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1

Pathology and embryology of common atrioventricular canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the terminology, classification, pathologic anatomy, embryology, and etiology of common atrioventricular (AV) canal. The designation common AV canal is preferred because it includes both the characteristic septal and leaflet defects; i.e. common AV canal is much more than an AV septal defect, as the cleft in the anterior mitral leaflet indicates. This cleft is indeed a

Richard Van Praagh; Silvio Litovsky

1999-01-01

2

Pathological findings in breast reduction surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of pathological findings in 157 female patients undergoing breast reduction is presented. In 33 months 295 breasts were reduced. 25.6% of these patients had an abnormal pathology report, but no cases of premalignant disease or breast cancer were found.A postal questionnaire sent to consultant members of the British Association of Plastic Surgeons in 1994 found 89% routinely

O. G. Titley; A. P. Armstrong; J. L. Christie; M. F. T. Fatah

1996-01-01

3

[Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].  

PubMed

Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

2014-10-01

4

Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

2006-01-15

5

Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

2006-01-15

6

From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. ©RSNA, 2014. PMID:25384294

Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodríguez, Pablo; Manning, Maria A; Levine, Marc S

2014-01-01

7

Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Most Common Neurodegenerative Dementias  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by deterioration in several cognitive domains in which there is selective and progressive loss of specific populations of neurons. The precise neurobiological basis for the different neurodegenerative dementias remains unknown. It is expected that different pathologies reflect different mechanisms, at least early in the neurodegeneration process. The next decades promise treatments directed to causes and mechanisms, bringing an outstanding challenge to clinicians due to heterogeneous clinical presentations with the same molecular pathology. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the key neuropathological features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias (Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration) and the relationship with the clinical syndromes described in clinico-pathological studies. We expect this overview contributes for the understanding of this broad topic integrating the two ends of the spectrum: clinical and pathological. PMID:22557993

Taipa, Ricardo; Pinho, Joao; Melo-Pires, Manuel

2012-01-01

8

INDUSTRIAL COPPER INTOXICATION IN SHEEP: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elgerwi A., J. Bíre‰, M. Levkut: Industrial Copper Intoxication in Sheep: Clinical and Pathological Findings. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 197-202. Experiments were carried out to investigate the clinical symptoms and pathological and histological findings resulting from industrial copper intoxication in improved Vallachian sheep (five-year-old females) that had been reared for five years in the deposition area of a copper-

A. ELGERWI; J. BÍRE; M. LEVKUT

1999-01-01

9

Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

Gault, Brent

2006-01-01

10

5.NF Finding Common Denominators to Add  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: To add fractions, we usually first find a common denominator. Find two different common denominators for $\\frac{1}{5}$ and $\\frac{1}{15}$. Use each com...

11

Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

12

Pathologic findings in lung allografts with anti-HLA antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background Despite data indicating a positive correlation between donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and early development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in lung allografts, the role of an antibody-mediated process in acute and chronic lung allograft rejection has not been elucidated. In this study we evaluated pathologic features of transplant lung biopsies in patients with and without DSAs. Methods Forty-one lung transplant biopsies from 41 patients at our institution were included in our study. The biopsy H&E slides were reviewed in a blinded fashion, and scored for presence of microvascular inflammation, acute rejection, bronchiolar inflammation and acute lung injury, as well as diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Microvascular inflammation was graded by the presence of capillary neutrophils on a scale of 0 to 4+. For immunohistochemical analysis, the pattern and intensity of staining for C4d and C3d deposition were evaluated in airways and alveolar capillaries. Results Histopathology suspicious for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR)—defined as ?2+ neutrophilic infiltration and/or DAD—were more common in DSA-positive cases than controls (11 of 16 vs 6 of 25, p < 0.01). Evidence of allograft dysfunction was significantly more common among patients with both DSA and suspicious histopathology compared with controls (5 of 10 vs 3 of 25, p = 0.03). The combination of DSAs and histopathology suspicious for AMR was associated with both BOS (p = 0.002) and mortality (p = 0.03). Immunohistochemistry for C3d and C4d showed no correlation with each other, DSAs or histopathology. Conclusions Grade 2+ neutrophilic infiltration is the histopathologic finding most closely related to DSAs with graft dysfunction and development of BOS in lung transplant recipients and may be a marker for AMR. PMID:23313559

DeNicola, Matthew M.; Weigt, Sam S.; Belperio, John A.; Reed, Elaine F.; Ross, David J.; Wallace, W. Dean

2013-01-01

13

Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

Milei, Jose; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

2009-01-01

14

Finding Common Ground: Multicultural YA Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that multicultural young adult literature can help to break down prejudices and broaden narrow minds. Notes that good books about people from various ethnic groups engage readers in the compounded conflicts of adolescence while helping teenagers discover that they have much in common with their fellow human beings. Notes briefly nine young…

Crowe, Chris

1998-01-01

15

Diseases affecting the peribronchovascular interstitium: CT findings and pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Central bronchi and pulmonary arteries are surrounded and enveloped by a strong connective-tissue sheath termed the peribronchovascular interstitium, extending from the level of the pulmonary hila into the peripheral lung. Thickening of the peribronchovascular interstitium can be seen in a wide variety of diseases. The CT appearance can be smooth, nodular, or irregular depending on the underlying cause. Many of the diseases affecting the peribronchovascular interstitium are entities that show a predilection for lymphatic routes, such as sarcoidosis, pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis, silicosis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. There are other entities that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium without a predominant perilymphatic distribution, such as hydrostatic pulmonary edema, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, interstitial pulmonary emphysema, and interstitial hemorrhage. Although there is an overlap in radiologic features, some CT findings are useful in differentiating among these entities. When CT shows mainly peribronchovascular abnormality, the differential diagnosis is considerably reduced, and it is generally possible to reach the correct diagnosis by considering the clinical context. We illustrate the CT findings and pathologic correlation for a number of different disorders that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium. PMID:15753880

Castañer, Eva; Gallardo, Xavier; Pallardó, Yolanda; Branera, Jordi; Cabezuelo, María Angeles; Mata, Josep María

2005-01-01

16

Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

17

Abdominopelvic actinomycosis: spectrum of imaging findings and common mimickers  

PubMed Central

Background Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease that may mimic other inflammatory conditions on imaging. Its invasive nature may lead to mass formation and atypical presentation thus making accurate diagnosis quite difficult. Purpose To describe the different aspects of abdominopelvic actinomycosis on cross-sectional imaging and indicate discriminative findings from other inflammatory or neoplastic diseases. Material and Methods In our study we analyzed 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; age range, 25–75 years; mean age, 50 years) with pathologically proved abdominopelvic actinomycosis. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) had been performed in all patients. Eleven patients had a history of using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Bowel site, wall thickness and enhancement degree, inflammatory infiltration, and features of peritoneal or pelvic mass were evaluated at CT. Results The sigmoid colon was most commonly involved. Most patients showed concentric bowel wall-thickening, enhancing homogenously and inflammatory infiltration of pericolonic fat was mostly diffuse. In 11 patients, one or more pelvic abscesses were revealed, while a peritoneal or pelvic mass adjacent to the involved bowel segment was seen in three cases. Infiltration into the abdominal wall was seen in three cases while in one case there was thoracic dissemination. Conclusion Actinomycosis is related not only to long-term use of intrauterine contraceptive devices and should be included in the differential diagnosis when cross-sectional imaging studies show concentric bowel wall-thickening, intense contrast enhancement, regional pelvic or peritoneal masses, and extensive inflammatory fat infiltration with abscess formation. PMID:24778807

der Molen, Aart Van; Es, Ad CMG Van; Giannila, Maria

2014-01-01

18

Common Chemicals May Lower Testosterone Levels, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Common Chemicals May Lower Testosterone Levels, Study Finds Phthalates, found ... Aug. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to certain chemicals commonly found in plastics and other products is ...

19

Transrectal electrical impedance tomography of the prostate: Spatially coregistered pathological findings for prostate cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common malignancies and currently represents the second leading cancer-specific cause of death in men. The current use of single modality transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance has a limited sensitivity and specificity for accurately identifying cancerous lesions within the prostate. This study introduces a novel prostate cancer imaging method that combines TRUS with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and reports on initial clinical findings based on in vivo measurements. Methods: The ultrasound system provides anatomic information, which guides EIT image reconstruction. EIT reconstructions are correlated with semiquantitative pathological findings. Thin plate spline warping transformations are employed to overlay electrical impedance images and pathological maps describing the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, with the latter used as reference for data analysis. Clinical data were recorded from a total of 50 men prior to them undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment. Student's t-tests were employed to statistically examine the electrical property difference between cancerous tissue and benign tissue as defined through histological assessment of the excised gland. Results: Example EIT reconstructions are presented along with a statistical analysis comparing EIT and pathology. An average transformation error of 1.67% is found when 381 spatially coregistered pathological images are compared with their target EIT reconstructed counterparts. At EIT signal frequencies of 0.4, 3.2, and 25.6 kHz, paired-testing demonstrated that the conductivity of cancerous regions is significantly greater than that of benign regions (?p < 0.0304). Conclusions: These preliminary clinical findings suggest the potential benefits electrical impedance measurements might have for prostate cancer detection. PMID:23718610

Wan, Yuqing; Borsic, Andrea; Heaney, John; Seigne, John; Schned, Alan; Baker, Michael; Wason, Shaun; Hartov, Alex; Halter, Ryan

2013-01-01

20

Late complications and pathological findings of the arterial switch operation.  

PubMed

We describe aortic root dilatation, severe aortic regurgitation, and pulmonary artery stenosis that were accidentally diagnosed 23 years after the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries in situs inversus. We successfully performed the modified Bentall procedure and pulmonary artery reconstruction. The pathology of the dilated aortic root revealed intimal atherosclerosis and linear necrosis of the tunica media, suggesting the vulnerability of the pulmonary artery to systemic pressure. PMID:23388218

Enomoto, Yoshinori; Mogi, Kenji; Takahara, Yoshiharu

2014-02-01

21

Food Allergies More Common Among Inner City Kids, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food Allergies More Common Among Inner City Kids, Study Finds 10 percent of children tracked had allergy to peanuts, eggs or milk (*this news item ...

22

Speech-language pathology findings in patients with mouth breathing: multidisciplinary diagnosis according to etiology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior. PMID:23362600

Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida

2010-11-01

23

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

24

Epithelioid myoepithelioma of the accessory parotid gland: pathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-05-01

25

Adrenal cytomegaly is a frequent pathologic finding in hemoglobin bart hydrops fetalis.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical cytomegaly (AC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon but tends to occur in certain situations, including specific congenital anomalies and hydrops due to maternal-fetal Rhesus incompatibility. Because the pathology in the latter condition does not differ greatly from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart hydrops fetalis, we performed a retrospective review of fetal and perinatal autopsy cases with Hb Bart to determine the prevalence of AC in that condition. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010) at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, there were 16 hydropic cases confirmed to have Hb Bart. Adrenocortical cytomegaly was found in 13 cases (81%). For comparison, we determined the occurrence of AC in cases of hydrops fetalis not due to Hb Bart (n ?=? 33) and a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies (n ?=? 34). Adrenocortical cytomegaly was identified in only 1 case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and 2 cases of anencephaly. Thus, AC is a common finding in cases of Hb Bart, a finding not previously documented. Moreover, our study suggests that Hb Bart is one of the conditions most commonly associated with AC. The reasons for this are not known. The mean Hb levels for the hydrops cases with Hb Bart and those with other forms of anemia showed no significant difference (P ?=? 0.63), nor was there any significant difference in Hb levels between cases of Hb Bart with and without AC. Nonetheless, the consistency of AC in cases of Hb Bart suggests that further study of this particular group of patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of this poorly understood pathologic finding. PMID:22257311

Taweevisit, Mana; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul S

2012-01-01

26

Educational Studies: The Problem of Finding Common Ground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of beliefs and rituals in educational research in determining the ways in which researchers attempt to find common ground that will enable them to work with researchers in other disciplines, institutions, and/or countries. The importance of procedures is also addressed. (EJS)

Wilson, John; Cowell, Barbara

1982-01-01

27

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by pulmonary cysts at computed tomography (CT) and proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells at lung biopsy. Almost all patients are female, and all have pulmonary cysts at high-resolution CT. Although the presence of cysts may be suggested at conventional CT or chest radiography, high-resolution CT is superior for cyst detection and is essential for diagnosis. The cysts are typically round; in most cases, the cyst wall is barely seen at thin-section CT. They are typically diffusely distributed throughout the central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The lung bases are affected in all patients. Some patients also have increased lung attenuation or a reticular pattern. Expiratory CT shows no air trapping between the cysts, and most of the cysts decrease in size. Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and chylothorax are complications of LAM. Certain abdominal findings may provide additional corroborative evidence of the diagnosis. Renal angiomyolipomas, the most frequent abdominal lesions, usually manifest as asymptomatic, small, bilateral tumors of fat attenuation in the renal cortex. Lymphangiomas are cystic retroperitoneal masses that occur in up to 20% of patients. Other CT findings are hypo- or hyperattenuating lymph nodes, a dilated thoracic duct, and ascites. PMID:12376610

Pallisa, Esther; Sanz, Pilar; Roman, Antonio; Majó, Joaquim; Andreu, Jordi; Cáceres, José

2002-10-01

28

PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA)  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN HATCHLING AND POSTHATCHLING LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA the survival of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), a prospective study was conducted: Dermochelys coriacea, hatchling, histopathology, leatherback sea turtle, posthatchling. INTRODUCTION

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

29

Clinical and pathological findings of severe subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral dysplasia in a rottweiler puppy.  

PubMed

Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) and mitral dysplasia were diagnosed in an asymptomatic eight-week-old rottweiler. Clinical and pathological findings were compatible with a fixed and dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Gross and microscopic pathological findings were consistent with the most severe form of SAS, described previously in Newfoundland dogs over six months of age. These observations demonstrate that very young asymptomatic puppies may suffer a severe complex form of SAS. PMID:9816571

Fernández del Palacio, M J; Bayón, A; Bernal, L J; Cerón, J J; Navarro, J A

1998-10-01

30

Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging.  

PubMed

We recommend a new term, "primary age-related tauopathy" (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (A?) plaques. For these "NFT+/A?-" brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFTs are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as "tangle-only dementia" and "tangle-predominant senile dementia", are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of A? accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

Crary, John F; Trojanowski, John Q; Schneider, Julie A; Abisambra, Jose F; Abner, Erin L; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G; Bigio, Eileen H; Cairns, Nigel J; Dickson, Dennis W; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T; Hof, Patrick R; Hyman, Bradley T; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Kovacs, Gabor G; Knopman, David S; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A; Mackenzie, Ian R; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna H; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R; Toledo, Jonathan B; Troncoso, Juan C; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T

2014-12-01

31

Limitations in Imaging Common Conjunctival and Corneal Pathologies with Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe the limitations of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathology. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, single-center case series of 40 patients with conjunctival and cornea pathology. Results: Fourier-domain OCT imaged laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps in detail, including its relation to other corneal structures and abnormalities. Similarly, in infectious or degenerative corneal disorders, Fourier-domain OCT successfully showed the extent of infiltration or material deposition, which appeared as hyper-reflective areas. In cases with pterygium, the underlying cornea could not be imaged. All cases of common conjunctival pathologies, such as nevus or pinguecula, were successfully imaged in detail. Nevi, scleritis, pterygium, pinguecula, and subconjunctival hemorrhage were hyper-reflective lesions, while cysts and lymphangiectasia were hyporeflective. The details of the underlying sclera were not uniformly imaged in conjunctival pathologies. Fourier-domain OCT imaged the trabeculectomy bleb in detail, whereas the details of structures of the anterior chamber angle were not routinely visualized in all cases. Conclusions: Light scatter through vascularized, densely inflamed, or thick lesions limits the imaging capabilities of Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. PMID:25100905

Demirci, Hakan; Steen, Daniel W.

2014-01-01

32

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts

Chul Ung Kang; Deog Gon Cho; Kyu Do Cho; Min Seop Jo

2008-01-01

33

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts

Chul Ung Kang; Deog Gon Cho; Kyu Do Cho; Min Seop Jo

34

NECROPSY FINDINGS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN COMMON LOONS FROM NEW YORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Diagnostic,and,analytical,findings,are,presented,for 105 common,loons,(Gavia immer) found,dead,or debilitated,in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis,(23% of cases) and ingestion,of lead,fishing,weights,(21%) were,the,most,common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain,etiology,accounted,for,most,of the,remaining,causes of disease,or death.,Analysis,for,total,mercury,in the,liver,of 83 loons,yielded,a geometric,mean,(gm) of 10.3 mg\\/kg,(wet,basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg\\/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing,higher,levels.,

Ward B. Stone; Joseph C. Okoniewski

35

Necropsy findings and environmental contaminants in common loons from New York.  

PubMed

Diagnostic and analytical findings are presented for 105 common loons (Gavia immer) found dead or debilitated in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis (23% of cases) and ingestion of lead fishing weights (21%) were the most common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain etiology accounted for most of the remaining causes of disease or death. Analysis for total mercury in the liver of 83 loons yielded a geometric mean (gm) of 10.3 mg/kg (wet basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing higher levels. Organochlorine contaminant levels in brain were generally low, principally consisting of PCB's (gm = 2.02 mg/kg) and DDE (0.47 mg/kg). PMID:11272494

Stone, W B; Okoniewski, J C

2001-01-01

36

Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

37

Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic\\u000a and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n?=?3) or 500 (n?=?3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two

Manuela Schnyder; Anna Fahrion; Barbara Riond; Pete Ossent; Pia Webster; Asja Kranjc; Tony Glaus; Peter Deplazes

2010-01-01

38

Finding Common Ground: Citizenship Education in a Pluralistic Democracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes citizenship education program for achieving common ground in a multicultural society that emphasizes religious liberty in American democracy protected by the First Amendment. Includes five areas: conflict resolution, consensus building, religion in the curriculum, teacher education, and religious expression in public schools. (Contains…

Metzger, Devon

2002-01-01

39

Novel molecular aberrations and pathologic findings in a tubulocystic variant of renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is an indolent type of renal cell carcinoma with a good prognosis based on the limited number of published cases. Herein, we describe the unusual clinical, pathologic and molecular findings in a case of TRCC. Our patient with TRCC had two local recurrences and a brain metastasis following radical nephrectomy. Unusual histologic findings included focal solid growth pattern and cytologic atypia. A genome-wide molecular inversion probe assay identified copy number (CN) loss in three chromosome regions and one region with copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (copy-neutral LOH). Copy number variations (CNVs) were observed (chromosomes 4p16.1 and 17q21.31-q21.32) in both the tumor and the normal tissue, and most likely represents benign variations. The loss of entire chromosomes 9, 18 and 15 and copy-neutral LOH involving 6p22.1 was observed only in the tumor. The presence of these clinical, pathologic and molecular findings could be related to an increased risk for tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. The novel molecular findings described in TRCC might represent new targets for novel therapies. PMID:24441240

Sangle, Nikhil A; Mao, Rong; Shetty, Shashirekha; Schiffman, Joshua D; Dechet, Christopher; Layfield, Lester; Agarwal, Neeraj; Liu, Ting

2013-01-01

40

Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

Tonner, Carol

1992-01-01

41

Correlation between dynamic CT findings and pathological prognostic factors of small lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Abstract Purpose: To compare pathological prognostic factors of small lung adenocarcinomas with findings of contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans. Materials and methods: We evaluated 108 patients with lung adenocarcinomas???30?mm in diameter who underwent dynamic CT scans (80–96?ml of contrast material, 2.5–3?ml/s injection) and tumor resections. Attenuation values of both the early phase (20–36?s after injection) and delayed phase (91–95?s) of enhanced CT minus baseline plain CT attenuation were defined as ?Early and ?Delay. The early enhancement ratio was defined as ?Early/?Delay×100 (%). We statistically compared the early enhancement ratios between the presence and absence of each pathological finding (lymph node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, and pleural involvement). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on early enhancement ratios: ratio ?50% (n?=?41) and ratio <50% (n?=?67) and we statistically compared these 2 groups. Results: The early enhancement ratios in the group with lymph node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, and vascular invasion were significantly lower than in the group without these findings (24.9% vs 48.6%; P?pathological prognostic factors in small lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:22752199

Koike, Wataru; Matsuo, Keiji; Kitano, Mariko; Kawakami, Kenichi; Okada, Tohru; Naganawa, Shinji

2012-01-01

42

A Presacral Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Extramedullary Hematopoiesis: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare, ubiquitous neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, with distinctive histopathological and immunohistochemical features. We herein report an unusual case of a presacral SFT diagnosed in an asymptomatic 40-year-old woman preoperatively investigated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Post-operative pathology examination showed a SFT containing foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Revision of preoperative imaging did not evidenced any findings suggesting this unusual association. The patient was free from local recurrence and metastases one year after operation. Differential radiological and histological diagnoses of solid presacral masses is briefly discussed. PMID:24416495

Savastano, Sergio; d'Amore, Emanuele S.G.; Beghetto, Mario; Borgo, Davide Dal; Franceschetti, Ilaria; Capalbo, Mirella

2013-01-01

43

Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor  

PubMed Central

Background Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown. Case We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth. Conclusion Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome. PMID:24159261

Chehade, Cynthia; Awwad, Johnny; Yazbeck, Nadine; Majdalani, Marianne; Wakim, Rima; Tfayli, Hala; Farra, Chantal

2013-01-01

44

Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

2006-01-01

45

Republished: smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF): pathologic findings and distinction from other chronic fibrosing lung diseases.  

PubMed

Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) is a common, histologically striking finding in smokers that must be distinguished from the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and other chronic interstitial fibrosing lesions. It is characterised by marked thickening of alveolar septa by fibrosis composed of thick collagen bundles that have a distinctive hyalinised quality and often are admixed with variable numbers of hyperplastic smooth muscle fibres. There is minimal accompanying inflammation. This fibrosis is usually most prominent in subpleural and centrilobular parenchyma, but can be present elsewhere as well. It is accompanied by emphysema and respiratory bronchiolitis. Most patients are asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic, and the clinical course is stable in most. This paper reviews the pathologic features of SRIF in detail, its differentiation from more ominous interstitial fibrosing processes, and the clinical implications of its diagnosis. PMID:25230948

Katzenstein, Anna-Luise A

2014-10-01

46

Pathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Fifty-six dogs from St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, were evaluated for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. Small numbers of nematodes were found within pulmonary arteries of 6 dogs. Larvae were identified in fecal samples in 2 of 6 dogs. All 6 dogs had multifocal granulomatous pneumonia and sometimes foci of chronic thrombosis, which varied from very mild to severe. One dog had extensive pulmonary lesions resulting in cor pulmonale. Right heart failure was characterized by right ventricular hypertrophy, hepatic congestion, ascites, and hydrothorax. Microscopically, in most cases, eggs, larvae, and sometimes intravascular adults, were present within lung tissue sections. Small foci of granulomatous inflammation with and without larvae were present in kidney and brain in 4 dogs. An additional dog, diagnosed antemortem with angiostrongylosis via fecal examination, was also examined. Pathological findings consisted of severe pyogranulomatous interstitial pneumonia with myriad eggs, larvae, and numerous intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes with extensive arterial thrombosis. Five hundred and seventy-two adult worms were removed from pulmonary arteries. Foci of granulomatous inflammation, often associated with larvae and/or eggs, were present in tracheobronchial lymph nodes, adrenal gland, brain, and kidneys. Severe seizuring noted antemortem was attributed to several large, discrete areas of acute hemorrhagic infarction within the cerebrum and cerebellum. Natural A. vasorum infection in domestic dogs in eastern Newfoundland causes lung pathology of variable severity, which in some cases, may progress to cor pulmonale and which may be associated with extrapulmonary lesions and clinical signs. PMID:18182502

Bourque, Andrea C; Conboy, Gary; Miller, Lisa M; Whitney, Hugh

2008-01-01

47

Hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in goats naturally infection with Cysticercus tenuicollis.  

PubMed

In Iran, Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic. The migration of this parasite causes traumatic hepatitis and death in young animals. The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in 50 goats infected with C. tenuicollis in comparison with 50 non-infected goats, as control group. This study was carried out as case-control. Blood and liver samples were taken from the goats, analyzed for hematology and biochemical parameters and liver samples were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further microscopic study in pathology laboratory. Significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total protein (P < 0.05) and significant increase in white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in infected goats (P < 0.05), compared with those in non-infected control group. The microscopic lesion in liver included large concentric foci of hemorrhage in migration stage and decreased number of hepatocytes, dilation of sinusoids, presence of inflammatory cells in portal areas and double layered parasitic cyst formation in chronic stages. In conclusion, various changes in parameters could have deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality of the herd. PMID:24505181

Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj

2014-03-01

48

Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.  

PubMed

An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention. PMID:21441198

Martínez-Jiménez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benkö, Maria; Schöniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

2011-04-01

49

A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.  

PubMed

River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

2007-06-01

50

Pathologic findings associated with delayed death in nonhuman primates experimentally infected with Zaire Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Zaire Ebola virus infection in macaques causes a fatal disease with a pathogenesis similar to that in humans. During several independent therapy studies, we noted altered tissue tropism in 6 rhesus macaques that survived longer than those with a typical disease course. The mean time to death for these 6 macaques was 21.7 days, which is significantly longer than the average mean time to death of 8.3 days for 20 untreated historical control animals. In addition to living significantly longer, these 6 animals exhibited a variety of deteriorating clinical signs with pathologic findings that were not seen in the untreated control animals, as well as the presence of viral antigen in the brain, eye, pancreas, thyroid, and lung. We suggest that treatment extended the time course of the disease and permitted the virus to infect tissues not usually affected in the typical model. PMID:17940967

Larsen, Thomas; Stevens, Edward L; Davis, Kelly J; Geisbert, Joan B; Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E; Geisbert, Thomas W

2007-11-15

51

Clinical and pathologic findings of myocarditis in two families with dilated cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

The use of endomyocardial biopsy and gallium-67 scans in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has demonstrated the presence of myocardial inflammation in a subset of patients. A family with DCM was studied with endomyocardial biopsy and gallium-67 scanning; both identified the presence of myocarditis in the proband. Evaluation of histologic sections from deceased family members revealed myocarditis as the principal pathologic finding. This patient identified during life demonstrated a defect in suppressor lymphocytic function and improved with immunosuppressive therapy. A second family with DCM was discovered when postmortem examination of the proband and his father's heart showed myocarditis. A living sibling was identified with asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction. Longitudinal follow-up of surviving members of both families are in progress. This study indicates that thorough diagnostic evaluation of all patients with familial DCM should be pursued to identify subgroups with potentially treatable inflammation.

O'Connell, J.B.; Fowles, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.; Subramanian, R.; Henkin, R.E.; Gunnar, R.M.

1984-01-01

52

An autopsy case of diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification: early stage pathologic findings.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with no medically remarkable past or family history gradually showed personality changes, memory disturbance, sleeplessness and abnormal behavior. Neurologic examination showed no focal signs and neither parkinsonism nor cerebellar ataxia was recognized. He died 4 years after the onset of dementia due to chronic renal failure. Neuropathologic examination revealed neuronal loss and gliosis in the temporal cortex, particularly in the subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus and entorhinal cortex, and insular cortex. NFTs were observed to be widespread in the cerebral cortex, especially the temporal cortex and brainstem, while senile plaques were not observed. Gallyas-Braak silver staining revealed the presence of numerous NFTs, glial inclusions and neuropil threads throughout the cerebral neocortex, limbic system, hippocampus and brainstem. The subiculum showed the most severe involvement; severe atrophy, severe neuron loss, and numerous ghost tangles (extracellular NFTs) were apparent. Although NFTs contained both monoclonal anti-3repeat-tau antibody (RD3) and RD4 immunoreactivity, this differed between the intracellular NFTs and ghost tangles. RD3 immunoreactivity was mainly observed in ghost tangles and neuropil threads, whereas RD4 immunoreactivity was mainly observed in intracellular NFTs and glial inclusions. Calcification was also found to be widespread in the cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellar cortex, white matter and dentate nucleus. These characteristic neuropathologic findings lead to the pathologic diagnosis of diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC). It is argued that this patient showed early stage pathologic signs of DNTC due to a short disease duration, which may provide clues regarding the progression of this rare disease. PMID:19389080

Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ito, Masumi; Mori, Keiko; Deguchi, Akira; Nagaoka, Masamitsu; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio

2009-12-01

53

Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

2013-01-01

54

Experimental Copper Deficiency, Chromium Deficiency and Additional Molybdenum Supplementation in Goats - Pathological Findings  

PubMed Central

Secondary copper (Cu) deficiency, chromium (Cr) deficiency and molybdenosis (Mo) has been suggested to cause the "mysterious" moose disease in the southwest of Sweden. The present experiment was performed on goats to investigate the clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations after 20 months feeding of a semi-synthetic diet deficient in Cu and Cr. Four groups were included in the study: control group (n = 4), Cu-deficient group (group 1, n = 4), Cr-deficient group (group 2, n = 2) and Cu+Cr-deficient group (group 3, n = 3). Group 3 was additionally supplemented with tetrathiomolybdate during the last 2 months of the experiment. Main histopathological findings in groups 1 and 3 were the lesions in the liver, characterised by a severe active fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, haemosiderosis and mild necroses. Additionally, degenerative alterations of the exocrine pancreas were prominent in groups 1 and 3. Lesions in group 3 were more pronounced than in group 1. In group 3, the skin showed an atrophic dermatosis, while in group 2 a crusty dermatitis caused by Candida spp. was observed. This study shows that liver, pancreas and skin are mainly affected by a long term deficiency of copper and the findings are complicated by molybdenum application while chromium deficiency produced no histomorphological effects in our study. PMID:11887391

Aupperle, H; Schoon, HA; Frank, A

2001-01-01

55

Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

2006-01-01

56

Radiological and pathological findings of a metastatic composite paraganglioma with neuroblastoma in a man: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla or paraganglia are extremely rare and present a diagnostic dilemma. These tumors consist of a neuroendocrine component mixed with a neural component. We describe the imaging characteristics together with the corresponding pathological findings of a composite tumor. Apart from any component-specific imaging findings, the hallmark of this entity is the presence of histologically

Florian R Fritzsche; Peter K Bode; Sonja Koch; Thomas Frauenfelder

2010-01-01

57

Pathologic findings in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with "young bird sickness".  

PubMed

"Young bird sickness" is a term used by racing pigeon fanciers to describe a condition that has occurred regularly in recent years and affects pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in their first year of life. It is characterized by slow crop emptying, regurgitation, diarrhea, weight loss, poor performance, and occasionally death. Little scientific information is known about this syndrome to differentiate it from other diseases that occur in young pigeons. In this study, 1 bird from each of 9 lofts where "young bird sickness" was reported was euthanatized for cytologic and postmortem examination. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system, alimentary tract, and respiratory system were the most common findings. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system were present in all birds examined, and 3 birds had histopathologic findings consistent with circovirus infection. Combinations of protozoal, fungal, and mixed bacterial infections were associated with ingluvitis in 7 birds and enteritis in 6 birds. Pneumonitis was found in 5 birds that tested positive for Chlamydophila by polymerase chain reaction. Although "young bird sickness" appears to be a multifactorial condition, a pattern of lesions that involved the lymphoreticular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems was evident, whereas diseases of other organ systems were uncommon. These findings suggest that "young bird sickness" may have a common etiology, and circovirus infection is proposed as a possible initiating cause of this syndrome in young racing pigeons in Northern Ireland. PMID:18069166

Scullion, Francis T; Scullion, Mary Geraldine

2007-03-01

58

Pathologic findings in rabies-suspect, random-source, and accidentally killed skunks.  

PubMed

To evaluate sampling biases, pathologic findings in accidentally killed skunks (ie, killed by motor vehicles) were compared with those in random-source skunks (live-trapped and euthanatized, or trap-killed during research) and skunks submitted to a public health laboratory as rabies-suspect. Presence or absence of microscopic lesions in the brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs were used to test the null hypothesis that prevalence of disease did not differ by source of collection. Brain lesions differed with the source; rabid and nonrabid skunks submitted to a public health laboratory had higher prevalences of lesions than did other skunks. Kidney, liver, and lung lesions did not differ among skunks by source of collection. Liver and lung lesions were attributed mainly to parasitism, were not severe, and did not cause debilitated condition. Lesions were seen more often in the kidneys than in other tissues. Usually, lesions were mild to severe, focal, chronic, nonsuppurative, interstitial nephritis (possibly a consequence of leptospirosis). Six of 177 skunks necropsied appeared cachectic. Aleutian disease was diagnosed in one skunk and histoplasmosis was diagnosed in another, but rabies and canine distemper virus infection were the only diseases found with the potential to cause the high population mortality. Public health surveillance cases were biased toward diseased animals (rabies and canine distemper virus infection), but random-source or accidentally killed animals provided unbiased data. Although other factors must be considered, accidentally killed skunks provided cost-effective and useful data for the evaluation of enzootic rabies. PMID:3505935

Woolf, A; Gremillion-Smith, C

1986-11-01

59

Clinical evaluation of axillar lymph nodes compared to surgical and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Reviewing the axillar lymph node status in 196 consecutive breast cancer patients and comparing clinical assessment to pathological findings, the author found an overall erroneous appraisal of 39% with 45% false negative and 29% false positive cases. In more than 15% of the cases there were skip metastases. In the T1 group, stratification to the greatest diameter of the tumor gave a significant difference (P less than 0.01) between axillar LNI in tumours smaller or equal to 1 cm and those with a diameter between 1 and 2 cm. Lymph node metastases in the interpectoral space is extremely rare (less than 0.5%) and always macroscopic. Axillar lymph nodes were always invaded in T4 tumours. The author warns against clinical studies based upon clinical assessment of the axillar lymph node status. He advocates a complete axillar lymph node dissection in all cases. He suggests that the T1 classification should be restricted to tumours with a diameter smaller or equal to 1 cm. PMID:3709822

Sacre, R A

1986-06-01

60

Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards to disease category and the categorical variables of species (common ringtail possums v others) and sex. Animals with clinical lesions were significantly more likely to be male common ringtail possums. Conclusions/Significance There is significant disease burden in common ringtail possums (especially males) in some areas of Victoria endemic for M. ulcerans disease. The natural history of the disease generally remains unknown, however it appears that some mildly affected common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums can spontaneously overcome the infection, whereas some severely affected animals, especially common ringtail possums, may become systemically, and potentially fatally affected. Subclinical gut carriage of M. ulcerans DNA in possums is quite common and in some common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums this is transient. Further work is required to determine whether M. ulcerans infection poses a potential threat to possum populations, and whether these animals are acting as environmental reservoirs in certain geographical areas. PMID:24498451

O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

2014-01-01

61

Sarcoidosis in Native and Transplanted Kidneys: Incidence, Pathologic Findings, and Clinical Course  

PubMed Central

Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in native and transplanted kidneys classically presents as non caseating granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, the incidence of sarcoidosis in native and transplant kidney biopsies, its frequency as a cause of end stage renal disease and its recurrence in renal allograft are not well defined, which prompted this study. The electronic medical records and the pathology findings in native and transplant kidney biopsies reviewed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1/1/2000 to 6/30/2011 were searched. A total of 51 patients with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis and renal abnormalities requiring a native kidney biopsy were identified. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis, consistent with renal sarcoidosis was identified in kidney biopsies from 19 of these subjects (37%). This is equivalent to a frequency of 0.18% of this diagnosis in a total of 10,023 biopsies from native kidney reviewed at our institution. Follow-up information was available in 10 patients with biopsy-proven renal sarcoidosis: 6 responded to treatment with prednisone, one progressed to end stage renal disease. Renal sarcoidosis was the primary cause of end stage renal disease in only 2 out of 2,331 transplants performed. Only one biopsy-proven recurrence of sarcoidosis granulomatous interstitial nephritis was identified. Conclusions Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in the form of granulomatous interstitial nephritis was a rare finding in biopsies from native kidneys reviewed at our center, and was found to be a rare cause of end stage renal disease. However, our observations indicate that recurrence of sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may occur in the transplanted kidney of patients with sarcoidosis as the original kidney disease. PMID:25329890

Bagnasco, Serena M.; Gottipati, Srinivas; Kraus, Edward; Alachkar, Nada; Montgomery, Robert A.; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Arend, Lois J.

2014-01-01

62

Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens  

E-print Network

Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens David D present two approaches to achieving these goals. The first, pattern languages, provides a common language workspace for designers and users. I. CURRENT PROBLEMS Technology and controversy are common companions

Southern California, University of

63

Avoiding the major complication of ophthalmic pathology: misdiagnosis. A review of three common diagnostic challenges.  

PubMed

Abstract Diagnostic errors in ophthalmic pathology are not uncommon. Pathology is a very subjective specialty with several biases dependent on such factors as training, experience, practice patterns, personal anecdotes, and inevitable human error. In addition to these factors, there are many cases where difficulty in diagnosis lies in differentiating between two very closely related, or similar appearing, entities that may have vastly different prognostic consequences. In this paper, we review three challenging areas wherein diagnostic dilemmas may occur. We outline some of the lessons we have learned in arriving at a correct diagnosis, which includes an admission of one's own limitations requiring consultation with other pathology subspecialists, and the use of immunohistochemistry. PMID:25325875

Rashid, Alia; Jakobiec, Frederick A

2014-11-01

64

CT imaging of intrabiliary growth of colorectal liver metastases: a comparison of pathological findings of resected specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of CT in the pre-operative evaluation of macroscopic intrabiliary tumour growth of colorectal liver metastases. 25 metastatic nodules of 18 patients who underwent an initial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastasis were retrospectively evaluated. The CT appearance and pathological findings of the resected specimens were correlated. A number of unusual peritumoral

K OKANO; J YAMAMOTO; T OKABAYASHI; Y SUGAWARA; K SHIMADA; T KOSUGE; S YAMASAKI; H FURUKAWA; Y MURAMATSU

65

Finding a common ordination for several data sets by individual differences scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences scaling is a multidimensional scaling method for finding a common ordination for several data sets. An individual ordination for each data set can then be derived from the common ordination by adjusting the axis lengths so as to maximize the correlations between observed proximities and individual ordination distances. The importance of the various axes for each data set

Jari Oksanen; Pertti Huttunen

1989-01-01

66

Pathological and clinical findings in a series of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological features of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were studied, and when possible the case histories were reviewed.The typical tumour is sharply demarcated but not encapsulated, is composed of sheets of cells having eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, with the deposition of amyloid in the stroma. We would stress the frequency of binucleate cells, the scarcity of mitoses,

E. D. Williams; C. L. Brown; I. Doniach

1966-01-01

67

Wnt and lithium: a common destiny in the therapy of nervous system pathologies?  

PubMed

Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3?, a central enzyme of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system. PMID:23749084

Meffre, Delphine; Grenier, Julien; Bernard, Sophie; Courtin, Françoise; Dudev, Todor; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz; Massaad, Charbel

2014-04-01

68

Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy not necessary to achieve high pathological remission in breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving trastuzumab and anthracyclines at the same time is effective at treating HER-2-positive breast cancer, but there is concern that this combination can be associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and colleagues in the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, shows these agents do not need to be given concurrently to achieve a high rate of complete pathological remission.

69

Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and correlation with pathological findings  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the radiological and pathological features of intracranial hemangiopericytoma, and improve the understanding of this tumor. A retrospective analysis of radiological and pathological features of five cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma was conducted between 2006 and 2012 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. A total of five cases (three males and two females; aged 37–60 years) were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions were lobulated with iso-intensity T1-weighted image signals and slightly long T2-weighted image signals. Cystic degeneration, necrosis and flow void were observed. The case with the lesion located under the tentorium cerebelli exhibited compression of the fourth ventricle with lateral ventricle dilatation hydrocephalus. In all cases, the solid section of the lesion was markedly enhanced following injection of the contrast agent, and intratumoral vessels were observed. No case exhibited the dural tail sign. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive expression of cluster of differentiation 34(CD34), vimentin and CD99, and negative expression of epithelial membrane antigen, S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that <5% of cells expressed Ki-67 in two cases and 5–10% of cells expressed Ki-67 in three cases. In conclusion, intracranial hemangiopericytoma exhibits certain distinctive characteristics in radiological examination, allowing for improved diagnosis. However, pathological examination is required for confirmation. PMID:25289095

MA, CONG; XU, FENG; XIAO, YU-DONG; PAUDEL, RAMCHANDRA; SUN, YI; XIAO, EN-HUA

2014-01-01

70

NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES FINDINGS FROM COLONOSCOPY AND PATHOLOGY REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Little is known about the ability of natural language processing (NLP) to extract meaningful information from free text gastroenterology reports for secondary use. Methods We randomly selected 500 linked colonoscopy and pathology reports from 10,798 non-surveillance colonoscopies to train and test the NLP system. Using annotation by gastroenterologists as the reference standard, we assessed the accuracy of an open-source NLP engine that processed and extracted clinically relevant concepts. The primary outcome was the highest level of pathology. Secondary outcomes were: location of the most advanced lesion, largest size of an adenoma removed, and number of adenomas removed. Results The NLP system identified the highest level of pathology with 98% accuracy, compared with triplicate annotation by gastroenterologists (the standard). Accuracy values for location, size, and number were 97%, 96%, and 84%, respectively. Conclusions The NLP can extract specific meaningful concepts with 98% accuracy. It might be developed as a method to further quantify specific quality metrics. PMID:23313839

Imler, Timothy D.; Morea, Justin; Kahi, Charles; Imperiale, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

71

Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

2012-06-01

72

Oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation versus atypical extraventricular neurocytoma: a case report of unusual pathologic findings of a spinal cord tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiating oligodendroglioma from extraventricular neurocytoma by conventional light microscopy alone can present a diagnostic\\u000a challenge. We report pathologic findings of an unusual spinal cord tumor from a 33-year-old male patient which showed hybrid\\u000a features of oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an enhancing intramedullary\\u000a mass in the cervicothoracic region (C7 through T6). Histologic examination revealed a clear

Addisalem T. Makuria; Fraser C. Henderson; Elisabeth J. Rushing; Dan-Paul Hartmann; Norio Azumi; Metin Ozdemirli

2007-01-01

73

More common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent paper by Kudryashov [11] seven common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations were listed and discussed in detail. We indicate two more common errors concerning the similarity (equivalence with respect to point transformations) and linearizability of differential equations and then discuss the first of them. Classes of generalized KdV and mKdV equations with variable

Roman O. Popovych; Olena O. Vaneeva

2010-01-01

74

Hypertrophy in labial capillary malformations: clinical and pathological findings in 11 patients.  

PubMed

Hypertrophy in capillary malformation (CM) may be present at birth or manifest itself later in life. To gain insight into the pathology of hypertrophic CM, we investigated a series of 11 excisional biopsies of hypertrophic lips.All biopsies showed dilated thin-walled microvessels in the superficial dermis without a neural component. However, large multinodular conglomerates of thick-walled vessels with a substantial increase in nerve fibers were found in the deeper parts of the lesions. These veins extended deep into the facial musculature. Hypertrophy in CM is caused by venous malformation underlying the CM. So CM associated with hypertrophy should be considered as Capillary Venous malformations. PMID:24051471

Oostvogels, Marieke; Meijer-Jorna, Lorine B; van der Wal, Allard C; Oduber, Charlène E U; Lapid, Oren; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

2014-03-01

75

Pathologic findings in hatchling and posthatchling leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) from Florida.  

PubMed

In an attempt to identify critical health issues affecting the survival of endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), a prospective study was conducted in several dead-in-nest hatchlings and captive posthatchlings to examine pathologic changes and presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Numerous histopathologic changes were identified. Although bacterial etiologies were suspected in deaths of captive individuals, a single causative organism was not identified but rather, a mixed population of bacterial flora was cultured. Muscle degeneration observed in most samples implicates a potential environmental factor in species survival and needs future investigation. PMID:19901372

Miller, Debra L; Wyneken, Jeanette; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Perrault, Justin; Mader, Douglas R; Weege, James; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-10-01

76

Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

Samour, Jaime

2014-03-01

77

Intraparenchymal pulmonary lipoma: pathologic-radiologic correlation of a rare presentation of a common neoplasm.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of pulmonary intraparenchymal lipoma. Lipomas are benign adipocytic tumors, which are ubiquitous in distribution, particularly in the subcutis and soft tissue. Visceral lipomas, in particular, pulmonary lipomas, are rarely reported. Even rarer are intraparenchymal lipomas, such as this case, of which less than 10 have been reported in the medical literature. The radiologic (computed tomographic scan) findings of pulmonary lipoma may be somewhat difficult to evaluate. In this case, on initial review, the computed tomographic findings were not diagnostic, but retrospective analysis revealed attenuation values suggestive of an adipocytic lesion. A high index of suspicion and careful attention to attenuation values are therefore required for radiologic diagnosis. Excision is necessary for histologic confirmation, which is generally relatively straight forward, although admixture with fibrous tissue and some cytologic atypia may pose diagnostic challenges. PMID:24818636

Parsons, Lauren; Shahir, Kaushik; Rao, Nagarjun

2014-08-01

78

Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens  

E-print Network

Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens David D@cs.umass.edu Todd M. La Porte School of Systems Engineering & Policy Analysis Delft University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands tlaporte@tmn.com Abstract---Many conflicts over specific technologies could be alleviated

Jensen, David

79

A common STEP in the synaptic pathology of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Synaptic function is critical for proper cognition, and synaptopathologies have been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase that normally opposes synaptic strengthening by dephosphorylating key neuronal signaling molecules. STEP targets include N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the tyrosine kinase Fyn. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation promotes the internalization of NMDARs and AMPARs and the inactivation of ERK and Fyn.Regulation of STEP is complex, and recent work has implicated STEP dysregulation in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Both high levels and low levels of STEP are found in a diverse group of illnesses. This review focuses on the role of STEP in three disorders in which STEP levels are elevated: Alzheimer's disease, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. The presence of elevated STEP in all three of these disorders raises the intriguing possibility that cognitive deficits resulting from diverse etiologies may share a common molecular pathway. PMID:23239949

Johnson, Micah A; Lombroso, Paul J

2012-12-01

80

Correlation of Prenatal Ultrasound Diagnosis and Pathologic Findings in Fetal Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study compared the prenatal ultrasound (US) diagnosis with autopsy findings in 61 intact fetuses following\\u000a induced abortion and 36 fragmented fetuses from dilatation and evacuation (D&E). In intact fetuses, complete agreement between\\u000a US diagnosis and autopsy findings was achieved in 65.6% of cases in the central nervous system (CNS) and 47.5% in other somatic\\u000a organ systems (SOS). There

Chen-Chih J. Sun; Kathryn Grumbach; Donna T. DeCosta; Carol M. Meyers; Jeffrey S. Dungan

1999-01-01

81

Breast Milk a Risk for Spreading Common Virus to Preemies, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... corresponding author Dr. Cassandra Josephson, a professor of pathology and pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine ... gestational age. SOURCES: Cassandra Josephson, M.D., professor, pathology and pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, and ...

82

Hemorrhagic necrosis due to peliosis hepatis: imaging findings and pathological correlation.  

PubMed

Peliosis hepatis is an uncommon liver condition characterized by blood-filled cavities. We report the CT, angiographic and MR features of a case of peliosis hepatis with no obvious etiology and spontaneously regressing hemorrhagic necrosis. Helical CT showed multiple peripheral low-density regions with foci of spontaneous high density suggesting the presence of blood component. On MR imaging, the multiple peripheral lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperdense on T2-weighted images, with bright foci on all sequences suggesting subacute blood. Angiography showed no evidence of tumor or vascular malformation; multiple nodular vascular lesions filling in the parenchymal phase and persisting in the venous phase suggested blood-filled cavities. Pathological examination showed blood-filled spaces with no endothelial lining, characteristic of the parenchymal type of peliosis. Knowledge of the imaging features of hemorrhagic necrosis due to peliosis hepatis is important since it can be responsive to antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, differentiating hemorrhagic necrosis from hepatic abscess avoids dangerous and sometimes fatal percutaneous drainage. PMID:10087115

Vignaux, O; Legmann, P; de Pinieux, G; Chaussade, S; Spaulding, C; Couturier, D; Bonnin, A

1999-01-01

83

Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the abdominal cavity: CT findings and pathological correlation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study computed tomography (CT) features of abdominal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in various rare locations. METHODS: We retroprospectively identified cases of MFH involving the abdominal cavity. Particular attention was paid to details regarding imaging features and histological types. RESULTS: The study population consisted of seven men and one woman, with a mean age of 52.5 years. Seven patients had some physical symptoms, while one was incidentally detected. The sites of origin were liver (n = 3), greater omentum (n = 1), superior mesentery (n = 1), ileum (n = 1), right psoas muscle (n = 1) and right kidney (n = 1). With the exception of the ileum lesion, all were of huge size. The contour of the lesions was more or less clear. Foci of necrosis were present in six lesions (n = 6). On plain CT scan, all lesions were hypo to iso dense. The lesion in the greater omentum was cystic. One lesion (n = 1) showed significant enhancement and the cystic lesion showed mild peripheral enhancement. An abundance of blood vessels surrounding the mass was seen in two lesions (n = 2) and both were of the inflammatory variety. Pathological examination revealed storiform-pleomorphic variety (n = 4), inflammatory variety (n = 3) and myxoid variety (n = 1). Two of the patients with inflammatory MFH had a clinical presentation of fever and one was afebrile, however, blood investigations in all three showed leukocytosis. CONCLUSION: Primary MFHs of the abdominal viscera and gastrointestinal tract are generally huge soft tissue masses containing areas of low attenuation and mild to moderate contrast enhancement. PMID:22590669

Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi-Kai; Wu, Yuan-Kui; Zhang, Wei-Wei

2012-01-01

84

Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.  

PubMed

In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area. PMID:2775094

Roffe, T J; Stroud, R K; Windingstad, R M

1989-01-01

85

Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

1989-01-01

86

Pediatric AIDS and perinatal HIV infection in Zaire: epidemiologic and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

HIV infection in women and children is a special problem in Zaire and in other countries where heterosexual transmission is predominant. Nearly half of the cases of HIV infection are in women 15 to 30 years old and as many as seven infected infants may be born each year. Whether or not infected at birth, these children have mothers, and often fathers, who are infected and likely to die while they are still very young. Such orphaned children, as well as those whose families cannot provide adequate food and health care, add to the problematic economies of developing countries. The problems of children of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries may be compounded further by factors directly related to their mother's disease. Infected mothers who are sick may produce insufficient levels of antibodies and be unable to provide their children with adequate natural passive immunity before birth. Their infants may also receive inadequate levels of breast-milk-derived antibodies possibly enhancing their already increased susceptibility to perinatal infections, and lastly, the volume of breast milk produced by these mothers may be inadequate for the nutrition of these infants. All these factors may further compromise the already difficult task of distinguishing those infants of HIV-infected mothers who are ill because they are infected from those who are ill because of their mother's disease. Regardless of the mechanisms accounting for the increased vulnerability of infants of HIV--seropositive and AIDS-afflicted mothers to perinatal infections, infant mortality can be expected to increase significantly as a direct consequence of the progression of the HIV pandemic throughout Africa and possibly other developing countries; this in populations already with a total under five-years-of-age mortality rate exceeding 15%. The association of chorioamnionitis with HIV seropositivity and with the clinical status of the mother seems to suggest that impaired maternal immunity increases the risk of premature birth, its consequent lower birth weight, and to HIV or other perinatally acquired infections. The identification of women at higher risk of chorioamnionitis and their treatment might provide a means to decrease the risk of premature delivery and possibly reduce the rate of HIV transmission to their infants. The pathologic changes in organs of infants and children with HIV infection require in-depth, systematic study to better define the natural history of perinatal HIV disease and infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1606299

Nelson, A M; Firpo, A; Kamenga, M; Davachi, F; Angritt, P; Mullick, F G

1992-01-01

87

Selected immuno-histochemical markers in curettage specimens and their correlation with final pathologic findings in endometrial cancer patients.  

PubMed

To assess the immuno-histochemical expression of various markers in, endometrial biopsies of patients with endometrial cancer, and to correlate their expression with the final pathologic findings. Sixty-two patients with primary endometrial cancer who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. Immuno-histochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, bcl-2, Her-2/neu and Ki-67 were assessed in curettage specimens, and review of the final pathology report from hysterectomy specimens was carried out. The expression of these markers in curettage was correlated with the final tumor characteristics obtained on hysterectomy specimens. Both ER and PR were significantly more expressed in endometrioid type (EC) than non- endometrioid type (NEC) (P value of 0.004 and 0.012). On the contrary, P53, Her-2 and Ki-67 showed higher positivity in NEC than EC (P value of 0.005, 0.025 and 0.002). Positive expression of ER and PR was significantly associated with low grade tumors and superficial myometrial invasion, whereas positive expression of Her-2 and Ki-67 was significantly associated with higher grade lesions, and deep myometrial invasion. Moreover, a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between the positivity of P53, Her-2 and Ki-67 and the positivity of ER, PR. We found that determination of immuno-histochemical markers in curettage specimens might be helpful in predicting the final pathologic findings in patients with endometrial cancer. This might be helpful in planning the extensivity of the surgery. PMID:23055021

Obeidat, Basil R; Matalka, Ismail I; Mohtaseb, Alia A; Al-Kaisi, Nabih S

2013-04-01

88

Medial prefrontal cortex pathology in schizophrenia as revealed by convergent findings from multimodal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging studies have found evidence of altered brain structure and function in schizophrenia, but have had complex findings regarding the localization of abnormality. We applied multimodal imaging (voxel-based morphometry (VBM), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with tractography) to 32 chronic schizophrenic patients and matched healthy controls. At a conservative threshold of P=0.01 corrected, structural

E Pomarol-Clotet; E J Canales-Rodríguez; R Salvador; S Sarró; J J Gomar; F Vila; J Ortiz-Gil; Y Iturria-Medina; A Capdevila; P J McKenna

2010-01-01

89

Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

Stanley, N. N., Williams, A. J., Dewar, C. A., Blendis, L. M., and Reid, Lynne (1977).Thorax, 32, 457-471. Hypoxia and hydrothoraces in a case of liver cirrhosis: correlation of physiological, radiographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings. A case is reported of liver cirrhosis complicated by cyanosis and recurrent right hydrothorax. A diagnostic pneumoperitoneum demonstrated that direct movement of ascites through a diaphragmatic defect was responsible for the hydrothoraces. Pulmonary function tests between episodes of hydrothorax showed severe arterial hypoxaemia, a 23% right-to-left shunt, and a reduction in the carbon monoxide transfer factor to less than half of the predicted value. Evidence of abnormal intrapulmonary arteriovenous communications was obtained by perfusion scanning. At necropsy the central tendon of the diaphragm showed numerous areas of thinning which were easily ruptured. Injection of the pulmonary arterial tree demonstrated precapillary arteriovenous anastomoses and pleural spider naevi. A morphometric analysis provided quantitative evidence of pulmonary vasodilatation limited to the intra-acinar arteries, consistent with the effect of a circulating vasodilator. The scintigraphic and pathological findings suggested that shunting had been greater in the right than the left lung. Examination of thin lung sections by light microscopy showed that the walls of small veins were thickened, and electron microscopy showed that this was due to a layer of collagen. The walls of capillaries were similarly thickened, which caused an approximately two-fold increase in the minimum blood-gas distance and contributed to the reduction in transfer factor. Images PMID:929488

Stanley, N. N.; Williams, A. J.; Dewar, C. A.; Blendis, L. M.; Reid, Lynne

1977-01-01

90

Structures and Molecular Mechanisms for Common 15q13.3 Microduplications Involving CHRNA7: Benign or Pathological?  

PubMed Central

We have investigated four ~1.6-Mb microduplications and 55 smaller 350–680-kb microduplications at 15q13.2–q13.3 involving the CHRNA7 gene that were detected by clinical microarray analysis. Applying high-resolution array-CGH, we mapped all 118 chromosomal breakpoints of these microduplications. We also sequenced 26 small microduplication breakpoints that were clustering at hotspots of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). All four large microduplications likely arose by NAHR between BP4 and BP5 LCRs, and 54 small microduplications arose by NAHR between two CHRNA7-LCR copies. We identified two classes of ~1.6-Mb microduplications and five classes of small microduplications differing in duplication size, and show that they duplicate the entire CHRNA7. We propose that size differences among small microduplications result from preexisting heterogeneity of the common BP4–BP5 inversion. Clinical data and family histories of 11 patients with small microduplications involving CHRNA7 suggest that these microduplications might be associated with developmental delay/mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, we conclude that these microduplications and their associated potential for increased dosage of the CHRNA7-encoded ?7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are of uncertain clinical significance at present. Nevertheless, if they prove to have a pathological effects, their high frequency could make them a common risk factor for many neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:20506139

Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Schaaf, Christian P.; Person, Richard E.; Gibson, Ian B.; Xia, Zhilian; Mahadevan, Sangeetha; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema; Potocki, Lorraine; Kang, Sung-Hae; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Probst, Frank J.; Graham, Brett H.; Shinawi, Marwan; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Stankiewicz, Pawel

2011-01-01

91

Groove Pancreatitis: Spectrum of Imaging Findings and Radiology-Pathology Correlation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the “groove” between the pancreatic head, duodenum, and common bile duct. The exact cause is unknown, although there are strong associations with long-term alcohol abuse, functional obstruction of the duct of Santorini, and Brunner gland hyperplasia. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, differentiating groove pancreatitis from malignancy on the basis of imaging features, clinical presentation, or laboratory markers can be extraordinarily difficult, and the vast majority of these patients ultimately undergo a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) because of an inability to completely exclude malignancy. In certain cases, however, the imaging features on CT and MRI can allow the radiologist to prospectively suggest the correct diagnosis. PMID:23789694

Raman, Siva P.; Salaria, Safia N.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2014-01-01

92

Clinical, surgical and pathologic findings of adnexal torsion in pregnant and nonpregnant women.  

PubMed

A series of 101 patients with adnexal torsion during a 12 year period are reviewed. Twenty patients were pregnant at the time of diagnosis and underwent surgical treatment. Preoperatively, the correct diagnosis was not established in four pregnant patients and in 30 nonpregnant patients. An operation was usually delayed for more than 24 hours. Unwinding of the twisted adnexa, regardless of its appearance, was the main surgical procedure in both groups. The outcome of the pregnancies was favorable. The main histopathologic findings in both groups were cysts of the follicular or corpora lutea. PMID:1948585

Bider, D; Mashiach, S; Dulitzky, M; Kokia, E; Lipitz, S; Ben-Rafael, Z

1991-11-01

93

Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares. Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms. A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported. IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test. The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms. PMID:16966455

Szeredi, L.; Haake, D. A.

2009-01-01

94

Atypical clinical and pathological findings in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis?  

PubMed Central

Isolated cortical vein thrombosis often produces a focal lesion. Because of the rapid development of collateral circulation, increased intracranial pressure has never been reported in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis is based mainly on MRI, catheter digital subtraction angiography, and histological findings, but may be challenging. We report a patient who presented with intermittent seizures and left-sided limb weakness. Her symptoms gradually progressed, and she eventually developed signs of increased intracranial pressure. Imaging studies showed a space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe of the brain. As we could not diagnose isolated cortical vein thrombosis based on the preoperative findings, surgical excision of the lesion was performed under general anesthesia. Histological examination showed destruction of the brain parenchyma with infiltration of macrophages, proliferation of reactive astrocytes and small vessels, and foci of hemorrhage. Further examination found that a number of small vessels in both the subarachnoid space and brain parenchyma were filled with thrombus, some of which was organized. Elastic fiber staining showed that the obstructed vessels were veins. We diagnosed isolated cortical vein thrombosis with atypical clinical features. PMID:25337098

Ding, Yan; Fredrickson, Vance; Lin, Yicong; Piao, Yueshan; Wang, Xiangbo; Lu, Dehong; Li, Cunjiang

2012-01-01

95

Recent findings on the role of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience difficulties in information processing and in the cognitive control of emotions. Mood-congruent biases, which parallel illness episodes, find a neural correlate in abnormal reactivity to stimuli in specific brain regions, and in disrupted functional connectivity among brain areas pertaining to corticolimbic circuitries. It is suggested that a reduced integrity of white matter tracts could underpin dysfunctions in networks implicated in the generation and control of affect. Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging techniques found that (1) independent of drug treatment, patients with BD show widespread signs of disrupted white matter microstructure, suggesting significant demyelination/dysmyelination without axonal loss, and (2) effective long-term treatment with lithium is associated with increased axial connectivity, proportional to the duration of treatment. These findings suggest that changes of white matter microstructure in specific brain networks could parallel disrupted neural connectivity during illness episodes in BD and that these changes might play a major role in the mechanistic explanation of the biological underpinnings of BD psychopathology. PMID:25377606

Benedetti, Francesco; Bollettini, Irene

2014-01-01

96

DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes  

PubMed Central

Background In systems biology it is common to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological processes underlying the data and to disentangle therein processes common to all data sources and processes distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to common and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-processing and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological processes underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for finding common and distinctive processes in multisource data. Open source code for both methods is provided. PMID:22693578

Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariet J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

2012-01-01

97

Pathological and immunohistochemical findings in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

Twenty-one American crows were identified as being West Nile virus (WNV) infected by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on fresh brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum of 16 crows) or by WNV-specific immunohistochemistry of various organs (21 crows). Consistent gross lesions attributable to WNV infection were not detected. Common histological lesions included necrosis of spleen and bone marrow. West Nile virus antigen was consistently detected in heart and kidney (100%). In addition, bone marrow (92%), duodenum (89%), proventriculus (87%), liver (86%), lung (85%), spleen (80%), pancreas (61%), and brain (45%) contained WNV antigen-positive cells. Infected cells included cardiomyocytes; neurons; endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells; hematopoietic cells of bone marrow; and macrophages of spleen, liver (Kupffer cells), and lungs. Epithelial cells of renal tubules, duodenum, pancreas, and proventriculus were also infected. The diagnostic histopathologist should consider WNV infection in crows in the absence of any inflammatory lesions. Immunohistochemistry of heart and kidney is as reliable in detecting WNV infection in American crows as RT-PCR of fresh brain tissue. PMID:15305746

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Carroll, Larry; Bender, Jeff

2004-07-01

98

Correlation of Radiographic and Pathologic Findings of Dermal Lymphatic Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that involves the skin is able to invade the dermal lymphatic system. Currently there is no way to identify patients with dermal lymphatic invasion preoperatively. The purpose of this study is to determine if CT can predict dermal lymphatic invasion. Medical records, CT scans, and corresponding histopathologic slides were reviewed of HNSCC patients with skin resected as part of their treatment. Dermal lymphatic invasion was defined radiographically as linear reticulations of the dermis and subcutaneous fat adjacent to the tumor. Twelve patients were identified with imaging suggestive of dermal lymphatic invasion. The corresponding pathology slides showed only one of the twelve patients had dermal lymphatic invasion, while the other eleven specimens showed peri-tumoral inflammation without evidence of tumor invasion. This study demonstrates that the linear areas of reticulation are most commonly caused by peri-tumoral inflammation and are not due to dermal lymphatic invasion. PMID:22116117

Spector, Matthew E.; Gallagher, K. Kelly; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Mukherji, Suresh K.

2013-01-01

99

Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses  

PubMed Central

Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases. PMID:17903247

Josefsen, Terje D; Sørensen, Karen K; Mørk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

2007-01-01

100

Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne’s disease  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively. PMID:23115369

Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

2012-01-01

101

Secretory meningiomas: clinical, radiological and pathological findings in 70 consecutive cases at one institution.  

PubMed

Secretory meningioma (SM) is a rare, benign subtype of meningioma. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 70 SMs were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological and immunohistochemical findings, and patient outcome to discuss the specific features of SMs. Cranial base preference, hyper-signal in T2 weighted MR image, "xenon light" gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement were frequently observed in the 70 cases. Non-skull base SMs, which received more complete resection (p<0.01) and had better short-term and long-term outcome, were observed with more severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) (p<0.001). In follow-up, only 1 cranial base SM case showed tumor progression. 3 cases died after operation, all with cranial base SMs. As for the 10 cases given Simpson grade 3 or 4 resection who were available at follow-up, 3 died, 5 received gamma-knife therapy, and the other 2 cases received no treatment at all. Only one of the 2 residual SMs without postoperative radiation presented minor progression at a median of 48 months follow-up. In conclusion, cranial base preference, hyper-signal T2 weighted MR image and "xenon light" GD-DTPA enhancement are specific for SMs. Prognosis of SMs is related with operation completeness and surgical risks, rather than the extent of PTBE. Residual SM grows slowly and reacts well to gamma-knife therapy. PMID:23412548

Wang, Dai-Jun; Xie, Qing; Gong, Ye; Wang, Yin; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Mao, Ying; Zhong, Ping; Huang, Feng-Ping; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Yong-Fei; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Bo-Jie; Chen, Hong; Xie, Li-Qian; Zheng, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Hong-Da; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu

2013-01-01

102

Secretory meningiomas: clinical, radiological and pathological findings in 70 consecutive cases at one institution  

PubMed Central

Secretory meningioma (SM) is a rare, benign subtype of meningioma. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 70 SMs were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological and immunohistochemical findings, and patient outcome to discuss the specific features of SMs. Cranial base preference, hyper-signal in T2 weighted MR image, “xenon light” gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement were frequently observed in the 70 cases. Non-skull base SMs, which received more complete resection (p<0.01) and had better short-term and long-term outcome, were observed with more severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) (p<0.001). In follow-up, only 1 cranial base SM case showed tumor progression. 3 cases died after operation, all with cranial base SMs. As for the 10 cases given Simpson grade 3 or 4 resection who were available at follow-up, 3 died, 5 received gamma-knife therapy, and the other 2 cases received no treatment at all. Only one of the 2 residual SMs without postoperative radiation presented minor progression at a median of 48 months follow-up. In conclusion, cranial base preference, hyper-signal T2 weighted MR image and “xenon light” GD-DTPA enhancement are specific for SMs. Prognosis of SMs is related with operation completeness and surgical risks, rather than the extent of PTBE. Residual SM grows slowly and reacts well to gamma-knife therapy. PMID:23412548

Wang, Dai-Jun; Xie, Qing; Gong, Ye; Wang, Yin; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Mao, Ying; Zhong, Ping; Huang, Feng-Ping; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Yong-Fei; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Bo-Jie; Chen, Hong; Xie, Li-Qian; Zheng, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Hong-Da; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu

2013-01-01

103

New onset pancytopenia in adults: a review of underlying pathologies and their associated clinical and laboratory findings.  

PubMed

Abstract Pancytopenia is regularly encountered in hematology practice, yet there exist few published assessments of the frequencies of various etiologies, and these frequencies exhibit substantial geographic variation. We reviewed bone marrow specimens from pancytopenic adults to determine the most common etiologies and to identify associations with clinical and laboratory findings. Of 132 patients with no history of hematolymphoid neoplasia, no prior bone marrow study for pancytopenia and no recent cytotoxic chemotherapy, 64% had clonal hematopoietic disorders. Most common were myeloid processes: 26% of patients had acute myeloid leukemia, and 17% had myelodysplasia. Less common were lymphoid neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6%), hairy cell leukemia (5%) and precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4%). Among non-clonal cases, the most common specific diagnoses were aplastic anemia (5%), megaloblastic anemia (2%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related changes (2%). Clonal diagnoses were associated with more severe cytopenias than non-clonal cases. Circulating nucleated erythroid precursors, immature granulocytes and blasts were seen more frequently in clonal cases. Nearly two-thirds of cases of new onset pancytopenia in adults in our North American practice setting have a clonal etiology, with myeloid neoplasms being most common. Blood counts and peripheral smear findings can provide insights into the likelihood of a clonal etiology. PMID:23829306

Devitt, Katherine A; Lunde, John H; Lewis, Michael R

2014-05-01

104

The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

1991-02-01

105

Agents of change: undergraduate students' attitudes following observations of speech-language pathology service delivery: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

Undergraduate communication sciences and disorders students' attitudes toward speech-language pathology (SLP) clinical services to children and adults prior to and following community-based observations were examined. Participants (n=25) completed an online survey to elicit their opinions regarding their perceptions of their observation experiences. Findings revealed that after completion of community-based SLP clinical observations, 16 (64%) respondents reported a continued interest in a child-based clinical focus; 12 (48%) respondents continued to consider a clinical interest in adults, while 5 respondents (20%) changed career interests to an adult focus based on their observation experiences. Findings support the notion that observations of SLP appear to significantly influence students' career choices. Clinical observations typically occur at the junior/senior undergraduate levels; therefore, suggestions are offered for inclusion of gerontology education embedded throughout the undergraduate communication sciences and disorders curricula to foster and expand students' knowledge of aging, and to prepare our students to meet the healthcare challenges of elders in the 21st century. PMID:24013243

Miller, Suzanne M; Ciocci, Sandra R

2013-01-01

106

Impaired Cardiovascular Function Caused by Different Stressors Elicits a Common Pathological and Transcriptional Response in Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish embryos have been widely used to study the genes and processes needed for normal vertebrate heart development. We recently observed that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or retinoic acid (RA) produces very similar signs of heart failure in developing zebrafish via divergent molecular pathways. The fact that diverse stressors and mutations cause severe pericardial edema and circulatory collapse in developing zebrafish has been largely unexplored. We hypothesized that unrelated chemicals can trigger a common pathological response leading to the same end-stage heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of TCDD, RA, carbaryl, valproic acid, and morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown of TBX5 on the developing heart in zebrafish embryos. These model stressors have all been previously reported to affect zebrafish heart development, and elicited very similar signs of embryonic heart failure. Microarray analysis showed that one cluster of 92 transcripts affected by these different treatments was significantly downregulated by all treatments. This gene cluster is composed of transcripts required for chromosome assembly, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. We refer to this cluster as the cell cycle gene cluster (CCGC). Immunohistochemistry revealed that downregulation of the CCGC precedes a halt in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the hearts of zebrafish exposed to any of the treatments. Previous work has shown that the initial response to TCDD is a decrease in cardiac output. Since this precedes the signs of edema, heart failure, and fall in CCGC expression, we postulated that any factor that decreases cardiac output will produce the same syndrome of heart failure responses. To test this, we used MO knockdown of cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2) to specifically block contractility. The TNNT2-MO produced exactly the same signs of cardiotoxicity as the other treatments, including downregulation of the signature CCGC. Our results indicate that agents altering cardiac output can have amplified consequences during specific periods in development. PMID:23837677

2013-01-01

107

More common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations: Part I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent paper by Kudryashov [11] seven common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations were listed and discussed in detail. We indicate two more common errors concerning the similarity (equivalence with respect to point transformations) and linearizability of differential equations and then discuss the first of them. Classes of generalized KdV and mKdV equations with variable coefficients are used in order to clarify our conclusions. We investigate admissible point transformations in classes of generalized KdV equations, obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions of similarity of such equations to the standard KdV and mKdV equations and carried out the exhaustive group classification of a class of variable-coefficient KdV equations. Then a number of recent papers on such equations are commented using the above results. It is shown that exact solutions were constructed in these papers only for equations which are reduced by point transformations to the standard KdV and mKdV equations. Therefore, exact solutions of such equations can be obtained from known solutions of the standard KdV and mKdV equations in an easier way than by direct solving. The same statement is true for other equations which are equivalent to well-known equations with respect to point transformations.

Popovych, Roman O.; Vaneeva, Olena O.

2010-12-01

108

In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

McGrew, W C

2010-10-27

109

First fatality associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5 in an Asian elephant: pathological findings and complete viral genome sequence.  

PubMed

Infections of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause a rapid, highly lethal, hemorrhagic disease, which primarily affects juvenile animals up to the age of four years. So far, the majority of deaths have been attributed to infections with genotype EEHV1 or, more rarely, EEHV3 and EEHV4. Here, we report the pathological characteristics of the first fatality linked to EEHV5 infection, and describe the complete viral DNA sequence. Gross post-mortem and histological findings were indistinguishable from lethal cases previously attributed to other EEHV genotypes, and the presence of characteristic herpesviral inclusions in capillary endothelial cells at several sites was consistent with the diagnosis of acute EEHV infection. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of EEHV5 DNA and was followed by sequencing of the viral genome directly from post-mortem material. The genome is 180,800?bp in size and contains 120 predicted protein-coding genes, five of which are fragmented and presumably nonfunctional. The seven families of paralogous genes recognized in EEHV1 are also represented in EEHV5. The overall degree of divergence (37%) between the EEHV5 and EEHV1 genomes, and phylogenetic analysis of eight conserved genes, support the proposed classification of EEHV5 into a new species (Elephantid herpesvirus 5). PMID:25199796

Wilkie, Gavin S; Davison, Andrew J; Kerr, Karen; Stidworthy, Mark F; Redrobe, Sharon; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Denk, Daniela

2014-01-01

110

Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Preliminary study results suggest that a biomarker ... then exposed to a rhinovirus, which causes a common cold, and quarantined for 5 days to see ...

111

Bearing arms against osteoarthritis and sarcopenia: when cartilage and skeletal muscle find common interest in talking together.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis, a disease characterized by cartilage degradation, abnormal subchondral bone remodelling and some grade of inflammation, and sarcopenia, a condition of pathological muscle weakness associated with altered muscle mass, strength, and function, are prevalent disorders in elderly people. There is increasing evidence that decline in lower limb muscle strength is associated with knee or hip osteoarthritis in a context of pain, altered joint stability, maladapted postures and defective neuromuscular communication. At the cellular and molecular levels, chondrocytes and myoblasts share common pathological targets and pathways, and the close anatomical location of both cell types suggest a possibility of paracrine communication. In this review, we examine the relationship between osteoarthritis and sarcopenia in the musculoskeletal field, and discuss the potential advantage of concomitant therapies, or how each disorder may benefit from treatment of the other. PMID:23973339

De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Fradin, Armel; Pastoureau, Philippe

2014-03-01

112

Focal nodular hyperplasia: findings at state-of-the-art MR imaging, US, CT, and pathologic analysis.  

PubMed

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma. FNH is classified into two types: classic (80% of cases) and nonclassic (20%). Distinction between FNH and other hypervascular liver lesions such as hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hypervascular metastases is critical to ensure proper treatment. An asymptomatic patient with FNH does not require biopsy or surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has higher sensitivity and specificity for FNH than does ultrasonography or computed tomography. Typically, FNH is iso- or hypointense on T1-weighted images, is slightly hyper- or isointense on T2-weighted images, and has a hyperintense central scar on T2-weighted images. FNH demonstrates intense homogeneous enhancement during the arterial phase of gadolinium-enhanced imaging and enhancement of the central scar during later phases. Familiarity with the proper MR imaging technique and the spectrum of MR imaging findings is essential for correct diagnosis of FNH. PMID:14730031

Hussain, Shahid M; Terkivatan, Türkan; Zondervan, Pieter E; Lanjouw, Esmée; de Rave, Sjoerd; Ijzermans, Jan N M; de Man, Rob A

2004-01-01

113

GPDTI: A Genetic Programming Decision Tree Induction method to find epistatic effects in common complex diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The identification of risk-associated genetic variants in common diseases remains a challenge to the biomedical research community. It has been suggested that common statistical approaches that exclusively measure main effects are often unable to detect interactions between some of these variants. Detecting and interpreting interactions is a challenging open problem from the statistical and computational perspectives. Methods in computing

Jesús K. Estrada-gil; Juan C. Fernández-lópez; Enrique Hernández-lemus; Irma Silva-zolezzi; Alfredo Hidalgo-miranda; Gerardo Jiménez-sánchez; Edgar E. Vallejo-clemente

2007-01-01

114

Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the antigen distribution in the various organs, and the amount of antigen varied among both species. Therefore, the diagnostician may choose organs for histology and immunohistochemistry as well as RT-PCR depending on the investigated species in order to avoid false-negative results. PMID:16094831

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

2005-06-01

115

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

116

The 8,344 mutation in mitochondrial DNA: A comparison between the proportion of mutant DNA and clinico-pathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients, two men and eight women with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, had an A-G mutation at nucleotide pair 8,344 in the mitochondrial DNA, the most common genetic defect in myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). Eight patients had the clinical and pathologic characteristics of MERRF including myoclonus, seizures, cerebellar ataxia and myopathy with ragged-red fibers. Two patients had atypical symptoms such

Matsuko Ozawa; Yu-Ichi Goto; Ryoichi Sakuta; Yoshinori Tanno; Shoji Tsuji; Ikuya Nonaka

1995-01-01

117

PLANETARY SCIENCE: Most-Common Meteorites Find a Home Among the Asteroids.  

PubMed

Meteoriticists have long been puzzled by the fact that the most common meteorites, so-called ordinary chondrites, don't appear to have come from the most common asteroids, the S-types. Last week, however, a group of researchers attending the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union here announced that the 31-kilometer-long S-type asteroid Eros now being orbited by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft is made of the same stuff as ordinary chondrites. That conclusion comes from NEAR Shoemaker's first-ever analysis of the elemental composition of an asteroid. PMID:17836680

Kerr, R A

2000-06-01

118

Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issue’s etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the literature suggests a number of commonalities across

Deborah Daro; Jeffrey L. Edleson; Howard Pinderhughes

2004-01-01

119

Finding twitter communities with common interests using following links of celebrities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important problem in target advertising and viral marketing on online social networking sites is the efficient identification of communities with common interests in large social networks. Existing methods involve large scale community detection on the entire social network before determining the interests of individuals within these communities. This approach is both computationally intensive and may result in communities without

Kwan Hui Lim; Amitava Datta

2012-01-01

120

Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP) were investigated. Methods Sixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]); group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty); and group III (incidental or normal findings). Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed. Results Brain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74%) with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30%) with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88%) with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT), and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01) and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05) than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05). Conclusion Earlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up. PMID:24904875

Choi, Keun Hee; Chung, Seung Joon; Kang, Min Jae; Yoon, Ju Young; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ah; Yang, Sei Won

2013-01-01

121

Pathological findings and PSA outcomes after radical prostatectomy in men eligible for active surveillance: does the risk of misclassification vary  

E-print Network

-Clément Abbou, Alexandre de la Taille INSERM U955 eq07 Departments of Urology and Pathology, APHP, CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France Correspondence: Dr A. de la Taille INSERM U955 Eq07 Department of Urology, CHU-5Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Urology The 2010;183(2):539-44" DOI : 10.1016/j

Boyer, Edmond

122

Clinical, electrophysiological, and MRI findings in patients with cerebellar ataxia and a bilaterally pathological head-impulse test.  

PubMed

A significant number of patients with bilateral vestibulopathy suffer from cerebellar ataxia and central vestibular symptoms and vice versa. We examined 31 patients presenting with the combination of gait and stance ataxia, cerebellar ocular motor signs, and a bilaterally pathological head-impulse test (HIT). Tests included neuro-orthoptical examination, electromyography and neurography, caloric irrigation, pure-tone audiogram, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Only 17 of 31 patients had a pathological caloric irrigation. Twenty-three patients had evidence of polyneuropathy (predominantly mixed sensorimotor involving axonal loss and demyelination) and twenty of hypoacusis (1 unilateral and 19 bilateral). Voxel-based morphometry comparing local gray matter brain volume between patients and controls revealed cerebellar atrophy involving both the vermis and the hemispheres. We conclude that there is a clinically relevant combination of cerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, bilaterally pathological HIT, polyneuropathy, and hypoacusis. This multisensory syndrome is most likely caused by a neurodegenerative disorder affecting different systems, leading to severe impairment of affected patients. PMID:21950985

Kirchner, Hanni; Kremmyda, Olympia; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Zingler, Vera; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

2011-09-01

123

Pathological and Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in a Single-Center Study of 229 Consecutive Girls with Early or Precocious Puberty  

PubMed Central

Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. Objective To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Method A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. Results Thirteen out of 208 (6.3%) girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8–9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6%) had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p?=?0.025); no cut of value was found as values overlapped. Conclusion A high frequency of 6–8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI. PMID:22253792

Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; S?rensen, Kaspar; Main, Katharina M.; Gideon, Peter; Juul, Anders

2012-01-01

124

Robotics, free-reed instruments, and naughty birds: Finding the common thread.  

PubMed

Musical acoustics often provides an accessible starting point for undergraduate research in which the basics are learned and applied to interesting problems. Even if students later study other areas of acoustics, the research experience gained is invaluable. This presentation will touch on a number of research projects encountered since the author's 2006 award for investigations of the acoustic behavior of Southeast Asian free-reed mouth organs. These projects come from a wide variety of acoustic disciplines, from nondestructive evaluation and architectural acoustics to benign bird exclusion and acoustic sensors for mobile robots, with the common thread of signal processing providing a focal point. PMID:25235290

Dieckman, Eric A

2014-04-01

125

Extra-nigral pathological conditions are common in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: an in vivo positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Cholinergic denervation has been associated with falls and slower gait speed and ?-amyloid deposition with greater severity of axial motor impairments in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the association between the presence of extra-nigral pathological conditions and freezing of gait (FoG). Patients with PD (n?=?143; age, 65.5?±?7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.4?±?0.6; Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, 25.9?±?2.6) underwent [(11) C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase and [(11) C]dihydrotetrabenazine dopaminergic PET imaging, and clinical, including FoG, assessment in the dopaminergic "off" state. A subset of subjects (n?=?61) underwent [(11) C]Pittsburgh compound-B ?-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Normative data were used to dichotomize abnormal ?-amyloid uptake or cholinergic deficits. Freezing of gait was present in 20 patients (14.0%). Freezers had longer duration of disease (P?=?0.009), more severe motor disease (P?common in patients with diminished neocortical cholinergic innervation (23.9%, ?(2) ?=?5.56, P?=?0.018), but not in the thalamic cholinergic denervation group (17.4%, ?(2) ?=?0.26, P?=?0.61). Subgroup analysis showed higher frequency of FoG with increased neocortical ?-amyloid deposition (30.4%, Fisher Exact test: P?=?0.032). Frequency of FoG was lowest with absence of both pathological conditions (4.8%), intermediate in subjects with single extra-nigral pathological condition (14.3%), and highest with combined neocortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy (41.7%; Cochran-Armitage trend test, Z?=?2.63, P?=?0.015). Within the group of freezers, 90% had at least one of the two extra-nigral pathological conditions studied. Extra-nigral pathological conditions, in particular the combined presence of cortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy, are common in PD with FoG and may contribute to its pathophysiology. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:24909584

Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Frey, Kirk A; Studenski, Stephanie; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Constantine, Gregory M; Scott, Peter J H; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M

2014-08-01

126

Top Databases Are you wondering where to find articles? Here are a few of our most commonly-used  

E-print Network

Top Databases Are you wondering where to find articles? Here are a few of our most commonlySearch You can also do searches for articles and book content directly in GalterSearch. Run your search and click on the Articles link at the top of the results set. This will take you to Primo Central, a multi

Engman, David M.

127

Effects of Dietary Selenium on Tissue Concentrations, Pathology, Oxidative Stress, and Immune Function in Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached

J. Christian Franson; David J. Hoffman; Alicia Wells-Berlin; Matthew C. Perry; Valerie Shearn-Bochsler; Daniel L. Finley; Paul L. Flint; Tuula Hollmén

2007-01-01

128

Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.  

PubMed

To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

2012-11-01

129

Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: finding common grounds.  

PubMed

A flow of key information links marine spatial planning (MSP) and oil spill risk analysis (OSRA), two distinct processes needed to achieve true sustainable management of coastal and marine areas. OSRA informs MSP on areas of high risk to oil spills allowing a redefinition of planning objectives and the relocation of activities to increase the ecosystem's overall utility and resilience. Concomitantly, MSP continuously generates a large amount of data that is vital to OSRA. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping system emerges as an operational tool to implement the MSP-OSRA link. Given the high level of commonalities between ESI and MSP data (both in biophysical and human dimensions), ESI tools (both paper maps and dynamic GIS-based product) are easily developed to further inform MSP and oil spill risk management. Finally, several other benefits from implementing the MSP-OSRA link are highlighted. PMID:23941806

Frazão Santos, Catarina; Michel, Jaqueline; Neves, Mário; Janeiro, João; Andrade, Francisco; Orbach, Michael

2013-09-15

130

Common allergens of atopic dermatitis in dogs: comparative findings based on intradermal tests  

PubMed Central

Intradermal tests were performed on 58 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis from 2004~2008 at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Konkuk University, Korea. To compare the allergen distribution observed in the present investigation to the results from other studies conducted in Korea and elsewhere, the allergens were grouped according to their kinds. There was no significant difference in gender distribution among the dogs. The most common breeds among the 58 dogs were Maltese (n = 11) and Shih-tzu (n = 11). The average age was 4.8 years. The most frequently produced a positive reaction on the intradermal tests was mold (67.3%) followed by house dust (54.5%) and house dust mites (49.1%). The present study found a low distribution of dogs allergic to various outdoor allergens compared to studies performed in other countries; this may reflect differences in living conditions for dogs living in Korea. PMID:21897103

Kim, Ha-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee

2011-01-01

131

Further exploration during open appendicectomy; assessment of some common intraoperative findings  

PubMed Central

Objective: Very few studies are available to relate the final histology of excised appendix with the detailed intra-operative findings during appendectomy, both open and laparoscopic. This study was aimed to correlate the histological features of appendix specimen with the intra operative findings at open appendicectomy (OA) in a bid to determine when to change the planned procedure to include further exploration. Methods : A prospective study that observes the condition of the greater omentum (GO), the vermiform appendix and peritoneal exudates at all OA done for uncomplicated appendicitis. Histological examination of the appendices done using the H&E stain. Results : Eighty-five patients had emergency open OA, their’ ages range from 6 to 62 yrs (median = 23yrs). Histology showed 7 normal appendix (HNA), 56 acute (HAA) and 22 “non acute” appendicitis (HNAA). Negative appendicectomy rate was 8.2%. The GO was sighted more in patients with HAA than HNAA (p=0.00015) and also significantly more inflamed in the former (p=0.00028). It is not significantly inflamed in those with HNAA (p=0.945). The negative predictive value (NPV) of absent GO is 35.7% while the positive predictive value (PPV) of sighted normal GO and inflamed GO are 92.8% and 100% respectively. The PPV and NPV of presence of pus for diseased appendix are 95.8% and 9.8% respectively while those of excess fluid are 94.8% and 10.8%. The PPV and NPV of macroscopic assessment of the appendix for inflammation are 97% and 45.5% respectively giving the diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. A significant trend of increasing probability of histologically inflamed appendix with increasing severity of macroscopic feature was seen (X2 = 004 df=1, p<0.005). Conclusion: High positive and low negative predictive values are similar for all the three parameters assessed. The macroscopic appearance of the appendix has a predictive likelihood ratio for further exploration. PMID:24772134

Saliu Oguntola, Adetunji; Layiwola Adeoti, Moses; Olayide Agodirin, Sulaiman; Adeniyi Oremakinde, Adetunji; O Ojemakinde, Kunle

2014-01-01

132

Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

Franson, J. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M. C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, D. L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

2007-01-01

133

Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

2007-01-01

134

PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

Wu Kailiang [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ung, Yee C., E-mail: yee.ung@sunnybrook.c [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hornby, Jennifer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

135

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

136

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in a fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly. Report of a case diagnosed by genetic analysis, and correlation with pathological andradiologic findings.  

PubMed

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly characterized by a disproportionate limb dwarfism, chondroectodermal dysplasia, congenital heart disease, postaxial polydactyly, and dysplastic fingernails and teeth. Only 300 cases have been published worldwide. We report a 21-week fetus with rhizomelia and polydactyly detected. Gross photographs, radiologic studies and pathological study were performed leading to the clinico-pathological suspicion of EvC. DNA from fresh fetal tissue was extracted for sequencing the EVC and EVC2 genes. p.W215X and p.R677X mutations were identified in the EVC2 gene in the fetal sample. Parental sample analysis showed the p.W215X mutation to be inherited from the mother and the p.R677X mutation from the father. The clinical information is essential not only to arrive at a correct diagnosis in fetuses with pathologic ultrasound findings, but also to offer a proper genetic counseling to the parents and their relatives. PMID:22406498

Peraita-Ezcurra, Milena; Martínez-García, Mónica; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, María Eugenia; Fenollar-Cortés, María; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Ramos-Corrales, Carmen; Pastor, Ignacio; Santonja, Carlos; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

2012-05-10

137

Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation.  

PubMed

There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yap?c?er, Ozlem; Onat, Elif; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Akak?n, Ak?n; Urgun, Kamran; K?l?ç, Türker

2014-01-01

138

Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

2004-09-01

139

Primary appendiceal lymphoma presenting as suspected perforated acute appendicitis: clinical, sonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for extranodal involvement by non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, primary appendiceal lymphomas presenting as perforated acute appendicitis are very rare: they occur in only 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphoma cases. The management of this condition is still controversial, and a multimodality approach (e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) is the optimal treatment. In these cases, appendiceal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas typically manifest with acute symptoms in patients with no prior lymphoma history. Additionally, we treated our patient with a right hemicolectomy and postoperative multiagent chemotherapy.

Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaodong

2014-01-01

140

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rotator Cuff Pathology Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ranges from a normal, asymptomatic aging process to ...

141

Transplantation Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this chapter is to provide a practical, concise review of transplantation pathology. A brief review of transplantation\\u000a immunology is given to put some of the aspects of clinical transplantation care into perspective. Complications of transplantation\\u000a common to all organs are also addressed. All the criteria for diagnosis are highlighted in boxed tables for easy reference\\u000a with illustrations

Oscar W. Cummings

142

Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are non-specific: 13-year-experience at a German Heart Center  

PubMed Central

Background and aim: Ventricular assist devices (VAD) have become an established therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. The two main reasons for this development are the shortage of appropriate donor organs and the increasing number of patients waiting for heart transplantation (HTX). Furthermore, the enormous advances in the technical equipment and the rising clinical experience have improved the implantation technique, the durability and the long-term patient outcomes. Methods: We reviewed all cases of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation at our Erlangen Heart Center during January 2000-July 2013. The main aim of this study was to analyze the underlying pathology from the cardiac apex removed during the implantation. From all patients, we created a follow-up, analyzed the pathological features with the clinical diagnoses and described the overall outcome. Results: VAD implantation was performed in 266 cases at our center in the last 13 years (2.2% of the total of 12254 cardiac surgical operations in that period). From these patients, 223 underwent LVAD or biventricular (BVAD) implantation; the remaining received a right (RVAD) implantation. The most frequent underlying clinical diagnoses were dilated (n = 84, 37.7%, DCM) or ischemic (n = 61, 27.4%, ICM) cardiomyopathy. The pathological findings in the apex biopsy were generally non-specific and showed variable interstitial myocardial fibrosis with evidence of fibre loss, fatty degeneration and variable irregular atrophy of muscle fibres, consistent with dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathies as the most frequent causes of heart failure in these patients. Only a few cases showed other specific features such as myocarditis and AL-amyloidosis. Conclusions: Pathological findings in cardiac apex removed during LVAD implantation are rather non-specific and they generally reflect the late stage or consequences of chronic myocardial damage in cases of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathies. Variable patchy chronic inflammatory changes may be observed in cardiomyopathies as a non-specific reaction caused by myocardial fiber damage and should not lead to misinterpretation as evidence of myocarditis or revision of original diagnosis. PMID:25337196

Strecker, Thomas; Rosch, Johannes; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

2014-01-01

143

Pictorial review CT of duodenal pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pictorial review presents the CT findings in different pathological entities of the duodenum. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality, i.e. abdominal CT, in the diagnosis of various duodenal disorders. The current widespread use of abdominal CT has resulted in the detection, sometimes as an incidental finding, of various duodenal abnorm-

R ZISSIN; A OSADCHY; G GAYER; M SHAPIRO-FEINBERG

144

The neurobiology of pathological gambling.  

PubMed

Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related. PMID:11447573

Potenza, M N

2001-07-01

145

Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.  

PubMed

Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes. PMID:24450048

Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

2013-12-01

146

Ultrasound evaluation of scrotal pathology.  

PubMed

Palpable scrotal mass, acute scrotal pain, and enlarged scrotum are common scenarios in clinical practice. The imaging modality of choice to evaluate scrotal pathology is ultrasound (US). US is key in determining if a palpable abnormality is extratesticular or intratesticular and cystic or solid. US findings help narrow the differential to benign or malignant causes. Extratesticular lesions are more common and usually benign. Rarely, extratesticular solid lesions are malignant but US features are nonspecific. Accurately diagnosing rare benign intratesticular lesions is vital to avoid unnecessary orchiectomy. This article reviews extratesticular and intratesticular lesions presenting as a palpable mass and other conditions commonly seen. PMID:22498445

Mirochnik, Brandon; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K; Kanth, Nalini

2012-03-01

147

Autoimmune pathology accounts for common manifestations in a wide range of neuro-psychiatric disorders: the olfactory and immune system interrelationship.  

PubMed

Smell has traditionally been considered a less important sense when compared to sight or hearing, but recent research has unraveled important features inherent to the sense of smell. Once considered just a chemical sensor for sampling the environment, data from animal models and human studies currently imply numerous and complex effects of smell on behavior, mood, and on the immune response. In this review we discuss a possible inter-relationship between olfactory impairment, autoimmunity and neurological/psychiatric symptoms in several diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, autism, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus. We suggest that common manifestations are not mere coincidences. Current data from animal models show that neuropsychiatric manifestations are intimately associated with smell impairment, and autoimmune dysregulation, via autoantibodies (anti-NMDAR, anti-ribosomal P) or other mechanisms. From clues of pathological manifestations, we propose a novel approach to the understanding of the interactions between the CNS, the smell and the immune system. PMID:19097945

Moscavitch, Samuel-Datum; Szyper-Kravitz, Martine; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2009-03-01

148

MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

Thomas M. Link

149

Radiologic-pathologic correlation of uncommon mesenchymal liver tumors.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal liver tumors are rarely encountered in clinical practice. We review the spectrum of mesenchymal liver tumors with radiologic-pathologic correlation. There is an overlap of cross-sectional imaging findings of mesenchymal liver tumors with that of the more common malignant epithelial tumors. Familiarity with the radiologic findings and its pathologic basis would help radiologists to include these uncommon liver tumors in their differential diagnosis. PMID:24070712

Bhargava, Puneet; Iyer, Ramesh S; Moshiri, Mariam; Yeh, Matthew M; Upton, Melissa P; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Gupta, Rajan T

2013-01-01

150

Histological, laboratory, and x-ray findings after repair of the common bile duct with a Teflon ® graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common duct was ligated in 25 dogs, 5 of which served as controls. Serum bilirubin, GOT, GPT, and alkaline phosphatase were measured pre- and postoperatively. Eight days later, in 10 dogs, a longitudinal incision was made across the stenosed segment of the common bile duct, which was then widened with a Teflon® patch. In 10 other dogs, the stenosis

Hans Hartung; Rainer Kirchner; Nobuo Baba; Dieter Waldmann; Ernst-Peter Strecker

1978-01-01

151

UCLA stem cell scientists find tumor suppressor genes vital to regulating blood precursor cells in the common fruit fly  

Cancer.gov

UCLA scientists affiliated with the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have shown that two common tumor suppressor genes, TSC and PTEN, are vital to regulating the stem cell-like precursor cells that create the blood supply in Drosophila, the common fruit fly.

152

Inhibition of fibrosis and inflammation by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin in rabbits with drug-induced lung injury: comparison of CT imaging and pathological findings  

PubMed Central

In a rabbit model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, computed tomography (CT) and pathological studies were conducted to investigate whether the progression of this injury is inhibited by pirfenidone and by triple therapy with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. We divided nine rabbits with bleomycin-induced lung injury into three equally sized groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 received pirfenidone alone and group 3 was treated with pirfenidone, edaravone and erythropoietin. Multidetector CT (MDCT) scans were acquired immediately after the administration of bleomycin, and further scans were performed on days 14 and 28. The area of abnormal opacity was calculated. The rabbit lungs were removed and the size of abnormal areas in macroscopic specimens was calculated and the degree of fibrosis and inflammation in microscopic specimens was scored. In order, the average size of the area of abnormal opacity on CT scans was largest in group 1, followed by groups 2 and 3. On day 28, the area of opacity was significantly smaller in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.071). The average size of the area of abnormal opacity on macroscopic findings was largest in group 1, followed in order by groups 2 and 3; the difference between group 1 and 3 was significant (P<0.05). The average fibrosis score was highest in group 3 followed by groups 2 and 1. By contrast, the average inflammation score was highest in group 2 followed by groups 1 and 3. Although the administration of pirfenidone alone slowed the progression of bleomycin-induced lung injury, the triple-drug combination was more effective. PMID:24223628

WATANABE, SHOBU; NITTA, NORIHISA; SONODA, AKINAGA; NITTA-SEKO, AYUMI; OHTA, SHINICHI; TSUCHIYA, KEIKO; OTANI, HIDEJI; TOMOZAWA, YUKI; NAGATANI, YUKIHIRO; MUKAISHO, KENICHI; TAKAHASHI, MASASHI; MURATA, KIYOSHI

2013-01-01

153

Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links  

E-print Network

Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links list (below in alphabetical order) to jump to all other web sites. Have a site you Emeritus o Leaving o New · Emergency Alert o WVU Alert Web site o WVU Phone/Email Alert o Monongalia County

Mohaghegh, Shahab

154

Pathology of lymphoma in HIV  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Individuals with HIV infection have a greatly increased risk of developing malignancies, even when HIV infection is successfully controlled with antiretrovirals. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is considered an AIDS-defining entity, and this disease is currently the most common type of cancer in HIV-infected individuals in the US and Europe. Here we describe the different types of lymphomas occurring in individuals with AIDS, and the most relevant pathologic features helpful for histologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis. Recent findings The incidence of some AIDS-related lymphoma subtypes has changed since the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy, and some of the diagnostic methodologies have evolved. New biomarkers of disease have been identified, which may be useful for diagnosis. Summary Better pathological classification strategies and deeper molecular understanding of the different lymphoma subtypes that occur in people with AIDS will begin to allow the transition to more precise diagnosis and targeted treatments. PMID:23942293

Cesarman, Ethel

2014-01-01

155

Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10?6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10?6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10?17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10?8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10?10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menendez-Rodriguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labreche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guenel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dork, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rubner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiss, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Alvarez, Nuria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Bruning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkila, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myohanen, Eija; Kemilainen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A

2014-01-01

156

Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.  

PubMed

Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

2014-11-15

157

[Pathological gambling].  

PubMed

The case of a patient with a pathological urge to gamble is presented. Until 1990, gambling casinos were prohibited in Denmark. In 1990, a new law was enforced which permitted six casinos in Denmark. Previously, no reports were available in the medical literature concerning pathological gambling in Denmark. The incidence of pathological gambling will probably increase as a consequence of the new law. PMID:1509552

Krag, N J

1992-06-29

158

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

SciTech Connect

In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

2000-05-01

159

Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

Franson, J. C.; Hollmen, R.; Poppenga, R. H.; Hario, M.

2000-01-01

160

Antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits: a comparative study between high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pathologic findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and value of high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluation of synovitis in rabbit knee joint in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Thirty-six rabbits were divided into three groups, each injected with different doses of ovalbumin (OVA) into the right knee joint. On week 1 and 4, 6 randomly selected in each group were killed. Each knee joint undergone the high-resolution ultrasound to measure capsule thickness and contrast-enhanced ultrasound to measure synovium thickness. The results from the ultrasound examinations were compared with those of pathologic examinations. Different OVA doses resulted in different modeling success rate, different pathological synovitis score, and different capsule and synovium thickness measured by ultrasound. The diagnostic accuracy of synovitis by ultrasound was high. The ultrasound measurement revealed that the capsule thickness on week 4 was lessened than that on week 1, while the synovial thickness on week 4 was greater than that on week 1. Both the joint capsule and synovium thickness measured by ultrasound were significantly and positively correlated to the pathologic synovitis score (P < 0.05). The synovial thickness on week 4 is more correlated to the synovitis score than the capsule thickness, rather than that on week 1. Injection of OVA of different doses results in different modeling success rate and synovitis severity. The high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to determine whether the AIA was made successfully and evaluate the synovitis severity. In chronic inflammatory phase, the contrast-enhanced ultrasound has better effect. PMID:21327428

Qiu, Li; Jiang, Yong; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Lingyan; Xu, Huan

2012-06-01

161

Cryptic deletions are a common finding in "balanced" reciprocal and complex chromosome rearrangements: a study of 59 patients  

PubMed Central

Using array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) 41 de novo reciprocal translocations and 18 de novo complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) were screened. All cases had been interpreted as “balanced” by conventional cytogenetics. In all, 27 cases of reciprocal translocations were detected in patients with an abnormal phenotype, and after array CGH analysis, 11 were found to be unbalanced. Thus 40% (11 of 27) of patients with a “chromosomal phenotype” and an apparently balanced translocation were in fact unbalanced, and 18% (5 of 27) of the reciprocal translocations were instead complex rearrangements with >3 breakpoints. Fourteen fetuses with de novo, apparently balanced translocations, all but two with normal ultrasound findings, were also analysed and all were found to be normal using array CGH. Thirteen CCRs were detected in patients with abnormal phenotypes, two in women who had experienced repeated spontaneous abortions and three in fetuses. Sixteen patients were found to have unbalanced mutations, with up to 4 deletions. These results suggest that genome?wide array CGH may be advisable in all carriers of “balanced” CCRs. The parental origin of the deletions was investigated in 5 reciprocal translocations and 11 CCRs; all were found to be paternal. Using customised platforms in seven cases of CCRs, the deletion breakpoints were narrowed down to regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. No susceptibility motifs were associated with the imbalances. These results show that the phenotypic abnormalities of apparently balanced de novo CCRs are mainly due to cryptic deletions and that spermatogenesis is more prone to generate multiple chaotic chromosome imbalances and reciprocal translocations than oogenesis. PMID:17766364

De Gregori, M; Ciccone, R; Magini, P; Pramparo, T; Gimelli, S; Messa, J; Novara, F; Vetro, A; Rossi, E; Maraschio, P; Bonaglia, M C; Anichini, C; Ferrero, G B; Silengo, M; Fazzi, E; Zatterale, A; Fischetto, R; Previdere, C; Belli, S; Turci, A; Calabrese, G; Bernardi, F; Meneghelli, E; Riegel, M; Rocchi, M; SGuerneri; Lalatta, F; Zelante, L; Romano, C; Fichera, Ma; Mattina, T; Arrigo, G; Zollino, M; Giglio, S; Lonardo, F; Bonfante, A; Ferlini, A; Cifuentes, F; Van Esch, H; Backx, L; Schinzel, A; Vermeesch, J R; Zuffardi, O

2007-01-01

162

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

163

Pathology Reports  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the type of information that may be found in a pathology report, the document that contains results of the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or surgery.

164

Diagnosis, Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

165

Solitary fibrous tumors and hemangiopericytomas of the meninges: overlapping pathological features and common prognostic factors suggest the same spectrum of tumors.  

PubMed

Meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are distinct entities in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors while they belong to the same spectrum of tumors in other locations. Well-defined histological prognostic factors are also lacking for these tumors. In order to clarify the relationship between SFT and HPC and to find histological and immunohistochemical prognostic factors, we carried out a retrospective study in 89 patients. The following histological parameters were recorded: hypercellularity, collagenic areas, cytonuclear atypias, necrosis, mitotic count per 10 high-power fields, vasculo-nervous adherences defined by engulfment of vessel or nerve by the tumor, brain infiltration. We found overlapping histological and immunohistochemical features between SFT and HPC. The most relevant histological prognostic factors in the whole cohort for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis were hypercellularity, high mitotic count (>5 per 10 high-power fields) and necrosis. On the basis of these results, we propose a new grading scheme for these tumors which was of pronostic value for both PFS and OS in uni- and multivariate analysis. As extent of surgery was also a prognostic factor for both PFS and OS in univariate analysis, we propose that management of SFT/HPC might be based both on quality of removal and histological grade. PMID:22082190

Bouvier, Corinne; Métellus, Philippe; de Paula, André Maues; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jouvet, Anne; Guyotat, Jacques; Mokhtari, Karima; Varlet, Pascale; Dufour, Henry; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

2012-07-01

166

Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A as a marker of respiratory distress in forensic pathology: assessment of the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to review the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings with reference to the causes of death in routine casework (total, n=492). In the immunohistochemistry (n=283), an increase in intra-alveolar granular SP-A (SP-A score) was often observed in asphyxiation (n=21\\/34, 61.8%) and freshwater drowning (n=15\\/24, 62.5%), and also in fire and methamphetamine (MA) fatalities (n=22\\/76, 28.9%

Hitoshi Maeda; Masaki Q Fujita; Bao-Li Zhu; Kaori Ishida; Li Quan; Shigeki Oritani; Mari Taniguchi

2003-01-01

167

Pathological and Immunohistochemical Findings of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection in Tufted Ducks during 2010-2011 Outbreaks in Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 2010-2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Katou, Yuki; Goto, Minami; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2014-10-01

168

Pathological and Immunohistochemical Findings of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection in Tufted Ducks during 2010-2011 Outbreaks in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the winter of 2010–2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

ABDO, Walied; HARIDY, Mohie; KATOU, Yuki; GOTO, Minami; MIZOGUCHI, Toshio; SAKODA, Yoshihiro; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

2014-01-01

169

Pathologic Outcomes following Urethral Diverticulectomy in Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignant changes. Limited studies report the pathologic findings associated with this relatively rare entity. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of women who underwent urethral diverticulectomy. Methods. A consecutive series of 29 women who underwent surgical resection of a urethral diverticulum were identified between 1992 and 2013. Clinical and radiographic data was collected by retrospective review of patient medical records. All pathological slides were rereviewed by a single urologic pathologist. Results. Of the 14 women with clinical data, 9 (64%) presented with urgency, 7 (50%) with urinary frequency, 3 (21%) with urinary incontinence, and 3 (21%) with dysuria. Mean diverticular size was 2.3 (±1.4) cm. Although one patient (3%) had invasive adenocarcinoma on final pathology, the remaining 28 cases (97%) demonstrated benign features. The most common findings were inflammation (55%) and nephrogenic adenoma (21%). Conclusions. Although most urethral diverticula in women are benign, there is a subset of patients who develop malignancy in association with the diverticulum. In this series, 97% of cases had a benign histology. These findings are important when counseling patients regarding treatment options. PMID:24860605

Laudano, Melissa A.; Jamzadeh, Asha E.; Lee, Richard K.; Robinson, Brian D.; Tyagi, Renuka; Kaplan, Steven A.; Te, Alexis E.

2014-01-01

170

Pathological Findings and Distribution of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Lungs from Naturally Infected Fattening Pigs in Norway  

PubMed Central

The Norwegian pig population was considered free from influenza A virus infections until the first case of porcine pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in October 2009. Human to pig transmission of virus was suspected. Unusual lung lesions were observed in fattening pigs, with red, lobular, multifocal to coalescing consolidation, most frequently in the cranial, middle, and accessory lobes. The main histopathological findings were epithelial degeneration and necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration in the epithelial lining and lamina propria of small bronchi and bronchioles, and peribronchial and peribronchiolar lymphocyte infiltrations. Infection with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection of influenza A virus nucleoprotein in the lesions. This investigation shows that natural infection with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus induces lung lesions similar to lesions described in experimental studies and natural infections with other swine-adapted subtypes of influenza A viruses. PMID:23074657

Valheim, Mette; Gamlem, Hans; Gjerset, Britt; Germundsson, Anna; Lium, Bj?rn

2011-01-01

171

A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.  

PubMed

Following a natural outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) at a commercial farm in Norway, surviving Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, were sequentially studied for distribution of nodavirus, immune response and histopathology over 1 year. Typical clinical signs and histopathology of VER were observed during the acute stage of the disease. Most of the surviving fish became subclinical carriers of nodavirus with clusters of nodavirus-containing cells in the central nervous system. Four random samplings of presumably healthy fish were performed from two fish groups, with low and high growth rates respectively, over a 7-month period. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed a higher number of nodavirus-positive cells in fish with a low growth rate than in fish with a high growth rate. All IHC positive fish were also reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive for nodavirus and for nodavirus antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at all sampling points. The percentage of PCR- and ELISA-positive fish remained high throughout the year, while the number of IHC-positive fish decreased, especially in the group with a high growth rate. Several other histopathological changes were observed, including pericarditis, steatitis, changes in liver and kidney, and necrosis of the intestinal wall. None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious. PMID:15189373

Johansen, R; Grove, S; Svendsen, A K; Modahl, I; Dannevig, B

2004-06-01

172

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

173

Ductographic Findings of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ductography has become the gold standard for the evaluation of patients exhibiting pathologic nipple discharges. In nine patients (age range, 29-67 years; median age, 51 years) with invasive (n=5) or intraductal (n=4) cancer, ductographic findings were recorded, then correlated with mammographic and sonographic findings. Common ductographic findings included complete ductal obstruction, multiple irregular filling defects in the nondilated peripheral ducts, ductal wall irregularities, periductal contrast extravasation, and ductal displacement. Faint microcalcifications or ill-defined masses, which were not opacified by contrast material, were often discovered adjacent to ductal abnormalities. Mammographically and sonographically occult diffusely spreading intraductal cancers often manifested as pathologic nipple discharge. In such cases, meticulous ductographic examinations and interpretations were crucial in order not to miss breast cancers. PMID:15782017

Cho, Nariya; Chung, Sun Yang; Cha, Joo Hee; Cho, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun

2005-01-01

174

Pathology of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular pathology, comprising cytopathology and histopathology, is an essential component of the management of breast disease. The range of benign and malignant conditions encountered by the breast pathologist is diverse. Benign changes are common and may present as localized masses (e.g. fibroadenoma), diffuse textural alterations (e.g. fibrocystic change), nipple discharge (e.g. intraduct papilloma) or as microcalcifications on mammographic examination (e.g.

Adrian C Bateman

2004-01-01

175

The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.  

PubMed

Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

2014-07-01

176

Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. Conclusions A novel framework for developing Common Ground to manage conflicts during end-of-life decision-making discussions may assist in achieving a “good death”. These results could aid in educating physicians, learners, and the public on how to achieve productive collaborative relationships during end-of-life decision-making for dying patients, and ultimately improve their deaths. PMID:23339822

2013-01-01

177

Incidental extraspinal findings on magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral discs  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to evaluate pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations that were incidentally detected on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of intervertebral discs, to find the frequencies of these incidental findings, and to emphasise the clinical importance of them. Material and methods A retrospective study including 1031 consecutive patients (730 females and 301 males, with a median age of 46 years) was conducted by evaluating a total of 1106 MRI examinations of intervertebral discs. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MRI unit. Incidental findings were classified as pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations. Results The percentages of incidental extraspinal pathological findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations were 16.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4–18.8) and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.6–4.3), respectively. The percentage of incidental extraspinal pathological findings on cervical spinal MRI was 25.7% (95% CI: 20.1–31.7), thyroid nodules being the most common incidental findings. On thoracic spinal MRI (n = 19), inferior pole thyroid nodules were demonstrated as incidental extraspinal pathological findings, with a percentage of 10.5% (95% CI: 9.6–11.5). On lumbar spinal MRI, incidental pathological findings were detected with a percentage of 14.2% (95% CI: 11.9–16.6), while the percentage of congenital anomalies/anatomical variations was 4.8% (95% CI: 3.4–6.3). Eventually, 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6–9.4) of all cases with incidental extraspinal pathological findings underwent surgery. Conclusions On MRI examination of intervertebral discs, paying attention to incidentally detected pathological extraspinal findings and congenital anomalies/anatomical variations is very important due to the fact that they can alter the treatment of the patient or affect the patient's life. PMID:25276162

Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Turanl?, Sevim; Saltas, Hakan; Karabacak, Osman Raif; Damar, Cagr?; Hekimoglu, Baki

2014-01-01

178

Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

2012-01-01

179

Behavioral activation for pathological grief.  

PubMed

The death of a significant other often entails far-reaching changes in individuals' life that can contribute to pathological grief responses. This article reviews 3 prominent theories of grief resolution, highlights common factors proposed to be associated with pathological grief responses, and suggests that behavioral activation (Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001) may address the factors contributing to pathological grieving. Behavioral activation applied to pathological grief may address loss related disruption by engaging bereaved individuals in their social environment and increasing contact with positive reinforcers that maintain sense of self. Two case studies are provided to demonstrate how behavioral activation can be adapted to remediate environmental disengagement, avoidance, and rumination typical of pathological grief responses. PMID:24517521

Papa, Anthony; Rummel, Clair; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Sewell, M Todd

2013-01-01

180

Pathological gambling.  

PubMed

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

181

APSnet: Advanced Plant Pathology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.

182

Comorbid psychiatric disorders among older adult recovering pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The proliferation of state lotteries and casinos has led to an increased participation in gambling and its associated problems. Older retired adults have more opportunities to gamble and available funds than other demographic groups. For these reasons, older adults may constitute a special risk group for pathological gambling. Because substance misuse, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders are common in problem and pathological gamblers, we sought to examine rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in 40 older adults with lifetime pathological gambling using structured assessments of known reliability. The results indicate a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in this population including depression, alcohol dependence, panic, and generalized anxiety disorders, as well as obsessive compulsive and avoidant personality disorders. Implications of these findings for psychiatric nurses are discussed. PMID:18770105

Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Black, Donald W; Buckwalter, Kathleen

2008-09-01

183

St. Jude study finds that tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in 90 percent of most common childhood bone tumor  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital—Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project finds TP53 gene is altered in nearly all osteosarcomas and results help explain how tumors withstand radiation therapy.

184

Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is common that occurs in diabetics with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that

Qi Ma; Jun-hui SHEN; Sheng-rong SHEN; Undurti N Das

2012-01-01

185

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

186

Finding exonic islands in a sea of non-coding sequence: splicing related constraints on protein composition and evolution are common in intron-rich genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In mammals, splice-regulatory domains impose marked trends on the relative abundance of certain amino acids near exon-intron boundaries. Is this a mammalian particularity or symptomatic of exonic splicing regulation across taxa? Are such trends more common in species that a priori have a harder time identifying exon ends, that is, those with pre-mRNA rich in intronic sequence? We address

Tobias Warnecke; Joanna L Parmley; Laurence D Hurst

2008-01-01

187

Astrocytic TDP-43 Pathology in Alexander Disease  

PubMed Central

Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of GfapR236H/+ knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in GfapR236H/+ mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

Daniels, Christine M. LaPash; Goldman, James E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

2014-01-01

188

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic PathologyPathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

Haykin, Simon

189

Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Contis, Lydia C.; Nambiar, Ashok; Pindzola, Ander

2009-04-14

190

Metastatic superscan on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of carcinoma colon: Common finding but rare etiology  

PubMed Central

Bone scintigraphy in which there is excessive skeletal radioisotope uptake in relation to soft tissues along with absent or faint activity in the genitourinary tract is known as a ‘superscan’. Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy associated with superscan along with others such as lung cancer, breast cancer and haematological malignancies. Here we present the case of a 41 year old woman with carcinoma colon with metastatic superscan on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, a very rare cause for metastatic superscan. PMID:25210281

Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Sharma, Punit; Karunanithi, Sellam; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

2014-01-01

191

USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

192

Fifteen-minute consultation: incidental findings on brain and spine imaging.  

PubMed

Incidental findings on imaging of the brain and spine account for a large number of referrals to a paediatric neurosurgical practice. They can be cause of undue concern to the parents and can result in unnecessary investigations and interventions. This article is a review of the common pathological entities identified as incidental findings in the author's experience. The list is not exhaustive and reflects mainly the common conditions referred. Very few of these incidental findings would need surgical intervention. PMID:25150262

Patel, Chirag; Rodrigues, Desiderio

2014-12-01

193

Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Imaging to Pathology  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to describe the multimodal imaging (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine) of primary hyperparathyroidism and its correlation to the pathological findings. In the last decades, imaging science has progressed a great deal. Accurate preoperative localization of the involved glands is essential for surgical success. PMID:23230541

Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Dubini, Alessandra; Oboldi, Devil; Matteuci, Federica

2012-01-01

194

Metallothionein polymorphisms in pathological processes.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of metal-binding proteins characterized by a high cysteine content and low molecular weight. MTs play an important role in metal metabolism and protect cells against the toxic effects of radiation, alkylating agents and oxygen free radicals. The evidence that individual genetic characteristics of MTs play an important role in physiological and pathological processes associated with antioxidant defense and detoxification inspired targeted studies of genetic polymorphisms in a clinical context. In recent years, common MT polymorphisms were identified and associated with, particularly, western lifestyle diseases such as cancer, complications of atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus along with related complications. This review summarizes all evidence regarding MT polymorphisms of major human MTs (MT1, MT2, MT3 and MT4), their relation to pathological processes, and outlines specific applications of MTs as a set of genetic markers for certain pathologies. PMID:24068159

Raudenska, Martina; Gumulec, Jaromir; Podlaha, Ondrej; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Babula, Petr; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

2014-01-01

195

Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Holst, Valerie

2007-10-17

196

Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâÂÂs brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

French, Jacqueline A.; Mcgarvey, Michael; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Wells, Gregg

2008-12-29

197

Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).  

PubMed

The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

1987-05-01

198

Comparative biology and pathology of oxidative stress in Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative diseases: beyond damage and response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we consider comparative aspects of the biology and pathology of oxygen radicals in neurodegenerative disease and how these findings have influenced our concept of oxidative stress. The common definition of oxidative stress is a breach of antioxidant defenses by oxygen radicals leading to damage to critical molecules and disrupted physiology. Inherent in this definition is that oxidative

George Perry; Marta A. Taddeo; Akihiko Nunomura; Xiongwei Zhu; Tania Zenteno-Savin; Kelly L. Drew; Shun Shimohama; Jesús Avila; Rudolph J. Castellani; Mark A. Smith

2002-01-01

199

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2008-04-29

200

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Johnson, Douglas R.; Nodit, Laurentia; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-11

201

The digital pathologies of chronic laminitis.  

PubMed

This review indicates that the patient-to-patient uniqueness commonly seen in chronic laminitis represents the variable presence of the digital pathologies. Although some degree of mechanical failure is always present, the secondary metabolic and growth dysplasias, vascular pathologies, and sepsis may or may not be evident. The presence and severity of these pathologies appear to have a more significant impact on the prognosis of individual cases than does the displacement of the distal phalanx. It should be reiterated that it is often the combined presence of these individual pathologies that gives rise to the patient that is totally refractory to treatment. In the absence of these pathologies, many horses with significant displacement of the distal phalanx are not in pain and are not in need of treatment. It thus follows that a key to the improved rehabilitation of difficult patients is focusing research on the physiopathology and diagnosis of these nonmechanical problems. PMID:10472120

Grosenbaugh, D A; Morgan, S J; Hood, D M

1999-08-01

202

Pathology of deaths associated with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual

C M Milroy; J C Clark; A R Forrest

1996-01-01

203

CYSTIC AMELOBLASTOMA: A CLINICO-PATHOLOGIC REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cystic ameloblastoma represent 10-15% of all intra osseous ameloblastomas and appear to be less aggressive than the solid ameloblastomas. The aim of this study was to examine the clinico-pathologic characteristics of cystic ameloblastomas seen at a tertiary health care centre. Materials: All cases diagnosed as cystic ameloblastoma in the Oral Pathology Department of University College Hospital, Ibadan over a 10 year period were investigated for age, gender, location of lesion, treatment, and follow-up. The cases were classified as luminal, intraluminal or mural, based on Ackermann classification. The data was entered into the statistical package for the social sciences version 18 (SPSS 18) and results expressed as percentages. Results: Fifteen cystic ameloblastomas, representing 14.3% of a total of 105 ameloblastoma cases were seen. The mean age was 28.9(±14.5) years with 73.4% occurring in the second and third decades. The male:female ratio was 2:3. Fourteen (93.3%) of the lesions were in the mandible while only one (6.7%) was in the maxilla. The mural variant was the most common histological variant with 6(40%) cases while the luminal and intra-luminal had 4(26.7%) and 5(33.3%) respectively. The multilocular radiologic appearance was more common than the unilocular in this study (ratio 8:4). Cystic ameloblastoma with multilocular appearance occurred in a higher age group (mean age 31yrs) when compared with the unilocular type which had a mean age of 16.3years. Conclusion: This study shows similar findings with previous studies but shows a higher multilocular radiological appearance as compared to unilocular variant and no case of recurrence.

Lawal, A.O.; Adisa, A.O.; Olajide, M.A.

2014-01-01

204

Handheld computing in pathology  

PubMed Central

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-01-01

205

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

206

Linguistic Disorders and Pathologies  

E-print Network

Linguistic Disorders ^.- 'Ã?Â¥ and Pathologies An International Handbook Edited by Gerhard Blanken York 1993 #12;11. Acquired Organic Pathologies of Language Behavior Neurolinguistic Disorders Santo. The Joumai of Nervous and Mental Disease, 80, 48-61. Van Dongen, H., Van Harskamp, F., Loonen, M. (1977

Butterworth, Brian

207

TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain–behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinicoanatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

2010-01-01

208

Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Zheng, Su

2009-02-12

209

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Arnold, Sonya; Hasegawa, Susan

2009-05-08

210

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

211

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

212

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

213

Finding enzymes that are actively involved in cancer Matthew Bogyo1  

E-print Network

Finding enzymes that are actively involved in cancer Matthew Bogyo1 Department of Pathology and translation and at the level of enzyme activity. Thus many now-common "-omic" methods fail to provide in­4). The activity-based proteomic approach makes use of small molecule probes that bind to enzymes in an activity

Bogyo, Matthew

214

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

215

Analysis of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Morbidity of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic T3 Disease or Positive Surgical Margins After Radical Prostatectomy Using National Cancer Institute Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 or positive surgical margins after RP were treated with RT plus 2 years of androgen suppression, according to a Phase II study. Acute and late GI and GU toxicity was prospectively assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was estimated using a cumulative incidence method. A Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive factors for late toxicity. Results: The median patient age was 61 years at RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. The median follow-up was 42.4 months. Of the 78 patients, 76 and 74 were available for the acute and late toxicity analysis, respectively. Of these patients, 66%, 29%, and 1% experienced Grade 1, 2, and 3 acute GI or GU toxicity, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GI toxicity at 36 months was 8.1% and 0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GU toxicity at 36 months was 16.4% and 2.7%, respectively. None had Grade 4 or greater late toxicity. The severity of acute GU toxicity (less than Grade 2 vs. Grade 2 or greater) was a significant predictor factor for Grade 2 or greater late GU toxicity after adjusting for pre-existing GU dysfunction. Conclusions: Postoperative RT was generally well tolerated. Grade 3 or greater late GI or GU toxicity was uncommon.

Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: choo.c@mayo.edu; Pearse, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2008-11-15

216

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

217

Pathology Case Study: Headache  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-28

218

Network bistability mediates spontaneous transitions between normal and pathological brain states  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how cortical networks support the emergence of remarkably different activity patterns. Physiological activity interspersed with epochs of pathological hyperactivity in the epileptic brain represents a clinically relevant yet poorly understood case of such rich dynamic repertoire. Using a realistic computational model, we demonstrate that physiological sparse and pathological tonic-clonic activity may co-exist in the same cortical network for identical afferent input level. Transient perturbations in the afferent input were sufficient to switch the network between these two stable states. The effectiveness of the potassium regulatory apparatus determined the stability of the physiological state and the threshold for seizure initiation. Our findings contrast with the common notions of (1) pathological brain activity representing dynamic instabilities and (2) necessary adjustments of experimental conditions to elicit different network states. Rather, we propose that the rich dynamic repertoire of cortical networks may be based on multistabilities intrinsic to the network. PMID:20702704

Frohlich, Flavio; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bazhenov, Maxim

2010-01-01

219

Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-? Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-? peptides (A?), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased A? accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked A? pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear A? accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic A? aggregates (?5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of A? in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic A? with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased A? accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A.; Ghosh, Joy G.; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Robb, Richard M.; Kuszak, Jer R.; Clark, John I.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Hunter, David G.; Goldstein, Lee E.

2010-01-01

220

Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Abeta pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Abeta aggregates (approximately 5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Abeta in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Abeta with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Abeta accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

Moncaster, Juliet A; Pineda, Roberto; Moir, Robert D; Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A; Ghosh, Joy G; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Robb, Richard M; Kuszak, Jer R; Clark, John I; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Hunter, David G; Goldstein, Lee E

2010-01-01

221

Careers in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society;)

2004-01-01

222

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Tetraparesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs progressive weakening of the limbs. Microscopic images of a biopsy specimen are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Da Costa, Cristiane C.; Giannetti, Alexandre V.; Perpãâ©tuo, Francisco O.; Pittella, Josãâ© E.

2009-01-21

223

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

224

Common Wart  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Common Wart A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This image displays a large wart on ... over 100 types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Common warts are usually found on areas of the ...

225

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

226

Forensic pathology--Catch 22. A no-win situation(?).  

PubMed

The practice of forensic pathology finds itself in the unenviable position of existing in a political environment, the existence of which depends upon compromise. The professional pathologist cannot compromise ethically, morally, or legally. As a practical fact of life, most of us find ourselves in the compromising position and with the compromising attitude of "you get what you pay for." The end result all too often is tragedy for those who depend on our observations, our conclusions, our practice of medicine. What has not been widely recognized apparently is the all too common consequence of the personal jeopardy that the forensic pathologist is placed in--defenseless, friendless, disgraced, and left with a severely tarnished professional reputation. PMID:3788913

Root, I

1986-09-01

227

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: The pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

PubMed

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)-a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

228

Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.  

PubMed

While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

2014-10-01

229

Pathology Case Study: Complete Heart Block  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case outlines the medical complications of a 9 year old patient following a small bowel and kidney transplantation. The patient's clinical history and autopsy findings, which include microscopic images, are provided, and the "Final Diagnosis" section details the official findings and diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Dickman, Paul S.; Richert, Charles A.

2007-11-19

230

Finding Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity serves as a kid-friendly how-to manual about searching for fossils. In Not Just Any Rock Will Do, kids learn that fossils "hide out" in sedimentary rock and see examples of shale and sandstone. Do's and Don'ts for Fossil Hunters gives kids practical tips and a list of fossil-hunting supplies. In Fossils You May Find, there are photos of common invertebrate, vertebrate, and plant fossils to guide kids. Paleontology Clubs and Web Sites lists resources to help kids determine where to hunt for fossils. In Keeping a Field Journal, kids are shown a sample journal entry that points out the types of information they should record.

231

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: Pathologic analysis of 73 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic factors of predictive value for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), an aggressive salivary gland malignancy, are poorly defined. Because residual mixed tumor may be relatively inconspicuous and various carcinoma subtypes are encountered, misdiagnosis is common. To describe the pathologic features and identify potential prognostic factors, we retrospectively examined 73 cases of CXPA of the major salivary glands treated at

Jean E Lewis; Kerry D Olsen; Thomas J Sebo

2001-01-01

232

Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often

Laura M. Fayad; Ihab R. Kamel; Satomi Kawamoto; David A. Bluemke; Frank J. Frassica; Elliot K. Fishman

2005-01-01

233

Common pathological mechanisms in mouse models for muscular dystrophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duchenne\\/Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies share clinical symptoms like muscle weakness and wasting but differ in clinical presentation and severity. To get a closer view on the differentiating molecular events responsible for the muscular dystrophies, we have carried out a comparative gene expression profiling of hindlimb muscles of the following mouse models: dystrophin-deficient (mdx, mdx3cv), sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgca null, Sgcb null,

R. Turk; E. Sterrenburg; E. J. de Meijer; R. X. de Menezes

2005-01-01

234

Clays, common  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

Virta, R.L.

1998-01-01

235

Clinico-pathological profile of 12 cases of chorangiosis.  

PubMed

Chorangiosis is one of the vascular lesions that involves terminal chorionic villi. It is commonly associated with various feto-maternal conditions like pre-eclampsia, diabetes etc. However, the clinical significance of this pathological finding has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to identify the various conditions associated with chorangiosis and to determine its clinical significance. A retrospective study to identify the cases of placentas diagnosed with chorangiosis was carried out and the clinical and morphological details of these cases were reviewed. Immunostaining for CD34 and muscle-specific actin was also performed to confirm chorangiosis and to exclude chorangiomatosis. A total of 12 cases of chorangiosis were retrieved, most of them were of term gestation. Five of these 12 cases were associated with various maternal conditions including syphilis (2 cases) and single cases of pre-eclampsia, diabetes and jaundice. One case in each had abruptio placenta and non-immune hydrops. Of these 12 cases, seven were stillborn. Microscopically, all 12 cases showed extensive chorangiosis involving terminal villi. In addition, two cases showed focal infarction and one had extensive calcification. Immunostaining for CD34 confirmed increased number of capillaries while muscle-specific actin was negative, excluding chorangiomatosis. The clinico-pathological profile presented in this study suggests that chorangiosis has characteristic pathological features for its recognition and needs to be differentiated from similar conditions like chorangioma and chorangiomatosis. Also, chorangiosis has potential clinical significance and should be mentioned in the pathology report and the patient should be investigated for associated conditions like syphilis, pre-eclampsia, diabetes etc. PMID:16208478

Gupta, Ruchika; Nigam, Sonu; Arora, Prerna; Khurana, Nita; Batra, Swaraj; Mandal, Ashish Kumar

2006-04-01

236

Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Davie, James; Graur, Octavia; Sheaffer, John

2008-12-12

237

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

238

Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology  

PubMed Central

Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

Anders, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

239

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

240

Pathology Case Study: Hyperammonemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Diven, Warren; Martens, Jeff; Schubert, Eric

2007-09-06

241

Bronchiolitis. Pathologic considerations.  

PubMed

Bronchiolitis represents a cellular and mesenchymal reaction involving bronchioles. The interplay between the cellular infiltrate and the mesenchymal reaction affects the lumen size, lamina propria, muscular layer, and bronchiolar adventitia. The result is a variety of clinical, radiologic, and functional patterns of bronchiolar disease. The anatomy of the small airways is discussed, and a pathologic classification applicable to the surgical pathology of bronchiolitis is presented. The classification is practical and includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cellular bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans (including bronchiolitis obliterans with intraluminal polyps and constrictive bronchiolitis), dust-related small airway fibrosis, and (postinflammatory) bronchiolar scarring and peribronchiolar fibrosis. PMID:9426525

Colby, T V

1998-01-01

242

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong

2008-03-26

243

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Anhalt, John P.; Macauley, Robert; Pasculle, A. W.; Sheaffer, John; Torbenson, Michael

2007-10-05

244

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-12-12

245

Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Klionsky, Bernard; Molina, J. T.; Nichols, Larry

2008-04-21

246

Common Wart  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Common Wart Information for adults A A A This image displays an unusual "horseshoe-shaped" wart on chin. Overview Warts ... over 100 types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Common warts are usually found on areas of the ...

247

Early Experience after Developing a Pathology Laboratory in Malawi, with Emphasis on Cancer Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Background Despite increasing cancer burden in Malawi, pathology services are limited. We describe operations during the first 20 months of a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional study of specimens from the Kamuzu Central Hospital pathology laboratory between July 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. Patient and specimen characteristics, and final diagnoses are summarized. Diagnoses were categorized as malignant, premalignant, infectious, other pathology, normal or benign, or nondiagnostic. Patient characteristics associated with premalignancy and malignancy were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2772 specimens, 2758 (99%) with a recorded final diagnosis were included, drawn from 2639 unique patients. Mean age was 38 years and 63% were female. Of those with documented HIV status, 51% had unknown status, and 36% with known status were infected. Histologic specimens comprised 91% of cases, and cytologic specimens 9%. Malignant diagnoses were most common overall (n?=?861, 31%). Among cancers, cervical cancer was most common (n?=?117, 14%), followed by lymphoma (n?=?91, 11%), esophageal cancer (n?=?86, 10%), sarcoma excluding Kaposi sarcoma (n?=?75, 9%), and breast cancer (n?=?61, 7%). HIV status was known for 95 (11%) of malignancies, with HIV prevalence ranging from 9% for breast cancer to 81% for cervical cancer. Increasing age was consistently associated with malignancy [bivariable odds ratio 1.24 per decade increase (95% CI 1.19–1.29) among 2685 patients with known age; multivariable odds ratio 1.33 per decade increase (95% CI 1.14–1.56) among 317 patients with known age, gender, and HIV status], while HIV infection and gender were not. Conclusions Despite selection and referral bias inherent in these data, a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe has created a robust platform for cancer care and research. Strategies to effectively capture clinical information for pathologically confirmed cancers can allow these data to complement population-based registration. PMID:23950924

Horner, Marie-Josephe; Shores, Carol G.; Alide, Noor; Kamiza, Steve; Kampani, Coxcilly; Chimzimu, Fred; Fedoriw, Yuri; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Hoffman, Irving F.

2013-01-01

248

Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

249

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang HRLMP - McMaster University Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid: The Bethesda Reporting System-Mozes University of Toronto Cancer stem cells in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. May MDCL ­ 3023

Thompson, Michael

250

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

251

Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Patients with Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in LRRK2 are the single most common known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Two new PD patients with LRRK2 mutation were identified from a cohort with extensive post-mortem assessment. One of these patients harbors the R793M mutation and presented with the typical clinical and pathological features of PD. A novel L1165P mutation was identified in a second patient. This patient had the classical and pathological features of PD, but additionally developed severe neuropsychological symptoms and dementia associated with abundant neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampal formation; features consistent with a secondary diagnosis of tangle-predominant dementia. ?-Synuclein-containing pathological inclusions in these patients also were highly phosphorylated at Ser-129, similar to other patients with idiopathic PD. These two PD patients also were characterized by the presence of occasional cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions in the temporal cortex, a finding that was not observed in three other patients with the G2019S mutation in LRRK2. These findings extend the clinical and pathological features that may be associated with LRRK2 mutations. PMID:19006185

Covy, Jason P.; Yuan, Wuxing; Waxman, Elisa A.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Giasson, Benoit I

2008-01-01

252

Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma: MR imaging findings.  

PubMed

PICCC is the rarest, most malignant primary intracranial GCT. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a series of 7 patients (6 males and 1 female; mean age, 11.9 years) with pathologically proved PICCC in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All tumors were located within the pineal (n = 6) or suprasellar (n = 1) regions. On T2-weighted MR imaging, the lesions appeared markedly heterogeneous with areas of both hypointensity and hyperintensity reflecting the histologic heterogeneity, including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cysts, or necrosis. Heterogeneous (n = 7), ringlike (n = 4), and/or intratumoral nodular (n = 3) enhancement was noted on T1-weighted images with gadolinium. These MR imaging findings, combined with patient age and serum ?-HCG levels, may prove helpful in distinguishing PICCC from the more common primary brain tumors, thereby avoiding biopsy of this highly vascular tumor. PMID:20616180

Lv, X-F; Qiu, Y-W; Zhang, X-L; Han, L-J; Qiu, S-J; Xiong, W; Wen, G; Zhang, Y-Z; Zhang, J

2010-11-01

253

Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

2014-01-01

254

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... and before eating and preparing food. Disinfect your environment. Clean commonly touched surfaces (such as sink handles, ... system work properly. Eat yogurt that contains "active cultures." These may help prevent colds. Probiotics may help ...

255

Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.

2008-10-28

256

Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâÂÂs chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Krisky, David

2009-05-06

257

Pathology Case Study: Skin Rash and Proteinuria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 8-year-old boy has a history of skin rash with concurrent hematuria and proteinuria. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunoflourescent and electron microscopy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Horn, Kevin D.

2007-09-19

258

Pathology Case Study: Lethargy and Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the health conditions of a male baby born prematurely (28 weeks gestational age). The patientâÂÂs history, gross and microscopic descriptions, ultrasound images, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Heyner, Robert; Sobel, Raymond A.

2007-10-12

259

Sarcoidosis: A Clinical, Roentgenographic and Pathological Survey  

PubMed Central

The records of 107 patients with sarcoidosis were reviewed for clinical presentation, roentgenographic findings and pathological features. Tissue confirmation was obtained in all patients, with transbronchial lung biopsy and minor salivary gland biopsy specimens providing useful procedures for random biopsy when peripheral lymph node or skin lesions were not present. Clinical and laboratory correlations are necessary to exclude other causes of granulomatous disease that may have the same pathological features as sarcoidosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7340129

Nessan, Vernon J.; Malin, Jacob; Parks, Samuel D.

1981-01-01

260

Pathology Case Study: Oligoarthritis and Localized Swellings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 75-year-old man has been admitted to the hospital with chest pain radiating to his left arm, elbow, and wrist. Visitors are given the clinical history and radiology findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-25

261

Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hari, Raj

2009-04-15

262

Ultrasonographic findings of type IIIa biliary atresia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) findings of type IIIa biliary atresia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a medical database of patients pathologically confirmed to have biliary atresia, Kasai type IIIa, between January 2002 and May 2013 (n=18). We evaluated US findings including the visible common bile duct (CBD), triangular cord thickness, gallbladder size and shape, and subcapsular flow on color Doppler US; laboratory data; and pathological hepatic fibrosis grades. We divided them into two groups-those with visible (group A) and invisible (group B) CBD on US-and compared all parameters between the two groups. Results: CBD was visible on US in five cases (27.8%; group A) and invisible in 13 cases (72.2%; group B). US was performed at an earlier age in group A than in group B (median, 27 days vs. 60 days; P=0.027) with the maximal age of 51 days. A comparison of the US findings revealed that the triangular cord thickness was smaller (4.1 mm vs. 4.9 mm; P=0.004) and the gallbladder length was larger (20.0 mm vs. 11.7 mm; P=0.021) in group A. The gallbladder shape did not differ between the two groups, and the subcapsular flow was positive in all cases of both groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory data between the two groups. Upon pathological analysis, group A showed low-grade and group B showed low- to high-grade hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: When CBD is visible on US in patients diagnosed with type IIIa biliary atresia, other US features could have a false negative status. A subcapsular flow on the color Doppler US would be noted in the type IIIa biliary atresia patients. PMID:25036753

2014-01-01

263

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.  

PubMed

Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

Lawrie, M; Good, A

2013-07-01

264

Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease.

Stark, D.D.; Higgins, C.B.; Lanzer, P.; Lipton, M.J.; Schiller, N.; Crooks, L.E.; Botvinick, E.B.; Kaufman, L.

1984-02-01

265

A contact dermatitis of broilers ?clinical and pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new skin condition of broilers which results in the downgrading of up to 15–30% of broiler carcases\\/week is described. Unsightly brown?black coloured erosions and ulcers occur on the breast, hock and foot skin. Histopathological examination of these revealed acute inflammation with necrosis of the epidermis and in more severe cases, the upper dermis. A study of the condition has

Joan A. Greene; R. M. McCracken; R. T. Evans

1985-01-01

266

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Pathological and microbiological findings from mortality  

E-print Network

features [1]. However, the Chinese giant salamander population has declined sharply in the past 50 years salamander (Andrias davidianus) Yan Meng � Jie Ma � Nan Jiang � Ling-Bing Zeng � Han-Bing Xiao Received: 9 Abstract The Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, is a nationally protected and cultured species

Gray, Matthew

267

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-10-08

268

Pathological gambling in Missouri.  

PubMed

Riverboat casinos were introduced in 1994, and there are now eleven gambling venues in Missouri, in addition to the lottery. Gambling is monitored by the Missouri Gaming Commission which was established to supervise gambling operations in the state, and minimize criminal involvement. The Commission also operates programs for problem gamblers that are described. Pathological gambling has become a major problem in Missouri and elsewhere, and its characteristics and clinical management are reviewed herein. PMID:17133745

Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha

2006-01-01

269

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

270

Detailed Shoulder MRI Findings in Manual Wheelchair Users with Shoulder Pain  

PubMed Central

Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10?MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities. PMID:25180192

Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Van Straaten, Meegan G.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Braman, Jonathan P.; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D.

2014-01-01

271

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

272

Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Dunn, Jean; Mnuskin, Anna; Surti, Urvashi

2009-05-04

273

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

1999-01-01

274

Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing âÂÂfainting spellsâ is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Peng, Yan

2009-01-16

275

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Bloating and Discomfort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 64-year-old woman initially diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Visitors are given an extensive patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient using the findings before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Dunn, Jean; Ozolek, John A.

2009-03-25

276

Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings  

SciTech Connect

The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

1984-07-01

277

"Pathological" Cantor manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The n-dimensional compact topological space is called to be a Cantor Manifold (CM), if it is not a sum of two proper closed subsets with (n-2)-dimensional intersection. It is by definition a Strongly Cantor Manifold (SCM), if it is not a countable sum of proper closed subsets with no more than (n-2)-dimensional pairwise intersection. We shall call our space a Pathological Cantor Manifold (PCM) if it is CM, but not SCM. In this note we give some examples to investigate "how bad" can be the structure of PCM's.

Todorov, Vladimir

2012-11-01

278

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

279

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

280

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâÂÂs diagnosis is found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

2008-04-08

281

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

282

Communication and Common Interest  

PubMed Central

Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems. PMID:24244116

Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martinez, Manolo

2013-01-01

283

Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD. PMID:21985690

el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

2011-01-01

284

Pathological behaviors provoked by dopamine agonist therapy of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine agonist medications, pramipexole and ropinirole, are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease. These two drugs have a highly specific affinity for cerebral D3 receptors, known to be localized to the mesolimbic system. Herein is described a common side effect of these drugs, encountered in our routine clinical practice: pathological behaviors. This includes excessive gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, hyperphagia or

J. Eric Ahlskog

2011-01-01

285

CT and US findings of pancreatoblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to evaluate US and CT findings of pancreatoblastoma. Three US and four CT scans before surgery and one follow-up CT after surgery were reviewed in four patients (two female, two male) with pathologically proven pancreatoblastoma. The mean age of the patients was 4 years (range 2-5 years). The masses were analyzed for origin, US and CT architecture, presence of calcification, enhancement pattern, and metastatic spread. In two patients, the tumors arose from the pancreatic head and in one patient from the pancreatic tail. The mean largest diameter of the masses was 10 cm, ranging from 5 to 14 cm. Sonography obtained from three cases showed mixed echogenic solid mass. On the CT scan, all tumors were huge, lobulated masses with heterogeneous attenuation. One tumor contained numerous foci of calcification. On the enhanced CT scan, three tumors showed multiloculated appearance by enhancing internal septations. There was no evidence of metastasis to distant organ or abdominal lymph node in any case. We suggest that the most common US finding of pancreatoblastoma is a mixed echogenic, solid mass inseparable from the pancreas, and the most common CT finding is a relatively well defined, lobulated, huge mass with multiloculated appearance by enhancing septae in or near the lesser sac. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Lee, Jae Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Woo Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others] [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

1996-05-01

286

Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation  

PubMed Central

Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fuelled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

Knowles, Charles H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

2014-01-01

287

Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Lopes, M. B.; Malcolm, Elsa K.

2009-03-20

288

Continuum model of tendon pathology - where are we now?  

PubMed Central

Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

2013-01-01

289

Pathological Gambling: Biological and Clinical Considerations  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) is categorized as an impulse control disorder (ICD). Phenomenological, neurobiological and pharmacological data suggest similarities in the pathophysiologies of substance use disorders (SUDs) and PG. Both behavioral and pharmacological approaches, including those that have been empirically validated for SUDs, have shown promise in the treatment of PG. Findings from biological studies of PG are reviewed, and treatment approaches based on controlled studies are summarized. PMID:20161094

Topf, Jocelyn L.; Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

2009-01-01

290

Pathology Case Study: Fevers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The âÂÂGross Description,â âÂÂMicroscopic Description,â and â Microbiologyâ sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. Clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

Kulich, Scott; Pasculle, A. W.

2007-12-17

291

Foot and ankle injuries in sport: imaging correlation with arthroscopic and surgical findings.  

PubMed

Foot and ankle injuries are common in sport. Although many available imaging techniques can be useful in identifying and classifying injuries, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high levels of sensitivity and specificity for articular and soft-tissue injuries. Arthroscopic and minimally invasive treatment techniques for foot and ankle injuries are rapidly evolving, minimizing morbidity and improving postoperative rehabilitation and return to play. Correlation between MRI and surgical findings can aid in both accessing and treating pathologic processes and structures. PMID:23773880

Hunt, Kenneth J; Githens, Michael; Riley, Geoffrey M; Kim, Michael; Gold, Garry E

2013-07-01

292

Pathologic analysis, diagnosis and treatment of adrenal myelolipoma  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of non-invasive imaging modalities, the incidental detection of myelolipoma has become more common. We analyze the clinical data of 4 typical cases of unilateral adrenal myelolipomas, including 1 hormonally inactive patient and 3 hormonally active cases with hyperaldosteronemia, hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia. Obvious differences were found in the pathological sections. To our knowledge, this is the first article discussing the etiology of adrenal myelolipoma from pathologic analyses. PMID:25295136

Su, Heng-chuan; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Wen-long; Dai, Jun; Huang, Bao-xing; Cao, Wan-li; Sun, Fu-kang

2014-01-01

293

Pathologic analysis, diagnosis and treatment of adrenal myelolipoma.  

PubMed

With the widespread use of non-invasive imaging modalities, the incidental detection of myelolipoma has become more common. We analyze the clinical data of 4 typical cases of unilateral adrenal myelolipomas, including 1 hormonally inactive patient and 3 hormonally active cases with hyperaldosteronemia, hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia. Obvious differences were found in the pathological sections. To our knowledge, this is the first article discussing the etiology of adrenal myelolipoma from pathologic analyses. PMID:25295136

Su, Heng-Chuan; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Wen-Long; Dai, Jun; Huang, Bao-Xing; Cao, Wan-Li; Sun, Fu-Kang

2014-09-01

294

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

295

Pathology of clinical and preclinical Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of amyloid plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). These lesions occur not only in demented individuals with AD but also in non-demented persons. In non-demented individuals, amyloid and neuritic plaques are usually accompanied with NFTs and are considered to represent asymptomatic or preclinical AD (pre-AD) pathology. Here, we defined and characterized neuropathological differences between clinical AD, non-demented pre-AD, and non-AD control cases. Our results show that clinical AD may be defined as cases exhibiting late stages of NFT, amyloid, and neuritic plaque pathology. This is in contrast to the neuropathological changes characteristic of pre-AD, which display early stages of these lesions. Both AD and pre-AD cases often exhibit cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), and when they do, these AD-related pathologies were at early stages in pre-AD cases and at late stages in symptomatic AD. Importantly, NFTs, GVD, and CAA were also observed in non-AD cases, i.e., in cases without amyloid plaque pathology. Moreover, soluble and dispersible, high-molecular-weight amyloid ?-protein (A?) aggregates detected by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were elevated in clinical AD compared to that in pre-AD and non-AD cases. Detection of NFTs, GVD, and CAA in cases without amyloid plaques, presently classified as non-AD, is consistent with the idea that NFTs, GVD, and CAA may precede amyloid plaque pathology and may represent a pre-amyloid plaque stage of pre-AD not yet considered in the current recommendations for the neuropathological diagnosis of AD. Our finding of early stages of AD-related NFT, amyloid, and GVD pathology provides a more clear definition of pre-AD cases that is in contrast to the changes in clinical AD, which is characterized by late stages of these AD-related pathologies. The observed elevation of soluble/dispersible A? aggregates from pre-AD compared to that in AD cases suggests that, in addition to more widespread AD-related pathologies, soluble/dispersible A? aggregates in the neuropil play a role in the conversion of pre-AD to clinical AD. PMID:24077890

Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; von Arnim, Christine; Griffin, W Sue T; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Mrak, Robert E; Attems, Johannes; Upadhaya, Ajeet Rijal

2013-11-01

296

Pathological assessment of intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of foetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. During post mortem, the pathologist is well placed to diagnose the presence and cause of IUGR in a stillborn baby. This article describes the approach of the pathologist in diagnosing IUGR and some of the pitfalls. We distinguish between reduced growth potential (formerly symmetrical IUGR) and nutritional IUGR (formerly asymmetrical IUGR). Aetiologically, restricted growth can be of foetal, maternal and placental origin. We discuss the importance of identifying the cause of IUGR in a clinicopathological context and the pathological findings in some of the more frequent causes of IUGR presenting at post mortem. Based on an accurate gestational age, ideally determined by the obstetrician in early pregnancy, the pathologist can derive a birth weight centile. However, the pathologist is also able to identify other indicators of IUGR, such as an elevated brain/liver weight ratio, atrophic thymus and changes in other internal organs. Placental examination plays a major role in the investigation as the majority of IUGR cases have significant placental pathology. This includes pre-eclampsia-related changes, abnormalities of the villous parenchyma and pathology of the umbilical cord. The potential benefit of a meticulous workup of IUGR foetuses is to provide an explanation of the pathological condition and to identify avoidable causes. PMID:19854107

Cox, Phillip; Marton, Tamas

2009-12-01

297

Natural pathology of the Baboon (Papio spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Baboons are useful animal models for biomedical research, but the natural pathology of the baboon is not as well defined as other non-human primates. Methods A computer search for all morphologic diagnoses from baboon necropsies at the Southwest National Primate Research Center was performed and included all the natural deaths and animals euthanized for natural causes. Results A total of 10,883 macroscopic or microscopic morphologic diagnoses in 4297 baboons were documented and are presented by total incidence, relative incidence by sex and age-group, and mean age of occurrence. The most common diagnoses in descending order of occurrence were hemorrhage, stillborn, amyloidosis, colitis, spondylosis, and pneumonia. The systems with the most diagnoses were the digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and respiratory. Conclusion This extensive evaluation of the natural pathology of the baboon should be an invaluable biomedical research resource. PMID:21226714

Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Malapati, Adinarayana R.; Owston, Michael A.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2011-01-01

298

Pathology Case Study: Girl in Coma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 15-year-old girl found unresponsive near her bed. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with laboratory findings, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Najjar, Hazim

2008-10-29

299

Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.  

PubMed

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van't Veer, Laura J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Gantcev, Shamil Hanafievich; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Collée, J Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B

2011-12-01

300

Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Muller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Bruning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dork, Thilo; Schurmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collee, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

2011-01-01

301

Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

Crook, Shirley, Ed.

302

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D. E.

2003-01-01

303

Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

304

Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.  

E-print Network

Collection" form. · We will pick up your waste within 1-3 days. University of California, IrvinePathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling

George, Steven C.

305

College of Medicine PAT Pathology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PAT Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped: Admission to first year, College of Medicine. PAT 823 MECHANISMS OF DISEASE AND TREATMENT/PATHOLOGY. (9 approved electives offered by the various departments in the College of Medicine. The intent is to provide

MacAdam, Keith

306

Midbrain atrophy is not a biomarker of PSP pathology  

PubMed Central

Background Midbrain atrophy is a characteristic feature of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), although it is unclear whether it is associated with the PSP syndrome (PSPS) or PSP pathology. We aimed to determine whether midbrain atrophy is a useful biomarker of PSP pathology, or whether it is only associated with typical PSPS. Methods We identified all autopsy-confirmed subjects with the PSP clinical phenotype (i.e. PSPS) or PSP pathology and a volumetric MRI. Of 24 subjects with PSP pathology, 11 had a clinical diagnosis of PSPS (PSP-PSPS), and 13 had a non-PSPS clinical diagnosis (PSP-other). Three subjects had PSPS and corticobasal degeneration pathology (CBD-PSPS). Healthy control and disease control groups (i.e. a group without PSPS or PSP pathology) and a group with CBD pathology and corticobasal syndrome (CBD-CBS) were selected. Midbrain area was measured in all subjects. Results Midbrain area was reduced in each group with clinical PSPS (with and without PSP pathology). The group with PSP pathology and non-PSPS clinical syndromes did not show reduced midbrain area. Midbrain area was smaller in the subjects with PSPS compared to those without PSPS (p<0.0001), with an area under the receiver-operator-curve of 0.99 (0.88,0.99). A midbrain area cut-point of 92 mm2 provided optimum sensitivity (93%) and specificity (89%) for differentiation. Conclusion Midbrain atrophy is associated with the clinical presentation of PSPS, but not with the pathological diagnosis of PSP in the absence of the PSPS clinical syndrome. This finding has important implications for the utility of midbrain measurements as diagnostic biomarkers for PSP pathology. PMID:23746093

Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Josephs, Keith A.

2013-01-01

307

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

308

Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service  

PubMed Central

Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual inquiry method helped reveal similarities and key differences with civilian pathologists. Such an analysis helped identify specific instances that would benefit from implementing digital pathology in a military environment. Employing digital pathology to facilitate workload distribution, secondary consultations, and quality assurance (over-reads) could help the AFMS deliver more accurate, efficient, and timely AP services at a global level. PMID:24392246

Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

2013-01-01

309

Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Holst, Valerie; Penchansky, Lila; Richert, Charles A.

2007-09-05

310

Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case from the collection documents a sixty-five year old female patient with enlarged lymph nodes in the jugular region, and a nodule of the thyroid. The patient's history is presented, as well as the gross and microscopic descriptions of her thyroid and lymph nodes (including images). Images from an electron microscopic examination are also included to aid in diagnosis. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Barnes, Leon, 1941-; Nine, Jeff S.; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2007-11-16

311

Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Hari, Raj

2009-03-24

312

Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dorvault, Christine

2007-12-18

313

Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

Pushkar, Irina; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-17

314

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Zagzag, David

2009-03-16

315

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Sheikh, Hina; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-19

316

An Unusual Presentation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Pathological Fracture  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by a pathological fracture is very uncommon. We present a case of a 54-year-old female patient who was admitted with fracture of her right femur. She underwent closed intramedullary reconstruction nailing with bipolar locking. The pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism with brown tumor. Further tests showed increased both calcium level and PTH level. A parathyroidectomy was performed. She made an uneventful recovery and was discharged to home. PMID:23198216

Khaoula, Ben Abdelghani; Kaouther, Ben Abdelghani; Ines, Chelly; Sami, Turki; Zakraoui, Leith; Khedher, Adel

2011-01-01

317

Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

318

Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (?10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n = 106). For individuals aged ?95 years at death (n = 179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of ‘definite’ Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n = 10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration TAR DNA protein 43. To help sharpen our ability to discriminate patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing clinically, the longitudinal cognitive profile of 43 patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing was compared with the profiles of 75 controls matched for age, gender, education level and apolipoprotein E genotype. These individuals were followed from intake assessment, with 8.2 (average) longitudinal cognitive assessments. A neuropsychological profile with relatively high-verbal fluency but low word list recall distinguished the hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing group at intake (P < 0.015) and also 5.5–6.5 years before death (P < 0.005). This may provide a first step in clinical differentiation of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing versus pure Alzheimer’s disease in their earliest stages. In summary, in the largest series of autopsy-verified patients with hippocampal sclerosis to date, we characterized the clinical and pathological features associated with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. PMID:21596774

Schmitt, Frederick A.; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C.; Neltner, Janna H.; Smith, Charles D.; Santacruz, Karen S.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Woodard, John L.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Kryscio, Richard J.

2011-01-01

319

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-08-17

320

Five Fanconi anemia patients with unusual organ pathologies.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that presents with variable organ abnormalities, progressive cytopenia, and susceptibility to the development of several malignancies. Although some of the organ pathologies such as microcephaly, microphthalmia, skin dyspigmentation, urogenital system involvement, and radial ray skeletal abnormalities are relatively common, there are some other abnormalities that are rarely associated with the disease [Alter BP. In: Nathan DG, Oski FA, editors. Hematology of infancy and childhood. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. p 259-273]. In this paper, five cases of unrelated FA patients with unusual organ pathologies, including chronic obstructive lung disease, lipodystrophy, Sprengel's deformity, diaphragmatic hernia, and inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN) are presented. Recognition of unusual pathologies associated with FA is important in order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the disease and presenting organ pathologies. PMID:15307106

Unal, Selma; Ozbek, Namik; Kara, Abdurrahman; Alika?ifo?lu, Mehmet; Gümrük, Fatma

2004-09-01

321

Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A–D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n = 31). Pathological analysis included semi-quantitation of myelin loss of fibres of the corticospinal tract and associated macrophage burden, as well as axonal loss, at the level of the medullary pyramids. We also assessed for motor cortex degeneration and fibre loss of the medial lemniscus/olivocerebellar tract. All cases were subdivided into three groups based on the degree of corticospinal tract degeneration: (i) no corticospinal tract degeneration; (ii) equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration; and (iii) moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration. Clinical, genetic, pathological and imaging comparisons were performed across groups. Eight cases had no corticospinal tract degeneration, and 14 cases had equivocal to mild corticospinal tract degeneration. Nine cases, however, had moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration with myelin and axonal loss. In these nine cases, there was degeneration of the motor cortex without lower motor neuron degeneration or involvement of other brainstem tracts. These cases most commonly presented as semantic dementia, and they had longer disease duration (mean: 15.3 years) compared with the other two groups (10.8 and 9.9 years; P = 0.03). After adjusting for disease duration, severity of corticospinal tract degeneration remained significantly different across groups. Only one case, without corticospinal tract degeneration, was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. All three groups were associated with anterior temporal lobe atrophy on MRI; however, the cases with moderate to severe corticospinal tract degeneration showed right-sided temporal lobe asymmetry and greater involvement of the right temporal lobe and superior motor cortices than the other groups. In contrast, the cases with no or equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration were more likely to show left-sided temporal lobe asymmetry. For comparison, the corticospinal tract was assessed in 86 type A and B cases, and only two cases showed evidence of corticospinal tract degeneration without lower motor neuron degeneration. These findings confirm that there exists a unique association between frontotemporal lobar degeneration with type C pathology and corticospinal tract degeneration, with this entity showing a predilection to involve the right temporal lobe. PMID:23358603

Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

2013-01-01

322

Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia.  

PubMed

Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A-D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n = 31). Pathological analysis included semi-quantitation of myelin loss of fibres of the corticospinal tract and associated macrophage burden, as well as axonal loss, at the level of the medullary pyramids. We also assessed for motor cortex degeneration and fibre loss of the medial lemniscus/olivocerebellar tract. All cases were subdivided into three groups based on the degree of corticospinal tract degeneration: (i) no corticospinal tract degeneration; (ii) equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration; and (iii) moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration. Clinical, genetic, pathological and imaging comparisons were performed across groups. Eight cases had no corticospinal tract degeneration, and 14 cases had equivocal to mild corticospinal tract degeneration. Nine cases, however, had moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration with myelin and axonal loss. In these nine cases, there was degeneration of the motor cortex without lower motor neuron degeneration or involvement of other brainstem tracts. These cases most commonly presented as semantic dementia, and they had longer disease duration (mean: 15.3 years) compared with the other two groups (10.8 and 9.9 years; P = 0.03). After adjusting for disease duration, severity of corticospinal tract degeneration remained significantly different across groups. Only one case, without corticospinal tract degeneration, was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. All three groups were associated with anterior temporal lobe atrophy on MRI; however, the cases with moderate to severe corticospinal tract degeneration showed right-sided temporal lobe asymmetry and greater involvement of the right temporal lobe and superior motor cortices than the other groups. In contrast, the cases with no or equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration were more likely to show left-sided temporal lobe asymmetry. For comparison, the corticospinal tract was assessed in 86 type A and B cases, and only two cases showed evidence of corticospinal tract degeneration without lower motor neuron degeneration. These findings confirm that there exists a unique association between frontotemporal lobar degeneration with type C pathology and corticospinal tract degeneration, with this entity showing a predilection to involve the right temporal lobe. PMID:23358603

Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Murray, Melissa E; Parisi, Joseph E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

2013-02-01

323

Finding Perimeter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore a real world problem based on the Marilyn Burns book Spaghetti and Meatballs for All!. The problem and further practice finding the distance around rectangles will lead them to discover efficient strategies and formulas for solving perimeter.

Strickland, Susanna

2012-07-27

324

Direct comparison of first-contact versus longitudinal register-based case finding in the same population: early evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia may be three times higher than commonly reported.  

PubMed

Background. The incidence of schizophrenia is commonly estimated by screening for psychosis among subjects presenting to psychiatric services. This approach (using a first-contact sampling frame) cannot account for cases that did not meet criteria for schizophrenia at first contact. We compared the usual approach directly with a register-based approach (using a longitudinal sampling frame) that also includes subjects initially diagnosed with other non-schizophrenic disorders. Method. We compared data from the Longitudinal Psychiatric Register (LPR) of The Hague over 1980-2009 with data previously collected in a first-contact study, and applied both methods to calculate the incidence of schizophrenia for subjects aged 20-54 years in the same catchment area and over the same period (October 2000 to September 2005). We reconstructed treatment pathways and diagnostic histories up to the end of 2009 and performed sensitivity analyses. Results. The LPR identified 843 first onsets of schizophrenia, corresponding to a treated incidence rate (IR) of 69 per 100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 64-74]. The first-contact study identified 254 first onsets, corresponding to a treated IR of 21 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 18-23). Two-thirds of the difference was accounted for by subjects treated for other disorders before the onset of psychosis, and by patients in older age groups. Conclusions. The incidence of schizophrenia was three times higher in a longitudinal register study than in a high-quality first-contact study conducted in the same population. Risk estimates based only on first-contact studies may have been affected by selection bias. PMID:25066605

Hogerzeil, S J; van Hemert, A M; Rosendaal, F R; Susser, E; Hoek, H W

2014-12-01

325

Pathological preoccupation with video games.  

PubMed

Controversy continues concerning the harmfulness of video game use by children. The author encountered clearly pathological preoccupation with video games in a preadolescent. The child had stolen, forged checks, and skipped school to continue using video games. He and his mother were physically abused by his father. Placement of the child in a residential treatment center with martial and family therapy resulted in resolution of the patient's pathological use of video games. PMID:2295578

Keepers, G A

1990-01-01

326

Detection of peripheral nerve pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

2013-01-01

327

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

328

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2011-10-01

329

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2012-10-01

330

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2013-10-01

331

42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

2010-10-01

332

Synaptic Mitochondrial Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Synaptic degeneration, an early pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is closely correlated to impaired cognitive function and memory loss. Recent studies suggest that involvement of amyloid-beta peptide (A?) in synaptic mitochondrial alteration underlies these synaptic lesions. Thus, to understand the A?-associated synaptic mitochondrial perturbations would fortify our understanding of synaptic stress in the pathogenesis of AD. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with synaptic failure in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Based on recent findings in human AD subjects, AD animal models, and AD cellular models, synaptic mitochondria undergo multiple malfunctions including A? accumulation, increased oxidative stress, decreased respiration, and compromised calcium handling capacity, all of which occur earlier than changes seen in nonsynaptic mitochondria before predominant AD pathology. Of note, the impact of A? on mitochondrial motility and dynamics exacerbates synaptic mitochondrial alterations. Critical Issues: Synaptic mitochondria demonstrate early deficits in AD; in combination with the role that synaptic mitochondria play in sustaining synaptic functions, deficits in synaptic mitochondria may be a key factor involved in an early synaptic pathology in AD. Future Directions: The importance of synaptic mitochondria in supporting synapses and the high vulnerability of synaptic mitochondria to A? make them a promising target of new therapeutic strategy for AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1467–1475. PMID:21942330

Du, Heng; Guo, Lan

2012-01-01

333

Main Findings  

Cancer.gov

This study looked at the ALTS patients with ASCUS who were found to have a precancerous lesion when they underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Its purpose was to find out how sensitive HPV testing was at identifying these women compared to repeat Pap testing. The study found that HPV testing was 96-percent sensitive - that is, identified 96% of the women with ASCUS who had a precancerous lesion. The authors concluded that HPV testing is a viable option for the management of ASCUS.

334

Factor Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

Piecora, Jamie

2000-01-01

335

Fossil Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students simulate a "dinosaur dig." The activity opens with background information for teachers about fossils. Working in groups, students excavate fossil sites created in advance by the teacher, or other group of students, and try to reconstruct a chicken skeleton. The activity closes with a two-page student worksheet that directs students to diagram the fossil site and includes probing questions to help them decode their findings.

336

Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

2014-06-01

337

Pathology Case Study: Sellar / Suprasellar Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman noticed a deterioration of vision and movement in her right eye over the course of four weeks. Visitors can view the neuropathological findings, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of neuropathology.

Gaab, Michael R.; Junge, Michael H.; Pahnke, Jens; Vogelgesang, Silke; Warzok, Rolf W.

2009-04-08

338

Pathology Case Study: Post-operative bleeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves an 83-year-old woman with post-operative bleeding and anemia. Laboratory values are provided in Table 1. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kiss, Joseph; Puca, Kathleen; Qu, Lirong; Triulzi, Darrell

2008-04-04

339

The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22072659

Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

2011-01-01

340

MR Imaging Findings of Extraovarian Endocervical Mucinous Borderline Tumors Arising from Pelvic Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

Yeo, Dong Myung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

2013-01-01

341

[Pesticides in rural pathology].  

PubMed

Reference is made to the extensive use of pesticides in agriculture and the fact that many are highly toxic. The lack of information and legislative provisions makes agricultural workers particularly vulnerable to the several categories of poisons contained under the description "pesticides". The chlorinated and phosphoric organic compounds are of especial interest. The former include the derivatives of the phenoxycarboxylic acids, which can give rise to a product (tetrachlorobenzodioxine, or dioxine) that was responsible for the pollution at Seveso. The latter group contains the very commonly employed alkylthiophosphates (malathion, parathion, etc.). These are well-known inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase and thus responsible for harm to the nervous system. A comparable, but less intense effect on this esterase is possessed by the carbamates, which are increasingly being used in agriculture. It is hoped that, as in the past, suitable, oriented epidemiological surveys will be carried out in industry, designed to focus attention on the probable, but not yet documented chronic damage that many of these products cause to the human body. PMID:431841

Pettinati, L; Perrelli, G

1979-03-10

342

Parallel states of pathological Wnt signaling in neonatal brain injury and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

In colon cancer, mutation of the Wnt repressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) leads to a state of aberrant and unrestricted “high-activity” signaling. However, relevance of high Wnt tone in non-genetic human disease is unknown. Here we demonstrate that distinct Wnt activity functional states determine oligodendrocyte precursor (OPC) differentiation and myelination. Murine OPCs with genetic Wnt dysregulation (high tone) express multiple genes in common with colon cancer including Lef1, SP5, Ets2, Rnf43 and Dusp4. Surprisingly, we find that OPCs in lesions of hypoxic human neonatal white matter injury upregulate markers of high Wnt activity and lack expression of APC. Finally, we show lack of Wnt repressor tone promotes permanent white matter injury after mild hypoxic insult. These findings suggest a state of pathological high-activity Wnt signaling in human disease tissues that lack pre-disposing genetic mutation. PMID:24609463

Fancy, Stephen P.J.; Harrington, Emily P.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Silbereis, John C.; Shiow, Lawrence R.; Yuen, Tracy J.; Huang, Eric J.; Lomvardas, Stavros; Rowitch, David H.

2014-01-01

343

The molecular pathology of rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 10 million Americans. Although the phenotypes of rosacea are clinically heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of chronic facial skin inflammation. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease has been poorly understood and limited to descriptions of factors that exacerbate or improve this disorder. Recent molecular studies suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular and inflammatory disease seen in patients with rosacea. These findings may help explain the benefits of current treatments and suggest new therapeutic strategies helpful for alleviating this disease. This article discusses the possible molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of rosacea from current clinical observations and laboratory research. PMID:19481425

Yamasaki, Kenshi; Gallo, Richard L.

2009-01-01

344

Relations between Brain Pathology and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal lobe epilepsy, the most common type of epilepsy in adult humans, is characterized clinically by the progressive development of spontaneous recurrent seizures of temporal lobe origin and pathologically by hippocampal neuronal loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In this study, we sought to test the prominent hypothesis that neuronal loss and mossy fiber sprouting play a critical role in the

Xia Zhang; Shu-Sen Cui; Amy E. Wallace; Darren K. Hannesson; Larry C. Schmued; Deborah M. Saucier; William G. Honer; Michael E. Corcoran

2002-01-01

345

The pathology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common surgical affection of unknown etiology. The muscular hypertrophy is known to resolve within a few months after pyloromyotomy (PM). The pathology of IHPS has been studied extensively at the time of PM, but the fate of the pylorus after healing remains unknown. Materials and Methods: We had the rare opportunity to

Jean-Marie Vanderwinden; Hao Liu; Roberte Menu; Jean-Louis Conreur; Marc-Henri De Laet; Jean-Jacques Vanderhaeghen

1996-01-01

346

Gamblers Anonymous and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

Nancy M. Petry

2005-01-01

347

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

348

Comprehensive Analysis of NRG1 Common and Rare Variants in Hirschsprung Patients  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, OMIM 142623) is a developmental disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells along variable lengths of the distal gastrointestinal tract, which results in tonic contraction of the aganglionic gut segment and functional intestinal obstruction. The RET proto-oncogene is the major gene for HSCR with differential contributions of its rare and common, coding and noncoding mutations to the multifactorial nature of this pathology. Many other genes have been described to be associated with the pathology, as NRG1 gene (8p12), encoding neuregulin 1, which is implicated in the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and seems to contribute by both common and rare variants. Here we present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the NRG1 gene in the context of the disease in a series of 207 Spanish HSCR patients, by both mutational screening of its coding sequence and evaluation of 3 common tag SNPs as low penetrance susceptibility factors, finding some potentially damaging variants which we have functionally characterized. All of them were found to be associated with a significant reduction of the normal NRG1 protein levels. The fact that those mutations analyzed alter NRG1 protein would suggest that they would be related with HSCR disease not only in Chinese but also in a Caucasian population, which reinforces the implication of NRG1 gene in this pathology. PMID:22574178

Luzon-Toro, Berta; Torroglosa, Ana; Nunez-Torres, Rocio; Enguix-Riego, Maria Valle; Fernandez, Raquel Maria; de Agustin, Juan Carlos; Antinolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud

2012-01-01

349

Ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior tibial tendon pathology.  

PubMed

We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool for investigating pathology in the posterior tibial tendon by comparing the preoperative ultrasonograms for 17 patients with their recorded surgical findings. In all cases, the surgical findings confirmed the ultrasonographic diagnoses: 3 inflammations, 4 partial tears, and 10 ruptures. Interestingly, two ruptures had been undiagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasonography, which seems to be a reliable means of visualizing the extent of pathology of the symptomatic posterior tibial tendon, may be a valuable tool in surgical planning. PMID:8886783

Miller, S D; Van Holsbeeck, M; Boruta, P M; Wu, K K; Katcherian, D A

1996-09-01

350

Spleen in haematological malignancies: spectrum of imaging findings  

PubMed Central

Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22096219

Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P

2012-01-01

351

The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective  

PubMed Central

Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

352

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

353

Boston University Digital Common  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boston University has a range of scholars, from those who research the hospitality field to others who are fascinated by the world of photonics. The University's Digital Common Repository contains thousands of documents and publications that span this wide range, authored or co-authored by BU faculty, students, and staff. The different communities here are divided into sections that include College of Arts and Sciences, Centers & Institutes, and Metropolitan College. Visitors will find religious sermons, pieces of music, working economics papers, and a vast cornucopia of other materials. Also, visitors are encouraged to use the Browse feature to look for documents by title, subject, author, or date.

354

Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on treatments for reducing pathological worry is limited. In particular, academic worry is a common theme in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) samples as well as non-clinical student samples. Given the high cost of anxiety disorders to society, research is needed to examine the efficacy of self-administered treatments designed to reduce pathological worry. The primary goal of this study was

Kate B. Wolitzky-Taylor; Michael J. Telch

2010-01-01

355

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

356

Pathology Case Study: Diarrhea and Urinary Frequency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 42-year-old African male who presented to the emergency department with "intermittent fevers, up to 104 degrees, occasional chills, night sweats and rigors, periods of diarrhea, dysuria, and generalized malaise." Visitors are given patient history, admission and laboratory data, along with radiology, microscopic, and microbiological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Pushkar, Irina

2008-03-20

357

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-08-16

358

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

359

Pathology Case Study: Skin Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman with uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma with focal squamous differentiation arising in complex atypical hyperplasia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Jones, Mirka W.; Quintana, Paulina

2007-10-01

360

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

361

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

362

Pathology Case Study: Renal Failure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has had two kidney transplants. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-27

363

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

364

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Perry, Linda

2007-09-03

365

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and diarrhea. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Parizhskaya, Maria

2007-10-31

366

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-04-28

367

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-25

368

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

369

Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-21

370

Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Rostami, Sassan

2009-02-17

371

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

372

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

2008-10-16

373

Male breast disease: pictorial review with radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

The male breast is susceptible to many of the same pathologic processes as the female breast. Many of these conditions have mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance imaging findings that allow differentiation between clearly benign conditions and those that require biopsy. Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast and has characteristic imaging features that usually allow differentiation from malignancy. Mammography is the initial imaging modality for a clinically suspicious mass. A palpable mass that is occult or incompletely imaged at mammography mandates targeted US. Suspicious or indeterminate masses require biopsy, which can usually be performed with US guidance. Approximately 0.7% of breast cancers occur in men. Men with breast cancer often present at a more advanced stage than do women owing to a delay in diagnosis. Benign breast neoplasms that may occur in men include angiolipoma, schwannoma, intraductal papilloma, and lipoma. Benign nonneoplastic entities that may occur in the male breast include intramammary lymph node, sebaceous cyst, diabetic mastopathy, hematoma, fat necrosis, subareolar abscess, breast augmentation, venous malformation, secondary syphilis, and nodular fasciitis. Familiarity with the salient features of the classic benign male breast conditions will allow accurate imaging interpretation and avoid unnecessary and often invasive treatment. © RSNA, 2013. PMID:23674773

Nguyen, Cheri; Kettler, Mark D; Swirsky, Michael E; Miller, Vivian I; Scott, Caleb; Krause, Rhett; Hadro, Jennifer A

2013-05-01

374

Pathology Case Study: Aortic Dissection and Neck Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This case documents the neck and back pain of a 71-year-old female patient. The patient's history is provided, and includes documentation of her condition throughout the duration of her treatment. The pathologic findings include images and descriptions of the gross and microscopic evaluation. In the "Final Diagnosis" section the official conclusion of the doctor is accompanied by a discussion of the diagnosis and references. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Monnin, Kimberly

2007-09-21

375

Personality judgment and personality pathology: self-other agreement in adolescents with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agreement across a variety of traits, particularly those traits fundamental to the pathology. In an adolescent sample including a group with Conduct Disorder (CD) and a Control group, we examine agreement between adolescents' self-reports and their mothers' informant reports. Using trait-centered and person-centered perspectives, we find support for both hypotheses. Results have implications for understanding the processes affecting personality judgment, for increasing integration of traditional personality research and personality pathology, and for personality assessment. PMID:17489894

Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M; Marsh, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W

2007-06-01

376

Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

2014-01-01

377

Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

378

Finding a Common Motif of RNA Sequences Using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

and speed. We describe several experiments using either ferritin iron response element (IRE), signal and that our system offers substantial advantages over previous methods. Index Terms--Genetic Programming (GPRNA molecules take part in translational regulation. As part of the regulation process, their secondary

Barash, Danny

379

World Deltas: Finding Common Ground Efi Foufoula-Georgiou  

E-print Network

Orleans #12;Climate Change Vulnerability Sustainability Resilience Safety Prosperity Biodiversity of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change on Work of Climate Change Adaptation Task Force #12;America's Climate Choices America's Climate Choices

Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

380

Finding common ground in public health nursing education and practice.  

PubMed

Preparation of the public health nursing (PHN) workforce requires public health nurses from academia and practice to collaborate. However, a shortage of PHN clinical sites may lead to competition between schools of nursing for student placements. The Henry Street Consortium, a group of 5 baccalaureate schools of nursing and 13 local health departments in the state of Minnesota, developed a model for collaboration between PHN education and practice. This paper describes the development process--the forming, storming, norming, and performing stages--experienced by the Henry Street Consortium members. The consortium developed a set of entry-level core PHN competencies that are utilized by both education and practice. It developed menus of learning opportunities that were used to design population-based PHN clinical experiences. In addition, the consortium created a model for training and sustaining a preceptor network. The members of the Henry Street Consortium collaborated rather than competed, used consensus for decision making, and respected and accepted different points of view. This collaboration significantly impacted how schools of nursing and local health departments work together. The consortium's ability to retain its relevance, energy, and momentum for both academic and agency partners sustains the collaboration. PMID:21535112

Keller, Linda O; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Schoon, Patricia M; Brueshoff, Bonnie; Jost, Rose

2011-01-01

381

Finding Common Ground: How Faith Communities Support Children's Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that faith communities play a vital role in connecting to families and children and often become involved in and supportive of education issues important in their local community, this document discusses the development of partnerships involving public schools and faith-based communities. The document compiles a series of talking points for…

Gates, Saundra

382

Scientists find 'bully' genes in common childhood tumor  

Cancer.gov

In a genome sequencing study of 74 neuroblastoma tumors in children, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) found that patients with changes in two genes, ARID1A and ARID1B, survive only a quarter as long as patients without the changes. The discovery could eventually lead to early identification of patients with aggressive neuroblastomas who may need additional treatments.

383

Common Conditions in Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... Baby > Common Conditions in Newborns Ages & Stages Listen Common Conditions in Newborns Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

384

[Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].  

PubMed

In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users. PMID:22242254

Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

2011-01-01

385

Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features of Primary Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Review of 51 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

YAMAMOTO, Shinya; HOSHI, Katsuichiro; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; CHIMURA, Syuuichi; KOBAYASHI, Masayuki; MACHIDA, Noboru

2013-01-01

386

Age-related brain pathology in Octodon degu: blood vessel, white matter and Alzheimer-like pathology.  

PubMed

Recently it has been shown that over 3-year-old wild-type South American rodents, Octodon degus, the "common degu" or degu, of their own accord develop Alzheimer's disease neuropathological hallmarks: amyloid-?-peptide depositions and accumulation of tau-protein. Here we analyzed brains of 1-, 3- and 6-year-old degu's, bred in standard animal facilities. Significant amounts of A? and tau deposits are present in the hippocampal formation of 6-year-old O. degus, primarily in the white matter, but these hippocampal A? and tau deposits are not present in younger ones. In contrast, significant A? deposits in blood vessel walls are already found in 3-year-old animals. The tau deposits in the hippocampal formation coincide with a significant decrease in staining for myelin in the same areas, indicating hippocampal disconnection and, likely, dysfunction. Our findings indicate that (1) cerebral amyloid angiopathy precedes brain parenchyma pathology in aged degu's and (2) the onset of disease seems to be delayed in the laboratory vs. wild-type degu's. PMID:19910078

van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Popovi?, Natalija; Popovi?, Miroljub; Caballero-Bleda, María; Baño-Otálora, Beatriz; Vivanco, Pablo; Rol, María Ángeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio

2011-09-01

387

Alzheimer's pathology in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with language impairment as the primary feature. Different subtypes have been described and the 3 best characterized are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA). Of these subtypes, LPA is most commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the features of PPA associated with AD have not been fully defined. Here we retrospectively identified 14 patients with PPA and either pathologically confirmed AD or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers consistent with AD. Analysis of neurological and neuropsychological features revealed that all patients had a syndrome of LPA with relatively nonfluent spontaneous speech, phonemic errors, and reduced digit span; most patients also had impaired verbal episodic memory. Analysis of the pattern of cortical thinning in these patients revealed left posterior superior temporal, inferior parietal, medial temporal, and posterior cingulate involvement and in patients with more severe disease, increasing involvement of left anterior temporal and frontal cortices and right hemisphere areas in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe. We propose that LPA may be a “unihemispheric” presentation of AD, and discuss this concept in relation to accumulating evidence concerning language dysfunction in AD. PMID:20580129

Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

388

The Registry of Forensic Pathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of the Registry of Forensic Pathology since its origin in 1958 is discussed, and an analysis of various factors involved in nearly 900 cases is given. Information concerning the contribution of cases as well as the selection, diagnostic co...

C. J. Stahl

1968-01-01

389

Pathological Gambling: A General Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a

Larry L. Ashley; Karmen K. Boehlke

2012-01-01

390

Pathological characteristics of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

The pathological characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which include regularly occurring multiple carcinogenic lesions (MLs), severe dysplasia (SD) and direct intramural infiltration (DI), were investigated using large pathological sections. A total of 52 esophageal cancer patients underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Large sections of the surgical resection specimens were then made for pathological examination. The actual length of the carcinoma was calculated during surgery from the length determined microscopically. ML, SD and DI were identified during pathological examination of the large sections by microscope and were statistically analyzed. The lesion lengths obtained by the various inspection methods differed from each other. ML, SD and DI were identified in 15, 28 and 41 patients, respectively. Furthermore, a higher incidence of DI was observed in patients with lymphatic infiltration or those with a later stage of disease. ML, SD and DI were identified as characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and ML and DI were found to correlate with lymphatic infiltration. PMID:25013466

SHI, HONG-YUN; ZHU, SHU-CHAI; SHEN, WEN-BIN; LIU, MIAO-LING

2014-01-01

391

Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

Carroll, Juliet E.

392

ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Kenny, Paraic

393

Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions was studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Benign and malignant ossification were examined in cases of myositis ossificans, ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, and osteosarcoma, Resorption of bone due to invasion by non-ossifying tumors was found in cases of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ameloblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Bone formation due to excessive production of

J. Sela

1977-01-01

394

Cardiac pathology in fatal electrocution.  

PubMed

Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995

Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas

2014-11-01

395

Frontier in Pathology: SY24-1 DIGITAL PATHOLOGY 101 (FRONTIERS OF PATHOLOGY).  

PubMed

This symposium will provide participants with a broad introductory overview of the field of digital pathology (DP), including: 1) Applications, benefits and limitations of DP. 2) DP technology issues (primarily whole slide imaging). 3) Regulatory, workflow and financial considerations. 4) Hands-on session focused on basic digital slide viewing using a variety of digital slides if possible.We will also cover the recently updated guidelines from the American Telemedicine Association on Telepathology, with particular reference to their impact on use of digital pathology. PMID:25188072

Hassell, Lewis Allen; Soenksen, Dirk; Stratman, Curtis; Chlipala, Elizabeth; Pantanowitz, Liron

2014-10-01

396

An alternative approach to Computerized Tomography (CT) in forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized Tomography (CT) is used by some forensic pathology departments as a supplement to the forensic autopsy. Departments with a limited number of autopsies may find it relatively expensive to acquire and operate a CT-scanner. Furthermore, it requires a great deal of training and experience to interpret the radiological data. We are currently evaluating CT in order to decide whether

Asser H. Thomsen; Anne Grethe Jurik; Lars Uhrenholt; Annie Vesterby

2009-01-01

397

Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the roles of pathological disorders in Internet addiction disorder and identify the pathological problems in IAD, as well as explore the mental status of Internet addicts prior to addiction, including the pathological traits that may trigger Internet addiction disorder.Methods and Findings59 students were measured by Symptom CheckList-90 before and after they became addicted to the

Guangheng Dong; Qilin Lu; Hui Zhou; Xuan Zhao; Jeremy Miles

2011-01-01

398

Pathology Case Study: HIV Positive Man Died Following Bleeding from Mouth and Nose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This autopsy pathology case provides the patient history, gross and microscopic description and final diagnosis of an HIV positive male. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Aronica, Patricia; Ndimbie, Oliver

2007-10-25

399

Selected topics in peritoneal pathology.  

PubMed

This essay considers selected peritoneal lesions many of which were the subject of studies coauthored by Dr Robert E. Scully. His article on multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts has largely led to these lesions being considered non-neoplastic, eschewing the term cystic mesothelioma. These cysts are often associated with reactive mural mesothelial proliferations that can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis of mesothelioma. Clinical findings, such as a common association with endometriosis or prior operations, can prompt consideration of a reactive lesion. Mesothelial hyperplasia may be difficult to distinguish, when florid, from mesothelioma but a variety of gross and microscopic features will aid their recognition. Nodular peritoneal aggregates of histiocytes (sometimes admixed with mesothelial cells) may occasionally be a striking finding that can be misdiagnosed as a metastasis if the patient has a known neoplasm. Appreciation of their bland nuclear features and histiocytic nature, confirmed by immunohistochemical markers, facilitate the diagnosis. Various forms of peritonitis are briefly considered including sclerosing peritonitis, a process sometimes associated with luteinized thecomas (thecomatosis) of the ovaries, an entity first appreciated by Dr Scully. Mesotheliomas are briefly reviewed emphasizing the caution that should be used in applying the designation "well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma." Many interpret the latter as benign, but multifocal lesions must be thoroughly examined histologically because of potential overlapping features with malignant mesothelioma. The morphologic spectrum of malignant mesothelioma and its usually straightforward distinction from müllerian neoplasms is considered, as is its occasional presentation as a dominant ovarian mass. The spectrum of low-grade serous peritoneal neoplasms including the "psammocarcinoma" is reviewed. Finally, various benign müllerian lesions, particularly endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, may be conspicuous in peritoneal specimens and sometimes are grossly striking. The usual presence of benign endometrioid epithelium and stroma should facilitate the correct diagnosis of endometriosis, but in cases in which the stroma is atrophic or the sole component (stromal endometriosis), diagnostic problems may arise. PMID:24901399

Baker, Patricia M; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

2014-07-01

400

TDP-43 pathological changes in early onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease, late onset Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome: association with age, hippocampal sclerosis and clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

TDP-43 immunoreactive (TDP-43-ir) pathological changes were investigated in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of 11 patients with autosomal dominant familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (FAD), 169 patients with sporadic AD [85 with early onset disease (EOAD) (i.e before 65 years of age), and 84 with late onset after this age (LOAD)], 50 individuals with Down's Syndrome (DS) and 5 patients with primary hippocampal sclerosis (HS). TDP-43-ir pathological changes were present, overall, in 34/180 of AD cases. They were present in 1/11 (9%) FAD, and 9/85 (10%) EOAD patients but were significantly more common (p = 0.003) in LOAD where 24/84 (29%) patients showed such changes. There were no demographic differences, other than onset age, between AD patients with or without TDP-43-ir pathological changes. Double immunolabelling indicated that these TDP-43-ir inclusions were frequently ubiquitinated, but were only rarely AT8 (tau) immunoreactive. Only 3 elderly DS individuals and 4/5 cases of primary HS showed similar changes. Overall, 21.7% of AD cases and 6% DS cases showed hippocampal sclerosis (HS). However, only 9% FAD cases and 16% EOAD cases showed HS, but 29% LOAD cases showed HS. The proportion of EOAD cases with both TDP-43 pathology and HS tended to be greater than those in LOAD, where nearly half of all the cases with TDP-43 pathology did not show HS. The presence of TDP-43-ir changes in AD and DS may therefore be a secondary phenomenon, relating more to ageing than to AD itself. Nevertheless, a challenge to such an interpretation comes from the finding in AD of a strong relationship between TDP-43 pathology and cognitive phenotype. Patients with TDP-43 pathology were significantly more likely to present with an amnestic syndrome than those without (p < 0.0001), in keeping with pathological changes in medial temporal lobe structures. HS was also associated more commonly with an amnestic presentation (p < 0.005), but this association disappeared when TDP-43-positive cases were excluded from the analysis. TDP-43 may, after all, be integral to the pathology of AD, and to some extent determine the clinical phenotype present. PMID:21968532

Davidson, Yvonne S; Raby, Samantha; Foulds, Penelope G; Robinson, Andrew; Thompson, Jennifer C; Sikkink, Stephen; Yusuf, Imran; Amin, Hanan; DuPlessis, Daniel; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Sloan, Carolyn; Esiri, Margaret M; Prasher, Vee P; Allsop, David; Neary, David; Pickering-Brown, Stuart M; Snowden, Julie S; Mann, David M A

2011-12-01

401

REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

Lubna Hasan

2002-01-01

402

Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may occur anywhere in the human body. Although these tumors have been\\u000a recognized for more than 100 years, a unifying concept regarding classification has been controversial, and concepts introduced\\u000a a century ago are still kept in use in today’s nomenclature. In addition, some of the current entities encompassed in the\\u000a rubric of neuroendocrine carcinomas

Neda Kalhor; Saul Suster; Cesar A. Moran

403

Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

2001-01-01

404

Three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas: a 13-year surgical pathology review  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of adrenal incidentalomas due to the widespread use of sophisticated abdominal imaging techniques has resulted in an increasing trend of adrenal gland specimens being received in the pathology laboratory. In this context, we encountered three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas. The aim of this manuscript is to report in detail the three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas in the context of a 13-year retrospective surgical pathology review. Methods The three index cases were investigated and analyzed in detail with relevant review of the English literature as available in PubMed and Medline. A 13-year retrospective computer-based histopathological surgical review was conducted in our laboratory and the results were analyzed in the context of evidence-based literature on adrenal incidentalomas. Results A total of 94 adrenal specimens from incidentalomas were identified, accounting for 0.025% of all surgical pathology cases. In all 76.6% were benign and 23.4% were malignant. A total of 53 females (56.4%) and 41 males (43.6%) aged 4 to 85?years were identified. The benign lesions included cortical adenoma (43.1%), pheochromocytoma (29.3%) and inflammation/fibrosis/hemorrhage (8.3%). Metastatic neoplasms were the most common malignant lesions (50%) followed by primary adrenocortical carcinomas (31.8%) and neuroblastoma (13.6%). These cases were discovered as adrenal incidentalomas that led to surgical exploration. The three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas with unusual pathologies were encountered that included (a) adrenal ganglioneuroma, (b) periadrenal schwannoma and (c) primary adrenal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. These cases are discussed, with a literature and clinicopathological review. Conclusions Adrenal lesions are uncommon surgical specimens in the pathology laboratory. However, higher detection rates of adrenal incidentalomas aided by the ease of laparoscopic adrenalectomy has resulted in increased adrenal surgical specimens leading to unsuspected diagnostic and management dilemmas. Accurate pathological identification of common and uncommon adrenal incidentalomas is essential for optimal patient management. PMID:22540324

2012-01-01

405

Pathology and sensitivity of current clinical criteria in corticobasal syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate corticobasal syndrome with respect to underlying pathologies, the ability of current clinical criteria to detect early stages of disease, and symptoms and signs predicting background pathologies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological findings from patients with corticobasal syndrome. We also analyzed whether those findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Finally, we investigated characteristic clinical features that are specific to each background pathology. Of 10 consecutive autopsied patients who had corticobasal syndrome (mean age?± standard deviation, 67.9?±?9.3 years; male:female ratio, 6:4), three had corticobasal degeneration pathology, three had progressive supranuclear palsy, three had Alzheimer's disease, and one had atypical four-repeat tauopathy. Nine patients fulfilled Mayo criteria, and all 10 patients fulfilled modified Cambridge criteria at the later stage, but only two patients fulfilled either clinical criteria within 2 years of disease onset. Five patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for possible CBD (p-CBD), and one patient fulfilled the clinical research criteria for probable sporadic CBD (cr-CBD) at the later stage. Only two patients fulfilled the criteria for either p-CBD or cr-CBD within 2 years of disease onset. Although we could not find any predictive characteristic clinical features that were specific to CBD pathology, only patients with progressive supranuclear palsy developed apraxia of eyelid opening and cerebellar ataxia. Myoclonus and memory impairment, especially if they appear at an early stage of the disease, may predict Alzheimer's disease pathology. Sensitivity of the available clinical criteria for corticobasal syndrome was poor within 2 years of disease onset. PMID:24259271

Ouchi, Haruka; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Tada, Mari; Oyake, Mutsuo; Aida, Izumi; Tomita, Itsuro; Satoh, Akira; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

2014-02-01

406

Lifetime Prevalence of Pathological Gambling Among American Indian and Hispanic American Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of pathological gambling among 1228 American Indian and Hispanic American veterans in the southwest and north central regions of the United States. Methods. We surveyed a community sample of American Indian and Hispanic American veterans to obtain data on psychiatric disorder and treatment. Results. American Indian veterans had a 10% lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling. The Hispanic American lifetime prevalence was less than that of the American Indian veterans but higher than the prevalence found for Hispanic American veterans in other surveys. Comorbid conditions associated with pathological gambling included substance, mood, and antisocial personality disorders. Ready access to casino gambling may encourage, support, or contribute to high rates of pathological gambling in both men and women. Conclusions. A 70% lifetime comorbidity of psychiatric disorders suggests that early interventions for pathological gambling should consider common psychiatric conditions rather than focusing on pathological gambling alone. PMID:15855466

Westermeyer, Joseph; Canive, Jose; Garrard, Judith; Thuras, Paul; Thompson, James

2005-01-01

407

Pathological non-response to chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting of breast cancer: an inter-institutional study.  

PubMed

To identify markers of non-response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) that could be used in the adjuvant setting. Sixteen pathologists of the European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology reviewed the core biopsies of breast cancers treated with NAC and recorded the clinico-pathological findings (histological type and grade; estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER2 status; Ki67; mitotic count; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; necrosis) and data regarding the pathological response in corresponding surgical resection specimens. Analyses were carried out in a cohort of 490 cases by comparing the groups of patients showing pathological complete response (pCR) and partial response (pPR) with the group of non-responders (pathological non-response: pNR). Among other parameters, the lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were significantly more common in pNR (p < 0.001). By ROC curve analyses, cut-off values of 9 mitosis/2 mm(2) and 18 % of Ki67-positive cells best discriminated the pNR and pCR + pPR categories (p = 0.018 and < 0.001, respectively). By multivariable analysis, only the cut-off value of 9 mitosis discriminated the different response categories (p = 0.036) in the entire cohort. In the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, a mitotic count <9, although not statistically significant, showed an OR of 2.7 of pNR. A lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were independent predictors of pNR (p = 0.024 and <0.001, respectively). Classical morphological parameters, such as lobular histotype and inflammation, confirmed their predictive value in response to NAC, particularly in the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, which is a challenging breast cancer subtype from a therapeutic point of view. Mitotic count could represent an additional marker but has a poor positive predictive value. PMID:25395316

Balmativola, D; Marchiò, C; Maule, M; Chiusa, L; Annaratone, L; Maletta, F; Montemurro, F; Kulka, J; Figueiredo, P; Varga, Z; Liepniece-Karele, I; Cserni, G; Arkoumani, E; Amendoeira, I; Callagy, G; Reiner-Concin, A; Cordoba, A; Bianchi, S; Decker, T; Gläser, D; Focke, C; van Diest, P; Grabau, D; Lips, E; Wesseling, J; Arisio, R; Medico, E; Wells, C; Sapino, A

2014-12-01

408

Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

2013-01-01

409

A Common BACE1 Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease  

PubMed Central

The ? site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting ?-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and A? formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its ?-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by A? oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405) with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP) involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, A? oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players. PMID:22952813

Calero, Olga; Bullido, Maria J.; Clarimon, Jordi; Frank-Garcia, Ana; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Lleo, Alberto; Rey, Maria Jesus; Sastre, Isabel; Rabano, Alberto; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Ferrer, Isidro; Calero, Miguel

2012-01-01

410

Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Investigation of Asbestosis  

PubMed Central

By the radiological examination, differential diagnosis of asbestosis from chronic interstitial pneumonia such as IPF/UIP is difficult. The pathological features of asbestosis show the peribronchiolar fibrosis which suggest that asbestos fibers cause the inflammation of bronchioli. Therefore, the criteria for pathological diagnosis of asbestosis in 2010, contain the finding of peribronchiolar fibrosis again. Chest CT scanning including HRCT for total of 38 cases clinically diagnosed asbestosis were reviewed by 3 radiologists and one pulmonologist. On the other hand, the histology of lung tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy were examined by 4 pulmonological pathologists. Furthermore, the content of asbestos bodies in the lung was counted by phase-contrast microscopy. Thirteen cases were definitely diagnosed of asbestosis in the image including HRCT and 17 cases were diagnosed by the histopathological examination showing lung fibrosis with peribronchiolar fibrosis. Only 10 cases were indicated asbestosis by both the radiological and histopathological examinations. The mean value of asbestos bodies for these cases, was 2,133,255 per gram of dry lung tissue. PMID:21556185

Kishimoto, Takumi; Kato, Katsuya; Arakawa, Hiroaki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Inai, Kouki; Takeshima, Yukio

2011-01-01

411

Evolution of concepts in forest pathology.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Foundation concepts in forest pathology are based on experiences evolving over time. Three examples will be addressed. (i) The primary concept behind education and research in forest pathology is the widely accepted attitude that disease-causing agents limit full utilization of forest resources. Therefore, we study diseases to find a weak link and then utilize this information to enhance our portion of the shared resource. The sustainable environmental issues of today have changed this concept, in my mind, to one of addressing what is the appropriate "healthy amount of disease" in a sustainable forest ecosystem. (ii) The initial concept that weakened understory trees and poorly managed forests deteriorate and decline over time because of numerous insults from biotic and abiotic agents has evolved into a decline disease stabilizing selection concept whereby healthy dominant trees in the forest (the survivors) are selectively killed by a combination of specifically ordered factors. (iii) The concept that heart-rot decay is initiated by infection through wounds that expose heartwood has evolved into the concept of infection in the sapwood that is compartmentalized over time in the center of the tree. PMID:18943876

Manion, Paul D

2003-08-01

412

Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus  

PubMed Central

Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

413

Clinical, radiological, and pathological investigation of asbestosis.  

PubMed

By the radiological examination, differential diagnosis of asbestosis from chronic interstitial pneumonia such as IPF/UIP is difficult. The pathological features of asbestosis show the peribronchiolar fibrosis which suggest that asbestos fibers cause the inflammation of bronchioli. Therefore, the criteria for pathological diagnosis of asbestosis in 2010, contain the finding of peribronchiolar fibrosis again. Chest CT scanning including HRCT for total of 38 cases clinically diagnosed asbestosis were reviewed by 3 radiologists and one pulmonologist. On the other hand, the histology of lung tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy were examined by 4 pulmonological pathologists. Furthermore, the content of asbestos bodies in the lung was counted by phase-contrast microscopy. Thirteen cases were definitely diagnosed of asbestosis in the image including HRCT and 17 cases were diagnosed by the histopathological examination showing lung fibrosis with peribronchiolar fibrosis. Only 10 cases were indicated asbestosis by both the radiological and histopathological examinations. The mean value of asbestos bodies for these cases, was 2,133,255 per gram of dry lung tissue. PMID:21556185

Kishimoto, Takumi; Kato, Katsuya; Arakawa, Hiroaki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Inai, Kouki; Takeshima, Yukio

2011-03-01

414

Hepatic Histological Findings in Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Systematic Evaluation and Clinical Associations  

PubMed Central

Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. Liver biopsy may contribute to diagnostic accuracy, but the histological features of DILI and their relationship to biochemical parameters and outcomes are not well defined. We have classified the pathological pattern of liver injury and systematically evaluated histological changes in liver biopsies obtained from 249 patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the prospective, observational study conducted by the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. Histological features were analyzed for their frequency within different clinical phenotypes of liver injury and to identify associations between clinical and laboratory findings and histological features. The most common histological patterns were acute (21%) and chronic hepatitis (14%), acute (9%) and chronic cholestasis (10%) and cholestatic hepatitis (29%). Liver histology from 128 patients presenting with hepatocellular injury had more severe inflammation, necrosis and apoptosis and more frequently demonstrated lobular disarray, rosette formation and hemorrhage than those with cholestasis. Conversely, histology of the 73 patients with cholestatic injury more often demonstrated bile plugs and duct paucity. Severe or fatal hepatic injury in 46 patients was associated with higher degrees of necrosis, fibrosis stage, microvesicular steatosis and ductular reaction among other findings, while eosinophils and granulomas were found more often in those with milder injury. In summary, we describe an approach for evaluating liver histology in DILI and demonstrate numerous associations between pathological findings and clinical presentations that may serve as a foundation for future studies correlating DILI pathology with its causality and outcome. PMID:24037963

Kleiner, David E.; Chalasani, Naga P.; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Watkins, Paul B.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Davern, Timothy J.; Navarro, Victor; Reddy, Rajender; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Stolz, Andrew; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

2013-01-01

415

Role of body dissatisfaction in the onset and maintenance of eating pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent findings implicate body dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating pathology. This paper reviews theory and empirical findings regarding the putative origins and consequences of body dissatisfaction because recent findings have not been synthesized or critically evaluated and because these findings have key etiologic and prevention implications. Methods: A computer-assisted literature review was conducted to locate relevant

Eric Stice; Heather E Shaw

2002-01-01

416

A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

2012-01-01

417

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Malignant Melanoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case documents the condition of a 74 year-old man suspected of having either chronic lymphocytic leukemia or malignant melanoma. The patientâÂÂs history, images from his bone marrow biopsy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-09-01

418

War of the Roses A Case Study in Plant Pathology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students use lab techniques to determine how the protagonist of the story, a student in a plant pathology class, can find out what is wrong with his mother’s roses. The case introduces students to sources of information for the proper diagnosis of plant diseases as well as methods of controlling plant diseases. Developed for the introductory laboratory in a basic upper-level undergraduate plant pathology course, the case could also be used in other courses such as introductory agriculture, horticulture, botany, and biology, where there is an interest in the diagnosis of plant diseases.

Riley, Melissa B.

2001-01-01

419

Pathology Case Study: Abnormal Preoperative RBC Type and Crossmatch Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old woman has presented to the hospital for a radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma. Visitors are given the immuohematological findings, including patient charts, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Horn, Kevin D.; Triulzi, Darrell

2009-10-15

420

Pathology Case Study: History of Bilateral Back Pain and Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 68-year-old woman with a history of bilateral back pain and fever has been admitted to the hospital with agitation, confusion, and delirium. Visitors are given both the histologic and laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Chung, Wen-Wei; Fernandes, Shaila; Pasculle, A. W.; Wang, Jianzhou

2008-11-27

421

Pathology Case Study: Right Chest and Right Foot Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 16-year-old woman has been admitted to the hospital with masses on her right foot and in her right chest. Visitors are given the patient history and cytogenetic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and cytogenetics.

Gharaibeh, Burhan; Molina, J. T.; Surti, Urvashi

2009-03-31

422

Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

1988-01-01

423

Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few detailed clinico-pathological correlations of Parkinson's disease have been published. The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported. Seventy six had nigral Lewy bodies, and in all of these Lewy bodies were also found in the cerebral cortex. In 24 cases without Lewy bodies, diagnoses included progressive

A J Hughes; S E Daniel; L Kilford; A J Lees

1992-01-01

424

Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

425

PERSONALITY AND OBJECT RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN YOUNG ADULT CHILDREN OF ALCOHOLICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some clinical reports suggest that adult children of alcoholics display personality pathology etiologically related in part to developmental object relational deficits. In this study, adult children of alcoholics (ACA) showed more personality pathology than controls and relatively lower levels of object relational development on a multivariate Rorschach measure. Findings from this exploratory correlational study are consistent with the clinically inferred

Stephen Hibbard

1989-01-01

426

Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pitt