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Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Diagnosing and treating common oral pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dilley, D C; Siegel, M A; Budnick, S

    1991-10-01

    When the physician is confronted with an oral pathologic condition in a child, the adage "common things happen commonly" should be applied. Congenital lesions such as palatal and alveolar cysts occur in almost 50% of newborns. Developmental conditions such as Fordyce granules and retrocuspid papillae are found in most children. Localized soft-tissue enlargements commonly seen in young children include the parulis, mucocele, papilloma, and inflammatory gingival tumors. In addition, soft-tissue pathologies and discomfort associated with herpesvirus infections or recurrent aphthous ulcerations often present as a chief complaint. The physician's knowledge and treatment recommendations for common oral pathologies should be an integral component to the overall medical management of infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:1886744

  2. Association of Mammographic Density with Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Nasrin; Movahedinia, Samaneh; Movahedinia, Sajjadeh; Shahriari, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is the first cause of death due to cancer among women. Mammography is the best screening method and mammographic density, which determines the percentage of fibro glandular tissue of breast, is one of the strongest risk factors of breast cancer. Because benign and malignant lesions may present as dense lesions in mammography so it is necessary to take a core biopsy of any suspicious lesions to evaluate pathologic findings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association between mammographic density and histopathological findings in Iranian population. Moreover, we assessed the correlation between mammographic density and protein expression profile. We indeed, determined the accuracy and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of mammographic reports in our center. Patients and Method This study is a cross-sectional study carried out among 131 eligible women who had referred to imaging center for mammographic examination and had been advised to take biopsy of breast tissue. All participants of the study had filled out the informed consent. Pathologic review was performed blinded to the density status. Patients were divided into low density breast tissue group (ACR density group 1-2) and high density breast tissue group (ACR 3, 4) and data was compared between these two groups. Statistical analysis performed using SPSS for windows, version 11.5. We used chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression test for analysis and Odds Ratio calculated where indicated. Results In patients with high breast densities, malignant cases (61.2%) were significantly more in comparison to patients with low breast densities (37.3%) (P= 0.007, OR=2.66 95% CI=1.29-5.49). After adjusting for age, density was associated with malignancy in age groups <46 years (P=0.007), and 46-60 years (P=0.024) but not in age group >60yrs (P=0.559). Adjusting for menopausal status, density showed

  3. MURCS association: ultrasonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C O; McFarland, R D; Timmons, C; Ramus, R; Twickler, D M

    1996-12-01

    MURCS association is a rare, lethal and unusual constellation of nonrandom findings that includes mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia.1-3 It has been described in 30 patients by Duncan and coworkers2 in 1979, in which report the authors proposed an embryologic cause for these defects.3 Antenatal ultrasonographic findings included a massive, cystic umbilical cord related to a patent urachus, enlarged bladder, single small kidney, and suspicion of urethral obstruction in a fetus of female phenotype. These findings are rare in a case of MURCS and were all confirmed on pathologic examination. PMID:8947863

  4. Pathological findings in the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-07-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 45 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) collected during field research on the beaches of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) from 1981 to 1985. Both males and females of all age groups, perinatal through adult, were examined. Frequent findings included parasites, trauma, cardiovascular disease (congenital and acquired), and respiratory infections. Emaciation was a common condition. All animals except neonates were infected with parasites; infection was severe in several cases. Splenic hematopoiesis was a universal histopathologic finding. Some cases exhibited lesions consistent with renal, gastrointestinal, and toxic disorders; ectopic tissue calcification; gallstones; and ophthalmologic and dental problems. PMID:1512875

  5. Novel pathologic findings in patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Jeremy J; Kamholz, John; Bessert, Denise; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked inherited hypomyelinating disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding proteolipid protein (PLP), the major structural protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Prior to our study, whether hypomyelination in PMD was caused by demyelination, abnormally thin sheaths or failure to form myelin was unknown. In this study, we compared the microscopic pathology of myelin from brain tissue of 3 PMD patients with PLP1 duplications to that of a patient with a complete PLP1 deletion. Autopsy tissue procured from PMD patients was embedded in paraffin for immunocytochemistry and plastic for electron microscopy to obtain highresolution fiber pathology of cerebrum and corpus callosum. Through histological stains, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, our study illustrates unique pathologic findings between the two different types of mutations. Characteristic of the patient with a PLP1 deletion, myelin sheaths showed splitting and decompaction of myelin, confirming for the first time that myelin in PLP1 deletion patients is similar to that of rodent models with gene deletions. Myelin thickness and g-ratios of some fibers, in relation to axon diameter was abnormally thin, suggesting that oligodendrocytes remain metabolically functional and/or are attempting to make myelin. Many fibers showed swollen, progressive degenerative changes to axons in addition to the dissolution of myelin. All three duplication cases shared remarkable fiber pathology including swellings, constriction and/or transection and involution of myelin. Characteristic of PLP1 duplication patients, many axons showed segmental demyelination along their length. Still other axons had abnormally thick myelin sheaths, suggestive of continued myelination. Thus, each type of mutation exhibited unique pathology even though commonality to both mutations included involution of myelin, myelin balls and degeneration of axons. This pathology study describes

  6. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gaitini, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography. PMID:22919552

  7. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  8. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  9. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  10. From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodríguez, Pablo; Manning, Maria A; Levine, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. PMID:25384294

  11. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  12. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Most Common Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Taipa, Ricardo; Pinho, João; Melo-Pires, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by deterioration in several cognitive domains in which there is selective and progressive loss of specific populations of neurons. The precise neurobiological basis for the different neurodegenerative dementias remains unknown. It is expected that different pathologies reflect different mechanisms, at least early in the neurodegeneration process. The next decades promise treatments directed to causes and mechanisms, bringing an outstanding challenge to clinicians due to heterogeneous clinical presentations with the same molecular pathology. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the key neuropathological features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias (Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration) and the relationship with the clinical syndromes described in clinico-pathological studies. We expect this overview contributes for the understanding of this broad topic integrating the two ends of the spectrum: clinical and pathological. PMID:22557993

  13. Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    "Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia. PMID:18382944

  14. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  15. [Radiographic and pathological findings in 4 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Hidaka, T; Ichinose, I; Tamura, K

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed the records of 4 patients with pathologically diagnosed pulmonary cryptococcosis to determine whether there was any relationship between radiographic and pathological findings. The underlying disease were diabetes mellitus (patient 1), rheumatoid arthritis treated with glucocorticoids (patient 2), and adultonset T cell leukemia (patients 3 and 4). All radiographs showed multiple nodules, and patchy and localized infiltrates, which progressed to diffuse interstitial infiltration. According to Mark's classification, the pathological findings in patients 1 and 2 showed granulomatous pneumonia, those in patient 3 showed histiocytic pneumonia, and patient 4 had intercapillary cryptococci with no inflammatory response. The granuloma appeared larger in patient 1 than in patient 2. This concurred with the clinical findings, i.e. large granulomas formed in immunocompetent patients, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates developed in those whose immune systems had been compromised. When a granuloma formed, roentgenograms showed a well defined nodular shadow, with some nodules developing in the cavity. When granuloma formation became unclear, roentgenograms tended to show localized-to-diffuse infiltration, or interstitial shadows. PMID:9071170

  16. Imaging of Common Arthroscopic Pathology of the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy of the ankle is used in the treatment and diagnosis of a spectrum of intra-articular pathology including soft tissue and osseous impingement, osteochondral lesions, arthrofibrosis, and synovitis. To help identify the correct pathology, imaging techniques are often used to aid the surgeon in diagnosing pathology and determining best treatment options. This article discusses the use of imaging in various ankle pathologies. PMID:27599435

  17. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  18. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:23341396

  19. Clinical and pathological findings of Babesia infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Irwin, P J; Hutchinson, G W

    1991-06-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of Babesia infection in 32 dogs in northern Australia are presented. Eleven different breed types were represented from 6 localities in north Queensland and one locality in northern Western Australia. Twenty three (72%) were males. Babesia-infected dogs were grouped by the degree of haematological disturbance and clinical severity: Acute babesiosis (25/32), all pups with severe haemolytic anaemia; subclinical carriers (5/32) with non-specific malaise, characterised haematologically by a normal erythrogram but marked leucopenia; chronic anaemia, observed in 2 adult dogs. Pups were azotaemic (serum urea greater than 6.6 mmol/l) and had elevated serum bilirubin levels (20.8 to 48.5 mmol/l). Total serum protein was usually within the normal range. Pups that died were also hypoglycaemic and severely hyperkalaemic (K+ greater than 10 mmol/l). Low parasitaemias in routine blood smears complicated diagnosis but smears made from ear or toe capillaries, or after haematocrit concentration, greatly enhanced finding parasitised cells. At necropsy, pallor and jaundice were the most consistent observations. Haemoglobinuric nephrosis, an active reticulo-endothelial system and capillaries packed with large numbers of infected erythrocytes were the main histopathological findings. A combination of imidocarb dipropionate at 5 mg/kg body weight, given intramuscularly, with fluid therapy and blood transfusion was the most successful treatment. PMID:1888313

  20. Pathological findings in wild harvested dugongs Dugong dugon of central Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Woolford, L; Franklin, C; Whap, T; Loban, F; Lanyon, J M

    2015-03-01

    The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines. PMID:25751852

  1. [Pathological and histopathological findings in the joints of fattening turkeys].

    PubMed

    Spindler, B; Baumgärtner, W; Hartung, J

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports on pathological and histopathological findings in the joints of male turkeys (B.U.T. Big 6) reared in two different housing systems. Pathological investigations were conducted on all animals which died between the 6th week of life and the end of fattening (585 birds, 1170 hip, knee and intertarsal joints) from four fattening periods with 3000 birds each. This study included 297 birds kept in a conventional housing system (barn 2) with a stocking density of 2.8 birds/m2, and 288 birds from a barn (1) from which the animals had access to an outdoor scratching area (stocking density 2.5 birds/m2). In all, 157 (26.5%) of the 585 fallen turkeys (barn 1:93; barn 2:70) showed at least one pathological joint alteration. and there were macroscopically detectable changes in 274 (7.8%) of the 3510 investigated joints: 152 (7.8%) of the 1728 joints from barn 1, and 122 (8.8%) of the 1782 from barn 2. In both housing systems the most frequent pathological alterations were in the intertarsal joint affecting 16% (188) of these 1170 joints (barn 1:106; barn 2:82); next most frequent were changes in the knee joint with 4.5% (53) of the 1170 joints affected (barn 1:26; barn 2:27). In both barns, synovial alterations occurred predominantly in the intertarsal and the knee joints. Bacteriological investigation of altered synovial fluids (83) most frequently showed an infection with Staphylococcus spp. (44) and E. coli (15). Macroscopic investigation showed alterations in 31 (2.7%) of the 1170 hip joints (barn 1:19; barn 2:12); 2% (22) of these showed cartilage degenerations of the femoral head (barn 1:15; barn 2:7). Histological investigation of these cartilage lesions showed that they were predominantly (70%) due to osteochondrosis with complete epiphyseolysis affecting 16 femoral heads (barn 1:10; barn 2:6). Partial epiphysiolysis was found in 24% (5) of the femoral heads (barn 1:4; barn 2:1). Furthermore, 43% (9) of the 22 femoral heads with cartilage degeneration

  2. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonsurgical treatments for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) results in unpredictable success rates. Surgical treatment may be chosen as reports show mostly encouraging but variable success rates depending on the pathology. The distribution of surgically confirmed pathologies in AT is largely unknown. Purpose: To ascertain the distributions of macroscopically observed anomalies in participants undergoing surgical treatment for chronic AT. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed. The surgeries were performed on professional and recreational athletes during the years 1976-1980, 1986-1990, 1996-2000, and 2006-2010. Surgical diagnoses, along with age- and sport-specific characteristics, were collected retrospectively from patient records. Results: The relative proportion of tendinosis increased during the study period from 4.2% to 21%, and paratenonitis decreased from 50% to 26%. Retrocalcaneal pathologies were the most common surgically confirmed lesions at 30%, while the mean age at surgery increased by 11 years over the entire study period. Conclusion: Surgically confirmed pathologies in and around the Achilles tendon showed coherent changes, chronic paratenonitis, and retrocalcaneal problems as the most prevalent findings. The classification of midportion and insertional tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis in AT should strictly be used as a clinical diagnosis. During surgical evaluations, the diagnosis is further clarified as more specific pathologies may be identified. PMID:26535293

  3. [Pathology along the liver sinusoids: endothelial and perisinusoidal findings].

    PubMed

    Fischer, H-P; Flucke, U; Zhou, H

    2008-02-01

    Sinusoidal alterations unrelated to primary hepatocellular damage present without characteristic clinical findings and in these cases the liver biopsy is particularly important. Capillarization of sinusoids is characterized by closing of fenestration, formation of a basal membrane and by the expression of CD34 and is typical for active cirrhosis. In nodular regeneratory hyperplasia, capillarization indicates a local or general disturbance of perfusion. In large regenerative nodules, focal nodular hyperplasia and liver cell adenoma CD34-positive capillaries reflect afferent parts and CD34-negative sinusoids the efferent parts of the parenchymal vascular bed. HCC generally have a completely capillarized CD34-positive vascular bed. Hepatic angiosarcomas and epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas can be easily overseen in liver biopsies, if they spread along the sinusoids without detoriation of the acinar architecture and without significant alteration of the surrounding liver cell plates. Toxic damage of endothelial cells, post-sinusoidal stasis and sinusoidal hyperperfusion are the underlying pathogenetic principles of sinusoidal injury. Rupture and loss of the perisinusoidal reticulin fibres lead to peliosis hepatis. In these cases liver biopsy might disclose occlusion of the terminal liver veins (VOD). Perisinusoidal fibrosis can be caused by intrasinusoidal accumulation of pathologic cells, advanced intrasinusoidal macrophagocytic storage diseases and by activation of the vitamin A-storing hepatic stellate cells. Perisinusoidal amyloidosis can be the first sign of an underlying B-cell neoplasia. PMID:18210108

  4. Human Hemorrhagic Pulmonary Leptospirosis: Pathological Findings and Pathophysiological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, Thales; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; da Silva, Luis Fernando Ferraz; Gonçalves da Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with protean clinical manifestations. Recently, the importance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a lethal complication of this disease has been recognized. In the present study, five human necropsies of leptospirosis (Weil‘s syndrome) with extensive pulmonary manifestations were analysed, and the antibodies expressed in blood vessels and cells involved in ion and water transport were used, seeking to better understand the pathophysiology of the lung injury associated with this disease. Principal Findings Prominent vascular damage was present in the lung microcirculation, with decreased CD34 and preserved aquaporin 1 expression. At the periphery and even inside the extensive areas of edema and intraalveolar hemorrhage, enlarged, apparently hypertrophic type I pneumocytes (PI) were detected and interpreted as a non-specific attempt of clearence of the intraalveolar fluid, in which ionic transport, particularly of sodium, plays a predominant role, as suggested by the apparently increased ENaC and aquaporin 5 expression. Connexin 43 was present in most pneumocytes, and in the cytoplasm of the more preserved endothelial cells. The number of type II pneumocytes (PII) was slightly decreased when compared to normal lungs and those of patients with septicemia from other causes, a fact that may contribute to the progressively low PI count, resulting in deficient restoration after damage to the alveolar epithelial integrity and, consequently, a poor outcome of the pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Conclusions Pathogenesis of lung injury in human leptospirosis was discussed, and the possibility of primary non-inflammatory vascular damage was considered, so far of undefinite etiopathogenesis, as the initial pathological manifestation of the disease. PMID:23951234

  5. Correlation between Radiological and Pathological Findings in Patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Studies focused on the pathological–radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M) pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT). Major three correlations were summarized. (1) Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia. (2) Cellular bronchitis in the small airways accompanied with exudates or granulation tissue in the lumen revealed as centrilobular nodules on CT. (3) Neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen radiologically demonstrated as air-space consolidation or ground-glass opacities. In M. pulmonis-infected mice model, pathologic patterns are strikingly different according to host cell-mediated immunity (CMI) levels; treatment with interleukin-2 lead to marked cellular bronchitis in the small airways and treatment with prednisolone or cyclosporin-A lead to neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen. Patients with centrilobular nodules predominant radiologic pattern have a high level of CMI, measuring by tuberculin skin test. From these findings, up-regulation of host CMI could change radiological pattern to centrilobular nodules predominant, on the other hand down-regulation of host CMI would change radiological pattern to ground-glass opacity and consolidation. It was suggested the pathological features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia may be altered by the level of host CMI. PMID:27242720

  6. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  7. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Jewells, Valerie; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts. PMID:26288757

  8. Improving the creation and reporting of structured findings during digital pathology review

    PubMed Central

    Cervin, Ida; Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, pathology reporting consists of many separate tasks, carried out by multiple people. Common tasks include dictation during case review, transcription, verification of the transcription, report distribution, and report the key findings to follow-up registries. Introduction of digital workstations makes it possible to remove some of these tasks and simplify others. This study describes the work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Methods: We explored the possibility to have a digital tool that simplifies image review by assisting note-taking, and with minimal extra effort, populates a structured report. Thus, our prototype sees reporting as an activity interleaved with image review rather than a separate final step. We created an interface to collect, sort, and display findings for the most common reporting needs, such as tumor size, grading, and scoring. Results: The interface was designed to reduce the need to retain partial findings in the head or on paper, while at the same time be structured enough to support automatic extraction of key findings for follow-up registry reporting. The final prototype was evaluated with two pathologists, diagnosing complicated partial mastectomy cases. The pathologists experienced that the prototype aided them during the review and that it created a better overall workflow. Conclusions: These results show that it is feasible to simplify the reporting tasks in a way that is not distracting, while at the same time being able to automatically extract the key findings. This simplification is possible due to the realization that the structured format needed for automatic extraction of data can be used to offload the pathologists’ working memory during the diagnostic review. PMID:27563491

  9. Intrapelvic chronic expanding hematoma: magnetic resonance imaging findings with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Jun; Akaki, Shiro; Yonezawa, Masaru; Horiguchi, Ikuyo; Nakamura, Satoko; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma is rare and occasionally misdiagnosed as malignant neoplasm. We describe a case in the female pelvis and correlate findings from pathology and magnetic resonance imaging. On diffusion-weighted images (DWI), our patient's hematoma showed 2 different signal intensities, which corresponded to pathological features of fresh and altered blood components. DWI can distinguish between such pathological features of a chronic expanding hematoma. PMID:20585198

  10. Patient-Centred Interviewing Part II: Finding Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; Weston, W. Wayne; Stewart, Moira A.

    1989-01-01

    Developing an effective management plan requires physicians and patients to reach agreement in three key areas: the nature of the problems, the goals and priorities of treatment, and the roles of the doctor and patient. Often doctors and patients have widely divergent views in each of these areas. The process of finding a satisfactory resolution is not so much one of bargaining or negotiating but rather of moving towards a meeting of minds or finding common ground. This framework reminds physicians to incorporate patients' ideas, feelings, and expectations into treatment planning. PMID:21253279

  11. Selected Background Findings and Interpretation of Common Lesions in the Female Reproductive System in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E; Vidal, Justin D.; Tarara, Ross P.; Buse, Eberhard; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.; de Rijk, Eveline P. C. T.; van Esch, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a selection of normal findings and common naturally occurring lesions in the reproductive system of female macaques, including changes in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary glands. Normal features of immature ovaries, uteri, and mammary glands are described. Common non-neoplastic lesions in the ovaries include cortical mineralization, polyovular follicles, cysts, ovarian surface epithelial hyperplasia, and ectopic ovarian tissue. Ovarian neoplasms include granulosa cell tumors, teratomas, and ovarian surface epithelial tumors. Common non-neoplastic uterine findings include loss of features of normal cyclicity, abnormal bleeding, adenomyosis, endometriosis, epithelial plaques, and pregnancy-associated vascular remodeling. Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the uterus include endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, and rarely endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Vaginitis is common. Cervical lesions include endocervical squamous metaplasia, polyps, and papillomavirus-associated lesions. Lesions in the mammary gland are most often proliferative and range from ductal hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma. Challenges to interpretation include the normal or pathologic absence of menstrual cyclicity and the potential misinterpretation of sporadic lesions, such as epithelial plaques or papillomavirus-associated lesions. Interpretation of normal and pathologic findings is best accomplished with knowledge of the life stage, reproductive history, and hormonal status of the animal. PMID:21475639

  12. Finding Common Ground Between Earth Scientists and Evangelical Christians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Ludwig, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.

  13. Preweaning mortality in the pig. Pathological findings in piglets dying between birth and weaning.

    PubMed

    Glastonbury, J R

    1977-07-01

    During a survey of preweaning mortality 538 piglets which died between birth and weaning were autopsied. The results of laboratory examinations permitted a division of the findings into a number of syndromes which were considered to be associated with the immediate cause of death. The non-infectious conditions such as trauma, starvation and suffocation were the most common. Seventy-eight piglets were included in the trauma group because of depressed cranial bone fractures or visceral rupture leading to haemorrhage into the serous cavities. An absence of alimentary tract contents was detected in each of the 92 cases of starvation, fatty metamorphosis of the liver was found in 28 while the hepatocyte cytoplasm of the remainder stained uniformally. Cyanosis and visceral congestion and haemorrhage were the main features observed in the 159 deaths ascribed to suffocation. Bacterial septicaemias and infections with enterotoxic strains of E. coli were the most prevalent infectious conditions. E. coli and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common causes of septicaemia, being isolated from 36 and 25 cases, respectively. The post-mortem findings in these cases were non-specific except for fibrinous polyserositis which was observed in 11 of the carcasses from which E. coli was recovered. Twenty-six piglets yielded E. coli in heavy pure culture from the upper small intestine and the most common serogroup involved was 08. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection was associated with the deaths of 19 piglets. Pathologically, it was characterised by myocardial degeneration and a variable influx of mononuclear inflammatory cells. No significant lesions were found in 41 piglets. PMID:200212

  14. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T

    2015-09-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  15. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  16. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging.

    PubMed

    Crary, John F; Trojanowski, John Q; Schneider, Julie A; Abisambra, Jose F; Abner, Erin L; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G; Bigio, Eileen H; Cairns, Nigel J; Dickson, Dennis W; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T; Hof, Patrick R; Hyman, Bradley T; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Kovacs, Gabor G; Knopman, David S; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A; Mackenzie, Ian R; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna H; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R; Toledo, Jonathan B; Troncoso, Juan C; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these "NFT+/Aβ-" brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  17. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  18. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli in piglets: Clinical, pathological and microbiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Claude; Drolet, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study (1980-1989) was conducted to describe the clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in 55 cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) caused by Escherichia coli in piglets. The condition occurred in weaned and suckling piglets and was associated with several serogroups of E. coli. Most of the isolates of E. coli possessed the adhesin F4 (K88) and were hemolytic. Only a few of the isolates of E. coli tested produced verotoxins. Clinical signs and pathological findings noted in these cases were compatible with shock. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423984

  19. Genetic prion disease with codon 196 PRNP mutation: clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Schelzke, Gabi; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Romero, Carlos; Varges, Daniela; Breithaupt, Maren; Taratuto, Ana L; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Zerr, Inga

    2011-04-01

    Ten percent to 15% of all human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy are characterized by a mutation in prion protein gene (PRNP). They are distinct with respect to clinical signs, disease onset, disease duration, and diagnostic findings. During our surveillance activities in Germany, we identified 7 patients with the rare mutation E196K in PRNP gene, thereof 4 patients belonging to 2 families. The clinical syndromes were characterized by nonspecific and psychiatric symptoms at disease onset and progressed to predominant motor signs. These patients showed a late median disease onset of 71 years and short disease duration of 6.5 months. In absence of family history, they mimicked sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In clinical tests they were 100% positive for 14-3-3 protein detection in cerebrospinal fluid and less sensitive for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. As a secondary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, we have seen conspicuous common involvement of the subcortical white matter in 57%. Four patients underwent autopsy-pathological lesions revealed striking similarity to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease but also involvement of the white matter. PMID:21232818

  20. Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158345.html Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study ... 15, 2016 FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts are common among ...

  1. Incidental Finding of a Rare Urachal Pathology: Urachal Mucinous Cystic Tumour of Low Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath; Tanny, Sharman Tan; Norris, Briony; Appu, Sree; Pan, David

    2016-01-01

    Urachal mucinous cystic tumours are rare pathological findings with only 23 previously reported cases in the literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidentally found urachal mucinous cystic tumour laparoscopically excised. With its known potential to cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete surgical excision is important. Long-term cystoscopic and radiological surveillance is also required. PMID:26881171

  2. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging

    PubMed Central

    Crary, John F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Schneider, Julie A.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Abner, Erin L.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E.; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Knopman, David S.; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J.; Murray, Melissa E.; Neltner, Janna H.; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W.; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L.; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R.; Toledo, Jonathan B.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We recommend a new term, “primary age-related tauopathy” (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these “NFT+/Aβ−” brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFT are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as “tangle-only dementia” and “tangle-predominant senile dementia”, are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  3. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  4. Clinician's Guide to Imaging and Pathologic Findings in Benign Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Lonzetta; Tortorelli, Cindy L.; Nassar, Aziza

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of abnormal results of breast imaging and abnormal pathologic findings can be challenging for health care professionals and often is stressful for patients. Although most imaging findings and biopsy results are negative and do not infer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, the subsequent conversation between the patient and her practitioner is more effective and informative with a thorough review of the pathologic results and an appreciation of the importance of radiologic-histologic concordance. This article provides insight into and understanding of breast imaging and biopsy techniques and of histologic findings as a means to timely and appropriate decision making and action by the patient and her health care professional. PMID:20194153

  5. Clinician's guide to imaging and pathologic findings in benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Neal, Lonzetta; Tortorelli, Cindy L; Nassar, Aziza

    2010-03-01

    The discussion of abnormal results of breast imaging and abnormal pathologic findings can be challenging for health care professionals and often is stressful for patients. Although most imaging findings and biopsy results are negative and do not infer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, the subsequent conversation between the patient and her practitioner is more effective and informative with a thorough review of the pathologic results and an appreciation of the importance of radiologic-histologic concordance. This article provides insight into and understanding of breast imaging and biopsy techniques and of histologic findings as a means to timely and appropriate decision making and action by the patient and her health care professional. PMID:20194153

  6. Perinatal differential diagnosis of cystic kidney disease and urinary tract obstruction: anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, W; Vogel, M; Dimer, J S; Luttkus, A; Büscher, U; Dudenhausen, J W

    2000-04-01

    According to the classification of Osathanondh and Potter of cystic kidney diseases an antenatal differential diagnosis is presented, which is based on the anatomic pathologic, ultrasonographic and genetic findings. Since the ultrasound evaluation influences the obstetric and neonatal management, each second and third trimester sonography should consider the most common malformations in pediatric autopsies. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPK), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPK), multicystic renal dysplasia, obstructive multicystic kidneys and cystic renal malformations found in other syndromes with genetic linkage are discussed in this review. PMID:10725570

  7. Hip arthropathy in a patient with primary hemochromatosis: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Mohana-Borges, Aurea V R; Campell, Loretta; Trudell, Debra; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Arthropathy is a major clinical manifestation in primary hemochromatosis, typically affecting the metacarpophalangeal joints. Hip arthropathy is not uncommon, with radiologic features resembling osteoarthritis or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. We describe the MR imaging findings of the hip in a patient with severe hip arthropathy and primary hemochromatosis and correlate them with the histopathologic findings. MR imaging showed severe degenerative changes, with large subchondral cysts and subchondral sclerosis in the femoral head and acetabulum. There was conspicuous correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings of the resected femoral head. However, MR imaging failed to reveal intra-articular iron. PMID:15316682

  8. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  9. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  10. Mesenchymal progenitors in osteopenias of diverse pathologies: differential characteristics in the common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Bingdong; Hu, Chenghu; Liao, Li; Chen, Yichen; Zhang, Xinyi; Fu, Xin; Zheng, Chenxi; Li, Meng; Wu, Ling; Zhao, Xinyi; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by pathologic factors such as aging, hormone deficiency or excess, inflammation, and systemic diseases like diabetes. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), the mesenchymal progenitors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes, are modulated by niche signals. In differential pathologic states, the pathological characteristics of BMSCs to osteoporoses and functional differences are unknown. Here, we detected that trabecular bone loss co-existed with increased marrow adiposity in 6 osteoporotic models, respectively induced by natural aging, accelerated senescence (SAMP6), ovariectomy (OVX), type 1 diabetes (T1D), excessive glucocorticoids (GIOP) and orchidectomy (ORX). Of the ex vivo characteristics of BMSCs, the colony-forming efficiency and the proliferation rate in aging, SAMP6, OVX, GIOP and ORX models decreased. The apoptosis and cellular senescence increased except in T1D, with up-regulation of p53 and p16 expression. The osteogenesis declined except in GIOP, with corresponding down-regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. The adipogenesis increased in 6 osteoporotic models, with corresponding up-regulation of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. These findings revealed differential characteristics of BMSCs in a common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis among different osteoporoses and between sexes, and provide theoretical basis for the functional modulation of resident BMSCs in the regenerative therapy for osteoporosis. PMID:27443833

  11. Mesenchymal progenitors in osteopenias of diverse pathologies: differential characteristics in the common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Bingdong; Hu, Chenghu; Liao, Li; Chen, Yichen; Zhang, Xinyi; Fu, Xin; Zheng, Chenxi; Li, Meng; Wu, Ling; Zhao, Xinyi; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by pathologic factors such as aging, hormone deficiency or excess, inflammation, and systemic diseases like diabetes. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), the mesenchymal progenitors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes, are modulated by niche signals. In differential pathologic states, the pathological characteristics of BMSCs to osteoporoses and functional differences are unknown. Here, we detected that trabecular bone loss co-existed with increased marrow adiposity in 6 osteoporotic models, respectively induced by natural aging, accelerated senescence (SAMP6), ovariectomy (OVX), type 1 diabetes (T1D), excessive glucocorticoids (GIOP) and orchidectomy (ORX). Of the ex vivo characteristics of BMSCs, the colony-forming efficiency and the proliferation rate in aging, SAMP6, OVX, GIOP and ORX models decreased. The apoptosis and cellular senescence increased except in T1D, with up-regulation of p53 and p16 expression. The osteogenesis declined except in GIOP, with corresponding down-regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. The adipogenesis increased in 6 osteoporotic models, with corresponding up-regulation of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. These findings revealed differential characteristics of BMSCs in a common shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis among different osteoporoses and between sexes, and provide theoretical basis for the functional modulation of resident BMSCs in the regenerative therapy for osteoporosis. PMID:27443833

  12. Common pathological processes and transcriptional pathways in Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan; Kulozik, Philipp; Ostertag, Anke; Herzig, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have established a strong connection between type 2 diabetes and the risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, several pathological features have been identified as common denominators of diabetic and Alzheimer's patients, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, suggesting a close connection between the two disorders. Here we review common metabolic and inflammatory processes implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. In particular, the role of critical transcriptional checkpoints in the control of cellular metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation will be emphasized in this context. These transcriptional regulators hold great promise as new therapeutic targets in the potentially combined treatment of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease in the future. PMID:19387113

  13. Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonner, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

  14. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

  15. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  16. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K.; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  17. Common pathways in health benefit properties of RSV in cardiovascular diseases, cancers and degenerative pathologies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Delmas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Lots of epidemiological studies have put forward the beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols consumption in the prevention of diseases related to aging i.e vascular pathologies, neurodegeneration, cancers and associated inflammatory processes. Among polyphenols, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene, RSV), a naturally occurring stilbene widely distributed in foodstuffs such as grapes and wine, has been the most studied. Researches performed since the last decades in vitro, in animal models and in (pre)clinical studies have pointed out its pleiotropic health benefits by acting on multiple signaling pathways which go beyond its originally described direct antioxidant activity. However, its low bioavailability upon oral ingestion and lack of specificity may hamper the translation of the encouraging experimental data into human health benefits. Herein we provide an overview on the capacity of RSV to regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling and to modulate key components of signal transduction pathways which are commonly altered in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and cancer pathologies. We also have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook on RSV metabolism and biological activity of its main metabolites and discussed about the new strategies developed to circumvent its poor bioavailability and to improve its therapeutic efficacy, including synthesis of new derivatives and new formulations for its cell delivery. PMID:25601605

  18. Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and

  20. Comparison of computed tomographic and pathologic findings in 17 dogs with primary adrenal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Tommaso; Mantis, Panagiotis; Benigni, Livia; Priestnall, Simon L; Lamb, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    The CT appearance of canine adrenal masses has been reported, but associations between imaging features and pathologic features of these lesions have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to test associations between different types of adrenal neoplasia and their CT and pathologic features. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of primary adrenal neoplasia, contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and surgical resection of the mass or necropsy examination. For all included dogs, CT images and histopathologic specimens were reviewed independently by two veterinary radiologists and a veterinary pathologist, respectively. Seventeen dogs met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in nine (53%) dogs, pheochromocytoma in five (29%) dogs, and adenoma in three (18%) dogs. Pheochromocytoma was associated with CT signs of vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.3-18.3, P = 0.03) and macroscopic vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.4-65.9, P = 0.02). There was excellent agreement between signs of vascular invasion in CT images and vascular invasion at surgery or necropsy (kappa = 0.86, P = 0.001). A peripheral contrast-enhancing rim in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with fibrous encapsulation of the tumor (kappa = 0.53, P = 0.05), and a heterogeneous pattern of contrast distribution in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with adrenal hemorrhage or infarction on histological examination (kappa = 0.45, P = 0.05). Findings indicated that CT enabled assessment of adrenal neoplasia features that reflected their biological behavior and pathological findings, however overlapping characteristics between tumor types limited the potential for reliably distinguishing them based on CT alone. PMID:25139015

  1. Systemic Inflammation: Methodological Approaches to Identification of the Common Pathological Process

    PubMed Central

    Zotova, N. V.; Chereshnev, V. A.; Gusev, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We defined Systemic inflammation (SI) as a “typical, multi-syndrome, phase-specific pathological process, developing from systemic damage and characterized by the total inflammatory reactivity of endotheliocytes, plasma and blood cell factors, connective tissue and, at the final stage, by microcirculatory disorders in vital organs and tissues.” The goal of the work: to determine methodological approaches and particular methodical solutions for the problem of identification of SI as a common pathological process. SI can be defined by the presence in plasma of systemic proinflammatory cell stress products—cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, and also by the complexity of other processes signs. We have developed 2 scales: 1) The Reactivity Level scale (RL)–from 0 to 5 points: 0-normal level; RL-5 confirms systemic nature of inflammatory mediator release, and RL- 2–4 defines different degrees of event probability. 2) The SI scale, considering additional criteria along with RL, addresses more integral criteria of SI: the presence of ≥ 5 points according to the SI scale proves the high probability of SI developing. To calculate the RL scale, concentrations of 4 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α) and C-reactive protein in plasma were examined. Additional criteria of the SI scale were the following: D-dimers>500ng/ml, cortisol>1380 or <100nmol/l, troponin I≥0.2ng/ml and/or myoglobin≥800ng/ml. 422 patients were included in the study with different septic (n-207) and aseptic (n-215) pathologies. In 190 cases (of 422) there were signs of SI (lethality 38.4%, n-73). In only 5 of 78 cases, lethality was not confirmed by the presence of SI. SI was registered in 100% of cases with septic shock (n-31). There were not significant differences between AU-ROC of CR, SI scale and SOFA to predict death in patients with sepsis and trauma. PMID:27153324

  2. Pathologic findings in novel influenza A (H1N1) virus ("Swine Flu") infection: contrasting clinical manifestations and lung pathology in two fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Philip, Abraham T; Stoppacher, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Although novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection has assumed pandemic proportions, there are few reports of the pathologic findings. Herein we describe the pathologic findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection based on findings in 2 autopsy cases. The first patient, a 36-year-old man, had flu-like symptoms; oseltamivir (Tamiflu) therapy was started 8 days after onset of symptoms, and he died on day 15 of his illness. At autopsy, the main finding was diffuse alveolar damage with extensive fresh intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The second patient, a 46-year-old woman with alcoholism, was found unresponsive in a basement and brought to the hospital intoxicated and confused. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died 4 days after admission. The main autopsy finding was acute bronchopneumonia with gram-positive cocci, intermixed with diffuse alveolar damage. The pathologic findings in these contrasting cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection are similar to those previously described for seasonal influenza. The main pathologic abnormality in fatal cases is diffuse alveolar damage, but it may be overshadowed by an acute bacterial bronchopneumonia. PMID:20154276

  3. Pathological findings of saccular cerebral aneurysms-impact of subintimal fibrin deposition on aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Masaaki; Nakayama, Naoki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2015-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested that aneurysmal wall inflammation and laminar thrombus are associated with the rupture of saccular aneurysms, the mechanisms leading to the rupture remain obscure. We performed full exposure of aneurysms before clip application and attempted to keep the fibrin cap on the rupture point. Using these specimens in a nearly original state before surgery, we conducted a pathological analysis and studied the differences between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms to clarify the mechanism of aneurysmal wall degeneration. This study included ruptured (n = 28) and unruptured (n = 12) saccular aneurysms resected after clipping. All of the ruptured aneurysms were obtained within 24 h of onset. Immunostainings for markers of inflammatory cells (CD68) and classical histological staining techniques were performed. Clinical variables and pathological findings from ruptured and unruptured aneurysms were compared. Patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms did not differ by age, gender, size, location, and risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. The absence or fragmentation of the internal elastica lamina, the myointimal hyperplasia, and the thinning of the aneurysmal wall were generally observed in both aneurysms. The existence of subintimal fibrin deposition, organized laminar thrombus, intramural hemorrhage, neovascularization, and monocyte infiltration are more frequently observed in ruptured aneurysms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ruptured aneurysm was associated with presence of subintimal fibrin deposition and monocyte infiltration. These findings suggest that subintimal fibrin deposition and chronic inflammation have a strong impact on degeneration of the aneurysmal wall leading to their rupture, and this finding may be caused by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25860660

  4. Postmortem computed tomography in victims of military air mishaps: radiological-pathological correlation of CT findings.

    PubMed

    Levy, Gad; Goldstein, Liav; Blachar, Arye; Apter, Sara; Barenboim, Erez; Bar-Dayan, Yaron; Shamis, Ari; Atar, Eli

    2007-10-01

    A thorough medical inquiry is included in every aviation mishap investigation. While the gold standard of this investigation is a forensic pathology examination, numerous reports stress the important role of computed tomography in the postmortem evaluation of trauma victims. To characterize the findings identified by postmortem CT and compare its performance to conventional autopsy in victims of military aviation mishaps, we analyzed seven postmortem CT examinations. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57.8% of the traumatic findings identified by postmortem CT. The most frequent findings were fractures of the rib (47%), skull (9.6%) and facial bones (8.6%). Abnormally located air accounted for 24% of findings, for which CT was superior (3.5% detected by autopsy, 100% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). The performance of autopsy in detecting injuries was superior (autopsy detected 85.8% of all injuries, postmortem CT detected 53.9%, P < 0.001), especially in the detection of superficial lesions (100% detected by autopsy, 10.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001) and solid organ injuries (100% by autopsy, 18.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). Performance in the detection of musculoskeletal injuries was similar (91.3% for autopsy, 90.3% for postmortem CT, P = not significant). Postmortem CT and autopsy have distinct performance profiles, and although the first cannot replace the latter it is a useful complementary examination. PMID:17987755

  5. Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures: Pathological findings and a new therapeutic approach using tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Iwasaki, Masaki; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is characterized by prolonged severe seizures and a high-grade fever. We experienced a boy with severe AERRPS with frequent partial seizures that exhibited right-side predominance. The patient required the continuous intravenous administration of many antiepileptic drugs and respirator management for several months. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin administration were only temporarily effective. The MRI and EEG showed the abnormality in the left occipital lobe. Although occipital lobectomy was performed, his seizures continued. His cerebrospinal fluid exhibited elevated protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels, and was positive for anti-glutamate receptor ε2 antibodies. Pathological examination showed infiltration of many neutrophilic leukocytes, T cells, and microglia in the area exhibiting severe spongiosis. We thought that the exaggerated microglia and T-cell responses were related to the pathogenesis of the patient's seizures, and we therefore initiated treatment with tacrolimus. As a result, many of the daily seizure clusters were ameliorated, and the patient was discharged. We attempted to discontinue the tacrolimus twice, but the patient's seizure clusters recurred each time. This is the first case report of the pathological findings of AERRPS and showing an effective therapeutic approach using tacrolimus. Tacrolimus may be an effective immunosuppressant, especially for patients with severe AERRPS. PMID:26906012

  6. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    PubMed

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. PMID:25209917

  7. Second case of histoplasmosis in a captive mara (Dolichotis patagonum): pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, A; Rosas-Rosas, A; Parás-García, A; Juan-Sallés, C; Taylor, M L

    2009-08-01

    A second case of histoplasmosis in a captive mara (Dolichotis patagonum) from a colony at the wildlife park Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico, is described, and the mara died with disseminated clinical form of the disease, affecting mostly the large intestine and adrenal. The pathological findings of this case 2 revealed severe granulomatous typhlocolitis and moderate granulomatous gastrohepatic lymphadenitis with numerous yeast-like cells, 2-4 mum in diameter, with a clear halo surrounding them inside the cytoplasm of macrophages, suggesting the parasitic form of Histoplasma capsulatum. Adrenocortical cells had abundant similar microorganisms in their cytoplasm without any associated lesion. Gomori's methenamine silver and periodic acid Schiff stained positively these microorganisms. Immunohistochemistry, using a rabbit anti-H. capsulatum serum, and transmission electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of H. capsulatum infection. PMID:19360479

  8. Characteristics of lung dusts and their relation to dust exposure and pathological findings in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, M; Burilkov, T; Kolev, K; Lalova, P

    1975-09-01

    Lung dusts were investigated, post-mortem, in twenty-five miners from mixed metal mines, tunnels, and quarries who had exposed to high concentrations of mixed dust containing about 20-25% free crystalline silica. The character of the relations found between the amount of quartz per 100 g dry tissue and the clinical, X-ray and pathological findings is similar to that established in coal miners. The difference lies in the fact that with equal amounts of quartz per 100 g dry tissue, there is less silicosis in coal miners than in our cases; the average residence time of retained dust is longer in coal miners, but its quartz per cent is lower. PMID:198369

  9. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

  10. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS) IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Garner, Michael M; Bonar, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. PMID:26667536

  12. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Pancreatic Carcinoma: Correlation with Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Kun; Fan, Zhihui; Sun, Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We concluded that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has clinical value in identifying the pathologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas. Forty-three patients diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma through surgery were retrospectively investigated. CEUS examinations were performed on all patients before surgery. Enhancement patterns on CEUS were observed. Time-intensity curves of CEUS were generated for the regions of interest in the pancreas, and quantitative parameters were obtained. Resected cancer specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis, and the microvascular density (MVD) of the specimens was determined by CD34 immunohistochemical staining. Enhancement patterns of CEUS were compared with histopathologic findings in pancreatic carcinomas. Correlations between time-intensity curve parameters and microvascular density were analyzed. Twenty cases manifested centripetal enhancement, and 23 cases, global enhancement. The amount of tumor necrosis or mucus in the centripetally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas was greater than that in the globally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas (p = 0.027). Thirty-eight of 43 (88.4%) pancreatic carcinomas manifested hypo-enhancement with a maximum intensity (IMAX) <90%. Contrast arrival time in pancreatic carcinoma was longer than that in adjacent pancreatic tissue (p < 0.05). IMAX was positively correlated with microvascular density (r = 0.577, p < 0.05). We concluded that CEUS manifestations could reflect the histologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas and CEUS can be used to evaluate blood perfusion of tumors, as IMAX is positively correlated with microvascular density. PMID:26806440

  13. Trapped neutrophil syndrome in a Border Collie dog: clinical, clinico-pathologic, and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Seira; Kawamura, Ryuta; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-06-01

    Trapped neutrophil syndrome (TNS) is an autosomal recessive inherited neutropenia known in Border Collies since the 1990's. Recently, the causative mutation has been identified in the canine VPS13B gene and a DNA-based diagnosis has now become available. The present paper describes clinical and clinico-pathologic findings in a Border Collie with TNS that was molecularly diagnosed for the first time in Japan. In a 10-week-old male Border Collie with microgenesis and symptoms related to recurrent infections, a hematological examination revealed severe leukopenia due to neutropenia, suggesting the dog to be affected by inherited neutropenic immunodeficiency. Direct DNA sequencing demonstrated that the dog was homozygous for the causative mutation of TNS and both its parents were heterozygous carriers. In addition, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction-based length polymorphism analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis was developed for the genotyping of TNS. This assay could discriminate clearly all genotypes, suggesting that it was suitable for both individual diagnosis and large-scale surveys for prevention. PMID:22240985

  14. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  15. Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Findings Associated with Senecavirus A-Induced Lesions in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Leme, R A; Oliveira, T E S; Alfieri, A F; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6). Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for Senecavirus A (SenV-A) demonstrated immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus of the cerebrum, degenerate epithelium of ulcerative lesions of the tongue, the urothelium of the kidney and urinary bladder, and the superficial cells of the intestine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and/or quantitative PCR assays were used to investigate viral agents associated with vesicular and/or enteric diseases. Antigens and RNA of SenV-A were identified in multiple tissues of all piglets; molecular assays for all other viruses evaluated yielded negative results. These findings confirm the participation of SenV-A in the multiple lesions observed in these piglets. Several theories are proposed: SenV-A may be eliminated via the urinary system, neurological disease may occur due to initial invasion of choroid plexus, enteric disease may be related to atrophy and fusion of villi of the small intestine, and vertical transmission could be a form of dissemination. PMID:27473601

  16. Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards

  17. Odontogenic myxoma: clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings of a multicentric series.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mata, Guillermo; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Roman; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Contreras-Vidaurre, Elisa; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Cano-Valdéz, Ana María; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinico-pathological and immunohistochemical features of 62 cases of odontogenic myxoma (OM) diagnosed in three Oral Pathology Diagnostic Services in Latin America, as well as to describe the ultrastructural features of three of these cases. OM showed a wide age range (9-71 years), with a mean of 27.97 yr (SD: 11.01) and a male to female ratio of 1:2.2. Mandible was affected in 37 cases (59.6%) and maxilla in 25 (40.4%), with 61.3% located in the posterior region. Thirty-nine cases (62.9%) were multilocular and 23 (37.1%) unilocular. Size ranged from 1 to 13 cm, (mean: 5.2 cm). Thirty-seven multilocular (54.8%) and 6 unilocular lesions (26%) were larger than 4 cm (p<0.05). Epithelial islands were identified in 5 cases (8%) on H&E stained sections, but AE1/AE3 and CK14 disclosed these structures in 15 cases each (24.2%); CK5 was positive in 8 (12.9%); CK7 in 2 (3.2%) and CK19 in only 3 cases (4.8%). All cases were negative for CKs 8 and 18, S-100 protein, NSE and CD68, and showed a low index of expression of Bcl2 and ki-67 proteins (<1%). Mast cell antibodies showed these cells in 45 cases (72.6%). Myofibroblastic differentiation evidenced by myofilaments and fibronexi was found in one case out of the three studied by TEM and 29 cases (46.7%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for alpha actin. In conclusion, only a minority of OM had epithelial islands, and only 3 cases expressed CK 19, indicating an odontogenic epithelium origin. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggest that OM is a mesenchymal neoplasm in which several factors may contribute to its pathogenesis, including myofibroblastic differentiation and the participation of mast cell products. However, further investigations are needed to better understand the participation of these elements in this particular neoplasm. PMID:17996487

  18. Virtual endoscopy in odontogenic sinus disease. Study technique and main pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, Ezio; Leporace, Mario; Di Costanzo, Giuseppe; Mannino, Michela; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-01

    The use of CT scans in dental pathology is an established technique. The potential applications of Dentascan are further enhanced by the use of virtual navigation software, resulting in endoscopy-like imaging of the maxillary sinus, thus optimising both the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to sinus pathology of dental origin. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical-methodological aspects of maxillary sinus virtual endoscopy with Dentascan software and to document the most important and frequent diseases. PMID:15343137

  19. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, İbrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  20. Clinical, pathological and (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Burcak Yilmaz; Akbayır, Ozgur; Demirci, Emre; Ozaydin, Ipek

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous primary gynecologic malignancies are infrequently seen. In this report, we describe the clinical, pathological and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) findings of a patient with synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature. PMID:27331214

  1. Circumstances, Descriptive Characteristics, and Pathologic Findings in Dogs Suspected of Starving.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P; Reisman, R; Scarlett, J

    2016-09-01

    The authors reviewed the case circumstances, population characteristics, gross, and histopathologic findings in 40 cases of emaciated dogs with a suspected diagnosis of starvation. The dogs' estimated age ranged from 3 months to geriatric. Nineteen breeds were represented, including small-breed (n = 11), large-breed (n = 13), and pit bull-type (n = 16) dogs. The median body condition score was 1 out of 9 (Purina scale). Various diseases were identified as the cause of death in 7 dogs, while the cause of death in the other 33 dogs was starvation due to exogenous causes (SEC). Circumstances associated exclusively with SEC included being found in a vacated residence and death during temperature extremes or severe weather. Dogs with SEC did not differ significantly from diseased dogs in body condition score, sex, neuter status, or breed category (small, large, or pit bull type). Gross findings associated exclusively with SEC included severe hair matting and traumatic injuries. Diseased dogs had an empty stomach significantly more often than SEC dogs, which frequently had food and/or foreign material in the stomach. In 5 of the 7 cases where disease was the cause of death, disease involved the gastrointestinal tract. Gross and histopathologic changes commonly found in SEC and diseased dogs included the following: gross loss of muscle mass and absence of subcuticular fat; serous atrophy of omental, perirenal, epicardial, and bone marrow fat; atrophy of the liver, skin, thyroid gland, and testicle; gastric mucosal petechiae and ecchymoses; melena; and splenic hemosiderophages. PMID:25791037

  2. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  3. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  4. Pathologic Findings in Rabbit Models of Hereditary Hypertriglyceridemia and Hereditary Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuguchi, Yoko; Ito, Tsunekata; Ohwada, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the association between hyperlipidemia and the development of arteriosclerosis has been addressed in several studies. Rabbit models of hypertriglyceridemia (TGH) and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHT) have been developed at the authors' institute. TGH rabbits manifest pathology similar to that of humans with TGH, such as xanthoma, in addition to atherosclerosis of arterioles. Furthermore, PHT rabbits show visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance, with pathologic features similar to those of the metabolic syndrome assumed to be the cause of human ischemic heart disease. This study was designed to investigate the histopathologic features of TGH and PHT rabbits. TGH rabbits showed advanced aortic atherosclerosis, accompanied by intimal thickening of coronary and renal arteries, fatty liver changes, and xanthoma. PHT rabbits demonstrated aortic intimal thickening and hepatic fatty degeneration. The results of this study suggest that TGH and PHT rabbits are useful animal models for studying human hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome and the cardiovascular diseases that result from these conditions. PMID:19004373

  5. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Seth H; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Roy, Chad J

    2015-06-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  7. Pathologic Findings in Prophylactic and Nonprophylactic Hysterectomy Specimens of Patients With Lynch Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Carla; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Meireles, Catarina; Baptista, Manuela; Gouveia, Alfredo; Pinto, Carla; Shannon, Kristen M; Jerónimo, Carmen; Teixeira, Manuel R; Lopes, José M; Oliva, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma (EC) and, less frequently, ovarian carcinoma. As EC not uncommonly is the first malignancy, prophylactic hysterectomy (PH) has been increasingly implemented. In this study, we report the clinicopathologic features of a series of 70 LS patients who underwent either PH (n=39) or nonprophylactic hysterectomy (NPH) (n=31) at 3 tertiary referral centers. Among the 39 patients with PH, 2 had endometrial tumors seen grossly, whereas 37 showed no macroscopic lesions. Total inclusion of the endometrium was performed in 24/39 (61.5%). Abnormal histologic findings were identified in 9/39 (23.1%) PHs: 3 endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (EECs), including the 2 macroscopic and 1 microscopic (0.6 cm), and 4 atypical and 6 nonatypical hyperplasias. NPH included those performed for endometrial and ovarian cancer treatment. Tumor sampling followed standard protocols. ECs comprised 26 EECs and 1 clear cell carcinoma, with a median size of 3.7 cm. Hyperplasia was observed in 10 (33.3%) as background in EC, in 4 showing atypia. Eight (29.6%) tumors were centered in the lower uterine segment (all EECs). EECs were predominantly well differentiated (53.8%) and FIGO stage I (77.8%). A papillary architecture was common (51.9%) and associated with microcystic elongated and fragmented foci in 4. Mucinous differentiation was observed in 25.9% of endometrial tumors, typically representing <10%. Most endometrial tumors (81.5%) showed tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts ≥42/10 high-power fields. Four tumors showed extensive necrosis. Eight patients had ovarian tumors (4 synchronous), including 2 endometrioid carcinomas, 2 clear cell carcinomas, 1 borderline clear cell adenofibroma, 1 Müllerian carcinoma of mixed cell types, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and 1 metastatic melanoma. Total inclusion of the endometrium should be done in all LS patients' surgical specimens without macroscopic lesions as some

  8. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  9. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Varki, Nissi; Anderson, Dan; Herndon, James G; Pham, Tho; Gregg, Christopher J; Cheriyan, Monica; Murphy, James; Strobert, Elizabeth; Fritz, Jo; Else, James G; Varki, Ajit

    2009-02-01

    Heart disease is common in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and analysis of literature indicate that sudden death in chimpanzees (and in gorillas and orangutans) is commonly associated with diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis of unknown cause. In contrast, most human heart disease results from coronary artery atherosclerosis, which occludes myocardial blood supply, causing ischemic damage. The typical myocardial infarction of humans due to coronary artery thrombosis is rare in these apes, despite their human-like coronary-risk-prone blood lipid profiles. Instead, chimpanzee 'heart attacks' are likely due to arrythmias triggered by myocardial fibrosis. Why do humans not often suffer from the fibrotic heart disease so common in our closest evolutionary cousins? Conversely, why do chimpanzees not have the kind of heart disease so common in humans? The answers could be of value to medical care, as well as to understanding human evolution. A preliminary attempt is made to explore possibilities at the histological level, with a focus on glycosylation changes. PMID:25567850

  10. Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

  11. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  12. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. PMID:25107460

  13. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  14. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: common theme in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immune cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  15. Glioblastoma multiforme of the optic chiasm: A rare case of common pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lyapichev, Kirill A.; Bregy, Amade; Cassel, Adrienne; Handfield, Chelsea; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Kay, Matthew D.; Basil, Gregory; Komotar, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. Case Description: An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month. After neuro-ophthalmological examination, the decision of thither magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies was made. It showed a contrast enhancing mass in the region of the optic chiasm. In this case, imaging study was not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis and a left pterional craniotomy for biopsy and resection of the optic chiasmal mass was performed. After histological evaluation of the mass tissue, the diagnosis of GBM was made. Taking into account the patient's poor condition and unfavorable prognosis he was moved to inpatient hospice. The patient deceased within 2 months after surgery. Conclusion: Chiasmal GBM is an extremely rare condition where a biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis for such lesions can be very difficult and include demyelinating optic neuritis and non-demyelinating inflammatory optic neuropathy (e.g., sarcoid), vascular lesions (e.g., cavernoma), compressive lesions of the optic apparatus, metastatic malignancy, and primary tumors of the anterior optic pathway. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy including novel stereotaxic radiosurgery methods is still unclear and will need to be evaluated. PMID:27512611

  16. Multilocular Radicular Cyst – A Common Pathology with Uncommon Radiological Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ankur; Haidry, Naqoosh; Yadav, Monu; Shankarnarayan, Lata

    2016-01-01

    Radicular cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst of inflammatory origin. It is almost all the times associated with pulpal necrosis leading to inflamed periapical tissues. The cyst is usually asymptomatic unless infected. Radiographically, it presents as a well defined unilocular radiolucency. Although, multilocular radiolucent radicular cysts have also been reported, which is extremely rare and there are very few reported cases. Here, we present a rare case of radicular cyst periapical to the first molar of third quadrant, presenting clinically as a painless, bony hard swelling and radiographically presented as a multilocular radiolucency. PMID:27135015

  17. Developmental venous anomaly, capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and arteriovenous malformation: spectrum of a common pathological entity?

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Zabramski, Joseph M; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations of the central nervous system are thought to originate from abnormal developmental processes during embryogenesis. Reports have cited the dynamic nature of these lesions and their "maturation" into other types of malformations. Herein we report on three patients with vascular malformations who exhibited dynamic alterations with stepwise progression of their lesions. These cases lend support to the hypothesis that these malformations may constitute the spectrum of a single disease caused by alterations in a common developmental program and that accumulating injury (e.g., by radiation) may allow one malformation type to mature into another. This concept warrants further investigation. PMID:26743915

  18. Clinical, virological, and pathological findings in a fatal case of Q fever endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, I. C.; Craik, J. E.; Grist, N. R.

    1962-01-01

    A case resembling subacute bacterial endocarditis in which blood cultures were repeatedly negative is described. The patient had had an influenza-like illness nine months before admission to hospital followed by intervening vague illness and loss of weight. Serological tests revealed a high titre of complement-fixing antibodies to phase 1 and phase 2 antigens of Rickettsia burneti. After death R. burneti was isolated from the diseased aortic valve, liver, and kidneys. Bodies morphologically resembling rickettsiae were seen in the aortic valve and in a very few renal tubule cells. No specific pathological lesions were found but there was a widespread stimulation of reticulo-endothelial cells particularly in the aortic valve cusps, spleen, lymph nodes, and renal glomeruli. It is suggested that tests for Q fever should be carried out in suspected cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis when blood culture is negative. Images PMID:13892334

  19. Therapeutic antibodies: their mechanisms of action and the pathological findings they induce in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masami; Kato, Chie; Kato, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies can swiftly provide therapeutics to target disease-related molecules discovered in genomic research. Antibody engineering techniques have been actively developed and these technological innovations have intensified the development of therapeutic antibodies. From the mid-1990’s, a series of therapeutic antibodies were launched that are now being used in clinic. The disease areas that therapeutic antibodies can target have subsequently expanded, and antibodies are currently utilized as pharmaceuticals for cancer, inflammatory disease, organ transplantation, cardiovascular disease, infection, respiratory disease, ophthalmologic disease, and so on. This paper briefly describes the modes of action of therapeutic antibodies. Several non-clinical study results of the pathological changes induced by therapeutic antibodies are also presented to aid the future assessment of the toxic potential of an antibody developed as a therapeutic. PMID:26441475

  20. Some clinico-pathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni.

    PubMed

    Caple, I W; Jainudeen, M R; Buick, T D; Song, C Y

    1978-01-01

    Severe submandibular and ventral abdominal oedema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes (Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination. Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram. Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site. Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs. Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range. PMID:633508

  1. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Lindsay, Scott A.; Krockenberger, Mark; Phalen, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. In recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the N. caninum life cycle and many have been implicated as intermediate hosts. However, in many instances these studies have utilized serological and molecular techniques to detect infection in clinically normal animals, and investigation of possible associated morbidity, mortality, and pathology has been neglected. As such, the occurrence and importance of Neospora-associated disease in wildlife species are unknown. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of N. caninum infection in nondomestic species, the present review provides an up-to-date summary of clinical neosporosis and N. caninum-associated pathologic lesions in naturally and experimentally infected wildlife species. We provide a list of all free-ranging and captive wildlife species identified with N. caninum infection to date using currently available diagnostic tools. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic methods in wildlife are addressed in order to recommend optimal diagnosis of confirming N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species. Although current data would suggest that N. caninum infection does not adversely impact wildlife populations, there is a need for greater international uniformity in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species in order to assess the true consequences of parasite infection. PMID:25973393

  2. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  3. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  4. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses. PMID:26045798

  5. Acute toxicological studies on paraquat: pathological findings in beagle dogs following single subcutaneous injections.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Kono, I; Masaoka, T; Akahori, F

    1992-04-01

    Sixteen beagles were allocated into 4 groups, each group consisting of 2 males and 2 females, which were injected sc with 1,3,5 or 7 mg paraquat/kg. The beagles were observed for 2 w after the administration. At the end of the observation period all the dying and surviving dogs were studied pathologically. The LD50 was calculated as 1.8 (1.0-6.1) in males and 3.5 (2.4-10.1) mg/kg in females. Clinical laboratory tests showed increases in segmented neutrophils and monocytes, decreases in lymphocytes, slight decreases in chloride, moderate increases in BUN, GOT, GPT and phospholipids, slight increases in uric acid, total protein, creatine, total cholesterol and total bilirubin, and prolonged prothrombin times. Marked edema, congestion and hemorrhage of lungs, as well as slight congestion in various organs, were observed grossly. In histopathological examination, marked pulmonary hemorrhage and congestion, fibroblast-like cells in alveolar septa, breakdown of alveolar walls, thickening of alveolar walls and pleura, mild congestion and degeneration of the liver, and mild degeneration of renal tubules were observed. The cause of death was respiratory distress and renal failure. The surviving animals had mild atelectasis of the lungs. Electromicroscopic examination on the surviving animals revealed the appearance of spindle-shaped cells, proliferation of type II alveolar cells and fibroblasts, mitosis of fibroblasts, and abundant collagen fiber in the lung, calcium deposition, stratification and thickening of basement membranes, and localized necrotic epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of kidneys, and stratification of intramitochondrial cristae of the liver. Pulmonary fibrosis in the switchover stage was present with participation from type II alveolar cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. PMID:1509667

  6. Your Father and Grandfather's Atrial Fibrillation: A Review of the Genetics of the Most Common Pathologic Cardiac Dysrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Palatinus, Joseph A; Das, Saumya

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common pathologic dysrhythmia in humans with a prevalence of 1-2% of the total population and as high as 10% of the elderly. AF is an independent risk marker for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and given the increasing age of the population, represents an increasing burden of disease. Although age and hypertension are known risk factors for development of AF, the study of families with early onset AF revealed mutations in genes coding for ion channels and other proteins involved in electrotonic coupling as likely culprits for the pathology in select cases. Recent investigations using Genome-Wide Association Studies have revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that appear to be associated with AF and have highlighted new genes in the proximity of the SNPs that may potentially contribute to the development of the dysrhythmia. Here we review the genetics of AF and discuss how application of GWAS and next generation sequencing have advanced our knowledge of AF and further investigations may yield novel therapeutic targets for the disease. PMID:26085805

  7. Extrauterine Pelvic Serous Carcinomas: Current Update on Pathology and Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Amanullah, Farhan S; Menias, Christine O; Chen, Melissa M; Valente, Philip T; Chintapalli, Kedar N; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas includes ovarian serous carcinoma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, and primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasm, consists of two distinct entities: high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and primary fallopian tube carcinoma are rare malignancies that share many characteristics of high-grade serous carcinomas. Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of gynecologic cancers have suggested a common origin of many extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas from fallopian tube epithelium. With the exception of low-grade serous carcinomas, which arise from cortical inclusion cysts lined by tubal epithelium, most extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas are believed to originate from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and show similar clinical-biologic behaviors and natural histories. Indeed, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Committee on Gynecologic Oncology recently recognized that these cancers should be considered collectively, with a common system of staging and management strategies for ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers. A paradigm shift has occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas that has the potential to change current strategies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and management. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and combined positron emission tomography and CT are pivotal in screening, initial diagnosis, and treatment follow-up; however, because of this paradigm shift, new radiologic techniques, such as contrast material-enhanced US and molecular US imaging, and various optical imaging techniques are being investigated as important screening and diagnostic tools. Because of evolving knowledge of genetic and molecular changes underlying the

  8. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  9. DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariët J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background In systems biology it is common to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological processes underlying the data and to disentangle therein processes common to all data sources and processes distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to common and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-processing and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological processes underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for

  10. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, N. N.; Williams, A. J.; Dewar, C. A.; Blendis, L. M.; Reid, Lynne

    1977-01-01

    Stanley, N. N., Williams, A. J., Dewar, C. A., Blendis, L. M., and Reid, Lynne (1977).Thorax, 32, 457-471. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings. A case is reported of liver cirrhosis complicated by cyanosis and recurrent right hydrothorax. A diagnostic pneumoperitoneum demonstrated that direct movement of ascites through a diaphragmatic defect was responsible for the hydrothoraces. Pulmonary function tests between episodes of hydrothorax showed severe arterial hypoxaemia, a 23% right-to-left shunt, and a reduction in the carbon monoxide transfer factor to less than half of the predicted value. Evidence of abnormal intrapulmonary arteriovenous communications was obtained by perfusion scanning. At necropsy the central tendon of the diaphragm showed numerous areas of thinning which were easily ruptured. Injection of the pulmonary arterial tree demonstrated precapillary arteriovenous anastomoses and pleural spider naevi. A morphometric analysis provided quantitative evidence of pulmonary vasodilatation limited to the intra-acinar arteries, consistent with the effect of a circulating vasodilator. The scintigraphic and pathological findings suggested that shunting had been greater in the right than the left lung. Examination of thin lung sections by light microscopy showed that the walls of small veins were thickened, and electron microscopy showed that this was due to a layer of collagen. The walls of capillaries were similarly thickened, which caused an approximately two-fold increase in the minimum blood-gas distance and contributed to the reduction in transfer factor. Images PMID:929488

  11. Assessment of Invasive Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Using Whole-Tumor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Texture Analysis: Correlations With Detailed Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Sook; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lim, Yaeji; Han, Boo-Kyung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    There is no study that investigates the potential correlation between the heterogeneity obtained from texture analysis of medical images and the heterogeneity observed from histopathological findings. We investigated whether texture analysis of magnetic resonance images correlates with histopathological findings.Seventy-five patients with estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. Tumor entropy and uniformity were determined on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images under different filter levels. Two pathologists evaluated the detailed histopathological findings of the tumors including tumor cellularity, dominant stroma type, central scar, histologic grade, extensive intraductal component (EIC), and lymphovascular invasion. Entropy and uniformity values on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images were compared with detailed pathological findings.In a multivariate analysis, entropy significantly increased only on unfiltered T2-weighted images (P = 0.013). Tumor cellularity and predominant stroma did not affect the uniformity or entropy on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. High histologic grades showed increased uniformity and decreased entropy on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, whereas the opposite tendency was observed on T2-weighted images. Invasive ductal carcinoma with an EIC or lymphovascular invasion only affected the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, through increased uniformity and decreased entropy. The best uniformity results were recorded on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images at a filter level of 0.5. Entropy showed the best results at a filter level of 0.5 on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. However, on T2-weighted images, an ideal model was achieved on unfiltered images.MRI texture analysis correlated with pathological

  12. Periosteum: characteristic imaging findings with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bisseret, Damien; Kaci, Rachid; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Alison, Marianne; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Bousson, Valérie

    2015-03-01

    The periosteum covers most bone structures. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cambial layer that exhibits osteogenic activity. The periosteum is a dynamic structure that plays a major role in bone modeling and remodeling under normal conditions. In several disorders such as infections, benign and malignant tumors, and systemic diseases, the osteogenic potential of the periosteum is stimulated and new bone is produced. The newly formed bone added onto the surface of the cortex adopts various configurations depending on the modalities and pace of bone production. Our aim here is to describe the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the periosteum and to review the various patterns of periosteal reaction with emphasis on relations between radiological and histopathological findings. A careful evaluation of the periosteal reaction and appearance of the underlying cortex, in combination with the MRI, clinical, and laboratory data, provides valuable information on lesion duration and aggressiveness, thereby assisting in the etiological diagnosis and optimizing patient management. A solid reaction strongly suggests a benign and slow-growing process that gives the bone enough time to wall off the lesion. Single lamellar reactions occur in acute and usually benign diseases. Multilamellar reactions are associated with intermediate aggressiveness and a growth rate close to the limit of the walling-off capabilities of the bone. Spiculated, interrupted, and complex combined reactions carry the worst prognosis, as they occur in the most aggressive and fast-growing diseases: the periosteum attempts to create new bone but is overwhelmed and may be breached. PMID:25269751

  13. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively. PMID:23115369

  14. Pathological findings in hanging and wedging deaths in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Byard, R W

    1993-12-01

    Records of the Adelaide Children's Hospital Histopathology Department were reviewed for cases of deaths resulting from hanging or wedging occurring in early childhood and infancy. The 14 cases identified were analyzed with respect to age, sex, circumstances of death, and postmortem findings. The mean age at death was 14 months (range, 6-36 months) and the male to female ratio was 9:5. In one case, death occurred in a baby car seat, another in a pram/stroller, and in another a curtain cord was responsible. In the remaining 11 cases, death occurred in the baby's crib. In eight cases the mechanism of death was hanging with partial suspension, including six cases in which part of the infant's clothing became caught on the crib. Petechial hemorrhages on the face were found in all of the hanging deaths whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in only two cases. Only one of the wedging deaths showed facial petechiae whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in four of the six cases. Conjunctival hemorrhages were only recorded in only two of the 14 cases. PMID:8116587

  15. Finding A Common Language: How To Communicate Climate Change Science To Non-Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, H. M.; Casey, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    Successful communication about complex subjects, especially of a scientific nature, brings with it a significant set of challenges. If, in addition to being a scientifically complex concept, the topic also carries with it certain political or ideological implications, the challenges grow significantly. Climate change is a poster child for the difficulties in communicating valuable science beyond the confines of the scientific community, or even of a smaller and more specialized subgroup within that community. However, strategies exist for maximizing the reach of this important information, and for effectively disseminating the science behind climate change. Communication requires that the contingent attempting to communicate and the intended recipients of the information share a common language. The first step in finding that common language is to identify the intended audience, and then designing ways to effectively meet the needs of that specific audience.

  16. Description of common musculoskeletal findings in Williams Syndrome and implications for therapies.

    PubMed

    Copes, L E; Pober, B R; Terilli, C A

    2016-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), is a relatively rare genetic disorder affecting ∼1/10,000 persons. Since the disorder is caused by a micro-deletion of ∼1.5 Mb, it is not surprising that the manifestations of WS are extremely broad, involving most body systems. In this paper, we primarily focus on the musculoskeletal aspects of WS as these findings have not been the subject of a comprehensive review. We review the MSK features commonly seen in individuals with WS, along with related sensory and neurological issues interacting with and compounding underlying MSK abnormalities. We end by providing perspective, particularly from the vantage point of a physical therapist, on therapeutic interventions to address the most common MSK and related features seen in WS. Clin. Anat. 29:578-589, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749433

  17. Pathological, serological, and virological findings in sheep infected simultaneously with Bluetongue, Peste-des-petits-ruminants, and Sheeppox viruses.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Kale, Mehmet; Haligur, Mehmet; Yavru, Sibel

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pathological, serological and virological examinations were performed on 15 sheep from a flock of 250 sheep and lambs that suffer from simultaneous naturally occurring BTV, PPRV and SPV outbreaks. SPV was diagnosed macroscopically and histopathologically, BTV was diagnosed by ELISA, and PPRV was diagnosed pathologically and by ELISA. Clinically fever, diarrhea, depression, polypnea, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, rhinitis, erosive stomatitis, edema of eyelids, photophobia, cutaneous eruption with erythematous areas especially noticeable in wool-free parts of the body and axilla lesions evolving into papules were observed. At necropsy, the most effected organs were lungs and gut. Subepicardial hemorrhages were also commonly seen. While typical pox lesions were observed in some lambs, usually fibrinous pleuropneumonia was more prominent lung lesion. SPV and PPRV lesions were seen at the histopathological examination of the lesioned tissues, BT lesions were mild than SPV and PPRV microscopically. Serum and leukocyte samples of 15 animals were examined for PPRV and BTV by ELISA; 5 samples were positive for PPRV and 6 BTV, 4 were positive for both PPRV and BTV simultaneously. One hundred animals died, most were lambs. Mortality rates were 100% in lambs and 80% in the herd. PMID:19067219

  18. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  19. Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing--a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Jeng, Linda Jo Bone; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories. PMID:25684271

  20. Candidate genes responsible for common and different pathology of infected muscle tissues between Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiliang; Nagano, Isao; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2008-09-01

    The gene expression profiles were compared between Trichinella spiralis- and T. pseudospiralis-infected muscle tissues by means of a cDNA microarray. Out of 30,000 genes, the expressions of 55 genes were up-regulated in both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections, 24 genes were down-regulated in both Trichinella infections, 30 genes were up-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 23 genes were down-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 25 genes were up-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection, and 21 genes were down-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection. Many of these differentially expressed genes were associated with satellite cell activation and proliferation (paired box gene 7, Pax7; Pax3; desmin; M-cadherin), myogenesis and muscle development (eyes absent 2 homolog, Eya2; myocyte enhancer factor 2C, MEF2C; pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1, Pbx1; chordin-like 2, Chrdl2), cell differentiation (galectin 1; insulin like growth factors, IGFs; c-ski; msh-like 1, Msx1; Numb), cell proliferation and cycle regulation (retinoblastoma 1, Rb1; granulin; p21, CDK4, cyclin A2), and apoptosis (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, TNF-R1; programmed cell death protein 11, Pdcd11; Pdcd1; nuclear protein 1, Nuprl; clusterin, CLU). The differential expression of 17 genes was validated by quantitative real time PCR and 15 genes showed identical results with the microarray analysis. The present study listed the candidate genes that were commonly and differentially expressed between T. spiralis and/or T. pseudospiralis infection, thus suggesting that these genes need to be further investigated to reveal the mechanism of the common and/or different pathological changes induced by the two species Trichinella. PMID:18501667

  1. Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Breast: Ultrasonography, Elastography, Digital Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography, and Pathology Findings.

    PubMed

    Gkali, Christina An; Chalazonitis, Athanasios N; Feida, Eleni; Giannos, Aris; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomas constitute approximately 0.15% of malignant mammary neoplasms. Less than 0.5% of all malignant lymphomas involve the breast primarily. Primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma is usually right sided. The combined therapy approach, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is the most successful treatment. Mastectomy offers no benefit in the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published case of primary non-Hodgkin breast lymphoma reported with conventional ultrasonography, elastography (both freehand and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging), digital mammography, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and pathology findings. A 45-year-old woman presented with a lump in the right breast for 2 months. There was no evidence of systemic lymphoma or leukemia when the breast lesion was detected. Imaging findings were negative for lymphoma. Ipsilateral lymph nodes were not palpable. The mass was resected, and histopathology findings were diagnostic of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was confirmatory of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large cell type of B-cell lineage. Although primary and secondary lymphomas of the breast are rare entities, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast malignancies. PMID:25831151

  2. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings between Pathologically Proven Cases of Atypical Tubercular Spine and Tumour Metastasis: A Retrospective Study in 40 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Mohd; Sabir, Aamir Bin; Khalid, Saifullah

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To note the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences between pathologically proven cases of atypical spinal tuberculosis and spinal metastasis in 40 cases. Overview of Literature Spinal tuberculosis, or Pott's spine, constitutes less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis and can be associated with a neurologic deficit. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of metastatic bone disease cases, and spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. Thus, early diagnosis and prompt management of these pathologies are essential in preventing various complications. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 40 cases of atypical tuberculosis and metastasis affecting the spine from the year 2012 to 2014, with 20 cases each that were proven by histopathological examination. MR imaging was performed on 1.5 T MR-Scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens) utilizing standard surface coils of spine with contrast injection. Chi-square test was used for determining the statistical significance and p-values were calculated. Results The most common site of involvement was the thoracic spine, seen in 85% cases of metastasis and 65% cases of Pott's spine (p=0.144). The mean age of patients with tubercular spine was found to be 40 years and that of metastatic spine was 56 years. The following MR imaging findings showed statistical significance (p<0.05): combined vertebral body and posterior elements involvement, skip lesions, solitary lesion, intra-spinal lesions, concentric collapse, abscess formation and syrinx formation. Conclusions Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various spinal lesions including metastasis, fungal spondylodiskitis, sarcoidosis and lymphoma, particularly in endemic countries. Spinal tuberculosis is considered one of the great mimickers of disease as it could present in a variety of typical and atypical patterns, so proper imaging must be performed in order to facilitate

  3. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  4. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  5. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  6. Impact of less common and "disregarded" neurodegenerative pathologies on dementia burden in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Keage, Hannah A D; Ince, Paul G; Matthews, Fiona E; Wharton, Stephen B; McKeith, Ian G; Brayne, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the pathological bases of late onset dementia focus on classical markers such as plaques and tangles. The significance of pathologies characteristically associated with rare dementia syndromes such as Pick bodies and severe neuronal loss are considered to be well defined. The significance of other pathologies, often accepted as a feature of neurodegenerative syndromes, such as Hirano bodies and gliosis is not clear. This study investigated the significance of these rarer and 'disregarded' pathologies to dementia in the population. A total of 627 individuals aged 71-103 from the Epidemiological CLInicoPathologial Studies in Europe (EClipSE) project with clinical dementia status at death determined were assessed. Pathologies assessed included Pick bodies, severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) in the cortex and/or hippocampus, along with brainstem plaques, tangles, neuronal loss, gliosis, pigmentary incontinence, and Lewy bodies. All pathologies were associated with dementia when controlling for plaques and tangles except Hirano bodies, GVD, and brainstem plaques. These included hippocampal and entorhinal gliosis; cortical, hippocampal, and entorhinal neuronal loss; along with brainstem neuronal loss, gliosis, pigmentary incontinence, Lewy bodies, and tangles. Pick bodies were present in five individuals, all with clinical dementia. These epidemiological data indicate that dementia in old age is associated with a broad range of pathological and anatomical substrates pointing to potential areas for future research, particularly the brainstem. PMID:22045491

  7. Finding Common Ground: Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competencies in Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model is predicated on interprofessional collaborative practice and team-based care. While information on the roles of various providers is increasingly woven into the literature, the competencies of those providers have been generally profession-specific. In 2011, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative comprising the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Dental Education Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the Association of Schools of Public Health sponsored an expert panel of their members to identify and develop 4 domains of core competencies needed for a successful interprofessional collaborative practice: (1) Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice; (2) Roles/Responsibilities; (3) Interprofessional Communication; and (4) Teams and Teamwork. Their findings and recommendations were recorded in their Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel. This article explores these 4 domains and how they provide common ground for team-based care within the context of the medical home model approach to patient-centered primary care. PMID:26938181

  8. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  9. Impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system on pathological findings at and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khettry, Urmila; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Simpson, Mary Ann; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Pomposelli, James J; Lewis, W David; Jenkins, Roger L; Gordon, Fredric D

    2006-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system, a validated objective liver disease severity scale, was adopted in February 2002 to allocate cadaveric organs for liver transplantation (LT). To improve transplantability before succumbing to advanced disease, patients with low-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are given extra points in this system commensurate with their predicted mortality. Our aims were to determine 1) any change in the pathological findings at LT following the implementation of this system and 2) the impact of scoring advantage given to early-stage HCC. Clinicopathologic findings were compared before (pre-MELD, n = 87) and after (MELD, n = 58) the introduction of the MELD system. The findings in the pre-MELD vs. MELD groups were as follows: HCC, 27.5% vs. 48.3% (P = 0.001); portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 13.7% vs. 25.9% (P = 0.08); cholestasis, 16.1% vs. 32.7% (P = 0.026); inflammation grade of 2 or more, 43.7% vs. 48.3% (P = not significant); hepatitis C (HCV), 45.9% vs. 51.7% (P = not significant); HCV with lymphoid aggregates, 25% vs. 60% (P = 0.003); HCV with hyperplastic hilar nodes, 15.0% vs. 36.6% (P = 0.001); and post-LT HCC recurrence, 4.1% vs. 3.4% (P = not significant). Non-HCC-related findings were further compared in the 2 subgroups of pre-MELD (n = 57) and MELD (n = 31) after exclusion of HCC and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) cases, and only cholestasis was significantly increased in the subgroup MELD. In conclusion, increased incidence of native liver cholestasis in the MELD era may be the histologic correlate of clinically severe liver disease. The scoring advantage given to low-stage HCC did result in a significantly increased incidence of HCC in the MELD group, but it did not adversely affect the post-LT recurrence rate. PMID:16598742

  10. Pulmonary Intravascular Lymphomatosis: Clinical, CT, and PET Findings, Correlation of CT and Pathologic Results, and Survival Outcome.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min Jae; Lee, Kyung Soo; Hwang, Hye Sun; Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Byung-Tae; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To describe clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and positron emission tomographic (PET) features, correlation of CT and pathologic results, and survival of patients with pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study with waiver of patient consent. Forty-two patients with pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis were identified, 11 (26%) of whom showed lung involvement. CT features were correlated with histopathologic results. Clinical and survival outcomes were compared between patients with and those without pulmonary involvement by adopting the χ(2), Student t, or Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. Results At clinical presentation, all 11 patients showed B symptoms (systemic symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss), 10 had respiratory and four had neurologic symptoms, and two had skin lesions. Patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy with (n = 5) or without (n = 6) rituximab, and seven (64%) patients died. Patients with lung involvement showed reduced overall and recurrence-free survival (median; 10.8 and 18.9 months, respectively) compared with those without lung involvement (median, 18.4 and 31.0 months, respectively) (P = .338 and .065, respectively). The most common CT abnormality was bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO, n = 10), with increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at PET/CT (seven of seven patients). GGO correlated histopathologically with the expanded alveolar septal vasculatures and perivascular spaces filled with neoplastic lymphoid cells. Conclusion Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis appeared as bilateral GGO on CT images, with increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT images. GGO on CT images correlated with the area of expanded alveolar septae because of distended vessels filled with neoplastic lymphoid cells. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID

  11. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  12. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M; Chua, Anita C G; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J; Collingwood, Joanna F; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe (-/-) xTfr2 (mut) mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  13. Pathological relationships involving iron and myelin may constitute a shared mechanism linking various rare and common brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Moones; Gerami, Sam H.; Bassett, Brianna; Graham, Ross M.; Chua, Anita C.G.; Aryal, Ritambhara; House, Michael J.; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Ryten, Mina; Olynyk, John K.; Trinder, Debbie; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated elevated brain iron levels in myelinated structures and associated cells in a hemochromatosis Hfe−/−xTfr2mut mouse model. This was accompanied by altered expression of a group of myelin-related genes, including a suite of genes causatively linked to the rare disease family ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation’ (NBIA). Expanded data mining and ontological analyses have now identified additional myelin-related transcriptome changes in response to brain iron loading. Concordance between the mouse transcriptome changes and human myelin-related gene expression networks in normal and NBIA basal ganglia testifies to potential clinical relevance. These analyses implicate, among others, genes linked to various rare central hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies including Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as well as genes linked to other rare neurological diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. The findings may help understand interrelationships of iron and myelin in more common conditions such as hemochromatosis, multiple sclerosis and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27500074

  14. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2005-06-01

    The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the

  15. FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

  16. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four

  17. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care. PMID:25410820

  18. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  19. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

  20. Evaluation of the characteristics of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Gao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Qin-Sha; Chen, Yu-Tang; Song, Yu-Piao; Yao, Zhen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the characteristics of enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver by analyzing the dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) features and correlating them with pathological findings. Patients and methods Nine males and 16 females with pathologically confirmed FNH and complete preoperative contrast-enhanced MSCT data were recruited for this study. The imaging features of FNH on the pre- and postcontrast MSCT were analyzed by two experienced radiologists by consensus. Results Pathology showed central scars and abnormal blood vessels in 17 and 21 of 25 lesions, respectively, while MSCT with multiphase enhancement showed central scars in eight of the 17 lesions (47.1%) and abnormal arteries or draining veins in 13 of the 21 lesions (61.9%). Furthermore, abnormal draining veins in five lesions were found to be diagnostic, which is another important finding. Conclusion Multiphase scanning can provide the panorama of FNH lesions and reveal their enhancement patterns and pathological characteristics. Abnormal blood vessels within or around the lesion are demonstrated more often than central scar, and both should be observed for FNH diagnosis. PMID:27578988

  1. Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, J.; Nau, R.

    2013-01-01

    Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ageing from the disease itself. Pathologies with a special relevance for the elderly patient are discussed in detail: pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the problem of overlapping heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary drug toxicity, incidental pulmonary embolism pulmonary nodules, and thoracic trauma. PMID:23936651

  2. [CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE RISKS OF COMMON PATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN MERCURY PRODUCTION WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Katamanova, E V; Popkova, O V; Masnavieva, L B

    2015-01-01

    The occupational factors are assigned one out of main parts to the development of occupational and comorbid pathology. At the same time the social aspects of labor relations act as the most important factors influencing on the workers' self-assessment of health status. Quantitative risk assessment of the common pathological syndromes has identified the excess of share of persons with a minimum level of risk over the medium and high. In the structure of risks of common pathological syndromes there are prevailed risks for disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems and borderline mental disorders, which is a response to the impact of not only industrial, but also psychosocial factors. The results of self-assessment of health status and clinical examination of employees in conditions of mercury exposure show the similarity of the structure of diseases in these cases. In either event there are dominated diseases of the nervous and mental sphere, and from the comorbid pathology disorders of the cardiovascular system are prove to be important. Clinical manifestations of the mercury exposure, ranging from pre-clinical manifestations to marked changes from the side of the nervous system in toxic encephalopathy, are characterized by the presence of hyperkinetic syndrome. For pre-clinical and early forms of mercury poisoning there is also typical the presence of asthenic (emotional lability) disorders with autonomic dysfunction. Comorbidities in an internship working was manifested primarily by diseases of visual organs, cardiovascular system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Observed disorders of the nervous system and psycho-emotional sphere are caused, inter alia disturbances of the balance of catecholamines (the rise of norepinephrine in dynamics with a concomitant increase in the coefficient reflecting the degree of its metabolism: norepinephrine/epinephrine and norepinephrine/(adrenaline + Normetanephrine)) in the body. PMID:26856145

  3. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  4. Pathological and Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in a Single-Center Study of 229 Consecutive Girls with Early or Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Sørensen, Kaspar; Main, Katharina M.; Gideon, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. Objective To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Method A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. Results Thirteen out of 208 (6.3%) girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8–9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6%) had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p = 0.025); no cut of value was found as values overlapped. Conclusion A high frequency of 6–8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI. PMID:22253792

  5. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  6. Bone Marrow Suppression and Hemophagocytic Histiocytes Are Common Findings in Korean Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Yong; Cho, Oh Hyun; Bae, In Gyu

    2016-09-01

    The causes of cytopenia in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are not fully understood until now. We reviewed the bone marrow (BM) findings of patients with SFTS to unravel the cause of the cytopenia. Three Korean SFTS were enrolled in this study. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia were detected in all three patients. Severe hypocellular marrow (overall cellularity <5%) and a decreased number of megakaryocytes were noted in one patient, and hypo-/normocellular marrow and an increased number of hemophagocytic histiocytes were observed in two patients. Megakaryocytes were relatively preserved in two patients. Although a limited number of cases are available, our observations suggest that both BM suppression and peripheral destruction or sequestration are causes of cytopenia of patients with SFTS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented pathologic evaluation of Korean SFTS. PMID:27401664

  7. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  8. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  9. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima).

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Wells-Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, Daniel L; Flint, Paul L; Hollmén, Tuula

    2007-05-15

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds. PMID:17454562

  10. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang; Ung, Yee C.; Hornby, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  11. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  12. Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Bolon, Brad; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main features proposed to delineate the presence of ARDS in laboratory animals. These should include histological changes in parenchymal tissue, altered integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier, inflammation, and abnormal pulmonary function. Murine ARDS models typically are defined by such features as pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in cytological preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung sections. Common pathophysiological indicators of ARDS in mice include impaired pulmonary gas exchange and histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates into the lung. Thus, morphological endpoints remain a vital component of data sets assembled from animal ARDS models. PMID:26296628

  13. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  14. Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

  15. Experimental infection of lambs with C and S-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: immunological and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The two main genotypes of recognized isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) are cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains. An experimental infection was conducted to establish the effect of Map strain on the pathogenesis of ovine paratuberculosis. Twenty-four out of thirty 1.5-month-old Assaf lambs were divided into 4 groups of 6 and infected orally with three low passage field isolates, two of S- (22G and the pigmented Ovicap49) and one of C– (764) type, and the reference K-10 strain (C type). The remaining six animals were unchallenged controls. Animals were euthanized at 150 and 390 days post-infection (dpi). Throughout the experiment, the peripheral immune response was assessed and histological and molecular (PCR) studies were conducted on samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue. Specific antibody and IFN-γ production was significantly higher in animals infected with the C strains, while no consistent IFN- γ responses were observed in the S-type strain infected groups. A positive intradermal skin test response was detected in all infected groups. Lambs infected with S-type strains had granulomatous lesions restricted to the lymphoid tissue with no differences in the lesion intensity over time. In both C–type strain groups, lesions were more severe at 150 dpi while at 390 dpi lesions, characterized by well-demarcated granulomas with fibrosis, decreased in severity. Only infected lambs were positive to PCR. These results suggest that the strain of Map has a strong influence over the immune and pathological responses developed by the host. Lesions induced by C–type strains in lambs show a regressive character and tend to decrease as the infection progresses. PMID:24428881

  16. Biopsy Quantitative Patohistology and Seral Values of Prostate Specific Antigen-Alpha (1) Antichymotrypsine Complex in Prediction of Adverse Pathology Findings after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tomasković, Igor; Milicić, Valerija; Tomić, Miroslav; Ruzić, Boris; Ulamec, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In this prospective study we examined the utility of parameters obtained on prostate needle biopsy and prostate specific antigen-alpha(1)-antichymotripsine complex (PSA-ACT) to predict adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. 45 consecutive patients assigned for radical prostatectomy due to clinically localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Prostate biopsy parameters such as number of positive cores, the greatest percentage of tumor in the positive cores, Gleason score, perineural invasion, unilaterality or bilaterality of the tumor were recorded. PSA-ACT was determined using sandwich immunoassay chemiluminiscent method (Bayer, Tarrytown, New York). We analyzed relationship of preoperative PSA, PSA-ACTand quantitative biopsy parameters with final pathology after prostatectomy. Adverse findings were considered when extracapsular extension of cancer (pT3) was noted. Postoperatively, 29 (64.4%) patients were diagnosed with pT2 disease and 16 (35.6%) with pT3 disease. There was a significant difference in localized vs. locally advanced disease in number of positive biopsy cores (p<0.001), greatest percentage of tumor in the core (p=0.008), localization of the tumor (p=0.003) and perineural invasion (p=0.004). Logistic regression was used to develop a model on the multivariate level. It included number of positive cores and PSA-ACT and was significant on our cohort with the reliability of 82.22%. The combination of PSA-ACT and a large scale of biopsy parameters could be used in prediction of adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. Clinical decisions and patients counselling could be influenced by these predictors but further confirmation on a larger population is necessary. PMID:26898067

  17. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth. PMID:19022689

  18. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  19. MR imaging findings in 76 consecutive surgically proven cases of pericardial disease with CT and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, Phillip M; Glockner, James F; Williamson, Eric E; Morris, Michael F; Araoz, Philip A; Julsrud, Paul R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Edwards, William D; Oh, Jae K; Breen, Jerome F

    2012-06-01

    To describe findings of patients with surgically confirmed pericardial disease on state of the art MR sequences. Retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent pericardiectomy and preoperative MR over a 5 year period ending in 2009. Patients' records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial tumor. MR imaging findings of pericardial thickness, IVC diameter, presence or absence of pericardial or pleural effusion, pericardial edema, pericardial enhancement, and septal "bounce" were recorded. Patients with constriction had a larger IVC diameter (3.1 ± 0.4 cm) than patients with recurrent pain and no constriction (2.0 ± 0.4 cm). Mean pericardial thickness for the 16 patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis but no evidence of constriction was 4.8 ± 2.9 mm. Mean pericardial thickness for patients with constriction was 9.2 ± 7.0 cm with calcification, and 4.6 ± 2.1 cm without calcification. 94% of patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis had gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium, while 76% of patients with constriction had pericardial enhancement. Septal "bounce" was present in 19% of chronic recurrent pericarditis cases and 86% of constriction cases. 5 patients had a pericardial neoplasm, 1 of which was not identified preoperatively. State of the art MR techniques can identify significant and distinct findings in patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, and pericardial tumors. PMID:21735292

  20. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  1. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  2. Finding common task-related regions in fMRI data from multiple subjects by periodogram clustering and clustering ensemble.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Li, Yehua; Lazar, Nicole A; Schaeffer, David J; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-07-10

    We propose an innovative and practically relevant clustering method to find common task-related brain regions among different subjects who respond to the same set of stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data, we first cluster the voxels within each subject on a voxel by voxel basis. To extract signals out of noisy data, we estimate a new periodogram at each voxel using multi-tapering and low-rank spline smoothing and then use the periodogram as the main feature for clustering. We apply a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm to the estimated periodograms within a single subject and identify the task-related region as the cluster of voxels that have periodograms with a peak frequency matching that of the stimulus sequence. Finally, we apply a machine learning technique called clustering ensemble to find common task-related regions across different subjects. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated via a simulation study and a real fMRI data set. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26875570

  3. Type, Duration, and Incidence of Pathologic Findings after Retroorbital Bleeding of Mice by Experienced and Novice Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Joanna H; Worth, David B; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Retroorbital blood collection is a common technique in laboratory rodents due to the ease with which it can be performed and the sample volumes obtained for subsequent blood analyses. However, its use has been discouraged recently due to aesthetic discomfort and anecdotal reports of potential for ocular injury during blood collection. We hypothesized that a single standardized session of in-person training would be sufficient to learn the appropriate technique and minimize the likelihood for adverse outcomes. Experienced instructors (n = 2) conducted hands-on training classes to teach novice personnel (n = 40) to perform this procedure. Blood was collected from anesthetized mice (n = 40) via a capillary tube first placed at the medial canthus of the right eye and then advanced into the retroorbital space; the left retroorbital spaces served as unmanipulated controls. For comparison, the experienced instructors similarly collected blood from 40 additional mice. The tube could be inserted only once in each mouse, with the goal of obtaining 50 to 100 μL blood. Overall, 79 of 80 mice (98.8%) showed normal body condition, posture, and behavior throughout the 14-d study. Thus, any clinical observation scores pertained specifically to ocular lesions, which occurred at least once after sampling in 43 (53.8%) of the mice. Clinical and histopathologic scores of mice after bleeding did not differ between experienced and novice personnel. We conclude that a coordinated hands-on training program can provide consistent and sufficient instruction for research personnel to conduct retroorbital blood collection with competence in anesthetized laboratory mice. PMID:26045459

  4. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  5. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  6. The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity (Carney complex): imaging findings with clinical and pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Courcoutsakis, Nikos A; Tatsi, Christina; Patronas, Nicholas J; Lee, Chiy-Chia Richard; Prassopoulos, Panos K; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2013-02-01

    The complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity, or Carney complex (CNC), is a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. CNC is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is genetically heterogeneous. Its features overlap those of McCune-Albright syndrome and other multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of the syndrome, followed by multicentric heart myxomas, which occur at a young age and are the lethal component of the disease. Myxomas may also occur on the skin (eyelid, external ear canal and nipple) and the breast. Breast myxomas, when present, are multiple and bilateral among female CNC patients, an entity which is also described as "breast-myxomatosis" and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. Affected CNC patients often have tumours of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), an adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-independent cause of Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone (GH)-secreting and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas, thyroid adenomas or carcinomas, testicular neoplasms (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumours [LCCSCT]) and ovarian lesions (cysts and cancinomas). Additional infrequent but characteristic manifestations of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMS), breast ductal adenomas (DAs) with tubular features, and osteochondromyxomas or "Carney bone tumour". Teaching Points • Almost 60 % of the known CNC kindreds have a germline inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene. • Spotty skin pigmentation is the major clinical manifestation of CNC, followed by heart myxomas. • Indicative imaging signs of PPNAD are contour abnormality and hypodense spots within the gland. • Two breast tumours may present in CNC: myxoid fibroadenomas (breast myxomatosis) and ductal adenomas. • Additional findings of CNC are psammomatous melanotic schwannomas

  7. Association between faecal load of lawsonia intracellularis and pathological findings of proliferative enteropathy in pigs with diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study was designed to investigate correlation between histological findings of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine cases of diarrhoea and the quantitative detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces. A total of 156 pigs (10 to 70 days post weaning) with diarrhoea were randomly selected from 20 herds: The pigs were subjected to necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and faecal quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real time PCR. Results The median Lawsonia intracellularis excretion was significantly higher in pigs with gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: 5.92 log10 bacteria/g faeces) compared to pigs without gross lesions of proliferative enteropathy (median excretion: <3.3 log10 bacteria/g faeces) (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the measureable PE lesions and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.50 (P<0.001). A significantly increasing trend in Lawsonia intracellularis excretion level for increasing proliferative enteropathy histopathology and immunohistochemistry scores was demonstrated (P<0.001; P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the histopathology scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.67 (P<0.001). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the IHC scores and L. intracellularis excretion was 0.77 (P<0.001). Conclusions The histological and quantitative PCR detection of Lawsonia intracellularis were correlated in pigs with diarrhoea. Overall the results suggest that clinically important levels for Lawsonia intracellularis excretion in faeces may be established. Such clinical threshold levels may be used in practice to confirm a diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis associated diarrhoea. PMID:23092367

  8. Toxicological and pathological findings in a series of buprenorphine related deaths. Possible risk factors for fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Seldén, Tor; Ahlner, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Kronstrand, Robert

    2012-07-10

    Buprenorphine is considered to have little respiratory side effects at therapeutic doses and the partial agonistic properties should produce a "ceiling effect" for respiratory depression at higher doses. Still, there are several reports on buprenorphine related deaths. Most deaths involve drug users and the co-administration of other CNS depressant drugs as well as reduced tolerance have been suggested to be risk factors. The primary aims were to investigate if lack of tolerance and/or co-ingestion of other psychotropic drugs are significant risk factors in buprenorphine fatalities. From July 2005 to September 2009, all autopsy cases where buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine had been detected in femoral blood and where analysis of buprenorphine had been performed in urine were selected. Results from the postmortem examination and toxicology were compiled. Postmortem toxicology was performed using the routine methodology at the laboratory. In total, 97 subjects were included in the study. These were divided into four groups; Intoxication with buprenorphine (N=41), Possible intoxication with buprenorphine (N=24), Control cases where buprenorphine was not the cause of death (N=14), and Unclear (N=18). The metabolite to parent compound ratios in both blood and urine in the Intoxication group were significantly different from those in the Control and Unclear groups. An extensive poly-drug use was seen in all groups with several additional opioids in the Possible group (54%) and in the Unclear group (78%) and hypnotics or sedatives in more than 75% of the Intoxication, Possible, and Unclear cases. Illicit drugs were present in all groups but not to a great extent with amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol as the main findings. Interestingly, 4 cases in the Intoxication group presented with no other significant drugs in blood other than buprenorphine. We conclude that a lethal concentration of buprenorphine in blood cannot be defined. Instead the analysis of blood as well as

  9. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

  10. Pathologic and parasitologic findings of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) stranded on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Innis, Charles; Nyaoke, Akinyi C; Williams, C Rogers; Dunnigan, Bridget; Merigo, Constance; Woodward, Denise L; Weber, E Scott; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    Necropsy reports for 28 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died between 2001 and 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Gross and microscopic lesions were compiled to describe the pathologic and parasitologic findings in turtles that were found freshly dead on the beach or that died within 48 hr of stranding. Anatomic lesions of varying severity were identified in each of the examined turtles and were identified in tissues of the alimentary, respiratory, integumentary, nervous and sensory, and urogenital systems in order of decreasing frequency. Necrotizing enterocolitis and bacterial or fungal pneumonia were the most frequently encountered lesions that were considered clinically significant. Parasites and parasitic lesions were identified primarily in tissues of the alimentary system and included intestinal cestodiasis and parasitic granulomas containing larval cestodes or nematodes. Postlarval cestodes were also found in the coelom of two turtles. In many cases, the extent and severity of lesions were judged to be insufficient to have solely caused mortality, suggesting that additional factors such as metabolic, respiratory, and electrolyte derangements; hypothermia; and drowning may be important proximate causes of death in cold-stunned turtles. Results of this study provide insight into pathologic conditions that may be of clinical relevance to rehabilitation efforts for cold-stunned sea turtles. PMID:19617470

  11. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  12. Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. PMID:25119440

  13. Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yousefipour, Gholamali; Hashemzahi, Zabihollah; Yasemi, Masood; Jahani, Pegah

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disease caused by the inflammatory demyelinating process that causes progressive nervous system degeneration over the time. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology, which can measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as well as the diameter of the macula. The purpose of the study is evaluation OCT findings in two common types of multiple sclerosis. For doing the cross-sectional study, 63 patients with two prevalent types of multiple sclerosis (35 patients with Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and 28 patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS) were evaluated for 6 months. Exclusion criteria of the study were a history of optic neuritis, suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ocular disease, and the presence of other neurologic degenerative diseases. Then, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), as well as thickness and volume of the macula, were measured in the patients using OCT technology. The disability rate of patients was evaluated according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Finally, data was analyzed by means of SPSS software. Overall, 35 patients with RRMS (with mean age of 32.37+10.01, average disease period of 3.81+3.42 and mean EDSS of 1.84+0.45) and 28 patients with SPMS (with mean age of 39.21+9.33, average disease period of 11.32+5.87 and mean EDSS of 5.12+1.46) were assessed and compared in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer and size and thickness of macula. In all of these sections, the thicknesses were smaller in SPMS patients than patients with RRMS. But, there was a significant difference in total thickness (81.82µm versus 96.03µm with P=0.04) and thickness of temporal sector (54.5 µm versus 69.34 µm with P=0.04) of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular size at the superior sector of external ring (1.48 mm³ versus 1.58 mm³ with P=0.03), and nasal sector of external ring surrounding macula (1

  14. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. PMID:10838808

  15. Inhibition of fibrosis and inflammation by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin in rabbits with drug-induced lung injury: comparison of CT imaging and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shobu; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Ohta, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Otani, Hideji; Tomozawa, Yuki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    In a rabbit model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, computed tomography (CT) and pathological studies were conducted to investigate whether the progression of this injury is inhibited by pirfenidone and by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. We divided nine rabbits with bleomycin-induced lung injury into three equally sized groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received pirfenidone alone and group 3 was treated with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. Multidetector CT (MDCT) scans were acquired immediately after the administration of bleomycin, and further scans were performed on days 14 and 28. The area of abnormal opacity was calculated. The rabbit lungs were removed and the size of abnormal areas in macroscopic specimens was calculated and the degree of fibrosis and inflammation in microscopic specimens was scored. In order, the average size of the area of abnormal opacity on CT scans was largest in group 1, followed by groups 2 and 3. On day 28, the area of opacity was significantly smaller in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.071). The average size of the area of abnormal opacity on macroscopic findings was largest in group 1, followed in order by groups 2 and 3; the difference between group 1 and 3 was significant (P<0.05). The average fibrosis score was highest in group 3 followed by groups 2 and 1. By contrast, the average inflammation score was highest in group 2 followed by groups 1 and 3. Although the administration of pirfenidone alone slowed the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury, the triple-drug combination was more effective. PMID:24223628

  16. Bilateral invasive lobular breast cancer in a female teenager: a rare finding of a common disease--case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Enownchong, Enow-Orock George; Thomas, Egbe Obinchemti; Akum, Achidi Eric; Defang, Asonganyi Etienne; Paul, Ndom; Emmanuel, Fongang; Peter, Ndumbe

    2010-01-01

    Management of cancer patients in low-resource communities presents enormous challenges. Breast cancer is a public health problem in Cameroon and occurs mostly in elderly women. The predominant histological type is a duct carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma in teenagers is rare. In this report we present a case of bilateral invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that was confirmed on biopsies in a 22-year-old female. We present this rare finding and review the pathological, clinical and radiographic challenges of the disease. Nodules in the breast from patients of any age should be submitted for histology. Public education is beneficial and should be intensified. PMID:21436945

  17. Primary arteriovenous fistula between common iliac vessels: ultrasound, computer tomographic, and angiographic findings--a case report.

    PubMed

    Walstra, B R; Janevski, B K; Jörning, P J

    1989-03-01

    A giant aneurysm of the right common iliac artery presenting with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the iliac artery and iliac vein and deep venous thrombosis of the right lower extremity is reported. The clinical signs and the radiologic and surgical management of the condition are discussed. In addition a brief review of the literature is given. PMID:2644879

  18. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  19. Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harper, Hazel J

    2003-01-01

    Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into

  20. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID

  1. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija; Kemiläinen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A; Webb, P; Green, A.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Webb, P.; Whiteman, D.; Fung, Annie; Yashiki, June; Peuteman, Gilian; Smeets, Dominiek; Brussel, Thomas Van; Corthouts, Kathleen; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Olchers, Til; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Maniscalco, Angela; Rossi, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Tranchant, Martine; Valois, Marie-France; Turgeon, Annie; Heguy, Lea; Sze Yee, Phuah; Kang, Peter; Nee, Kang In; Mariapun, Shivaani; Sook-Yee, Yoon; Lee, Daphne; Ching, Teh Yew; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Otsukka, Meeri; Mononen, Kari; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; staff, OFBCR; Krol-Warmerdam, E.; Molenaar, J.; Blom, J.; Brinton, Louise; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata; Zatonski, Witold; Chao, Pei; Stagner, Michael; Bos, Petra; Blom, Jannet; Crepin, Ellen; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Heemskerk, Annette; Higham, Sue; Cross, Simon; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Brock, Ian; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Chua, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act

  2. The three phases of Eve: exploring the common and unique findings in oral and systemic health of differently aging women.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann

    2002-10-01

    Given that, collectively, women are the longer-lived of the human species, it is fitting that we examine the impact and correlations of aging on systemic and oral health with women as the paradigm. Aging, however, is not a homogeneous process. Its influences are as diverse as the subgroups of people affected. To exemplify the differing manifestations and progressiveness of aging, this article highlights the profiles of three differently aging women: an independent dweller in the community, a participant in an assisted living program, and a resident of a skilled nursing home. How aging has affected their lives commonly and uniquely is addressed, as are medical and oral health issues that transcend functional capability, and evolving research in preventive strategies focusing on successful aging. PMID:12790015

  3. The role of PTPN22 risk variant in the development of autoimmunity: Finding common ground between mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, David J.; Dai, Xuezhi; Buckner, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    The PTPN22 1858T variant was among the first single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. As a coding variant within the tyrosinephosphatase, Lyp, known to participate in antigen receptor signaling, the impact of this variant on the immune response and role in the development of autoimmunity has been a focus of study. These studies have utilized a series of approaches including transfected cell lines, animal models and primary human lymphocytes and have identified multiple alterations in cell signaling and function linked to the PTPN22 variant. Conflicting findings have led to questions of how best to study the role of this variant in human autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss these differences, factors that may account for them, and show how an integrated approach can lead to a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that promote autoimmunity in the context of the PTPN22 1858T risk variant. PMID:25795788

  4. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  5. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Maria A; Somwaru, Alexander S; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Levine, Marc S

    2016-07-01

    Extranodal lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms that can affect every abdominal organ, with distinctive pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features. The radiologic findings are closely related to the underlying pathophysiology, and an understanding of these characteristic features should facilitate recognition of extranodal lymphoma and its various subtypes. Within the abdomen, lymphoma is found most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. This article presents the findings in gastrointestinal tract lymphoma. PMID:27265607

  6. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  7. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  8. [Intersexuality in hornless XX-goats: pathological findings in 2 young pseudobucks, 3 young bucks with urethral diverticula and 2 pseudohermaphroditic kids].

    PubMed

    König, H; Elmiger, B; Stranzinger, G

    1992-01-01

    Dealing with the subject "polled goats intersexuality", whose problems are discussed, we studied the pathology of 7 3-month old XX-kids: 2 pseudomales, 3 males with urethral diverticulum (1 animal with 2 U.D.), and 2 testicular pseudohermaphrodites. Four horned male kids of comparable age were used as control. Urethral diverticula, seen now and then in local breeds, i.e. in "chamois-colored" mountain goats, Saanen, and Toggenburg goats, are rather unknown and only sporadically reported abroad. In agreement with previous histological studies, the testes were hypoplastic, the spermatogonia absent. In no case ovarian tissue was found. The Leydig cells appeared to be functionally active. The selection of an experimental flock of intersex-free polled goats is proposed. PMID:1609259

  9. Do you really know precise radiologic-pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic-pathological correlation. PMID:23806534

  10. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  11. Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  12. Image-Guided Cryoablation of the Spine in a Swine Model: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings with Light and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de Andrade, Celi Santos Caldas, José Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Ferreira, Lorraine Braga Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Cury, Patrícia Maluf

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to present the feasibility of an in vivo image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of the porcine vertebral body.MethodsThe institutional animal care committee approved this study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided vertebral cryoablations (n = 22) were performed in eight pigs with short, 2-min, single or double-freezing protocols. Protective measures to nerves included dioxide carbon (CO{sub 2}) epidural injections and spinal canal temperature monitoring. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data with light (n = 20) or transmission electron (n = 2) microscopic analyses were evaluated after 6 days of clinical follow-up and euthanasia.ResultsCBCT/fluoroscopic-guided transpedicular vertebral body cryoprobe positioning and CO{sub 2} epidural injection were successful in all procedures. No major complications were observed in seven animals (87.5 %, n = 8). A minor complication was observed in one pig (12.5 %, n = 1). Logistic regression model analysis showed the cryoprobe-spinal canal (Cp-Sc) distance as the most efficient parameter to categorize spinal canal temperatures lower than 19 °C (p < 0.004), with a significant Pearson’s correlation test (p < 0.041) between the Cp-Sc distance and the lowest spinal canal temperatures. Ablation zones encompassed pedicles and the posterior wall of the vertebral bodies with an inflammatory rim, although no inflammatory infiltrate was depicted in the surrounding neural structures at light microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses evidenced myelin sheath disruption in some large nerve fibers, although neurological deficits were not observed.ConclusionsCBCT-guided vertebral cryoablation of the porcine spine is feasible under a combination of a short freezing protocol and protective measures to the surrounding nerves. Ultrastructural analyses may be helpful assess the early modifications of the nerve fibers.

  13. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, María Victoria; Pérez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Tuñon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, María Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and β-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=20, mean age 82.1 years). Relative proteome abundance measurements have revealed protein interaction networks progressively disturbed across AD stages suggesting an early imbalance in splicing factors, subsequent interrupted cycling of neurotransmitters, alteration in toxic and protective mechanisms of β-amyloid, and finally, a mitochondrial dysfunction together with disturbance in neuron-neuron adhesion. We also present novel molecular findings in the OB in an autopsy cohort composed by Lewy body disease (LBD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), mixed dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases (n = 41, mean age 79.7 years). Olfactory mediators deregulated during the progression of AD such as Visinin-like protein 1, RUFY3 protein, and Copine 6 were also differentially modulated in the OB in LBD, FTLD, and mixed dementia. Only Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 showed a specific down-regulation in AD. However, no differences were observed in the olfactory expression of this protein panel in PSP subjects. This study demonstrates an olfactory progressive proteome modulation in AD, unveiling cross-disease similarities and differences especially for specific proteins involved in dendritic and axonic distributions that occur in the OB during the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26517091

  14. A late complication of augmentation mammoplasty by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of huge galactocele formation in a puerperal woman with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Chen, Tom Yun-Cheng; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was widely used for injection augmentation mammoplasty in Eastern Europe and China although uncommon in the western countries. However, the safety of this procedure remained controversial. Herein, we report a 30-year-old woman with a history of augmentation mammoplasty by PAAG injection developed galactoceles during her pregnancy. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed huge cystic lesions in bilateral breasts; as a result, the normal breast tissue was almost completely replaced. On the basis of the imaging findings, the patient underwent mastectomy as well as immediate breast reconstruction with satisfactory outcome. It is important to be familiar with the imaging findings of this rare yet severe complication after augmentation mammoplasty in order to make an accurate diagnosis and a proper management. PMID:19054003

  15. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy were a helpful diagnostic clue of stenosis of the iliac segment proximal to the transplant renal artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, H; Saigo, K; Hasegawa, M; Akutsu, N; Maruyama, M; Otsuki, K; Matsumoto, I; Kawaguchi, T; Kitamura, H; Asano, T; Kenmochi, T; Itou, T; Matsubara, H

    2014-01-01

    Common iliac artery stenosis after renal transplantation is a rare complication; it can occur in the course of hypertension and renal dysfunction. We report a case of suspected renal allograft rejection with iliac artery stenosis proximal to a transplanted kidney. A 52-year-old man with a history of cadaveric kidney transplantation 26 years previously underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation in the left iliac fossa because of graft failure 3 years before. In June 2012, the patient had progressive renal dysfunction. In July, a percutaneous needle biopsy was taken, and it showed no rejection; however, his renal function continued to get worse through September. A percutaneous allograft renal biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance and showed hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and renin granules. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to evaluate the arteries in the pelvis and showed left common iliac artery stenosis, and a stent was placed. After percutaneous intervention, the patient's ankle brachial pressure index was within the normal range and the allograft function had improved. PMID:24656037

  16. The spectrum of gastric pathology in portal hypertension-An endoscopic and pathologic study of 550 cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Chen, Chien-Huan; Liu, Ta-Chiang

    2016-08-01

    One of the main tasks for pathologists when evaluating gastric biopsies from patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is to examine whether there is increased mucosal vasculature as suggested by endoscopy. However, the full spectrum of pathology findings in patients with portal hypertension (pHTN) is largely unknown. We systematically characterized the endoscopic and pathologic features in gastric biopsies from pHTN patients (study group) and compared with those from patients without pHTN (control group). The study group consisted of 550 consecutive surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopic (EGD) biopsies, whereas the control group included 281 consecutive EGD biopsies for a variety of indications. As expected, the endoscopic prevalence of PHG was 28%, among which two-thirds showed corresponding histopathologic evidence of increased vasculature. However, non-Helicobacter pylori gastritis was the most common finding in pHTN patients on histology (40%). In addition, hyperplastic polyp was also more common in pHTN patients than in controls (6% vs 3%; P=0.0314). In contrast, pathology findings of nonspecific reactive changes (29% vs 51%; P<0.0001), proton pump inhibitor-related changes (16% vs 30%; P<0.0001), and malignancy (1% vs 3%; P=0.0138) were less common in pHTN patients. Our results show a spectrum of gastric endoscopic and pathologic findings in pHTN patients. The predominant gastric pathology in pHTN patients may be associated with pHTN-induced gastric microcirculation impairment. PMID:27461830

  17. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25938549

  18. High viral loads despite absence of clinical and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I and in naturally FCoV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Meli, M; Kipar, A; Müller, C; Jenal, K; Gönczi, E; Borel, N; Gunn-Moore, D; Chalmers, S; Lin, F; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2004-04-01

    Specified pathogen-free cats were naturally infected with FCoV or experimentally infected with FCoV type I. Seroconversion was determined and the course of infection was monitored by measuring the FCoV loads in faeces, whole blood, plasma and/or monocytes. Tissue samples collected at necropsy were examined for viral load and histopathological changes. Experimentally infected animals started shedding virus as soon as 2 days after infection. They generally displayed the highest viral loads in colon, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Seroconversion occurred 3-4 weeks post infection. Naturally infected cats were positive for FCoV antibodies and monocyte-associated FCoV viraemia prior to death. At necropsy, most animals tested positive for viral shedding and FCoV RNA was found in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. Both experimentally and naturally infected cats remained clinically healthy. Pathological findings were restricted to generalized lymphatic hyperplasia. These findings demonstrate the presence of systemic FCoV infection with high viral loads in the absence of clinical and pathological signs. PMID:15123151

  19. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  20. Diagnosis of ligamentous and meniscal pathologies in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic findings

    PubMed Central

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Koh, Thean-Howe Bryan; Tan, Hwee-Chye Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used to diagnose or support clinical diagnoses for meniscal or ligamentous injuries prior to offering patients arthroscopic treatment. However, the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of meniscal injury is not yet 100%. Sportsmen have occasionally returned to play with undiagnosed meniscal lesions on the basis of a normal MRI examination. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic parameters of MRI in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods MRI and arthroscopic findings of 320 patients with acute ACL injury were included in this retrospective review. Patients belonged to a single surgeon from a high volume tertiary healthcare institution. All patients had either a MRI or an arthroscopic diagnosis of an acute ACL injury of one knee or both. All patients underwent therapeutic arthroscopy by the senior author routinely as part of arthroscopy-aided ACL reconstruction. Arthroscopic findings were the diagnostic reference based on which the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity and concordance strength of association of MRI were calculated for ACL, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) injuries. Results MRI was most accurate in diagnosing cruciate ligament injuries with a PPV approaching 100%. The PPV of MRI in diagnosing meniscal injuries was approximately 60%. MRI was almost 100% sensitive and specific in diagnosing ACL injuries and 82% sensitive and 100% specific in diagnosing PCL injuries. Conversely, MRI was 77% sensitive and 90% specific in diagnosing MM injuries; and 57% sensitive and 95% specific in diagnosing LM injuries. Conclusions MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosing soft tissue injuries of the knee. However, there is a false positive rate ranging from 6% to 11% for meniscal tears. PMID:26605289

  1. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  2. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Segal, Y; Segal, L; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T; Sasson, E; Poliansky, V; Loeb, E; Levy, A; Alter, A; Bregman, N

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  3. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Y.; Segal, L.; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T.; Sasson, E.; Poliansky, V.; Loeb, E.; Levy, A.; Alter, A.; Bregman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  4. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V.; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  5. Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Laudano, Melissa A.; Jamzadeh, Asha E.; Lee, Richard K.; Robinson, Brian D.; Tyagi, Renuka; Kaplan, Steven A.; Te, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options. PMID:24860605

  6. Intraoperative findings in revision chronic otitis media surgery.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Abolhassan; Motasaddi-Zarandy, Masoud; Khorsandi, Mohammad-Taghi

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we reviewed the surgical findings in a series of revision tympanomastoidectomy to determine the most common causes of failure in chronic otitis media surgery. The intraoperative findings at revision mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty of 116 patients were analyzed. The most common sites of pathologic tissue at revision surgery (with cholesteatoma and/ or granulation tissue) were unexenterated cells of the sinodural angle. The most common mechanical cause of retention of debris in canal wall down procedures was facial ridge. PMID:18298298

  7. Skoulekia meningialis n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912) a parasite surrounding the brain of the Mediterranean common two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Teleostei: Sparidae): description, molecular phylogeny, habitat and pathology.

    PubMed

    Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Raga, Juan Antonio; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a new aporocotylid genus and species, Skoulekia meningialis n. gen., n. sp. which was detected in the ectomeningeal veins surrounding the optic lobes of the brain of the common two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) from the Gulf of Valencia (Mediterranean Sea). A detailed morphological description of S. meningialis is provided, including drawings, measurements and scanning electron microscopy images as well as a phylogenetic study of S. meningialis and closely related taxa using DNA sequence data obtained from whole ITS2 and partial 18S and 28S rDNA regions. Morphology as well as molecular phylogeny strongly support the erection of a new genus and demonstrate its close relationship with the genera Psettarium (Goto & Ozaki, 1930) and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1989. Skoulekia is the second aporocotylid genus described in the Sparidae, a family including economical important fishes. In contrast to the majority of the aporocotylids, which inhabit the heart or the blood vessels of the gills, S. meningialis inhabits the ectomeningeal veins surrounding the optic lobes. Eggs were found trapped within the gill vessels. Normally, blood fluke pathology is almost exclusively related to the eggs. However, in the case of S. meningialis, main histopathological alterations were related to the adult blood flukes which were found to cause mild localised meningitis. PMID:20950706

  8. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Gadoxetic Acid–enhanced 3-T MR Imaging for Malignant Liver Lesions by Using Ex Vivo MR Imaging–matched Pathologic Findings as the Reference Standard1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Eduardo A. C.; Cunha, Guilherme M.; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Cruite, Irene; Tang, An; Marks, Robert M.; Clark, Lisa; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Sicklick, Jason K.; Hemming, Alan; Peterson, Michael R.; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine per-lesion sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the diagnosis of malignant lesions by using matched (spatially correlated) hepatectomy pathologic findings as the reference standard. Materials and Methods In this prospective, institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 20 patients (nine men, 11 women; mean age, 59 years) with malignant liver lesions who gave written informed consent underwent preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T MR imaging for surgical planning. Two image sets were independently analyzed by three readers to detect liver lesions (set 1 without and set 2 with hepatobiliary phase [HBP] images). Hepatectomy specimen ex vivo MR imaging assisted in matching gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T MR imaging findings with pathologic findings. Interreader agreement was assessed by using the Cohen k coefficient. Per-lesion sensitivity and PPV were calculated. Results Cohen k values were 0.64–0.76 and 0.57–0.84, and overall per-lesion sensitivity was 45% (42 of 94 lesions) to 56% (53 of 94 lesions) and 58% (55 of 94 lesions) to 64% (60 of 94 lesions) for sets 1 and 2, respectively. The addition of HBP imaging did not affect interreader agreement but significantly improved overall sensitivity for one reader (P < .05) and almost for another (P = .05). Sensitivity for 0.2–0.5-cm lesions was 0% (0 of 26 lesions) to 8% (two of 26 lesions) for set 1 and 4% (one of 26 lesions) to 12% (three of 26 lesions) for set 2. Sensitivity for 0.6–1.0-cm lesions was 28% (nine of 32 lesions) to 59% (19 of 32 lesions) for set 1 and 66% (21 of 32 lesions) to 69% (22 of 32 lesions) for set 2. Sensitivity for lesions at least 1.0 cm in diameter was at least 81% (13 of 16 lesions) for set 1 and was not improved for set 2. PPV was 98% (56 of 57 lesions) to 100% (60 of 60 lesions) for all readers without differences between image sets or lesion size. Conclusion

  10. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  11. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  12. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  13. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  14. DoOPSearch: a web-based tool for finding and analysing common conserved motifs in the promoter regions of different chordate and plant genes

    PubMed Central

    Sebestyén, Endre; Nagy, Tibor; Suhai, Sándor; Barta, Endre

    2009-01-01

    Background The comparative genomic analysis of a large number of orthologous promoter regions of the chordate and plant genes from the DoOP databases shows thousands of conserved motifs. Most of these motifs differ from any known transcription factor binding site (TFBS). To identify common conserved motifs, we need a specific tool to be able to search amongst them. Since conserved motifs from the DoOP databases are linked to genes, the result of such a search can give a list of genes that are potentially regulated by the same transcription factor(s). Results We have developed a new tool called DoOPSearch for the analysis of the conserved motifs in the promoter regions of chordate or plant genes. We used the orthologous promoters of the DoOP database to extract thousands of conserved motifs from different taxonomic groups. The advantage of this approach is that different sets of conserved motifs might be found depending on how broad the taxonomic coverage of the underlying orthologous promoter sequence collection is (consider e.g. primates vs. mammals or Brassicaceae vs. Viridiplantae). The DoOPSearch tool allows the users to search these motif collections or the promoter regions of DoOP with user supplied query sequences or any of the conserved motifs from the DoOP database. To find overrepresented gene ontologies, the gene lists obtained can be analysed further using a modified version of the GeneMerge program. Conclusion We present here a comparative genomics based promoter analysis tool. Our system is based on a unique collection of conserved promoter motifs characteristic of different taxonomic groups. We offer both a command line and a web-based tool for searching in these motif collections using user specified queries. These can be either short promoter sequences or consensus sequences of known transcription factor binding sites. The GeneMerge analysis of the search results allows the user to identify statistically overrepresented Gene Ontology terms that

  15. Incidental extraspinal findings on magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Turanlı, Sevim; Saltas, Hakan; Karabacak, Osman Raif; Damar, Cagrı; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to evaluate pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations that were incidentally detected on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of intervertebral discs, to find the frequencies of these incidental findings, and to emphasise the clinical importance of them. Material and methods A retrospective study including 1031 consecutive patients (730 females and 301 males, with a median age of 46 years) was conducted by evaluating a total of 1106 MRI examinations of intervertebral discs. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MRI unit. Incidental findings were classified as pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations. Results The percentages of incidental extraspinal pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations were 16.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4–18.8) and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.6–4.3), respectively. The percentage of incidental extraspinal pathological findings on cervical spinal MRI was 25.7% (95% CI: 20.1–31.7), thyroid nodules being the most common incidental findings. On thoracic spinal MRI (n = 19), inferior pole thyroid nodules were demonstrated as incidental extraspinal pathological findings, with a percentage of 10.5% (95% CI: 9.6–11.5). On lumbar spinal MRI, incidental pathological findings were detected with a percentage of 14.2% (95% CI: 11.9–16.6), while the percentage of congenital anomalies/anatomical variations was 4.8% (95% CI: 3.4–6.3). Eventually, 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6–9.4) of all cases with incidental extraspinal pathological findings underwent surgery. Conclusions On MRI examination of intervertebral discs, paying attention to incidentally detected pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations is very important due to the fact that they can alter the treatment of the patient or affect the patient's life. PMID:25276162

  16. Pathology Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ... Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small ...

  17. Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

    2011-01-01

    Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric

  18. From telepathology to virtual pathology institution: the new world of digital pathology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Kayser, G; Radziszowski, D; Oehmann, A

    Telepathology has left its childhood. Its technical development is mature, and its use for primary (frozen section) and secondary (expert consultation) diagnosis has been expanded to a great amount. This is in contrast to a virtual pathology laboratory, which is still under technical constraints. Similar to telepathology, which can also be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily is demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology (Klaus.Kayser@charite.de) at least two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories will be implemented in the near future: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (> or = 1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists (usually situated in one institution) and a centralized laboratory, which digitizes complete histological slides. Both scenarios are under intensive technical investigations. The features of virtual pathology comprise a virtual pathology institution (mode a) that accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The Internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size and number of transferred images have to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. The sender needs to possess experiences in image sampling techniques, which present with the most significant information. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. The first experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized

  19. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  1. Cscan: finding common regulators of a set of genes by using a collection of genome-wide ChIP-seq datasets

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Federico; Prazzoli, Gian Marco; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of transcription of eukaryotic genes is a very complex process, which involves interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA, as well as other epigenetic factors like histone modifications, DNA methylation, and so on, which nowadays can be studied and characterized with techniques like ChIP-Seq. Cscan is a web resource that includes a large collection of genome-wide ChIP-Seq experiments performed on TFs, histone modifications, RNA polymerases and others. Enriched peak regions from the ChIP-Seq experiments are crossed with the genomic coordinates of a set of input genes, to identify which of the experiments present a statistically significant number of peaks within the input genes’ loci. The input can be a cluster of co-expressed genes, or any other set of genes sharing a common regulatory profile. Users can thus single out which TFs are likely to be common regulators of the genes, and their respective correlations. Also, by examining results on promoter activation, transcription, histone modifications, polymerase binding and so on, users can investigate the effect of the TFs (activation or repression of transcription) as well as of the cell or tissue specificity of the genes’ regulation and expression. The web interface is free for use, and there is no login requirement. Available at: http://www.beaconlab.it/cscan. PMID:22669907

  2. Clinical and Pathologic Features of Secondary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Amy S.; Aoki, Joseph; Levis, Mark; Cowan, Kathleen; Gocke, Christopher D.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Vuica-Ross, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a relatively common form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has an excellent prognosis. In contrast, secondary acute myeloid leukemias, including therapy-related AML and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, have a relatively poor prognosis. We identified 9 cases of APL at our institution in which there was a history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic immunosuppression, or antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinical and pathologic findings in these cases of secondary APL were compared with the clinical and pathologic findings in cases of de novo APL. We found that secondary and de novo APL had abnormal promyelocytes with similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features, comparable cytogenetic findings, comparable rates of FMS-like tyrosine kinase mutations, and similar rates of recurrent disease and death. These data suggest that secondary APL is similar to de novo APL and, thus, should be considered distinct from other secondary acute myeloid neoplasms. PMID:22338051

  3. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  4. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  5. Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a common acanthocephalan of anuran and urodelan amphibians in Hokkaido, Japan, with a finding of its intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The Ezo brown frog (Rana pirica) and the Ezo salamander (Hynobius retardatus) are endemic species of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Intestinal adult acanthocephalans are common in these amphibians. A molecular identification based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers demonstrated that the parasites from the anuran and the urodelan are the same species. In the neighboring Honshu island, another acanthocephalan from ranid frogs (e.g. Rana japonica and Rana ornativentris) has been identified as Acanthocephalus lucidus. The counterpart species from the amphibians of Hokkaido was morphologically indistinguishable from A. lucidus. However, clear genetic distinctiveness between the two allopatric populations (separated by islands) indicated the entity of a cryptic species. A phylogenetic tree inferred from sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA showed that the acanthocephalans from Honshu and Hokkaido belong to the genus Pseudoacanthocephalus. Therefore, Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. is proposed for the cryptic species in Hokkaido, together with the transfer of A. lucidus in Honshu to Pseudoacanthocephalus lucidus comb. nov. The present field survey further demonstrated Ligidium japonicum, an isopod crustacean living in the litter layer of forests, to be an intermediate host of the new species. PMID:27067227

  6. Neuroimaging findings in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C; Siddiqui, A

    2014-01-01

    At least 25% of individuals with sickle cell disease will have a neurological complication over their lifetime, often as early as in childhood. Neuroradiological findings in patients with sickle cell disease are common and include acute territorial infarction, silent ischaemia and intracranial haemorrhage. Imaging abnormalities are typically, but not always, manifestations of the underlying vasculopathy. Coexisting acute and chronic pathology may pose challenges to interpretation. PMID:24847772

  7. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users’ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists’ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that

  8. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  9. Radiographic and Pathologic Manifestations of Uncommon and Rare Pulmonary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Mian, Ali; Adebowale, Adeniran; Alomari, Ahmed; Kalra, Vivek; Krejci, Elise; Shin, Myung Soo

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary opacities/nodules are common findings on computed tomography examinations, which may represent an underlying infections or malignancy. However, not every pulmonary nodule or opacity represents malignancy or infection. We present a pictorial essay illustrating common as well as obscure noninfectious, nonmalignant pulmonary lesions. Lesions discussed include organizing pneumonia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, pulmonary amyloidosis, hyalinizing granuloma, tumourlet (benign localized neuroendocrine cell proliferations), atypical alveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, papillary alveolar adenoma, plasma cell granuloma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and sclerosing hemangiomas. We discuss the clinical presentation, prevalence, radiographic clues, pathology, and diagnostic pitfalls of these rare lesions. PMID:26690551

  10. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  11. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Ros, P R; Buck, J L; Goodman, Z D; Ros, A M; Olmsted, W W

    1988-06-01

    Seventeen proved cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICAC) were reviewed to establish a radiologic-pathologic correlation. The most common appearance of ICAC at computed tomography (CT) is that of a single, homogeneous low-attenuation mass. Multiple low-attenuation lesions were present in four cases. Calcification was depicted by CT in three cases. At angiography, ICAC has a variable appearance with avascular, hypovascular, and hypervascular patterns possible. Portal obstruction was seen in only one case. The most common appearance of ICAC at sonography is that of a homogeneously hyperechoic mass, either single or multiple. In only one case was ICAC hypoechoic. Plain abdominal radiography demonstrated calcification in three patients and evidence of Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) deposition in one. Upper gastrointestinal series demonstrated abnormal gastric folds in two cases, corresponding to gastric invasion by ICAC. There were no characteristic radiographic findings, but the following features may be helpful in differentiating ICAC from other primary intrahepatic tumors, particularly typical hepatocellular carcinoma: a homogeneously echogenic or high-attenuation appearance on images that reflects the uniform nature observed at pathologic examination, the presence of calcification, and the uncommon invasion of portal or hepatic veins. Conversely, the presence of satellite lesions may blur the the distinction between ICAC and metastatic liver disease. PMID:2834769

  12. [Cystic renal pathology].

    PubMed

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  13. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  14. Castleman Disease of the Thorax: Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Correlation: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Seth J; Auerbach, Aaron; Franks, Teri J; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Castleman disease is a complex lymphoproliferative disease pathologically divided into two subtypes, the hyaline vascular variant (HVV) and the plasma cell variant (PCV). The HVV is the most common, is thought to represent a benign neoplasm of lymph node stromal cells, and is treated with surgical resection. It is most commonly found in the mediastinum, where it classically appears as a unicentric, avidly enhancing mass at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. This appearance can mimic other avidly enhancing mediastinal masses, and location, clinical history, laboratory data, and nuclear medicine single photon emission CT (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies can help narrow the differential diagnosis. Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), which in the majority of cases is composed of the PCV, is an aggressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with human herpesvirus infection, interleukin 6 dysregulation, and other systemic disorders. While it can be difficult to differentiate MCD from lymphoma, the presence of avidly enhancing lymph nodes can suggest the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, immunologic, and pathologic findings associated with both unicentric Castleman disease and MCD and discuss how the imaging findings correlate with the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:27618318

  15. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  16. Finding Common Ground: Creating Local Governance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.; And Others

    As federal, state, and local policy makers attend to the economic, educational, social, and health-related needs of children, they are beginning to share a vision of a "seamless web" of high-quality, comprehensive, continuous services for children and their families. It remains a challenging goal because of the complexity of children's needs and…

  17. Women in Educational Leadership: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Kathleen; Moss, Glenda; Hannah, Susan; Wiener, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to engage in self-reflective analysis of leadership development as an ongoing process of social action towards democratizing education. Four White women connected by their work as educational leaders, teachers and administrators, engaged this topic by conducting a dialogical analysis of their experiences in…

  18. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  19. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular

  1. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  2. Joubert syndrome: the clinical and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Ekrem; Cullu, Nesat; Karakas, Omer; Calik, Mustafa; Boyaci, Fatima Nurefsan; Yildiz, Sema; Cece, Hasan; Akal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare disease characterised by clinical and radiological findings. Among the classic clinical findings of JS are hypotonia, ataxia, mental-motor retardation, respiratory and opthalmological findings. The paediatric cases included in the study comprised nine patients. There was familial consanguinty in seven cases. Clinically, all cases had mental-motor retardation and hypotonia. Episodic hyperpnoea attacks were observed in one case. Facial dysmorphism was the most common additional systemic anomaly and four cases had additional opthalmic findings. Brain MRI examination revealed that all cases had molar tooth sign, bat-wing appearance and vermian cleft. The majority of cases also had vermian hypoplasia. Cerebellar folial disorganisation was observed in approxiamtely half of the cases. Three cases had corpus callosum anomaly and atretic occipital encephalocoele. No pathology was determined in other organs. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological findings of 9 patients diagnosed with Joubert syndrome. PMID:24605724

  3. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  4. Pathology neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

    PubMed

    Graeme-Cook, F

    1996-07-01

    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are common and often hard to diagnose by endoscopic or gross examination. Biopsy or polypectomy enables diagnosis and prognostication. This article is by no means encyclopedic, but attempts to discuss the pathology of the more common intestinal polyps. PMID:8829315

  5. [Update of pathological diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor].

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Teng; Ming, Zhao; Maode, Lai

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are common in pathological practice and its pathological classification and histological grading are not exactly the same as that of those in the digestive tract and pancreas. In 2015 edition of World Health Organization classification, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are classified as carcinoid tumors (including typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid), small cell lung carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and precursor lesion diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; each category has distinctive morphological and immunohistochemical features. The morphologic features including growth patterns and cytological appearances are keys for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor, and immunohistochemical findings are also critical for its diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria vary for different types of specimen. In this article, we present a concise review and summary of the update of clinicopathological characterizations of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor, with an emphasis on its diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis. PMID:27045239

  6. Development of ovarian pathology after hysterectomy without oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    Plöckinger, B; Kölbl, H

    1994-06-01

    This study was done to determine the occurrence of disease in retained ovaries after hysterectomy. A retrospective analysis of patient charts was performed, comparing the patient reports of women who had secondary ovarian lesions with those whose ovaries showed no pathologic findings during the ten year period of observation (1980 to 1990). The study included 1,265 women with at least one ovary saved after hysterectomy for benign indications. Main outcome measures were ovarian pathologic findings after hysterectomy requiring repeat operation. The overall incidence of lesions in retained ovaries was 3.95 percent. There was a 3 percent risk of having secondary ovarian pathologic findings within three years after hysterectomy, with a decreased risk for the following seven years (mean follow-up time of 60 months, range of three to 120 months). Histologic findings at reoperation included common benign conditions of the ovary. No instance of carcinoma of the ovary was found. The risk of having pathology in the retained ovaries after hysterectomy was significantly higher in women who had only one ovary saved, compared with those who had both ovaries saved (7.63 versus 3.47 percent; p < 0.05). The mean age at hysterectomy was significantly lower in women who had ovarian disorders subsequent to hysterectomy than in those who did not (39.3 versus 43.9 years; p < 0.001). In the group of women with secondary ovarian lesions, mean parity was significantly lower than in those without reoperation (1.22 versus 1.94; p < 0.0001). Women with unilateral oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy had twice the risk of secondary ovarian lesions, compared with those without oophorectomy at hysterectomy. Determinants, such as age, parity and gravidity must be considered when deciding whether or not to perform oophorectomy at hysterectomy. PMID:8193751

  7. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  8. [Bronchial asthma: clinico-pathological study of fatalities in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Rabell, S; Piera, O M; Abdo, A; Sotolongo, R

    1975-01-01

    Due to the great amount of asthmatic patients presenting complications which could endanger their lives, a revision of the possible threatening factors is carried out. The factors concurring with the base pathologic mechanism are analyzed and it is demonstrated, that some of these factors intervene independently from bronchial asthma. The study is carried out on the basis of age, sex, hospital stay duration, clinical picture, blood gases analysis, complications and pathology findings: 1) Most of the deceased patients presented various pathologies besides bronchial asthma which contributed to the decease. 2) The physician should be alert in order to establish good therapeutic procedure in these patients which could carry other important complications; these complications are responsible for the fatal outcome in a great number of patients. A complication should always be searched for, e.g. pneumothorax. 3) The vast majority of patients who passed away in status were relatively young. 4) A female predominance was found. 5) All patients before entering our Center, presented asthma crisis at least three days prior to admission. 6) The predominant hospital stay duration was 24 hours. 7) The most common pathologic findings were: pulmonary fibroemphysema, acute bronchopneumonia, bronchial mucoid plugging, atelectasia and cerebral edema. 8) Cerebral edema and compression of the amygdale were common brain pathologic findings. 9) Bronchopneumonia was a common necropsy finding. 10) Based on these findings, ICU treatment is extremely important. 11) The critical status of the patient in the moment of admission, is due to the delay in bringing him to the hospital for proper medical surveyance. This justifies the interest of the Public Health Department in ample distribution of proper information to the asthmatic patients. PMID:1155315

  9. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  10. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743