyloid oligomers implies a common mechanism of pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Recent findings indicate that soluble amyloid oligomers may represent the primary pathologic species in degenerative diseases. These amyloid oligomers share common structural features and the ability to permeabilize membranes, suggesting that they also share a common primary mechanism of pathogenesis. Membrane permeabilization by amyloid oligomers may initiate a common group of downstream pathologic processes, including intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species, altered signaling pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunction that represent key effectors of cellular dysfunction and cell death in amyloid-associated degenerative disease, such as sporadic inclusion-body myositis. PMID:16432151

Glabe, Charles G; Kayed, Rakez

2006-01-24

162

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

163

Pathology Reports  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the type of information that may be found in a pathology report, the document that contains results of the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or surgery.

164

GAPO syndrome (McKusick 23074)--a connective tissue disorder: report on two affected sibs and on the pathologic findings in the older.  

PubMed

GAPO syndrome was described in 12 patients from 7 families. Constant manifestations include dwarfism, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and a peculiar, "geriatric" facial appearance. We describe the autopsy findings and all available clinical data on one deceased patient and his living affected sister, previously reported as short abstracts (Epps et al.: Cienc Cult 29(Suppl):740, 1977; Wajntal et al.: Cienc Cult 34(Suppl):705, 1982). Both had the characteristic anomalies of this syndrome but optic atrophy was absent; instead, they had glaucoma and keratoconus; hypogonadism was present in both patients. Biopsy and autopsy findings show that the GAPO syndrome is a dyshistogenetic sequence due to accumulation of extracellular material and thus should be called GAPO dysplasia. We suggest that the basic defect in this autosomal recessive disorder is possibly related to a lack of breakdown of the extracellular components, perhaps due to an enzyme deficiency involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrix. PMID:2248288

Wajntal, A; Koiffmann, C P; Mendonça, B B; Epps-Quaglia, D; Sotto, M N; Rati, P B; Opitz, J M

1990-10-01

165

Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677

Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

2014-05-01

166

The Budd-Chiari syndrome: correlation between hepatic scintigraphy and the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings in nineteen cases of hepatic venous outflow obstruction.  

PubMed

From 1965 to 1972, 19 patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome were investigated. An underlying diagnosis was made in 10 cases, polycythemia rubra vera being the commonest etiology. Percutaneous liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 18 patients, and in 14 the site of hepatic vein obstruction was defined or its presence suggested by hepatic venography. Hepatic scintiscanning showed predominant central localization of radiocolloid in 7 patients. In another 8 patients this appearance was present in association with other less specific features. These findings were correlated with inferior vena cavography in 13 patients in whom a characteristic narrowing and distortion of the vein throughout its intrahepatic course was noted. In 3 other patients, the vein was found to be occluded. Autopsy evidence in 6 patients suggests that the central concentration of radiocolloid on scintiscanning and the narrowing and distortion of the inferior vena cava were due to disproportionate enlargement of the caudate lobe. Additional studies indicated that the separate venous drainage of the caudate lobe may be preserved when the main hepatic veins are occluded and that hypertrophy of the caudate lobe occurs because of its relatively more efficient perfusion. Demonstration of the enlarged caudate lobe by scintiscanning and inferior vena cavography provides valuable diagnostic support for the Budd-Chiari syndrome. PMID:1112452

Tavill, A S; Wood, E J; Kreel, L; Jones, E A; Gregory, M; Sherlock, S

1975-03-01

167

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced polyclonal and monoclonal B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases occurring after renal transplantation. Clinical, pathologic, and virologic findings and implications for therapy.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen renal allograft recipients developed B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Clinically there were two groups: a) young patients (mean age, 23 years) who presented soon (mean, 9 months) after transplantation or antirejection therapy with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy resembling infectious mononucleosis, and b) older patients (mean age, 48 years) who presented later (mean, 6 years) after transplantation with localized tumor masses. Histologically, the diseases were classified as polymorphic diffuse B-cell hyperplasia (PDBH) or polymorphic B-cell lymphoma (PBL). Immunologic cell typing revealed either polyclonal or monoclonal B-cell proliferations. Malignant transformation of polyclonal proliferations in two patients was suggested by the finding of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) specific serology, staining of biopsy specimens for the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen, and EBV DNA molecular hybridization studies implicated EBV as the cause of both PDBH and PBL. Acyclovir, an antiviral agent that blocks EBV replication in vitro, inhibited oropharyngeal shedding of EBV and caused complete remission in four patients with polyclonal B-cell proliferations. The monoclonal tumors were acyclovir resistant. We suggest that surgical treatment, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy may be more appropriate therapy in selected patients with acyclovir resistant tumors. Therapeutic decisions require not only documentation of the viral etiology of these tumors, but also immunologic and cytogenetic analysis to determine the stage of tumor evolution in individual patients.

Hanto, D W; Gajl-Peczalska, K J; Frizzera, G; Arthur, D C; Balfour, H H; McClain, K; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

1983-01-01

168

Mild Cognitive Impairment: Pathology and mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly. The pathologic and molecular substrate of people diagnosed with MCI is not well established. Since MCI is a human specific disorder and neither the clinical nor the neuropathological course appears to follows a direct linear path, it is imperative to characterize neuropathology changes in the brains of people who came to autopsy with a well-characterized clinical diagnosis of MCI. Herein, we discuss findings derived from clinical pathologic studies of autopsy cases with various subtypes of MCI antemortem. The heterogeneity of clinical MCI imparts significant challenges to any review of this subject. The pathologic substrate of MCI is equally complex and must take into account not only conventional plaque and tangle pathology but also a wide range of cellular biochemical and molecular deficits many of which relate to cognitive decline as well as compensatory responses to the progressive disease process. The multifaceted nature of the neuronal disconnection syndrome associated with MCI, suggests that there is no single event, which precipitates this prodromal stage of AD. In fact, it can be argued that neuronal degeneration initiated at different levels of the central nervous system drive cognitive decline as a final common pathway at this stage of the dementing disease process.

Mufson, Elliott J.; Binder, Lester; Counts, Scott E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; deTolledo-Morrell, Leyla; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Perez, Sylvia E.; Scheff, Stephen W.

2012-01-01

169

Orbital pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview of orbital pathology deals with different kinds of tumors, inflammatory, vascular, and traumatic diseases, which may involve the orbit. Depending on the respective orbital compartment of the globe, the intrakonal, extrakonal and optic nerve the most important and most frequent lesions are presented with their specific clinical symptoms. Their specific presentation on CT- and MR-imaging is discussed in

W Müller-Forell; S Pitz

2004-01-01

170

Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options.

Laudano, Melissa A.; Jamzadeh, Asha E.; Lee, Richard K.; Robinson, Brian D.; Tyagi, Renuka; Kaplan, Steven A.; Te, Alexis E.

2014-01-01

171

Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women.  

PubMed

Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options. PMID:24860605

Laudano, Melissa A; Jamzadeh, Asha E; Dunphy, Claire; Lee, Richard K; Robinson, Brian D; Tyagi, Renuka; Kaplan, Steven A; Te, Alexis E; Chughtai, Bilal

2014-01-01

172

Unexpected dilatation of the common bile duct after methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in rabbits. Possible implications to findings in man.  

PubMed Central

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) rapidly dissolves cholesterol gall stones in vitro and in vivo. To further characterise tolerability and safety of this aliphatic ether, either MTBE (1 ml/kg body wt daily for two days) or an equal amount of saline was infused into the common bile duct (CBD) of eight cholecystectomised rabbits. Transient vomiting, dyspnoea and somnolence developed during MTBE instillation. Post-treatment values of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in MTBE than in saline treated animals. Cholangiography one week after the last intraductal infusion showed a five-fold increase of CBD size in MTBE v control rabbits. At autopsy histological signs of chemical cholangitis and mild duodenitis were noted in MTBE treated animals. Prompted by these findings, we performed a cholangiography in two patients who had received intraductal MTBE (about 0.2 ml/kg body wt daily for one or two days) one year before: an abnormal dilatation of the CBD was present, which might represent a specific, hitherto undescribed permanent sequela of MTBE administration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Tritapepe, R; Pozzi, C; Caspani, P; Di Padova, C

1989-01-01

173

Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine that deals with the determination of the cause and manner of death in cases in\\u000a which death occurred under suspicious or unknown circumstances. Identification of the decedent and interpretation of postmortem\\u000a changes are duties of the forensic pathologist. Sudden death from natural disease frequently involves vascular disease, obstructive\\u000a or reactive lung disease, diabetes

Frank P. Miller; Jeffrey J. Barnard

174

Pathology of radiation myelopathy  

PubMed Central

After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images

Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

1972-01-01

175

Kawasaki disease: basic and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Kawasaki disease (KD) is considered to be a kind of systemic vasculitis syndrome. It most frequently affects infants and young children and primarily invades medium-sized muscular arteries, including the coronary arteries. The etiology of KD is unknown, but epidemiological data suggest involvement of infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, in the onset of KD. In addition, host genetics underlie the disease's pathogenesis. Histologically, coronary arteritis begins 6-8 days after KD onset, and inflammation of all layers of the artery rapidly ensues. The inflammation spreads completely around the artery, resulting in severe damage to structural components. Then, the artery begins to dilate. KD arteritis is characterized by inflammation consisting of marked accumulation of monocytes/macrophages. Aberrant activation of monocytes/macrophages is thought to be involved in the formation of vascular lesions. Inflammatory-cell infiltration persists until about the 25th day of the disease, after which the inflammatory cells gradually decrease in number. Lesions in all arteries are relatively synchronous, as they evolve from acute to chronic injury. If a giant aneurysm remains or vessel recanalization occurs after thrombotic occlusion of an aneurysm, remodeling of the vascular structure, sometimes including even reocclusion, continues even in the remote stage. PMID:23188196

Takahashi, Kei; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Yokouchi, Yuki; Naoe, Shiro; Saji, Tsutomu

2013-10-01

176

Nicotine and Pathological Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Aims This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. Main methods An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Key findings Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes; that these nAChRs are largely of the ?7 homomeric type; and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. Significance These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis.

Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P.

2013-01-01

177

Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated.

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

2012-01-01

178

Triple-Negative Breast Cancers: Associations Between Imaging and Pathological Findings for Triple-Negative Tumors Compared With Hormone Receptor-Positive/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Negative Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers have high malignancy potential and are often characterized by early systemic relapse. Early detection is vital, but there are few comprehensive imaging reports. Here we describe mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of TN breast cancers, investigate the specific features of this subtype, and compare the characteristics of TN breast cancers with those of hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-negative breast cancers. Materials and Methods. From July 2009 to June 2011, mammography and ultrasound findings of 210 patients with pathologically confirmed TN (n = 105) and HR-positive/HER-2-negative breast cancers (n = 105) were retrospectively reviewed from our institutional database. Ultrasound vascularity was notified in 88 cases and elasticity scores were notified in 49 cases overall. Thirty-five patients underwent MRI (22 TN and 13 HR-positive/HER-2-negative). Mammograms, ultrasound, and MRI were reviewed according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and classification. Results. TN breast cancers were more likely to show round, oval, or lobulated masses with indistinct margins on mammography than HR-positive/HER-2-negative breast cancers. On ultrasound, TN tumors were more likely than HR-positive/HER-2-negative breast cancers to show circumscribed or microlobulated margins and no posterior acoustic features or posterior enhancement-positive. On MRI, TN cancers exhibited suspicious aspects more often than HR-positive/HER-2-negative cancers, often with rim enhancement-positiveHER-2 (84.6% of masses were classified BI-RADS 5). Conclusion. This study is the first to describe findings on mammography, ultrasound, and MRI for TN breast cancers with a matched HR-positive/HER-2-negative control group. Several distinctive morphological features of these aggressive tumors are identified that can be used for earlier diagnosis and treatment, and ultimately to improve outcomes.

MacGrogan, Gaetan; Debled, Marc; Ferron, Stephane; Asad-Syed, Maryam; McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Brouste, Veronique; Hurtevent-Labrot, Gabrielle

2013-01-01

179

Pathology and genetics of adipocytic tumors.  

PubMed

Adipocytic tumors are common mesenchymal neoplasms with considerable morphologic and genetic heterogeneity. The fruitful integration of morphology and cytogenetics in the past 15 years has not only enhanced the diagnostic accuracy, but also refined the various pathological classifications and subtypes in these tumors. The current WHO classification includes eleven benign subtypes, one intermediate and five categories of malignant fatty neoplasms with incorporation of relevant genetic findings. Of the benign tumors, lipomas have been extensively analyzed by chromosome banding which has shown that their cytogenetic patterns are heterogeneous. Still aberrations involving 12q13-->q15, 6p23-->p21 and loss of material from 13q are common and consistent findings. Among the malignant tumors, the t(12;16)(q13;p11) resulting in the fusion of DDIT3 and FUS genes is the hallmark of myxoid and round cell liposarcoma and is used as a highly specific and sensitive marker of this entity. The tumor in the intermediate group, atypical lipomatous neoplasm/well-differentiated liposarcoma which poses morphologic challenges due to close histological similarity to benign lipomas shows characteristic supernumerary rings and giant rod chromosomes due to amplification of the 12q14-->q15 region often involving the MDM2 oncogene. This review will focus on the pathological features of the various adipocytic tumors and relevant genetic findings reported in the literature. PMID:18000364

Hameed, M

2007-01-01

180

Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

PubMed Central

Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (microtubule-associated protein tau mutations); strongly asymmetric, distributed atrophy (Pick's disease); relatively symmetric, predominantly extratemporal atrophy (corticobasal degeneration, fused-in-sarcoma pathology). TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with substantial individual variation; however, within this group progranulin mutations were associated with strongly asymmetric, distributed hemispheric atrophy. We interpret the findings in terms of emerging network models of neurodegenerative disease: the neuroanatomical specificity of particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathologies may depend on an interaction of disease-specific and network-specific factors.

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

2011-01-01

181

St. Jude study finds that tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in 90 percent of most common childhood bone tumor  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital—Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project finds TP53 gene is altered in nearly all osteosarcomas and results help explain how tumors withstand radiation therapy.

182

Pathology of chronic mountain sickness  

PubMed Central

Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images

Arias-Stella, Javier; Kruger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

1973-01-01

183

APSnet: Advanced Plant Pathology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.

184

Pathologic and physiologic phimosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management.

McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

2007-01-01

185

USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

186

Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on endoscopic and pathologic alterations of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders of Iranian patients with common\\u000a variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Nineteen of 39 CVID patients (48%) had GI complaints. The most common symptom was chronic\\u000a diarrhea (28%). In endoscopic examination of small intestines, 15 patients had no abnormal finding. Duodenal biopsy revealed\\u000a villous atrophy in eight and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Ahmad Khodadad; Asghar Aghamohammadi; Nima Parvaneh; Nima Rezaei; Fatemeh Mahjoob; Mohammad Bashashati; Masoud Movahedi; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Fariborz Zandieh; Zahra Roohi; Sina Abdollahzade; Ali Salavati; Ali Kouhi; Bahram Talebpour; Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

2007-01-01

187

Autopsy findings in 42 consecutive patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive lung disease that commonly results in respiratory failure and death. However, the cause of death in these patients has not previously been fully defined. The current study reviews the clinical records and pathological findings of 42 consecutive patients with IPF who underwent a post mortem at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA)

C. E. Daniels; E. S. Yi; J. H. Ryu

2008-01-01

188

Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Fusco, Gregory P.; Perez, Mia C.

2009-08-25

189

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

190

Expression stability of common housekeeping genes is differently affected by bowel inflammation and cancer: implications for finding suitable normalizers for inflammatory bowel disease studies.  

PubMed

: Instability of housekeeping genes (HKG), supposedly unregulated and hence used as normalizers, may dramatically change conclusions of quantitative PCR experiments. The effect of bowel inflammation on HKG remains unknown. Expression stability of 15 HKG (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT1, IPO8, MRPL19, PGK1, PPIA, RPLP0, RPS23, SDHA, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ) in 166 bowel specimens (91 normal, 35 cancerous, and 40 inflamed) was ranked by coefficients of variation (CV%) or using dedicated software: geNorm and NormFinder. The RPS23, PPIA, and RPLP0 were top-ranked, whereas IPO8, UBC and TBP were the lowest-ranked HKG across inflamed/cancerous/normal colonic tissues. The pairs RPS23/RPLP0, PGK1/MRPL19, or PPIA/RPLP0 were optimal reference by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. Colon inflammation affected HKG more pronouncedly than cancer with ACTB significantly down- and B2M upregulated. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), different genes were top-ranked in a large and small bowel, whereas TBP, UBC, and IPO8 were lowest-ranked in both. For patients with IBD at large, RPS23/PPIA, PGK1/MRPL19, and PPIA/RPLP0 were found optimal by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. ACTB and B2M expression was related to CRC stage and positively correlated with clinical activity of IBD. Although GAPDH was upregulated neither in CRC nor IBD, it tended to positively correlate with tumor depth and Crohn's disease activity index. Normalizing against GAPDH affected experimental conclusions in a small but not large bowel. Bowel inflammation significantly affects several classic HKG. The pair PPIA/RPLP0 is a common optimal reference for studies encompassing tissues sampled from colorectal cancer and IBD patients. Using ACTB or B2M is not recommended. PMID:24859296

Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Diakowska, Dorota; Bania, Jacek; Gamian, Andrzej

2014-07-01

191

Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Contis, Lydia C.; Nambiar, Ashok; Pindzola, Ander

2009-04-14

192

Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.  

PubMed

Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

2014-05-01

193

Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Holst, Valerie

2007-10-17

194

Physician-assisted suicide. Finding common ground.  

PubMed Central

In Washington state, practicing physicians have been forced to confront the emotional, complex issue of physician-assisted suicide sooner than physicians elsewhere in the US. The Washington State Medical Association has struggled at length with the issue and ultimately delineated a policy on safeguards for physician-assisted suicide. The Washington experience may prove instructive to other professional physician organizations even before the US Supreme Court rules on the issue.

McGough, P; Back, A L; Colley, J

1997-01-01

195

Defining spirit at work: finding common ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debate over the definition of “spirit at work” continues in both the popular and academic literatures. The lack of a clear, accepted definition has hindered the development of useful measures and has delayed research that would advance our understanding of the conditions\\/characteristics that influence the experience of spirit at work and the individual and organizational outcomes that result from spirit

Val M. Kinjerski; Berna J. Skrypnek

2004-01-01

196

Cold War rivals find common ground  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons scientists from the United States and the former Soviet Union have been quietly collaborating on a range of research projects. The goal: to keep the lid on the bomb. This article examines the new interactions between the US and the former Soviet Union by discussing the following areas: how the `iron` curtain was bridged; the first interactions between US scientists and individual Russian laboratories in scientific areas; Moving from lab-to-lab collaborations to nuclear related issues, spurred by the interception of smuggled nuclear materials; and the future including the financing.

Taubes, G.

1995-04-28

197

Bleeding Irregularities Common in Menopause, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... April 15 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology . The women in the study -- from ... John Randolph Jr., a U-M professor of obstetrics and gynecology, said in the news release. The ...

198

Pathology Case Study: Cerebellar Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 16-year-old female who presented with a seven-month history of headaches and difficulty with gait. Visitors are given examination findings, imaging studies, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Diagnosis and Discussion" section provides the findings, discussion of the disease, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Cummings, Thomas J.; Ebert, Robert H.; McLendon, Roger E., 1957-; Provenzale, James M.

2008-03-24

199

Joubert syndrome: the clinical and radiological findings.  

PubMed

Joubert syndrome is a rare disease characterised by clinical and radiological findings. Among the classic clinical findings of JS are hypotonia, ataxia, mental-motor retardation, respiratory and opthalmological findings. The paediatric cases included in the study comprised nine patients. There was familial consanguinty in seven cases. Clinically, all cases had mental-motor retardation and hypotonia. Episodic hyperpnoea attacks were observed in one case. Facial dysmorphism was the most common additional systemic anomaly and four cases had additional opthalmic findings. Brain MRI examination revealed that all cases had molar tooth sign, bat-wing appearance and vermian cleft. The majority of cases also had vermian hypoplasia. Cerebellar folial disorganisation was observed in approxiamtely half of the cases. Three cases had corpus callosum anomaly and atretic occipital encephalocoele. No pathology was determined in other organs. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological findings of 9 patients diagnosed with Joubert syndrome. PMID:24605724

Karakas, Ekrem; Cullu, Nesat; Karakas, Omer; Calik, Mustafa; Boyaci, Fatima Nurefsan; Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Akal, Ali

2014-01-01

200

From the radiologic pathology archives: esophageal neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Esophageal neoplasms have a wide spectrum of clinical features, pathologic findings, and imaging manifestations. Leiomyomas are the most common benign esophageal neoplasm, typically appearing as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Fibrovascular polyps arise in the cervical esophagus, gradually elongating as they are pulled inferiorly by esophageal peristalsis. Granular cell tumors are generally incidental small intramural masses with an appearance similar to that of leiomyomas. Malignant esophageal neoplasms are a common cause of cancer mortality, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma. Both of these tumors occur in older men, most often appearing as irregular infiltrative lesions at barium examination, with evidence of tumor spread beyond the esophagus at cross-sectional imaging. Adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett esophagus and is much more likely than SCC to involve the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal involvement by lymphoma is usually secondary to tumor spread from the stomach or mediastinum. Spindle cell carcinoma is a biphasic malignancy with carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements that forms a bulky polypoid intraluminal mass. Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that may be hypervascular and is usually associated with metastatic disease at presentation. Understanding the imaging appearances and pathologic bases of esophageal neoplasms is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning. PMID:23842973

Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodriguez, Pablo; Levine, Marc S

2013-01-01

201

Surgical Pathology of the Skull Base  

PubMed Central

A significant diversity of tissue types interface at the base of the skull and contribute to the diagnostic challenges of skull base surgical pathology. Advances in surgical technique now permit biopsy and resection of lesions previously termed “inoperable.” Retrospective review was made of all pathology specimens from skull base surgeries performed at the University of California Davis Medical Center from 1990 to 1996. Surgical biopsies and resections were performed on 186 patients who had 33 distinctive diagnoses. Any preoperative biopsy or tissue from referring institutions was reviewed prior to skull base surgery. One hundred eighteen patients had benign lesions, the most frequent of which were pituitary adenoma (55) and acoustic neuroma (27). Other benign lesions included angiofibroma, meningioma, fibrous dysplasia, and paraganglioma. Sixty-eight patients had malignant tumors, 32 of which were squamous cell earcinoma. Other malignancies included salivary carcinomas, basal cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma, melanoma, and several sarcomas. Unexpected findings were two metastatic carcinomas and five inflammatory lesions. Nearly 1500 intraoperative consultations were performed to establish resection margins and less commonly to confirm the diagnosis. The discrepancy rate between the intraoperative and final diagnosis was 1.8%. Immunohistochemistry and/or electron microscopy was utilized in 44% of the specimens to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical pathology is an essential ingredient to a successful skull base surgery program. Pathologists are involved in both pre- and intraoperative decisions. The diversity of lesions that arise from the skull base often has overlapping histologies that require careful attention to morphology and the use of ancillary studies for accurate diagnosis. The need for frequent intraoperative interpretations contributes to the significant challenge for the surgical pathologist.

Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Donald, Paul J.; Boggan, James E.

1998-01-01

202

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2008-04-29

203

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Autopsy Pathology  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site DLM Website Autopsy Pathology Autopsy Pathology Procedure Manual Autopsy Pathology Staff About

204

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Johnson, Douglas R.; Nodit, Laurentia; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-11

205

Pathologic fractures of the humerus.  

PubMed

In a study of 57 actual or impending pathologic fractures of the humerus in 52 patients with inoperable cancer treated between 1972 and 1982, we retrospectively reviewed the charts for analysis and comparison of the functional result and pain relief afforded by the various treatments used. Function of the extremity and relief of pain were each graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor using a modification of Perez's rating system. Seven pathologic fractures were treated nonoperatively. These patients generally had only fair pain relief and a poor functional result. Forty-six pathologic fractures were treated with intramedullary fixation using a Rush rod (n = 16), a Küntscher rod (n = 29), or an Ender rod (n = 1); the Neer endoprosthesis was used in four patients. Thirty-one patients received radiation to the humerus. There were seven operative complications, the most common (n = 3) being prominence of an intramedullary rod at the insertion site which required a second minor procedure for advancement of the rod. From this series, we conclude that any patient who has a pathologic fracture or impending fracture of the humerus and a predicted survival of six weeks or more is likely to benefit from rigid internal fixation with an appropriately selected device, adjunctive use of methylmethacrylate, and postoperative local irradiation therapy as needed. PMID:3336802

Lancaster, J M; Koman, L A; Gristina, A G; Rovere, G D; Poehling, G G; Nicastro, J F; Adair, D M

1988-01-01

206

Pathology of deaths associated with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual

C M Milroy; J C Clark; A R Forrest

1996-01-01

207

Ubiquilin 2 is not associated with tau pathology.  

PubMed

Accumulation of aberrant proteins in inclusion bodies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Impairment of proteolytic systems is a common event in these protein misfolding diseases. Recently, mutations in the UBQLN 2 gene encoding ubiquilin 2 have been identified in X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, ubiquilin 2 is associated with inclusions in familial and sporadic ALS/dementia, synucleinopathies and polyglutamine diseases. Ubiquilin 2 exerts a regulatory role in proteostasis and thus it has been suggested that ubiquilin 2 pathology may be a common event in neurodegenerative diseases. Tauopathies, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied with dementia, are characterized by inclusions of the microtubule-binding protein tau. In the present study, we investigate whether ubiquilin 2 is connected with tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Pick's disease (PiD) and familial cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We show that ubiquilin 2 positive inclusions are absent in these tauopathies. Furthermore, we find decreased ubiquilin 2 protein levels in AD patients, but our results do not indicate a correlation with tau pathology. Our data show no evidence for involvement of ubiquilin 2 and indicate that other mechanisms underly the proteostatic disturbances in tauopathies. PMID:24086754

Nölle, Anna; van Haastert, Elise S; Zwart, Rob; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Scheper, Wiep

2013-01-01

208

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

209

Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation  

PubMed Central

Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation.

Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

2012-01-01

210

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

211

Pathology annual. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

212

The placenta in toxicology. Part III: Pathologic assessment of the placenta.  

PubMed

This short review is derived from the peer-reviewed literature and the experience and case materials of the authors. Brief illustrated summaries are presented on the gross and histologic normal anatomy of rodent and macaque placentas, including typical organ weights, with comments on differences from the human placenta. Common incidental findings, background lesions, and induced toxic lesions are addressed, and a recommended strategy for pathologic evaluation of placentas is provided. PMID:23531795

Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Ernerudh, Jan; Faas, Marijke M; Göhner, Claudia; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Buse, Eberhard

2014-01-01

213

Clinical pathological evaluation and risk factors of oral cancer cases of east coast of peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Oral cancer is one of the common cancers m\\u000d\\u000aMalaysia. Tile population of east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has a different hfestyle and Malay is the predominant race. Oral cancer research in this area started since the Malaysian National Oral Cancer group was established. The am: of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathological findings and to investigate

R. B. Zain; A. R. Samsudin; M. S. Farini; A. Azlina; I. Rushdan; M. Manoharan

2005-01-01

214

Molecular pathology of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The molecular pathology of prostate cancer is complex; not only are multiple genes involved in its pathogenesis, but additional environmental factors such as diet and inflammation are also involved. The exhaustive research into prostate cancer to date has demonstrated a complex interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors, some of which may be more important in individual prostate cancer cases. This is an exciting era, with the emergence of new investigative tools such as DNA microarray technology and the application of the field of proteomics to the study of human cancers. Knowledge of genetic changes underlying the initiation, development, and progression of prostate cancer is accumulating rapidly. With increasing knowledge, it may be possible to distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate tumours by molecular fingerprinting. This review discusses the most consistently reported molecular pathological findings in hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer, together with new concepts and technologies.

Hughes, C; Murphy, A; Martin, C; Sheils, O; O'Leary, J

2005-01-01

215

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Arnold, Sonya; Hasegawa, Susan

2009-05-08

216

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

217

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

218

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

219

Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâÂÂs history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Dacic, Sanja; Rajan, Prabha B.

2009-08-27

220

Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Zheng, Su

2009-02-12

221

PATHOLOGY OF HUMAN INFLUENZA REVISITED  

PubMed Central

Summary The pathology of human influenza has been studied most intensively during the three pandemics of the last century, the last of which occurred in 1968. It is important to revisit this subject because of the recent emergence of avian H5N1 influenza in humans as well as the threat of a new pandemic. Uncomplicated human influenza virus infection causes transient tracheo-bronchitis, corresponding with predominant virus attachment to tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. The main complication is extension of viral infection to the alveoli, often with secondary bacterial infection, resulting in severe pneumonia. Complications in extra-respiratory tissues such as encephalopathy, myocarditis, and myopathy occur occasionally. Sensitive molecular and immunological techniques allow us to investigate whether these complications are a direct result of virus infection or an indirect result of severe pneumonia. Human disease from avian influenza virus infections is most severe for subtype H5N1, but also has been reported for H7 and H9 subtypes. In contrast to human influenza viruses, avian H5N1 virus attaches predominantly to alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium, corresponding with diffuse alveolar damage as the primary lesion. Viremia and extra-respiratory complications appear to be more common for infections with avian H5N1 virus than with human influenza viruses. Further understanding and comparison of the pathology of human and avian influenza virus infections only can be achieved by directed and careful pathological analysis of additional influenza cases.

Kuiken, Thijs; Taubenberger, Jeffery

2008-01-01

222

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

223

Pathology Case Study: Headache  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-28

224

Pathology Case Study: Cervical Adenopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old male who presented with a 6 month history of cervical adenopathy. Visitors are given patient history, microscopic description, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Craig, Fiona; Krishnamurti, Uma

2008-03-27

225

Pathology Case Study: Axillary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 81-year-old woman has a five centimeter axillary mass. Visitors are given the microscopic description and immunohistochemical findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2009-07-23

226

Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling  

PubMed Central

Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention.

Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

2012-01-01

227

Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities, (adenosis, fibrosis,

J. M. Guinebretière; E. Menet; A. Tardivon; P. Cherel; D. Vanel

2005-01-01

228

Pathology and genetics of adipocytic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipocytic tumors are common mesenchymal neoplasms with considerable morphologic and genetic heterogeneity. The fruitful integration of morphology and cytogenetics in the past 15 years has not only enhanced the diagnostic accuracy, but also refined the various pathological classifications and subtypes in these tumors. The current WHO classification includes eleven benign subtypes, one intermediate and five categories of malignant fatty neoplasms

M. Hameed

2007-01-01

229

Coding for pathology tests - strengths and weaknesses.  

PubMed

Laboratory professionals will increasingly find themselves called upon to assist with the coding of pathology test requests and reported results in the era of the e-Health Record (EHR). EHR users from outside pathology, including patients and clinicians, will expect seamless integration of pathology services, and question variations in test nomenclature, units, reference intervals, and interpretive comments. Scientists and pathologists will need to be ready to work with colleagues outside their traditional scientific disciplines, along with IT and terminology experts, to resolve illogical historical variations, highlight differences that might endanger patient safety, and help lay the foundations for evolving e-health systems that enhance healthcare without eroding the interpretive value of pathology reports from different laboratories. An overview of medical terminologies and Australasian eHealth harmonisation programs is also provided. PMID:22930607

Flatman, Robert

2012-08-01

230

Pathology Case Study: Right-sided hydronephrosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 82 year old woman who presented with severe right-sided hydronephrosis. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Arida, Muammar; Jukic, Drazen

2009-04-22

231

Pathology Case Study: Complete Heart Block  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case outlines the medical complications of a 9 year old patient following a small bowel and kidney transplantation. The patient's clinical history and autopsy findings, which include microscopic images, are provided, and the "Final Diagnosis" section details the official findings and diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Dickman, Paul S.; Richert, Charles A.

2007-11-19

232

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

233

MR Imaging Findings of Extraovarian Endocervical Mucinous Borderline Tumors Arising from Pelvic Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT.

Yeo, Dong Myung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

2013-01-01

234

The Impact of Borderline Personality Pathology on Mothers' Responses to Infant Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to extend extant research on the association between borderline personality (BP) pathology and at-risk parenting by examining the dynamic nature of parenting in response to infant distress in mothers with and without clinically relevant levels of BP pathology. Findings revealed that mothers with clinically relevant levels of BP pathology were less likely than those without BP pathology

Elizabeth J. Kiel; Kim L. Gratz; Sarah Anne Moore; Robert D. Latzman; Matthew T. Tull

2011-01-01

235

Rare Cadaveric Finding of a Grossly Enlarged Mucocele Appendix  

PubMed Central

Appendicular mucoceles are rare clinical findings characterized by dilation and distention of the appendicular lumen by the accumulation of mucus. Their discovery is often incidental from abdominal imaging or more commonly as a secondary surgical finding. In this case study we report the first known recorded case of a cadaveric mucocele appendix discovered during routine dissection of the gastrointestinal system. The recorded cause of death for the 86-year-old female patient was congestive heart failure. We compared the gross anatomy and histology of this enormous appendix with another cadaveric appendix. A pathology report identified the appendicular mucocele as a mucinous cystadenoma.

Farias, Anna; Anderson, Sarah J.; Webber, Christine A.

2013-01-01

236

Rare cadaveric finding of a grossly enlarged mucocele appendix.  

PubMed

Appendicular mucoceles are rare clinical findings characterized by dilation and distention of the appendicular lumen by the accumulation of mucus. Their discovery is often incidental from abdominal imaging or more commonly as a secondary surgical finding. In this case study we report the first known recorded case of a cadaveric mucocele appendix discovered during routine dissection of the gastrointestinal system. The recorded cause of death for the 86-year-old female patient was congestive heart failure. We compared the gross anatomy and histology of this enormous appendix with another cadaveric appendix. A pathology report identified the appendicular mucocele as a mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:24474903

Farias, Anna; Anderson, Sarah J; Webber, Christine A

2013-09-01

237

Overview and Findings from the Rush Memory and Aging Project  

PubMed Central

The Memory and Aging Project is a longitudinal, epidemiologic clinical-pathologic cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on decline in cognitive and motor function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods. Then, we present data on: 1) the relation of motor function to cognition, disability, and death; 2) the relation of risk factors to cognitive and motor outcomes, disability and death; 3) the relation of neuropathologic indices to cognitive outcomes; 4) the relation of risk factors to neuropathologic indices; and 5) additional study findings. The findings are discussed and contextualized.

Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Wilson, Robert S.

2012-01-01

238

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

239

Pathologic correlates of dementia in individuals with Lewy body disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment and dementia are more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than age-matched controls, and appear to become more frequent as PD progresses. However, estimates of dementia in patients with PD have varied widely, likely due in part to differences in case definition, case ascertainment, and methodology. First, we review investigations of usual pathologic correlates of dementia in patients with brainstem (b) Lewy Body Disease (LBD) and report our findings from the initial 266 brain autopsies from a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia. Our results showed that 2.6% of subjects were diagnosed with PD during life but that 20% had bLBD at autopsy. Seventy percent of individuals with bLBD had high-level of one or more cerebral pathologic changes significantly associated with dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral (c) LBD, or microvascular brain injury (?VBI); these were commonly co-morbid. Next we consider proposed contributors to cognitive impairment and dementia in the approximately 30% of patients with only bLBD, including regionally selective dendritic degeneration of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. Diseases contributing to cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with bLBD are heterogeneous, providing diagnostic challenges as well as multiple opportunities for successful intervention in patients with PD.

Sonnen, Joshua A.; Postupna, Nadia; Larson, Eric B.; Crane, Paul K.; Rose, Shannon E.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Leverenz, James B.; Montine, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

240

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong

2008-03-26

241

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

242

Reinforcement pathology and obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment. PMID:21999693

Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

2011-09-01

243

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-12-12

244

Reinforcement Pathology and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

Carr, Katelyn A.; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H.

2012-01-01

245

Plant Pathology Career Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

246

From the radiologic pathology archives: ewing sarcoma family of tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors includes osseous Ewing sarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Askin tumor. They share a karyotype abnormality with translocation involving chromosomes 11 and 22. Histologically, these lesions demonstrate crowded sheets of small round blue cells. Imaging features of osseous Ewing sarcoma often suggest the diagnosis, with aggressive long-bone destruction in the metadiaphysis of an adolescent or young adult and an associated soft-tissue mass. Focal areas of cortical destruction are frequent, allowing continuity between the intraosseous and extraosseous components. This continuity is also commonly seen as subtle channels extending through the cortex at computed tomography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a finding that reflects the underlying pathologic appearance. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma commonly demonstrates a nonspecific radiologic appearance of a large soft-tissue mass affecting the paraspinal region or lower extremity. Askin tumor represents extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma involving the chest wall. Imaging typically reveals a large pleural-based mass and associated pleural effusion. Treatment of these tumors is usually a combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection, which may be supplemented with radiation therapy. Imaging, particularly MR, is also vital to evaluate response to neoadjuvant therapy, direct surgical resection, and detect local recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:23674776

Murphey, Mark D; Senchak, Lien T; Mambalam, Pramod K; Logie, Chika I; Klassen-Fischer, Mary K; Kransdorf, Mark J

2013-05-01

247

Clinical and pathological features of pachyonychia congenita.  

PubMed

Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis affecting the nails, skin, oral mucosae, larynx, hair, and teeth. Pathogenic mutations in keratins K6a or K16 are associated with the PC-1 phenotype whereas K6b and K17 mutations are associated with the PC-2 phenotype. Analysis of clinical, pathological, and genetic data from the literature and two research registries reveal that >97% of PC cases exhibit fingernail and toenail thickening, and painful plantar keratoderma. Prospective evaluation of 57 PC patients from 41 families revealed variable clinical findings: hyperhidrosis (79%), oral leukokeratosis (75%), follicular keratosis (65%), palmar keratoderma (60%), cutaneous cysts (35%), hoarseness or laryngeal involvement (16%), coarse or twisted hair (26%), early primary tooth loss (14%), and presence of natal or prenatal teeth (2%). Stratification of these data by keratin mutation confirmed the increased incidence of cyst formation and natal teeth among PC-2 patients, although cysts were more commonly seen in PC-1 than previously reported (25%-33%). Previously unreported clinical features of PC include development of painful oral and nipple lesions during breastfeeding, copious production of waxy material in ears, and inability to walk without an ambulatory aid (50%). Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed with respect to the clinicopathologic and genetic correlations observed. PMID:16250204

Leachman, Sancy A; Kaspar, Roger L; Fleckman, Philip; Florell, Scott R; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Lunny, Declan P; Milstone, Leonard M; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Munro, Colin S; O'Toole, Edel A; Celebi, Julide T; Kansky, Aleksej; Lane, E Birgitte

2005-10-01

248

Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Klionsky, Bernard; Molina, J. T.; Nichols, Larry

2008-04-21

249

A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.  

PubMed

Abstract The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak. PMID:24447163

Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

2014-06-01

250

Vascular pathology and osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced

D. M. Findlay

2007-01-01

251

Primary Cilia in Normal and Pathological Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical literature in pathology contains a surprising number of anecdotal reports of primary cilia, with authors often expressing some incredulity at finding such organelles. In this update of an earlier review, I will argue that primary cilia should by now be regarded as regular cell organelles, not some form of atypical response to unusual circumstances. In all situations in

Denys N. Wheatley

1995-01-01

252

Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).  

PubMed

This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

2006-05-27

253

Radiologic-Pathologic Findings in Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A 13-month-old boy developed eosinophilic me- ningoencephalitis, retinitis, and a protracted encephalopa- thy with severe residual deficits. The initial MR examina- tion revealed diffuse periventricular white matter disease, and follow-up images showed atrophy. Brain biopsy, se- rology, and epidemiologic studies lead to the diagnosis of Baylisascaris procyonis infection, a parasitic disease con- tracted through exposure to soil contaminated by

Howard A. Rowley; Rosalie M. Uht; Kevin R. Kazacos; Wendy V. Wheaton; A. James Barkovich; Andrew W. Bollen

254

A new skeletal dysplasia: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Two siblings, one male and one female, were noted to have a distinct skeletal dysplasia. The clinical and radiographic features resemble those observed in Kniest dysplasia and Rolland-Desbuquois syndrome, but important differences were noted. Specifically, these two patients have microstomia, "pursed" lips, and ectopia lentis, and their radiographs reveal no coronal clefts. Chondro-osseous features also differ from those observed in either of the other disorders. Scattered dense patches consisting of collagen fibers 10 to 30 times broader than normal are seen scattered throughout the cartilage matrix; the "Swiss cheese" appearance characteristic of Kniest dysplasia is not observed. These patients appear to have a new skeletal dysplasia, most likely inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. PMID:3761078

Burton, B K; Sumner, T; Langer, L O; Rimoin, D L; Adomian, G E; Lachman, R S; Nicastro, J F; Kelly, D L; Weaver, R G

1986-10-01

255

Portacaval shunt in a calf: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings  

PubMed Central

A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extra-hepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant.

Buczinski, Sebastien; Duval, Julie; d'Anjou, Marc-Andre; Francoz, David; Fecteau, Gilles

2007-01-01

256

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: correlation with pathological examination  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the correlation between enhancement patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pathological findings. Methods The CEUS enhancement patterns of 40 pathologically proven ICC lesions were retrospectively analysed. Pathologically, the degree of tumour cell and fibrosis distribution in the lesion was semi-quantitatively evaluated. Results 4 enhancement patterns were observed in the arterial phase for 32 mass-forming ICCs: peripheral rim-like hyperenhancement (n=19); heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=6); homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3); and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=4). Among the four enhancement patterns, the differences in tumour cell distribution were statistically significant (p<0.05). The hyperenhancing area on CEUS corresponded to more tumour cells for mass-forming ICCs. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=2) and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=2) were observed in the arterial phase for four periductal infiltrating ICCs. In this subtype, fibrosis was more commonly found in the lesions. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=1) and homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3) were observed in the arterial phase for four intraductal growing ICCs. This subtype tended to have abundant tumour cells. Conclusion The CEUS findings of ICC relate to the degree of carcinoma cell proliferation at pathological examination. Hyperenhancing areas in the tumour always indicated increased density of cancer cells.

Xu, H-X; Chen, L-D; Liu, L-N; Zhang, Y-F; Guo, L-H; Liu, C

2012-01-01

257

Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

2014-02-01

258

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

259

Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in clinical glenohumeral instability  

PubMed Central

The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body, and anterior instability is the most common type of shoulder instability. Depending on the etiology and the age of the patient, there may be associated injuries, for example, to the anterior-inferior labro-ligamentous structures (in young individuals with traumatic instability) or to the bony components (commoner in the elderly), which are best visualized using MRI and MR arthrography. Anterior instability is associated with a Bankart lesion and its variants and abnormalities of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL), whereas posterior instability is associated with reverse Bankart and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions. Cases of multidirectional instability often have no labral pathology on imaging but show specific osseous changes including increased chondrolabral retroversion. This article reviews the relevant anatomy in brief and describes the MRI findings in each type, with the imaging features of the common abnormalities.

Jana, Manisha; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Nag, Hiralal; Mittal, Ravi; Upadhyay, Ashish Dutt

2011-01-01

260

Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

2014-01-01

261

Proteases: common culprits in human skin disorders.  

PubMed

Recent findings from the clinic and the laboratory have transformed the way proteases and their inhibitors are perceived in the outermost layer of the skin, the epidermis. It now appears that an integrated proteolytic network operates within the epidermis, comprising more than 30 enzymes that carry out a growing list of essential functions. Equally, defective regulation or execution of protease-mediated processes is emerging as a key contributor to diverse human skin pathologies, and in recent years the number of diseases attributable to aberrant proteolytic activity has more than doubled. Here, we survey the different roles of proteases in epidermal homeostasis (from processing enzymes to signalling molecules) and explore the spectrum of rare and common human skin disorders where proteolytic pathways are dysregulated. PMID:24380647

de Veer, Simon J; Furio, Laetitia; Harris, Jonathan M; Hovnanian, Alain

2014-03-01

262

Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hari, Raj

2009-04-15

263

Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Krisky, David

2009-05-06

264

Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.

2008-10-28

265

Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

Anhalt, John P.; Dorvault, Christine; Pasculle, A. W.; Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-29

266

Pathology Case Study: Oligoarthritis and Localized Swellings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 75-year-old man has been admitted to the hospital with chest pain radiating to his left arm, elbow, and wrist. Visitors are given the clinical history and radiology findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-25

267

Pathology Case Study: Skin Rash and Proteinuria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 8-year-old boy has a history of skin rash with concurrent hematuria and proteinuria. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunoflourescent and electron microscopy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Horn, Kevin D.

2007-09-19

268

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-10-08

269

Find Someone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a "Find Someone" list, with about 10 items, each containing a shape, number, or measurement. Can you find someone in the group with hair about 4 inches long? Someone wearing parallel lines? Someone born in the 10th month? Learners circulate, trying to find someone who matches each item on the list. To engage younger learners, base the âFind Someoneâ list on things to count: find someone wearing 7 buttons or find someone wearing 5 barrettes. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should have basic reading skills.

2010-01-01

270

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

271

Pathologies of the Orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic lesions of the orbit continue to be a great challenge to the diagnostic radiologist. The complex anatomy of the\\u000a orbit on the one hand and the multitude of disease entities that may affect the orbit on the other hand demand a simple, well-structured\\u000a approach to diagnostic imaging. Subdividing the orbit into four (or five) distinct spaces, i.e., the eyeball,

Ullrich G. Mueller-Lisse; JuerGen Lutz

272

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

273

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

274

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

275

Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing âÂÂfainting spellsâ is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Peng, Yan

2009-01-16

276

Spectrum of synovial pathologies: a pictorial assay.  

PubMed

The synovium, a specialized vascular tissue, lines the diarthrodial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths of the body. It helps in nourishment of articular structures. The synovium is affected by a variety of disorders that can be either localized or systemic. Although normal synovium is barely perceptible on magnetic resonance imaging, it provides an excellent imaging modality for the evaluation of pathologic processes involving the synovium. The pathologic processes affecting the synovium include 1 of the following etiologies: inflammatory, infectious, degenerative, traumatic, or neoplastic and tumor-like conditions. In this article, we discuss the magnetic resonance imaging technique and the sequences used in the evaluation of synovial pathologies and review the characteristic imaging findings of specific conditions thus narrowing the differential diagnoses. PMID:22085660

Jaganathan, Sriram; Goyal, Ankur; Gadodia, Ankur; Rastogi, Shishir; Mittal, Ravi; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

2012-01-01

277

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Bloating and Discomfort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 64-year-old woman initially diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Visitors are given an extensive patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient using the findings before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Dunn, Jean; Ozolek, John A.

2009-03-25

278

Communication and common interest.  

PubMed

Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems. PMID:24244116

Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

2013-01-01

279

Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

As the average age in many countries steadily rises, heart infarction, stroke, and cancer become the most common causes of death in the 21st century. The causes of these disorders are many and varied and include genetic predisposition and environmental influences, but they all share a common feature in that limitation of oxygen availability participates in the development of these pathological conditions. However, cells and organisms are able to trigger an adaptive response to hypoxic conditions that is aimed to help them to cope with these threatening conditions. This review provides a description of several systems able to sense oxygen concentration and of the responses they initiate both in the acute and also in long-term hypoxia adaptation. The role of hypoxia in three pathological conditions, myocardial and cerebral ischemia as well as tumorigenesis, is briefly discussed.

Michiels, Carine

2004-01-01

280

Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

1996-03-01

281

Formaldehyde in pathology departments.  

PubMed Central

Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images

Clark, R P

1983-01-01

282

Discovering Common Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use pattern blocks to represent fractions with unlike denominators. Students discover that they need to convert all the pattern blocks to the same shape in order to add them. Therefore, they find and use common denominators for the addition of fractions.

Kloper, Adam

2012-07-22

283

Preoperative easily misdiagnosed telangiectatic osteosarcoma: clinical-radiologic-pathologic correlations.  

PubMed

Purpose: To describe the clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics and diagnostic methods of telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) for improving the diagnostic level. Materials and methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed patient demographics, serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) levels, preoperative biopsy pathologic reports, pathologic materials, imaging findings, and treatment outcomes from 26 patients with TOS. Patient images from radiography (26 cases) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (22 cases) were evaluated by 3 authors in consensus for intrinsic characteristics. There were 15 male and 11 female patients in the study, with an age of 9-32 years (mean age 15.9 years). Results: Eighteen of 26 patients died of lung metastases within 5 years of follow-up. The distal femur was affected more commonly (14 cases, 53.8%). Regarding serum AKP, normal (8 cases) or mildly elevated (18 cases) levels were found before preoperative chemotherapy. Radiographs showed geographic bone lysis without sclerotic margin (26 cases), cortical destruction (26 cases), periosteal new bone formation (24 cases), soft-tissue mass (23 cases), and matrix mineralization (4 cases). The aggressive radiographic features of TOS simulated the appearance of conventional high-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma, though different from aneurysmal bone cyst. MR images demonstrated multiple big (16 cases) or small (6 cases) cystic spaces, fluid-fluid levels (14 cases), soft-tissue mass (22 cases), and thick peripheral and septal enhancement (22 cases). Nine of 26 cases were misdiagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts by preoperative core-needle biopsy, owing to the absence of viable high-grade sarcomatous cells in the small tissue samples. Conclusion: The aggressive growth pattern with occasional matrix mineralization, and multiple big or small fluid-filled cavities with thick peripheral, septal, and nodular tissue surrounding the fluid-filled cavities are characteristic imaging features of TOS, and these features are helpful in making the correct preoperative diagnosis of TOS. PMID:24334494

Gao, Zhen-Hua; Yin, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei; Meng, Quan-Fei; Li, Jia-Ping

2013-01-01

284

Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD.

el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

2011-01-01

285

Pathology of head trauma.  

PubMed

This article reviews the essential primary and secondary injuries attributable to traumatic brain injury (TBI) which causes one third of all injury deaths in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, falls, assaults, guns, sports, and recreational activities are the major causes of TBI. Secondary peak incidences of TBI occur in infants and children and the elderly. Conditions that increase risk for accidents include alcoholism, prior head injury, prior meningitis, seizure disorders, mental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. However, gunshot wounds to the head are steadily increasing and since 1990 have caused more deaths each year than motor vehicle accidents. The incidence, severity, etiology, and specific types of injuries have been assessed in clinicopathologic studies of head injuries. The pathologic features of both the primary and secondary lesions attributed to TBI should be understood by anyone caring for head-injured patients. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images mirror the pathologic abnormalities found in head trauma. Radiologists must accurately interpret the CT and MR images of injured patients. Forensic pathologists have long appreciated the characteristic focal lesions, such as coup and contracoup contusions, that occur in falls or vehicle accidents, but the understanding of diffuse injuries has been more elusive. Understanding the nature of the focal and diffuse injuries is critical to understanding the morbidity and mortality of brain injury. PMID:12391630

Hardman, John M; Manoukian, Anthony

2002-05-01

286

The pathology of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies.

Macher, A M

1988-01-01

287

Nanotechnology: toxicologic pathology.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

Hubbs, Ann F; Sargent, Linda M; Porter, Dale W; Sager, Tina M; Chen, Bean T; Frazer, David G; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Reynolds, Steven H; Battelli, Lori A; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L; Mercer, Robert R

2013-02-01

288

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

289

Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.  

PubMed

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van't Veer, Laura J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Gantcev, Shamil Hanafievich; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Collée, J Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B

2011-12-01

290

Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer.

Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Muller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Bruning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dork, Thilo; Schurmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collee, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

2011-01-01

291

Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

Crook, Shirley, Ed.

292

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2008-01-01

293

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2011-01-01

294

Magnetic Resonance Image findings of Spinal Tuberclosis at first presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal tuberculosis presents in various pathological patterns. The clinical presentation and often the management depend on exact pathological findings. Objective of study was to evaluate the Pathology of spinal tuberculosis as depicted by MRI findings in 119 consecutive cases of spinal TB. Methodology It was a cross sectional and observational study conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi from July 2010 to December 2012.Total numbers of participants were 119. Diagnosis was based on positive histopathology results along with the supportive evidence in MRI. A pre-structured questionnaire was constructed to record the data. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Sample size was calculated by using Open-EPI software. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result There were 119 patients who participated in this study out of which 52 were males and 67 were females. Most common level was Dorso-lumbar (33.6%) and 87.5% of them had spondylodiscitis while 90% had cord compression. All 6 (100%) patients who had their upper- dorsal region affected had gibbus formation while all those patients having lumbosacral region involved had thecal compression 4 (100%). Most common mode of treatment used in patients having Spinal TB at Lumbar region was conservative (86.2%). Conclusion MRI findings were mostly shadowed with features such as disc destruction and thecal or cord compression. MRI scan could be used for early detection of spinal TB which can reduce disability and deaths in patients. Major clinical findings in spinal TB were fever, Para paresis and back pain.

2014-01-01

295

Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Lopes, M. B.; Malcolm, Elsa K.

2009-03-20

296

Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation.  

PubMed

Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fueled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow-transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

Knowles, Charles H; Farrugia, Gianrico

2011-02-01

297

Continuum model of tendon pathology - where are we now?  

PubMed Central

Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model.

McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

2013-01-01

298

Ipilimumab associated hepatitis: imaging and clinicopathologic findings.  

PubMed

Ipilimumab is a novel immunomodulator demonstrating promising efficacy in treatment of melanoma and other cancers. The clinical benefit from ipilimumab can be hampered by the immure-related adverse events (irAEs) caused by dysregulation of host immune system. Ipilimumab associated hepatitis is also an important irAE, however, there have been limited descriptions of its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics. We aim to describe the clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics of 6 patients who were diagnosed as ipilimumab associated hepatitis during the ipilimumab treatment for melanoma. The clinical features of these patients were as follows: (1) severe cases with systemic symptoms and highly increased level of liver function tests (LFTs), and (2) mild asymptomatic cases with mildly increased level of LFTs. In severe cases with ALT >1,000 IU/L, imaging findings were characterized by mild hepatomegaly, periportal edema, and periportal lymphadenopathy, while mild cases showed normal imaging findings. This spectrum of imaging findings in our series was similar to that of common causes of acute hepatitis. Among 3 cases with pathologic specimen, two cases showed severe panlobular hepatitis with prominent perivenular infiltrate with endothelialitis, suggestive of predominant injury to hepatocytes, while the other case showed mild portal mononuclear infiltrate around proliferated bile ductules, suggestive of predominant injury to bile ducts. In summary, ipilimumab associated hepatitis may demonstrate variable imaging findings according to its clinical severity, and histologically may manifest either as a predominant injury to hepatocytes (acute hepatitis pattern) or as a predominant injury to bile ducts (biliary pattern). PMID:23408334

Kim, Kyung Won; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Krajewski, Katherine M; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Srivastava, Amitabh; Ibrahim, Nageatte

2013-08-01

299

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The âÂÂGross Description,â âÂÂMicroscopic Description,â and â Microbiologyâ sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott; Pasculle, A. W.

2007-12-17

300

Pathological aspects of cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arises from the biliary epithelium and in most cases represents adenocarcinoma. Pathomorphological evaluation is of decisive impact for the prognosis and management of CC. Morphological subtyping (histotype; hilar vs peripheral type), TNM classification, lymphatic spread, and resection margin status are of prognostic relevance. Distinction from hepatic metastases may be aided by immunohistology and clinico-pathological correlation. There is convincing evidence of the development of CC via premalignant lesions, especially biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, although further knowledge about the biology and diagnostic definition of these lesions has to be accumulated. Currently, there are no established molecular markers of prognosis or therapeutic target structures to be evaluated at the tissue level. Future progress is needed and expected in novel differential diagnostic and predictive markers, in uniform definition of resection margin status and further understanding of molecular and morphological changes in the development of CC.

Esposito*, I.

2008-01-01

301

Genotypically defined lissencephalies show distinct pathologies.  

PubMed

Lissencephaly is traditionally divided into 2 distinct pathologic forms: classic (type I) and cobblestone (type II). To date, mutations in 4 genes, LIS1, DCX, RELN, and ARX, have been associated with distinct type I lissencephaly syndromes. Each of these genes has been shown to play a role in normal cell migration, consistent with the presumed pathogenesis of type I lissencephaly. Based on these data, we hypothesized that all forms of radiographically defined type I lissencephaly independent of genotype would be pathologically similar. To test this hypothesis, we examined brains from 16 patients, including 15 lissencephalic patients and one patient with subcortical band heterotopia. Of these 16 patients, 6 had LIS1 deletions, 2 had DCX mutations, and 2 had ARX mutations. In addition, 6 patients had no defined genetic defect, although the patient with subcortical band heterotopia exhibited the same pattern of malformation expected with an XLIS mutation. In all cases, the cortex was thickened; however, the topographic distribution of the cortical pathology varied, ranging from frontal- to occipital-biased pathology to diffuse involvement of the neocortex. Although brains with LIS1 deletions exhibited the classic 4-layer lissencephalic architecture, patients with DCX and ARX mutations each had unique cytoarchitectural findings distinct from LIS1. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 patients with no known genetic defect showed a fourth type of histopathology characterized by a 2-layered cortex. Interestingly, the 2 brains with the fourth type of lissencephaly showed profound brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. In summary, we identified at least 4 distinct histopathologic subtypes of lissencephaly that stratify with the underlying genetic defect. Based on these data, a new classification for lissencephaly is proposed that incorporates both pathologic and genetic findings. PMID:16215456

Forman, Mark S; Squier, Waney; Dobyns, William B; Golden, Jeffrey A

2005-10-01

302

A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology - benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells  

PubMed Central

Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not be mistaken for malignant cells on microscopic examination. Unfortunately a lack of awareness of this pathological entity can lead to diagnostic confusion amongst pathologists resulting in the multinucleate giant cells being mistaken for highly mitotic cells and consequently the fibroadenoma being mistaken for a malignant lesion. This may have serious implications for the subsequent management of the patient. The presence of this unusual cell type in the stroma does not alter the prognosis of otherwise benign lesion. We encountered two such cases at our institution in a six month period recently. We present their histories along with relevant radiological, microscopic and immunohistochemical features, followed by a discussion of this unusual pathological entity.

Heneghan, Helen M; Martin, Sean T; Casey, Mary; Tobbia, Igdam; Benani, Fadel; Barry, Kevin M

2008-01-01

303

Pathological features of FTLD-FUS in a Japanese population: analyses of nine cases.  

PubMed

We investigated the pathological features of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with fused in sarcoma protein (FUS) accumulation (FTLD-FUS) in the Japanese population. Only one out of nine FTLD-FUS cases showed pathology that corresponds to atypical FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (aFTLD-U). Five were basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and two were neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. The last case was unclassifiable and was associated with dystrophic neurites (DNs) as the predominant FUS pathology. The results of this study indicate an ethnic difference from western countries. In Japan, BIBD is the most common subtype of FTLD-FUS and aFTLD-U is rare, a finding which contrasts with aFTLD-U being the most common form in western countries. Immunohistochemical analyses of these FTLD-FUS cases reveal that FUS abnormally accumulated in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and DNs has an immunohistochemical profile distinct from that of normal, nuclear FUS. NCIs and DNs are more readily stained than the nuclei by antibodies to the middle portion of FUS. Antibodies to the carboxyl terminal portion, on the other hand, stain the nuclei more readily than NCIs and DNs. Such an immunohistochemical profile of NCIs and DNs was similar to that of cytoplasmic granular FUS staining which we previously reported to be associated with dendrites and synapses. Redistribution of FUS from the nucleus to the cytoplasm could be associated with the formation of abnormal FUS aggregates in FTLD-FUS. PMID:24050818

Kobayashi, Zen; Kawakami, Ito; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Kondo, Hiromi; Shimomura, Yoko; Haga, Chie; Aoki, Naoya; Hasegawa, Masato; Hosokawa, Masato; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Ishizu, Hideki; Terada, Seishi; Onaya, Mitsumoto; Ikeda, Manabu; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Nakano, Imaharu; Murayama, Shigeo; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2013-12-15

304

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

305

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

306

Practical pathology of aging mice  

PubMed Central

Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

2011-01-01

307

Unusual Findings in Appendectomy Specimens of Adults: Retrospective Analyses of 1466 Patients and a Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis. Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. Patients and Methods: Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients’ age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up. Results: Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology. Conclusions: Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination.

Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Ozgur Aytac, Huseyin; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Akin Tarim, Mehmet

2014-01-01

308

Lewy body pathology in Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lewy bodies, the characteristic pathological lesion of substantia nigra neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD), are frequently\\u000a observed to accompany the amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However the typical\\u000a anatomic distribution of Lewy bodies in AD is distinct from PD. The most common site of occurrence is the amygdala, where\\u000a Lewy bodies are observed in approximately

Paul T. Kotzbauer; John Q. Trojanowski; Virginia M.-Y. Lee

2001-01-01

309

Comorbid mood and adjustment disorders among pathological gamblers seeking treatment in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings on comorbidity and pathological gambling are non–existent in Chinese communities. The objectives of this study were to: (a) determine the prevalence of comorbid mood and adjustment disorders among pathological gamblers seeking treatment in Hong Kong; (b) compare demographic profiles and clinical features in pathological gamblers with and without comorbid mood and adjustment disorders; and (c) explore the association

D. T. L. Shek; E. M. L. Chan; R. H. Y. Wong

2012-01-01

310

Plasma copper concentrations in pathological pregnancies.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential element required for the formation of many enzymes with important roles in the human body. During pregnancy, the maternal serum copper concentration is increased due to the higher levels of ceruloplasmin that are the result of elevated oestrogen levels. The aim of this work was to investigate maternal plasma copper concentrations in relation to various pathological conditions during pregnancy. A total of 319 maternal plasma samples were analysed: 103 taken from women in the first trimester, 73 in the second trimester, 99 in the third trimester of pregnancy and 44 at delivery. The plasma concentration of copper during each trimester of normal pregnancy was taken as a reference value. Group comparisons performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett test indicated substantially lower plasma concentrations of copper in pathological conditions diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, threatened abortion, missed abortion and blighted ovum). No significant differences in maternal plasma blood copper concentrations were found in pathological conditions (threatened abortion, threatened preterm delivery and pyelonephritis) diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. Significant differences in plasma copper concentrations were found in the third trimester, for which finding the Dunnett test indicated the cholestasis group to be responsible. Except for twin pregnancy, a tendency to higher plasma copper concentrations, however not statistically significant, was observed in other pathological conditions during the third trimester (gestosis, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labour). PMID:16325535

Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Frkovic, Aleksandra

2005-01-01

311

[Nail pathology in children].  

PubMed

In children the nail has physiologic characteristics that imply specific abnormalities. The most common dermatological localisation in psoriasis in the child; it is seen as trachyonychia, pitting, and occasionally pachyonychia. Ingrowth of the large toenail is a common problem, whether due to congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux in the newborn, to congenital malalignment of the nail of the big toe, or to a juvenile ingrown nail. Many other nail disorders are observed in the child: parakeratosis pustulosa, nail lichen, lichen striatus, melanonychia, dermatophyte onychomycosis, candida infection, herpes.... Aside from warts, tumours are rare. PMID:11217129

Goettmann, S

2000-12-15

312

Shod versus unshod: The emergence of forefoot pathology in modern humans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPathologies of the metatarsal bones in contemporary humans are common yet it remains unclear from an evolutionary perspective to what extent, if any, footwear and other environmental factors such as modern substrates have contributed to the emergence of common metatarsal pathological changes.

B. Zipfel; L. R. Berger

2007-01-01

313

Common pathobiochemical hallmarks of progranulin-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.  

PubMed

Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene and the resulting reduction of GRN levels is a common genetic cause for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43. Recently, it has been shown that a complete GRN deficiency due to a homozygous GRN loss-of-function mutation causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disorder. These findings suggest that lysosomal dysfunction may also contribute to some extent to FTLD. Indeed, Grn(-/-) mice recapitulate not only pathobiochemical features of GRN-associated FTLD-TDP (FTLD-TDP/GRN), but also those which are characteristic for NCL and lysosomal impairment. In Grn(-/-) mice the lysosomal proteins cathepsin D (CTSD), LAMP (lysosomal-associated membrane protein) 1 and the NCL storage components saposin D and subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) were all found to be elevated. Moreover, these mice display increased levels of transmembrane protein (TMEM) 106B, a lysosomal protein known as a risk factor for FTLD-TDP pathology. In line with a potential pathological overlap of FTLD and NCL, Ctsd(-/-) mice, a model for NCL, show elevated levels of the FTLD-associated proteins GRN and TMEM106B. In addition, pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 occurs in Ctsd(-/-) mice to a similar extent as in Grn(-/-) mice. Consistent with these findings, some NCL patients accumulate pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 within their brains. Based on these observations, we searched for pathological marker proteins, which are characteristic for NCL or lysosomal impairment in brains of FTLD-TDP/GRN patients. Strikingly, saposin D, SCMAS as well as the lysosomal proteins CTSD and LAMP1/2 are all elevated in patients with FTLD-TDP/GRN. Thus, our findings suggest that lysosomal storage disorders and GRN-associated FTLD may share common features. PMID:24619111

Götzl, Julia K; Mori, Kohji; Damme, Markus; Fellerer, Katrin; Tahirovic, Sabina; Kleinberger, Gernot; Janssens, Jonathan; van der Zee, Julie; Lang, Christina M; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Arzberger, Thomas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Haass, Christian; Capell, Anja

2014-06-01

314

Personality Disorders and Dimensions in Pathological Gambling.  

PubMed

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach. PMID:22494174

Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

2012-04-11

315

Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach. PMID:22686226

Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

2012-06-01

316

Natural pathology of the Baboon (Papio spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Baboons are useful animal models for biomedical research, but the natural pathology of the baboon is not as well defined as other non-human primates. Methods A computer search for all morphologic diagnoses from baboon necropsies at the Southwest National Primate Research Center was performed and included all the natural deaths and animals euthanized for natural causes. Results A total of 10,883 macroscopic or microscopic morphologic diagnoses in 4297 baboons were documented and are presented by total incidence, relative incidence by sex and age-group, and mean age of occurrence. The most common diagnoses in descending order of occurrence were hemorrhage, stillborn, amyloidosis, colitis, spondylosis, and pneumonia. The systems with the most diagnoses were the digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and respiratory. Conclusion This extensive evaluation of the natural pathology of the baboon should be an invaluable biomedical research resource.

Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Malapati, Adinarayana R.; Owston, Michael A.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2011-01-01

317

Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ? 2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT. PMID:21358931

Martin, Jeanne M; Valentine, Beth A; Cebra, Christopher K

2010-12-01

318

Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ? 2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT.

Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

2010-01-01

319

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

320

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D. E.

2003-01-01

321

Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the âÂÂPatient Historyâ and âÂÂLaboratory Investigationsâ sections, students should proceed on to the âÂÂQuestionsâ section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the âÂÂDiagnosisâ section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nambiar, Ashok

2009-02-06

322

Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best.

Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

323

Unusual scrotal pathology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse embryological origins of the contents of the scrotum create an environment that fosters a wide variety of unusual pathologies. Most scrotal pathologies are discovered by the patient and are initially evaluated by a thorough physical examination and scrotal ultrasonography. Scrotal lesions can be broadly grouped by the anatomical location in which they develop; the clinician must consider a

Henry M. Rosevear; Alek Mishail; Yefim Sheynkin; Moshe Wald

2009-01-01

324

Finding Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

Sciencenter

2011-08-20

325

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed.

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

326

Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

2012-01-20

327

Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.  

PubMed

The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time. PMID:23721272

Roberts, Drucilla J

2013-06-01

328

Pathology Dynamics Predict Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic Success  

PubMed Central

Abstract Secondary injury, the complex cascade of cellular events following spinal cord injury (SCI), is a major source of post-insult neuron death. Experimental work has focused on the details of individual factors or mechanisms that contribute to secondary injury, but little is known about the interactions among factors leading to the overall pathology dynamics that underlie its propagation. Prior hypotheses suggest that the pathology is dominated by interactions, with therapeutic success lying in combinations of neuroprotective treatments. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive, system-level characterization of the entire secondary injury process using a novel relational model methodology that aggregates the findings of ~250 experimental studies. Our quantitative examination of the overall pathology dynamics suggests that, while the pathology is initially dominated by “fire-like,” rate-dependent interactions, it quickly switches to a “flood-like,” accumulation-dependent process with contributing factors being largely independent. Our evaluation of ~20,000 potential single and combinatorial treatments indicates this flood-like pathology results in few highly influential factors at clinically realistic treatment time frames, with multi-factor treatments being merely additive rather than synergistic in reducing neuron death. Our findings give new fundamental insight into the understanding of the secondary injury pathology as a whole, provide direction for alternative therapeutic strategies, and suggest that ultimate success in treating SCI lies in the pursuit of pathology dynamics in addition to individually involved factors.

Mitchell, Cassie S.

2008-01-01

329

Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus  

PubMed Central

Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids.

Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

330

Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case from the collection documents a sixty-five year old female patient with enlarged lymph nodes in the jugular region, and a nodule of the thyroid. The patient's history is presented, as well as the gross and microscopic descriptions of her thyroid and lymph nodes (including images). Images from an electron microscopic examination are also included to aid in diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Nine, Jeff S.; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2007-11-16

331

Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Hari, Raj

2009-03-24

332

Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dorvault, Christine

2007-12-18

333

Modeling Lewy Pathology Propagation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) comprised of alpha-synuclein (?Syn), are intraneuronal inclusions that characterize Parkinson’s disease. Although the association between the extent of Lewy pathology and clinical symptoms is well established, how these proteinaceous deposits originate and target selectively vulnerable cell populations is unknown. Our knowledge of their role in PD pathogenesis is also limited. Here, we summarize recent findings demonstrating this pathology can be experimentally transmitted between animals by misfolded forms of ?Syn that are capable of initiating and inducing LB and LN inclusion formation through a self-propagating mechanism reminiscent of prions. “Seeded” LBs and LNs in animal models also spread to multiple connected nuclei in a predictable pattern, recapitulating a phenomenon observed during human PD progression, leading to the dysfunction and degeneration of afflicted neurons. These models provide new perspectives on how this and other misfolded proteins may contribute to neurodegeneration in human disease.

Luk, Kelvin C.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

2014-01-01

334

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Sheikh, Hina; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-19

335

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Zagzag, David

2009-03-16

336

Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

Pushkar, Irina; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-17

337

Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service  

PubMed Central

Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual inquiry method helped reveal similarities and key differences with civilian pathologists. Such an analysis helped identify specific instances that would benefit from implementing digital pathology in a military environment. Employing digital pathology to facilitate workload distribution, secondary consultations, and quality assurance (over-reads) could help the AFMS deliver more accurate, efficient, and timely AP services at a global level.

Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

2013-01-01

338

Radiological and pathological aspects of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Case report.  

PubMed

A case of dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula is presented with detailed radiological and pathological findings. The complex hemodynamic alterations that may result from dural AV fistulas are described. Pathological examination in this case demonstrated widespread occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus with multiple abnormal fistulous communications between abnormal arteries and arterialized veins. A portion of the lesion resembled a recanalized blood clot, in support of the theory proposed by others that dural AV fistulas are acquired lesions. PMID:3701446

Graeb, D A; Dolman, C L

1986-06-01

339

A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general.

McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

2012-01-01

340

Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

341

Panniculitis Is an Important Feature of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Pathology  

PubMed Central

Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an inflammatory parasitic infection characterized by superficial and deep perivascular infiltration with or without granuloma formation. Clinical diagnosis usually requires seeing Leishmania bodies. Methods. We report two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis with unusual histological finding of panniculitis. Case 1: a 36-year-old male presented with multiple ulcerative nodules involving the left leg for two months duration which was greatly responsive to antimony intralesional therapy. Case 2: A 45-year-old woman presented with painless nodules on her upper chest of a 10-week duration which were successfully treated with oral and topical zinc sulphate. Results. Diagnosis of both cases was confirmed by finding the Leishmania bodies with Gimesa stain in addition to the diffuse dermal inflammatory cellular infiltration of the dermis forming granulomatous dermatitis. Mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells of the panniculus caused both septal and lobular panniculitis. Conclusion. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can cause panniculitis and this could be seen more commonly if deep biopsies were taken. So cutaneous leishmaniasis must be considered in evaluating pathology of panniculitis especially in endemic regions.

Sharquie, Khalifa E.; Hameed, Ammar Faisal

2012-01-01

342

Radiologically innocuous breast reduction specimens. Should we send them to pathology lab anyway?  

PubMed Central

Summary Breast Reduction (BR) is a common procedure around the world. Patients are screened for incidental carcinoma preoperatively by mammography or ultrasonography and BR specimens are sent for pathologic examination postoperatively. Since the incidence of incidental carcinoma is very low, no consensus exist regarding efficiency of pathologic examination. To assess the value of pathologic examination, we examined mammographically and ultrasonographically negative eighty BR specimens from 40 women. Twenty seven women had pathological lesions in their specimens (67,5%). This indicates that, even mammographically and ultrasonographically innocuous, BR specimens may reveal important pathological diagnosis that alters patient management.

CELIK, B.; DEMIROZ, D. SENEN; YAZ, M.; MUSLU, U.

2013-01-01

343

Radiologically innocuous breast reduction specimens. Should we send them to pathology lab anyway?  

PubMed

Breast Reduction (BR) is a common procedure around the world. Patients are screened for incidental carcinoma preoperatively by mammography or ultrasonography and BR specimens are sent for pathologic examination postoperatively. Since the incidence of incidental carcinoma is very low, no consensus exist regarding efficiency of pathologic examination. To assess the value of pathologic examination, we examined mammographically and ultrasonographically negative eighty BR specimens from 40 women. Twenty seven women had pathological lesions in their specimens (67,5%). This indicates that, even mammographically and ultrasonographically innocuous, BR specimens may reveal important pathological diagnosis that alters patient management. PMID:24342155

Celik, B; Senen Demiroz, D; Yaz, M; Muslu, U

2013-01-01

344

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Surgical Pathology Staff  

Cancer.gov

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredits LP for its residency program in Anatomic Pathology and fellowship programs in Cytopathology and Hematopathology. Additional information and application process may be reviewed at the NIH Office of Graduate Medical Education.

345

Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (?10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n = 106). For individuals aged ?95 years at death (n = 179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of ‘definite’ Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n = 10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration TAR DNA protein 43. To help sharpen our ability to discriminate patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing clinically, the longitudinal cognitive profile of 43 patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing was compared with the profiles of 75 controls matched for age, gender, education level and apolipoprotein E genotype. These individuals were followed from intake assessment, with 8.2 (average) longitudinal cognitive assessments. A neuropsychological profile with relatively high-verbal fluency but low word list recall distinguished the hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing group at intake (P < 0.015) and also 5.5–6.5 years before death (P < 0.005). This may provide a first step in clinical differentiation of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing versus pure Alzheimer’s disease in their earliest stages. In summary, in the largest series of autopsy-verified patients with hippocampal sclerosis to date, we characterized the clinical and pathological features associated with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing.

Schmitt, Frederick A.; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C.; Neltner, Janna H.; Smith, Charles D.; Santacruz, Karen S.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Woodard, John L.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Kryscio, Richard J.

2011-01-01

346

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-08-17

347

[Formulation of the pathological diagnosis].  

PubMed

The authors take part in the discussion concerning the formulation (structure) of pathological diagnosis in pediatric practice, particularly in perinatology. A scheme of formulation of pathological diagnosis which must reflect sections of the "Certificate on Perinatal Death" with due consideration for the new IX revision of International Classification of Diseases is proposed. The authors discuss the justification of the diagnosis of asphyxia and formulation of pathological diagnosis in cases of death of newborn babies due to noninfectious pneumopathies. The rules of formulation of the clinico-anatomical epicrisis is also discussed. PMID:6847406

Maksimovich, N A; Chistiakova, M B

1983-01-01

348

Clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. It varies with respect to the morphologic, cytogenetic, molecular and immunologic features of the neoplastic cells reflecting the variable clinical-pathologic presentations and outcome of the patients. The aim of the study was to observe the clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics in newly diagnosed adult ALL patients. A total number of 61 patients morphologically diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aged 15 and above assigned for this observational study. The study was carried out in the Department of Haematology, BSMMU from January 2007 to December 2008. Among 61 patients, aged 15 to 80 years with median age 25 years, 79% were male and 21% were female. Most of the patients presented with anaemia (67%), fever (66%), lymphadenopathy (64%) and splenomegaly (57%). Other common clinical findings were hepatomegaly (39%), bone tenderness (44%) and bleeding manifestations (34%). Among haemato-pathological findings 67% patients had Hb level ?10gm/dl, 46% patients had WBC count ?30×10?/L, 67% patients had platelet count ?100×10?/L, 93% patients had blast in peripheral blood and 61% patients had ?90 % blasts in the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis. In this study adult ALL patients were analyzed only for their clinical and haemato-pathological characteristics. But their biologic characteristics were not analyzed due to lack of availability of facility. A progressive understanding of the biologic and genetic characteristics of ALL will allow us to identify different prognostic subgroups with specific molecular and cellular features. All the necessary measures have to be developed in our country in order to identify prognostically distinct subgroups of patients. PMID:24858155

Islam, N; Rahman, M M; Aziz, M A; Begum, M; Ferdous, J; Rahman, M J

2014-04-01

349

The impact of comorbidity on the management of pathological gambling.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old woman with severe pathological gambling and cyclothymia presented to our program with no previous history of pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic treatment. Pathological gambling is an impulse -control disorder not otherwise specified (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) in which comorbidity is common, particularly with substance abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder and mood disorders. As described in this case, pathological gamblers with bipolar comorbidity may be effectively treated with mood stabilizers such as lithium. After receiving 10 weeks of lithium treatment, the patient showed improvement in both gambling behavior and affective instability. The identification of specific subtypes among patients with pathological gambling may be relevant to the choice of pharmacologic treatment. PMID:16041292

Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Hollander, Eric

2005-08-01

350

Polymicrogyria: A common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24888723

Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

2014-06-01

351

MRI findings of acute turf toe. A case report and review of anatomy.  

PubMed

Normal anatomy of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux has been well described. However, the pathologic anatomy of turf toe, a common injury among football and rugby players, has not been documented in detail. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of a classic case of turf toe were examined and the findings were compared with MRI of a normal specimen and correlated with known features of gross anatomy. MRI findings confirmed that turf toe involves a sprain or tear of the plantar metatarsophalangeal joint capsule. PMID:8020216

Tewes, D P; Fischer, D A; Fritts, H M; Guanche, C A

1994-07-01

352

Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia.  

PubMed

Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A-D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n = 31). Pathological analysis included semi-quantitation of myelin loss of fibres of the corticospinal tract and associated macrophage burden, as well as axonal loss, at the level of the medullary pyramids. We also assessed for motor cortex degeneration and fibre loss of the medial lemniscus/olivocerebellar tract. All cases were subdivided into three groups based on the degree of corticospinal tract degeneration: (i) no corticospinal tract degeneration; (ii) equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration; and (iii) moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration. Clinical, genetic, pathological and imaging comparisons were performed across groups. Eight cases had no corticospinal tract degeneration, and 14 cases had equivocal to mild corticospinal tract degeneration. Nine cases, however, had moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration with myelin and axonal loss. In these nine cases, there was degeneration of the motor cortex without lower motor neuron degeneration or involvement of other brainstem tracts. These cases most commonly presented as semantic dementia, and they had longer disease duration (mean: 15.3 years) compared with the other two groups (10.8 and 9.9 years; P = 0.03). After adjusting for disease duration, severity of corticospinal tract degeneration remained significantly different across groups. Only one case, without corticospinal tract degeneration, was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. All three groups were associated with anterior temporal lobe atrophy on MRI; however, the cases with moderate to severe corticospinal tract degeneration showed right-sided temporal lobe asymmetry and greater involvement of the right temporal lobe and superior motor cortices than the other groups. In contrast, the cases with no or equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration were more likely to show left-sided temporal lobe asymmetry. For comparison, the corticospinal tract was assessed in 86 type A and B cases, and only two cases showed evidence of corticospinal tract degeneration without lower motor neuron degeneration. These findings confirm that there exists a unique association between frontotemporal lobar degeneration with type C pathology and corticospinal tract degeneration, with this entity showing a predilection to involve the right temporal lobe. PMID:23358603

Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Murray, Melissa E; Parisi, Joseph E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

2013-02-01

353

Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A–D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n = 31). Pathological analysis included semi-quantitation of myelin loss of fibres of the corticospinal tract and associated macrophage burden, as well as axonal loss, at the level of the medullary pyramids. We also assessed for motor cortex degeneration and fibre loss of the medial lemniscus/olivocerebellar tract. All cases were subdivided into three groups based on the degree of corticospinal tract degeneration: (i) no corticospinal tract degeneration; (ii) equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration; and (iii) moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration. Clinical, genetic, pathological and imaging comparisons were performed across groups. Eight cases had no corticospinal tract degeneration, and 14 cases had equivocal to mild corticospinal tract degeneration. Nine cases, however, had moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration with myelin and axonal loss. In these nine cases, there was degeneration of the motor cortex without lower motor neuron degeneration or involvement of other brainstem tracts. These cases most commonly presented as semantic dementia, and they had longer disease duration (mean: 15.3 years) compared with the other two groups (10.8 and 9.9 years; P = 0.03). After adjusting for disease duration, severity of corticospinal tract degeneration remained significantly different across groups. Only one case, without corticospinal tract degeneration, was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. All three groups were associated with anterior temporal lobe atrophy on MRI; however, the cases with moderate to severe corticospinal tract degeneration showed right-sided temporal lobe asymmetry and greater involvement of the right temporal lobe and superior motor cortices than the other groups. In contrast, the cases with no or equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration were more likely to show left-sided temporal lobe asymmetry. For comparison, the corticospinal tract was assessed in 86 type A and B cases, and only two cases showed evidence of corticospinal tract degeneration without lower motor neuron degeneration. These findings confirm that there exists a unique association between frontotemporal lobar degeneration with type C pathology and corticospinal tract degeneration, with this entity showing a predilection to involve the right temporal lobe.

Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

2013-01-01

354

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

PubMed

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

355

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

356

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2013-10-01

357

Improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.  

PubMed

A considerable void exists in the information available regarding anatomic pathology diagnostic errors and their impact on clinical outcomes. To fill this void and improve patient safety, four institutional pathology departments (University of Pittsburgh, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and Henry Ford Hospital System) have proposed the development of a voluntary, Web-based, multi-institutional database for the collection and analysis of diagnostic errors. These institutions intend to use these data proactively to implement internal changes in pathology practice and to measure the effect of such changes on errors and clinical outcomes. They believe that the successful implementation of this project will result in the study of other types of diagnostic pathology error and the expansion to national participation. The project will involve the collection of multi-institutional anatomic pathology diagnostic errors in a large database that will facilitate a more detailed analysis of these errors, including their effect on patient outcomes. Participating institutions will perform root cause analysis for diagnostic errors and plan and execute appropriate process changes aimed at error reduction. The success of these interventions will be tracked through analysis of postintervention error data collected in the database. Based on their preliminary studies, these institutions proposed the following specific aims: Specific aim #1: To use a Web-based database to collect diagnostic errors detected by cytologic histologic correlation and by second-pathologist review of conference cases. Specific aim #2: To analyze the collected error data quantitatively and generate quality performance reports that are useful for institutional quality improvement programs. Specific aim #3: To plan and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve clinical outcomes, based on information derived from root cause analysis of diagnostic errors. Specific aim #4: To assess the success of implemented interventions by quantitative measure of postinterventional errors and clinical outcomes and by qualitative assessment by project participants. Funding for this project was approved by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality in September 2002, and data collection and analysis are ongoing. Over 5000 errors have been collected in the database, and the clinical outcomes of these errors have been tracked. At a national meeting in November 2003, root cause analysis was performed to determine causes of errors. The findings of these root cause analyses have been presented at national pathology meetings and are currently being published. PMID:15555746

Raab, Stephen S

2004-12-01

358

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology.  

PubMed

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. PMID:12845468

Graif, Moshe; Martinoli, Carlo; Rochkind, Shimon; Blank, Anat; Trejo, Leonor; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-02-01

359

Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (A?(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects. PMID:21684041

Ewers, Michael; Schmitz, Susanne; Hansson, Oskar; Walsh, Cathal; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Bennett, David; Minthon, Lennart; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Blennow, Kaj; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J; Weiner, Michael; Hampel, Harald

2012-08-01

360

Rabbits fed cholesterol-enriched diets exhibit pathological features of inclusion body myositis.  

PubMed

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common age-related muscle disease in humans; however, its etiology is unknown, there are few animal models for this disease, and effective treatments have not been identified. Similarities between pathological findings in Alzheimer's disease brain and IBM skeletal muscle include increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). Moreover, there have been suggestions that elevated levels of free cholesterol might participate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and IBM due, in part, to its role in Abeta generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rabbits fed cholesterol-enriched diets might faithfully exhibit human-like IBM pathological features. In skeletal muscle of one-third of the female rabbits fed cholesterol-enriched diet but not control diet, we found features of IBM, including vacuolated muscle fibers, increased numbers of mononuclear inflammatory cells, increased intramuscular deposition of Abeta, hyperphosphorylated tau, and increased numbers of muscle fibers immunopositive for ubiquitin. The cholesterol-enriched diet increased mRNA and protein levels of APP, increased the protein levels of betaAPP cleaving enzyme, and shifted APP processing in favor of Abeta production. Our study has demonstrated that increased ingestion of high levels of dietary cholesterol can result in pathological features that resemble IBM closely and thus may serve as an important new model with which to study this debilitating disorder. PMID:18216139

Chen, Xuesong; Ghribi, Othman; Geiger, Jonathan D

2008-03-01

361

Pathology Case Study: Post-operative bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves an 83-year-old woman with post-operative bleeding and anemia. Laboratory values are provided in Table 1. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kiss, Joseph; Puca, Kathleen; Qu, Lirong; Triulzi, Darrell

2008-04-04

362

The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

2011-01-01

363

Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings  

PubMed Central

Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis.

Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P

2012-01-01

364

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

365

The molecular pathology of rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 10 million Americans. Although the phenotypes of rosacea are clinically heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of chronic facial skin inflammation. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease has been poorly understood and limited to descriptions of factors that exacerbate or improve this disorder. Recent molecular studies suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular and inflammatory disease seen in patients with rosacea. These findings may help explain the benefits of current treatments and suggest new therapeutic strategies helpful for alleviating this disease. This article discusses the possible molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of rosacea from current clinical observations and laboratory research.

Yamasaki, Kenshi; Gallo, Richard L.

2009-01-01

366

Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A.

Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

2014-01-01

367

A Fruitful Activity for Finding the Greatest Common Factor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posing mathematics problems in different ways will raise students' level of cognitive demand because it will push them to think more deeply about mathematics. By engaging students in a task that requires them to determine their own solution strategies, students will gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical concept explored through the task.…

Bell, Carol J.; Leisner, Heather J.; Shelley, Kristina

2011-01-01

368

Finding Common Ground: Redefining Women's Work in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes working conditions of female household servants in Colombia. Reviews history of support groups assisting household workers and subsequent expansion into successful movement for workers' legal rights and social security. "Women's work" has gained some respect as household workers strive to participate in ongoing social changes. (TES)

Donaldson, Jamie K.

1992-01-01

369

Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

370

Molecular pathology and genetic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an emerging molecular pathway and the significance of glial pathology.  

PubMed

Research into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been stimulated by a series of genetic and molecular pathology discoveries. The hallmark neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions of sporadic ALS (sALS) predominantly comprise a nuclear RNA processing protein, TDP-43 encoded by the gene TARDBP, a discovery that emerged from high throughput analysis of human brain tissue from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) who share a common molecular pathology with ALS. The link between RNA processing and ALS was further strengthened by the discovery that another genetic locus linking familial ALS (fALS) and FTD was due to mutation of the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene. Of potentially even greater importance it emerges that TDP-43 accumulation and inclusion formation characterises not only most sALS cases but also those that arise from mutations in several genes including TARDBP (predominantly ALS cases) itself, C9ORF72 (ALS and FTD cases), progranulin (predominantly FTD phenotypes), VAPB (predominantly ALS cases) and in some ALS cases with rare genetic variants of uncertain pathogenicity (CHMP2B). "TDP-proteinopathy" therefore now represents a final common pathology associated with changes in multiple genes and opens the possibility of research by triangulation towards key common upstream molecular events. It also delivers final proof of the hypothesis that ALS and most FTD cases are disorders within a common pathology expressed as a clinico-anatomical spectrum. The emergence of TDP-proteinopathy also confirms the view that glial pathology is a crucial facet in this class of neurodegeneration, adding to the established view of non-nerve cell autonomous degeneration of the motor system from previous research on SOD1 fALS. Future research into the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS-related neurodegeneration, taking into account the major component of glial pathology now revealed in those disorders will significantly accelerate new discoveries in this field, including target identification for new therapy. PMID:22105541

Ince, Paul G; Highley, J Robin; Kirby, Janine; Wharton, Stephen B; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Strong, Michael J; Shaw, Pamela J

2011-12-01

371

Shame regulation in personality pathology.  

PubMed

Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

2012-05-01

372

Cortical origin of pathological pain.  

PubMed

Pain without accompanying tissue pathology poses a classic puzzle, presented in extreme form by phantom pain in a non-existent amputated limb. A clue to the origin of such pain is given by the recent discovery of a region of cortex active in response to incongruence between motor intention, awareness of movement, and visual feedback. Phantom-limb sensation, and repetitive strain injuries or focal hand dystonias in writers, musicians, or keyboard operators, are accompanied by plastic changes in sensorimotor cortex and by pathological pain. Disorganised or inappropriate cortical representation of proprioception may falsely signal incongruence between motor intention and movement, which results in pathological pain in the same way that incongruence between vestibular and visual sensation results in motion sickness. PMID:10543687

Harris, A J

1999-10-23

373

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Mental Status Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 36-year-old white male had end-stage renal disease due to sclerosing glomerulonephritis. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross neuropathologic findings, and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio); Nichols, Larry; Wang, Jianzhou

2009-10-05

374

Clinical pathological analysis of nine cases of aneurysmal bone cyst of the jaws in a Brazilian population.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign osteolytic lesions that occur rarely in the jaws. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, radiographical and pathological features of ABCs of the jaws. A retrospective analysis of the content of a 39-year database, including nine cases of ABCs of the jaws diagnosed from the archives of the Oral Pathology Service. Nine patients (3 males and 6 females), ranging in age from 5 to 33 years were included. Seven (7/9) lesions were located in the mandible and two (2/9) in the maxilla. A painful swelling was the most common clinical finding (n = 4, 4/9). Radiologically, the lesions frequently presented as multilocular (5/9), well defined (4/9), bone expansion and perforation (2/9). Pathological analysis revealed that two cases were associated with central ossifying fibroma and one case with central giant cell lesion. Histomorphology showed a predominance of the solid type (5/9) and of sinusoidal pseudocystic spaces (4/9). Giant cells, osteoid material, calcified material, blood vessels and hemosiderin deposits were observed in 6/9, 7/9, 8/9, 9/9 and 7/9, respectively. The patients with ABCs presented clinical and radiographical features, which often posed a diagnostic dilemma. Knowledge about the most common characteristics of ABCs may contribute to the establishment of a more accurate diagnosis. PMID:21769447

Henriques, Aguida Cristina Gomes; Carvalho, Marianne de Vasconcelos; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas

2012-03-01

375

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-04-28

376

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a young woman experienced vomiting, dizziness, headaches, and change of mental status due to conjunctival petechiae. Visitors are given the transfusion reaction investigation, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Johnson, Douglas R.; Triulzi, Darrell

2008-09-02

377

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old woman with systemic rheumatoid arthritis has developed renal insufficiency. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, electron microscopy exam results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Wang, Jianzhou

2009-09-17

378

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

379

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

380

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

2008-10-16

381

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-25

382

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

383

Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-21

384

Pathology Case Study: Coccygeal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man has a recently enlarging coccygeal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-09-04

385

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

386

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

387

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-08-16

388

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

2008-12-31

389

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

390

Cerebral Microbleeds in the Elderly: A Pathological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cerebral microbleeds in the elderly are routinely identified by brain MRI. The purpose of this study was to better characterize the pathological basis of microbleeds. Methods We studied post-mortem brain specimens of 33 individuals with no clinical history of stroke, age range 71–105 years. Cerebral microbleeds were identified by presence of hemosiderin (iron), identified by routine histochemistry and Prussian blue stain. Cellular localization of iron (in macrophages and pericytes) was studied by immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, CD68, and, in selected cases, electron microscopy. Presence of beta-amyloid was analyzed using immunohistochemistry for epitope 6E10. Results Cerebral microbleeds were present in 22 cases, and occurred at capillary, small artery, and arteriolar levels. Presence of microbleeds occurred independent of amyloid deposition at site of microbleeds. While most subjects had hypertension, microbleeds were present with and without hypertension. Putamen was site of microbleeds in all but one case; one microbleed was in subcortical white matter of occipital lobe. Most capillary microbleeds involved macrophages, but the two microbleeds studied by electron microscopy demonstrated pericyte involvement. Conclusions These findings indicate that cerebral microbleeds are common in elderly brain and can occur at the capillary level.

Fisher, Mark; French, Samuel; Ji, Ping; Kim, Ronald C.

2011-01-01

391

Pathology Case Study: Aortic Dissection and Neck Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This case documents the neck and back pain of a 71-year-old female patient. The patient's history is provided, and includes documentation of her condition throughout the duration of her treatment. The pathologic findings include images and descriptions of the gross and microscopic evaluation. In the "Final Diagnosis" section the official conclusion of the doctor is accompanied by a discussion of the diagnosis and references. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Monnin, Kimberly

2007-09-21

392

Late choledochal pathology after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis.  

PubMed

After "simple" cholecystectomy for lithiasis, biliary disorders can appear, with the onset more than 3 years postoperative, like cholangitis or transitory jaundice. Meantime, a whole range of congenital abnormalities initially ignored can become manifest: biliary tract congenital dilatations, duodenal para-Vater diverticulum, Oddi stenosis. Aim: to establish the pathological circumstances that determine late choledochal syndrome, including an analysis concerning the therapeutical approach in these cases. Patients with cholecystectomy complains of late biliary disorders (least 3 years symptom-free) between 1997-2005, were retrospectively studied. Exclusion criteria were intraoperative incidents or accidents, recognised incomplete surgical procedure, early difficult postoperative course. Therapeutical approach was endoscopical, surgical or conservative. 46 patients entered the study group; 38 underwent open cholecystectomy. Mean interval between operation and disturbances onset was 10 years. Following etiopathologic causes of late choledochal pathology were recorded: incomplete cholecystectomy, retained or primary common bile duct (CBD) stones, choledochal cyst or stenosis, Oddi stenosis, duodenal para-Vater diverticulum, anomaly biliary tree. Thirty patients undergone successful endoscopic treatment; in 8 cases endoscopy failed, in 2 cases open surgery was the first choice; 5 diagnostic endoscopic cholangiography with conservative treatment were performed; 1 patient refused any procedure. Cholecystectomy indication is regularly based on clinical and ultrasound examination criteria. Even a simple cholecystectomy can be followed after first 3 years by cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, caused by initially ignored biliary tract pathology. To avoid such omissions, routine intraoperative cholangiography and duodenal endoscopy should precede cholecystectomy. On the other side, cholecystectomy itself can cause late complaints: retained CBD stones, gallbladder stump, and iatrogenic stenosis. The duodenal para-Vater diverticulum seems to have a more important role in biliary disturbances, before and after cholecystectomy. PMID:16927918

Br?tucu, E; Straja, D; Marinca?, M; Daha, C; Cirimbei, C; Boru, C

2006-01-01

393

Personality judgment and personality pathology: self-other agreement in adolescents with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agreement across a variety of traits, particularly those traits fundamental to the pathology. In an adolescent sample including a group with Conduct Disorder (CD) and a Control group, we examine agreement between adolescents' self-reports and their mothers' informant reports. Using trait-centered and person-centered perspectives, we find support for both hypotheses. Results have implications for understanding the processes affecting personality judgment, for increasing integration of traditional personality research and personality pathology, and for personality assessment. PMID:17489894

Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M; Marsh, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W

2007-06-01

394

Pulmonary Hypertension Related to Left-Sided Cardiac Pathology  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the end result of a variety of diverse pathologic processes. The chronic elevation in pulmonary artery pressure often leads to right ventricular pressure overload and subsequent right ventricular failure. In patients with left-sided cardiac disease, PH is quite common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This article will review the literature as it pertains to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of PH related to aortic valve disease, mitral valve disease, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Moreover, therapeutic strategies, which focus on treating the underlying cardiac pathology will be discussed.

Kiefer, Todd L.; Bashore, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

395

Audit of cardiac pathology detection using a criteria-based perioperative echocardiography service.  

PubMed

Transthoracic echocardiography is often used to screen patients prior to non-cardiac surgery to detect conditions associated with perioperative haemodynamic compromise and to stratify risk. However, anaesthetists' use of echocardiography is quite variable. A consortium led by the American College of Cardiology Foundation has developed appropriate use criteria for echocardiography. At Joondalup Hospital in Western Australia, we have used these criteria to order echocardiographic studies in patients attending our anaesthetic pre-admission clinic. We undertook this audit to determine the incidence of significant echocardiographic findings using this approach. In a 22-month period, 606 transthoracic echocardiographic studies were performed. This represented 8.7% of clinic attendees and 1.7% of all surgical patients. In about two-thirds of the patients, the indication for echocardiography was identified on the basis of a telephone screening questionnaire. The most common indications were poor exercise tolerance (27.4%), ischaemic heart disease (20.9%) and cardiac murmurs (16.3%). Over 26% of patients studied had significant cardiac pathology (i.e. moderate or severe echocardiographic findings), most importantly moderate or severe aortic stenosis (8.6%), poor left ventricular function (7.1%), a regional wall motion abnormality (4.3%) or moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (4.1%). Using appropriate use criteria to guide ordering transthoracic echocardiography studies led to a high detection rate of clinically important cardiac pathology in our perioperative service. PMID:22813500

Faris, J G; Hartley, K; Fuller, C M; Langston, R B; Royse, C F; Veltman, M G

2012-07-01

396

Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features of Primary Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Review of 51 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA.

YAMAMOTO, Shinya; HOSHI, Katsuichiro; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; CHIMURA, Syuuichi; KOBAYASHI, Masayuki; MACHIDA, Noboru

2013-01-01

397

Epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs: a review of 51 cases.  

PubMed

In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

Yamamoto, Shinya; Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Chimura, Syuuichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Machida, Noboru

2013-11-01

398

Find a Cancer Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Symptom Mgmnt Palliative Care/End of Life Pathology Pediatric Cancers Pharmacy/Oncology Physician-Patient Communication Psychosocial Issues/Psychiatry Radiation Oncology Radiology (Diagnostic and ...

399

Find a Neurologist  

MedlinePLUS

... Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Neuromuscular Medicine Neuromuscular Pathology Pain Medicine Palliative Neurology Sleep Medicine Sports Neurology Traumatic Brain Injury Vascular Neurology and Stroke Last Name: City: State/ ...

400

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

401

Surgical pathology of urologic diseases  

SciTech Connect

This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

1987-01-01

402

THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

CROME, L.; STERN, J.

403

Central mechanisms of pathological pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

Rohini Kuner

2010-01-01

404

Alzheimer's pathology in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with language impairment as the primary feature. Different subtypes have been described and the 3 best characterized are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA). Of these subtypes, LPA is most commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the features of PPA associated with AD have not been fully defined. Here we retrospectively identified 14 patients with PPA and either pathologically confirmed AD or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers consistent with AD. Analysis of neurological and neuropsychological features revealed that all patients had a syndrome of LPA with relatively nonfluent spontaneous speech, phonemic errors, and reduced digit span; most patients also had impaired verbal episodic memory. Analysis of the pattern of cortical thinning in these patients revealed left posterior superior temporal, inferior parietal, medial temporal, and posterior cingulate involvement and in patients with more severe disease, increasing involvement of left anterior temporal and frontal cortices and right hemisphere areas in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe. We propose that LPA may be a “unihemispheric” presentation of AD, and discuss this concept in relation to accumulating evidence concerning language dysfunction in AD.

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

405

Molecular pathology of dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.  

PubMed Central

Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis and dementia. Cardinal pathological features of DRPLA are a combined degeneration of both the dentatorubral and the pallidoluysian systems. Although the early sporadic cases were reported by Western neuropathologists, a strong heritability and an age of onset-dependent variability of the clinical features were carefully deduced by Japanese clinicians. The disease is fairly common in Japan, but extremely rare in Caucasians. Since the gene was identified in 1994, DRPLA is known as one of the CAG repeat expansion diseases, in which the responsible gene is located on chromosome 12p and its product is called atrophin 1. DRPLA shows prominent 'anticipation', which is genetically clearly explained by a marked instability of the expanded CAG repeat length during spermatogenesis. Moreover, the instability of the CAG repeat length also seems to occur in the somatic cells, resulting in 'somatic mosaicism'. Possible mechanism(s) underlying the neuronal cell death in DRPLA are discussed in terms of molecular pathological points of view.

Kanazawa, I

1999-01-01

406

Selected topics in peritoneal pathology.  

PubMed

This essay considers selected peritoneal lesions many of which were the subject of studies coauthored by Dr Robert E. Scully. His article on multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts has largely led to these lesions being considered non-neoplastic, eschewing the term cystic mesothelioma. These cysts are often associated with reactive mural mesothelial proliferations that can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis of mesothelioma. Clinical findings, such as a common association with endometriosis or prior operations, can prompt consideration of a reactive lesion. Mesothelial hyperplasia may be difficult to distinguish, when florid, from mesothelioma but a variety of gross and microscopic features will aid their recognition. Nodular peritoneal aggregates of histiocytes (sometimes admixed with mesothelial cells) may occasionally be a striking finding that can be misdiagnosed as a metastasis if the patient has a known neoplasm. Appreciation of their bland nuclear features and histiocytic nature, confirmed by immunohistochemical markers, facilitate the diagnosis. Various forms of peritonitis are briefly considered including sclerosing peritonitis, a process sometimes associated with luteinized thecomas (thecomatosis) of the ovaries, an entity first appreciated by Dr Scully. Mesotheliomas are briefly reviewed emphasizing the caution that should be used in applying the designation "well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma." Many interpret the latter as benign, but multifocal lesions must be thoroughly examined histologically because of potential overlapping features with malignant mesothelioma. The morphologic spectrum of malignant mesothelioma and its usually straightforward distinction from müllerian neoplasms is considered, as is its occasional presentation as a dominant ovarian mass. The spectrum of low-grade serous peritoneal neoplasms including the "psammocarcinoma" is reviewed. Finally, various benign müllerian lesions, particularly endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, may be conspicuous in peritoneal specimens and sometimes are grossly striking. The usual presence of benign endometrioid epithelium and stroma should facilitate the correct diagnosis of endometriosis, but in cases in which the stroma is atrophic or the sole component (stromal endometriosis), diagnostic problems may arise. PMID:24901399

Baker, Patricia M; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

2014-07-01

407

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: correlation of radiographic and pathological observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

R. F. Tuchman; L. A. Alvarez; A. B. Kantrowitz; F. G. Moser; J. Llena; S. L. Moshe

1989-01-01

408

Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

Kalousek, D.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (CA)); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

1990-01-01

409

Pathology Case Study: HIV Positive Man Died Following Bleeding from Mouth and Nose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This autopsy pathology case provides the patient history, gross and microscopic description and final diagnosis of an HIV positive male. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Aronica, Patricia; Ndimbie, Oliver

2007-10-25

410

Acute kidney injury by arsine poisoning: the ultrastructural pathology of the kidney.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a terribly poisonous material. There have been many reports of arsine poisoning in workers, and a few have discussed acute kidney injury by arsine. But literatures which investigated the pathologic findings are uncommon, and especially, the ones describing ultrastructural findings are rare. Here, we report an incident of acute arsine poisoning complicated by acute kidney injury and suggest the characteristics of the renal pathology in arsine-induced renal injury, especially the ultrastructural findings. PMID:23199034

Lee, Jun Young; Eom, Minseob; Yang, Jae Won; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Kim, Jae Seok

2013-01-01

411

Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.

Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

412

Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS), disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease.

Martin, Brandon S.; Huntsman, Molly M.

2012-01-01

413

Highlights on ultrastructural pathology of human sperm.  

PubMed

Applications of atomic force microscopy to ultrastructural investigation of human spermatozoa are -discussed, with particular emphasis to their most common pathological alterations, which are recognized to be associated with male infertility. Morphological alterations can be located in the head, neck piece, and/or in the flagellum. The consequences of these defects on infert