Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Common Postmortem Computed Tomography Findings Following Atraumatic Death: Differentiation between Normal Postmortem Changes and Pathologic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gonoi, Wataru; Okuma, Hidemi; Shirota, Go; Shintani, Yukako; Abe, Hiroyuki; Takazawa, Yutaka; Fukayama, Masashi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is widely used in postmortem investigations as an adjunct to the traditional autopsy in forensic medicine. To date, several studies have described postmortem CT findings as being caused by normal postmortem changes. However, on interpretation, postmortem CT findings that are seemingly due to normal postmortem changes initially, may not have been mere postmortem artifacts. In this pictorial essay, we describe the common postmortem CT findings in cases of atraumatic in-hospital death and describe the diagnostic pitfalls of normal postmortem changes that can mimic real pathologic lesions. PMID:26175579

  2. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  3. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  4. Cystic lymphangioma of the pancreas: CT and pathologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gray; K. Fried; J. Iraci

    1998-01-01

    .   A case of pancreatic cystic lymphangioma is presented with CT and pathologic findings. CT demonstrated a large septated cystic\\u000a mass in the left abdomen in an otherwise healthy young female. A diagnosis of lymphangioma was made after excision and pathologic\\u000a examination.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  7. Hepatic malignancies: Correlation between sonographic findings and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-07-28

    Ultrasonography (US) findings are inevitably based on pathological features. Knowledge of the pathological features of hepatic malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastasis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is essential for correct US diagnosis and appropriate management. One type of hepatocarcinogenesis is step-wise development from a low-grade dysplastic nodule (DN), high-grade DN, high-grade DN with malignant foci, and well-differentiated HCC, to classical HCC. The intranodular blood supply changes in accordance with this progression. Moreover, the malignant potential tends to change as the macroscopic configuration progresses. Therefore, typical US findings of advanced HCC are a mosaic pattern, septum formation, peripheral sonolucency (halo), lateral shadow produced by fibrotic pseudocapsule, posterior echo enhancement, arterial hypervascularity with dilated intratumoral blood sinusoids, and perinodular daughter nodule formation. Bull's eye appearance is a common presentation of metastases from gastrointestinal (GI) adenocarcinomas, and represents histological findings that show an area of central necrosis surrounded by a zonal area of viable tumor. Thick zonal area reflects the layer of viable cells that are fed by minute tumor vessels. US imaging features of liver metastases from the GI tract are as follows: Bull's eye appearance, multiple masses, irregular tumor border, arterial rim-like enhancement, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. Most intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are ductal adenocarcinomas. The bile ducts peripheral to the tumor are usually dilated because of obstruction by tumors. US imaging features of mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma are as follows: peripheral bile duct dilatation, irregular tumor border, arterial enhancement due to minute intratumoral blood sinusoids, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. PMID:21160664

  8. Hepatic malignancies: Correlation between sonographic findings and pathological features

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) findings are inevitably based on pathological features. Knowledge of the pathological features of hepatic malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastasis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is essential for correct US diagnosis and appropriate management. One type of hepatocarcinogenesis is step-wise development from a low-grade dysplastic nodule (DN), high-grade DN, high-grade DN with malignant foci, and well-differentiated HCC, to classical HCC. The intranodular blood supply changes in accordance with this progression. Moreover, the malignant potential tends to change as the macroscopic configuration progresses. Therefore, typical US findings of advanced HCC are a mosaic pattern, septum formation, peripheral sonolucency (halo), lateral shadow produced by fibrotic pseudocapsule, posterior echo enhancement, arterial hypervascularity with dilated intratumoral blood sinusoids, and perinodular daughter nodule formation. Bull’s eye appearance is a common presentation of metastases from gastrointestinal (GI) adenocarcinomas, and represents histological findings that show an area of central necrosis surrounded by a zonal area of viable tumor. Thick zonal area reflects the layer of viable cells that are fed by minute tumor vessels. US imaging features of liver metastases from the GI tract are as follows: Bull’s eye appearance, multiple masses, irregular tumor border, arterial rim-like enhancement, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. Most intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are ductal adenocarcinomas. The bile ducts peripheral to the tumor are usually dilated because of obstruction by tumors. US imaging features of mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma are as follows: peripheral bile duct dilatation, irregular tumor border, arterial enhancement due to minute intratumoral blood sinusoids, and hypoenhancement in the late vascular phase. PMID:21160664

  9. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  10. Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko

    E-print Network

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko University of Alberta, Department; Beal 1980). This phenomenon has been termed the minimax pathology. Recently pathological behavior investigate lookahead pathology in real-time path-finding on maps from commercial computer games. Pathology

  11. Bone and gallium scan findings in malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report with radiographic and pathologic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.K.; Alexieva-Jackson, B.; Fetters, D.V.; Edwards, S.M.; McBride, J.P.; Cole, R.L.; Trapp, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in adults. The Ga-67 citrate scan findings of an extremity-located MFH, the most common location of this neoplasm, have never been published in English language journals to the best of the authors' knowledge. Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP scans of the thigh mass accurately depicted the tumor's local extent, including the presence of central ischemic necrosis within the tumor, and the absence of adjacent osseous involvement and distant metastases, as correlated with computed tomography, angiography, and pathologic examinations.

  12. Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

    INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

  13. Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko (bulitko@ualberta.ca)

    E-print Network

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Vadim Bulitko (bulitko@ualberta.ca) University to produce better actions · Sometimes the opposite is true: pathology Setting · Path-finding in grid world of pathology: number of lookahead depths where error is larger than at the previous depth · 1,000 problems (map

  14. Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek (mitja.lustrek@ijs.si)

    E-print Network

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek (mitja.lustrek@ijs.si) Jozef Stefan to produce better actions · Sometimes the opposite is true: pathology Setting · Path-finding in grid world of pathology: number of lookahead depths where error is larger than at the previous depth · 1,000 problems (map

  15. Clinical and pathologic findings in 52 consecutively autopsied cases with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Oshima, K; Kanda, Y; Nannya, Y; Kaneko, M; Hamaki, T; Suguro, M; Yamamoto, R; Chizuka, A; Matsuyama, T; Takezako, N; Miwa, A; Togawa, A; Niino, H; Nasu, M; Saito, K; Morita, T

    2001-05-01

    We studied clinical features and pathologic findings in 52 consecutively autopsied patients with multiple myeloma in our center between 1979 and 1998. Distant extraosseous involvement was found in 33 patients (63.5%). Thirty-one patients (59.6%) were proven to have infection at autopsy, among which pneumonia was most common site of infection. Amyloidosis was shown in 8 patients. Second malignancies were observed in 4 cases. The three major causes of death were hemorrhage, infection, and renal failure, which accounted for death in approximately 70% of the patients. Advances in the anticancer and antimicrobial chemotherapies might have decreased deaths due to myeloma itself or infection. PMID:11279649

  16. Case report. Peripancreatic intranodal haemangioma mimicking pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: imaging and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, A D; Arellano, R; Baker, G

    2011-12-01

    Haemangiomas are common benign tumours that are generally detected within the skin, mucosal surfaces and soft tissues. However, intranodal haemangiomas are extremely rare and are among the benign primary vascular abnormalities of the lymph nodes that include lymphangioma, haemangioendothelioma, angiomyomatous hamartoma and haemangiomas. In this case report, we present the imaging and pathological findings of an intranodal haemangioma in the pancreatic head simulating a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intranodal haemangioma in this location. PMID:22101590

  17. Transrectal electrical impedance tomography of the prostate: Spatially coregistered pathological findings for prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuqing; Borsic, Andrea; Heaney, John; Seigne, John; Schned, Alan; Baker, Michael; Wason, Shaun; Hartov, Alex; Halter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common malignancies and currently represents the second leading cancer-specific cause of death in men. The current use of single modality transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance has a limited sensitivity and specificity for accurately identifying cancerous lesions within the prostate. This study introduces a novel prostate cancer imaging method that combines TRUS with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and reports on initial clinical findings based on in vivo measurements. Methods: The ultrasound system provides anatomic information, which guides EIT image reconstruction. EIT reconstructions are correlated with semiquantitative pathological findings. Thin plate spline warping transformations are employed to overlay electrical impedance images and pathological maps describing the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, with the latter used as reference for data analysis. Clinical data were recorded from a total of 50 men prior to them undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment. Student's t-tests were employed to statistically examine the electrical property difference between cancerous tissue and benign tissue as defined through histological assessment of the excised gland. Results: Example EIT reconstructions are presented along with a statistical analysis comparing EIT and pathology. An average transformation error of 1.67% is found when 381 spatially coregistered pathological images are compared with their target EIT reconstructed counterparts. At EIT signal frequencies of 0.4, 3.2, and 25.6 kHz, paired-testing demonstrated that the conductivity of cancerous regions is significantly greater than that of benign regions (?p < 0.0304). Conclusions: These preliminary clinical findings suggest the potential benefits electrical impedance measurements might have for prostate cancer detection. PMID:23718610

  18. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Pathological and parasitological findings in a wild red titi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Pathological and parasitological findings in a wild red titi monkey, Callicebus, like on Barro Colorado island (Milton 1996). Here, we report pathological and parasitological findings at the Estación Biológica Quebrada Blanco (EBQB) during a field study on the comparative parasitology of sympatric

  20. Adrenal cytomegaly is a frequent pathologic finding in hemoglobin bart hydrops fetalis.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortical cytomegaly (AC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon but tends to occur in certain situations, including specific congenital anomalies and hydrops due to maternal-fetal Rhesus incompatibility. Because the pathology in the latter condition does not differ greatly from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart hydrops fetalis, we performed a retrospective review of fetal and perinatal autopsy cases with Hb Bart to determine the prevalence of AC in that condition. Over a 10-year period (2001-2010) at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, there were 16 hydropic cases confirmed to have Hb Bart. Adrenocortical cytomegaly was found in 13 cases (81%). For comparison, we determined the occurrence of AC in cases of hydrops fetalis not due to Hb Bart (n ?=? 33) and a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies (n ?=? 34). Adrenocortical cytomegaly was identified in only 1 case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and 2 cases of anencephaly. Thus, AC is a common finding in cases of Hb Bart, a finding not previously documented. Moreover, our study suggests that Hb Bart is one of the conditions most commonly associated with AC. The reasons for this are not known. The mean Hb levels for the hydrops cases with Hb Bart and those with other forms of anemia showed no significant difference (P ?=? 0.63), nor was there any significant difference in Hb levels between cases of Hb Bart with and without AC. Nonetheless, the consistency of AC in cases of Hb Bart suggests that further study of this particular group of patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of this poorly understood pathologic finding. PMID:22257311

  1. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, A; Cesaretti, M; Tirone, A; Francioli, N; Piccolomini, A; Vuolo, G; Verre, L; Savelli, V; Di Cosmo, L; Carli, A F

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  2. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, A.; Cesaretti, M.; Tirone, A.; Francioli, N.; Piccolomini, A.; Vuolo, G.; Verre, L.; Savelli, V.; Di Cosmo, L.; Carli, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  3. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Lacquer Cracks in Pathologic Myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Ohno-Matsui; Naoto Morishima; Mutsuko Ito; Takashi Tokoro

    1998-01-01

    Lacquer cracks are thought to represent healed mechanical breaks in the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch’s membrane, and choriocapillaris complex. In this study, we analyzed the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic features of lacquer cracks and compared them with findings using fluorescein angiography. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, fluorescein angiography, and ICG angiography were performed in 29 consecutive patients (37 eyes) with lacquer cracks.

  4. Finding a Common Motif of RNA Sequences Using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Barash, Danny

    Finding a Common Motif of RNA Sequences Using Genetic Programming: The GeRNAMo System Shahar Michal the data set. We use genetic programming to predict RNA consensus motifs based solely on the data set. Our system--dubbed GeRNAMo (Genetic programming of RNA Motifs)--predicts the most common motifs without

  5. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF REINDEER (RANGIFER TARANDUS) WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS: PATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FINDINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States all species of Cervidae are included in the uniform rules and methods for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. However, in reindeer, infection with M. bovis is rare and false positive results on diagnostic tests are common. In order to describe the pathologic changes associat...

  6. MRI findings are more common in selected patients with acute low back pain than controls?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Hancock; Chris Maher; Petra Macaskill; Jane Latimer; Walter Kos; Justin Pik

    Purpose  The purpose of this study is to investigate if lumbar disc pathology identified on MRI scans is more common in patients with\\u000a acute, likely discogenic, low back pain than matched controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   We compared rates of MRI findings between 30 cases with low back pain and 30 pain-free controls. Cases were patients presenting\\u000a for care with likely discogenic low back

  7. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  8. Computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy: normal variants, pitfalls, and spectrum of common and rare pathology.

    PubMed

    Das, K M; Lababidi, Hani; Al Dandan, Sadeq; Raja, Shanker; Sakkijha, Hussam; Al Zoum, Mohammad; AlDosari, Khalid; Larsson, Sven G

    2015-02-01

    A broad spectrum of pathologies that involve the laryngotracheobronchial airway and imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating these abnormalities. Computed tomography with virtual bronchoscopy has been found to be very helpful in defining the location, extent, and nature of these lesions, and is increasingly being used even in patients with contraindications for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Ionizing radiation, associated with virtual bronchoscopy, can be minimized by using low-dose multidetector computed tomography and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques. Furthermore, retrospectively generated virtual bronchoscopy from a routinely acquired computed tomography data set eliminates additional cost and radiation. In the future, virtual bronchoscopy assisted with advanced navigational techniques will broaden the diagnostic and therapeutic landscape. This article presents the characteristic features of common and rare laryngotracheobronchial pathologies seen with virtual bronchoscopy. PMID:24785366

  9. Necropsy findings and environmental contaminants in common loons from New York.

    PubMed

    Stone, W B; Okoniewski, J C

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic and analytical findings are presented for 105 common loons (Gavia immer) found dead or debilitated in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis (23% of cases) and ingestion of lead fishing weights (21%) were the most common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain etiology accounted for most of the remaining causes of disease or death. Analysis for total mercury in the liver of 83 loons yielded a geometric mean (gm) of 10.3 mg/kg (wet basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing higher levels. Organochlorine contaminant levels in brain were generally low, principally consisting of PCB's (gm = 2.02 mg/kg) and DDE (0.47 mg/kg). PMID:11272494

  10. NECROPSY FINDINGS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN COMMON LOONS FROM NEW YORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ward B. Stone; Joseph C. Okoniewski

    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic,and,analytical,findings,are,presented,for 105 common,loons,(Gavia immer) found,dead,or debilitated,in New York (USA) from 1972-99. Aspergillosis,(23% of cases) and ingestion,of lead,fishing,weights,(21%) were,the,most,common pathologies encountered. Stranding on land, shooting, other trauma, gill nets, air sacculitis and peritonitis, and emaciation of uncertain,etiology,accounted,for,most,of the,remaining,causes of disease,or death.,Analysis,for,total,mercury,in the,liver,of 83 loons,yielded,a geometric,mean,(gm) of 10.3 mg\\/kg,(wet,basis) and range of 0.07 to 371 mg\\/kg, with emaciated birds generally showing,higher,levels.,

  11. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  12. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  13. Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings.

    PubMed

    LE Donne, Maria; Alibrandi, Angela; Ciancimino, Leonarda; Azzerboni, Andrea; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method. PMID:23599784

  14. Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%–2.5% and 75%–96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time. PMID:15833980

  15. Clinico-pathological and biomolecular findings in Italian patients with multiple cutaneous neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neurofibroma occurs as isolated or multiple lesions frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 3500 individuals. It is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which comprises 60 exons and is located on chromosome 17q11.2. NF1 is a fully penetrant gene exhibiting a mutation rate some 10-fold higher compared with most other disease genes. As a consequence, a high number of cases (up to 50%) are sporadic. Mutation detection is complex due to the large size of the NF1 gene, the presence of pseudogenes and the great variety of lesions. Methods 110 patients with at least two neurofibroma lesions recorded in the files of the Pathology Department of the University of Modena during the period 1999-2010, were included in this study. Through interviews and examination of clinical charts, pedigrees were drawn for all patients who were affected by at least two neurofibromas. We attempted to delineate the clinical features of NF1 and the mutational spectrum in the cohort of 11 NF1 families identified. For each proband, the whole coding sequence and all splice sites were studied for mutations, either by the protein truncation test (PTT), or, more frequently, by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Two GIST tumors of NF1 patients were tested for somatic NF1 mutations. Results NF1 germline mutations were identified in 7 (68%) patients. A novel mutation, c.3457_3460delCTCA in exon 20, was detected in two unrelated patients and was associated with different clinical features. No NF1 somatic mutations were detected in the GIST tumors. A wide phenotypic and genotypic variability was registered, both in the spectrum of skin lesions and visceral neoplasms, even among members of the same family who had different clinical manifestations. A proclivity to multiple tumors arising in the same subject, and a higher tumor burden per family were the most relevant findings observed in patients affected with the NF1 mutation. Conclusions We report a novel NF1 mutation and we contribute data for the refinement of the NF1 genotype-phenotype spectrum. PMID:21838856

  16. Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    Simola, O; Wiberg, M; Jokela, J; Wahlsten, M; Sivonen, K; Syrjä, P

    2012-09-01

    A 3-year-old Cairn Terrier dog that had been in contact with sea water containing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was euthanized because of acute hepatic failure and anuria after a 5-day illness. Histologic findings included lytic and hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and renal tubular necrosis. The cyanotoxin nodularin was detected in liver and kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the algal species Nodularia spumigena. The intensity of algal blooms has increased during the past decades in the Baltic Sea region, thus increasing the risk for intoxications in domestic and wild animals. The authors describe the pathologic findings of cyanobacterial toxicosis in a dog with direct identification of the toxin from organ samples. PMID:21825312

  17. Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benkö, Maria; Schöniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

    2011-04-01

    An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention. PMID:21441198

  18. Salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: outcomes and prognostic factors especially focusing on pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Satoko; Hayashi, Keiji; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Masuda, Hitoshi; Kihara, Kazunori; Shibuya, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is a potential salvage or adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment outcome of salvage radiotherapy (RT) following RP for clinically localized prostate cancer and to identify factors that may predict the outcome of salvage RT. Between 2000 and 2006, 41 patients received salvage RT because of increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following an RP for clinically localized prostate cancer. All the patients received conformal radiotherapy to the prostate bed. The prescribed radiation dose was 60–70 Gy in 26–35 fractions. The overall 5-year biochemical disease-free survival rate was 38%. A multivariate analysis showed that the following pathological findings of the surgical specimen were significantly associated with biochemical failure following salvage RT: a high Gleason score, a negative surgical margin, seminal vesicle invasion, lymphatic vessel invasion and negative vascular invasion. Among these factors, lymphatic vessel invasion was the strongest predictor. In conclusion, the pathological features affected the outcome of salvage RT following RP. Lymphatic vessel invasion was strongly associated with the risk of biochemical failure despite salvage RT. Meanwhile, vascular invasion was not a significant hazardous factor. PMID:22843370

  19. Finding patterns common to a set of strings (Extended Abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Angluin

    1979-01-01

    We motivate, formalize, and study a computational problem in concrete inductive inference. A “pattern” is defined to be a concatenation of constants and variables, and the language of a pattern is defined to be the set of strings obtained by substituting constant strings for the variables. The problem we consider is, given a set of strings, find a minimal pattern

  20. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

  1. Avian paramyxovirus type 1 infection in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii): clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T A; Nicholls, P K; Wernery, U; Samour, J; Cooper, J E; O'Leary, M T

    1997-09-01

    Clinical and pathologic findings of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (PMV-1) in 19 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) imported from Pakistan into the United Arab Emirates and one captive-bred bird are reported. Clinical signs included circling, walking backward, ataxia, opisthotonos, torticollis, recumbency, head tilt, head shaking, head tremor, tucking of head under keel, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. The length of time imported birds exhibited clinical signs varied from 4 days to 18 mo after importation. Hemagglutinating antibodies against PMV-1 were detected in the sera of all 17 birds from which blood samples were collected, and PMV-1 was isolated from pooled brain, spleen, and lung tissues from two birds with acute clinical signs. There were no distinctive gross lesions at necropsy, and histologic findings were consistent with but not pathognomonic for PMV-1. All houbara bustards managed in a captive breeding and restoration program established by the National Avian Research Center have been vaccinated against PMV-1 since October 1992, and no case of PMV-1 has been reported in this collection since that time. PMID:9365947

  2. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  3. Hepatocellular adenoma: findings at state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography and pathologic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid M. Hussain; Indra C. van den Bos; Roy S. Dwarkasing; Jan-Willem Kuiper; Jan den Hollander

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the most recent concepts and pertinent findings of hepatocellular adenomas, including clinical presentation, gross pathology and histology, pathogenesis and transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and imaging findings at ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

  4. Fluorine18FDG PET findings of focal eosinophilic liver disease: correlation with CT and\\/or MRI, laboratory, and pathologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Hwa Kim; Se Hyung Kim; Young Hoon Kim; Sun Ho Youn; Won Jun Kang; Min A. Kim; Joon Koo Han; Byung Ihn Choi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  To review the 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-[F-18]-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) findings of focal eosinophilic liver disease (FELD) and to correlate them\\u000a with radiologic and pathologic findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fourteen patients, who were clinically or pathologically diagnosed as FELD and underwent CT and\\/or MR and PET, were enrolled.\\u000a Two radiologists analyzed CT and MRI regarding size, shape, margin, attenuation, signal intensity (SI),

  5. Fluorine18FDG PET findings of focal eosinophilic liver disease: correlation with CT and\\/or MRI, laboratory, and pathologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Hwa Kim; Se Hyung Kim; Young Hoon Kim; Sun Ho Youn; Won Jun Kang; Min A. Kim; Joon Koo Han; Byung Ihn Choi

    Purpose  To review the FDG–PET findings of focal eosinophilic liver disease (FELD) and to correlate them with radiological and pathological\\u000a findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fourteen patients who were clinically or pathologically diagnosed as FELD and underwent CT and\\/or MR and positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) were enrolled. Two radiologists analyzed CT and MRI regarding size, shape, margin, attenuation, signal intensity\\u000a (SI), and enhancement

  6. Pathological findings associated with naturally acquired porcine circovirus type 2 associated disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquim Segalés; Carles Rosell; Mariano Domingo

    2004-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a novel virus of the Circoviridae family which is considered the cause of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2 has also been associated to a number of pathological conditions of pigs, including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, porcine respiratory disease complex, proliferative and necrotising pneumonia and congenital tremor type AII. Pathological studies

  7. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  8. Clinical, Microbiological and Pathological Findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Three Australian Possum Species

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Hibble, Jennifer; Lavender, Caroline J.; Legione, Alistair R.; McCowan, Christina; Globan, Maria; Mitchell, Anthony T.; McCracken, Helen E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s) of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998–2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases), and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals, with regards to disease category and the categorical variables of species (common ringtail possums v others) and sex. Animals with clinical lesions were significantly more likely to be male common ringtail possums. Conclusions/Significance There is significant disease burden in common ringtail possums (especially males) in some areas of Victoria endemic for M. ulcerans disease. The natural history of the disease generally remains unknown, however it appears that some mildly affected common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums can spontaneously overcome the infection, whereas some severely affected animals, especially common ringtail possums, may become systemically, and potentially fatally affected. Subclinical gut carriage of M. ulcerans DNA in possums is quite common and in some common brushtail and mountain brushtail possums this is transient. Further work is required to determine whether M. ulcerans infection poses a potential threat to possum populations, and whether these animals are acting as environmental reservoirs in certain geographical areas. PMID:24498451

  9. Cystic and Cavitary Lung Lesions in Children: Radiologic Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, ?brahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  10. Correlation of Ultrasound-Measured Common Carotid Artery Stiffness With Pathological Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Wada; Kuniyasu Kodaira; Kentaro Fujishiro; Ken-ichi Maie; Eiji Tsukiyama; Tsutomu Fukumoto; Tomoko Uchida; Sayaka Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    To quantitatively and noninvasively evaluate com- mon carotid atherosclerosis in a series of patients, we mea- sured the stiffness parameter p, which represents the mechan- ical properties of the vessel. \\/3 was calculated from the relationship between blood pressure and the diameter of the artery as measured by an ultrasonic, phase-locked, echo- tracking system. Increases in the severity grade of

  11. Bile cast nephropathy is a common pathologic finding for kidney injury associated with severe liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    van Slambrouck, Charles M; Salem, Fadi; Meehan, Shane M; Chang, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    Cholemic nephrosis represents a spectrum of renal injury from proximal tubulopathy to intrarenal bile cast formation found in patients with severe liver dysfunction. However, the contribution of this diagnosis has been largely forgotten in the modern literature. To more precisely define this, we conducted a clinicopathologic study of 44 subjects (41 autopsies and 3 renal biopsies) from jaundiced patients at the University of Chicago. Of these, 24 patients had bile casts with involvement of distal nephron segments in 18 mild cases and extension to proximal tubules for 6 severe cases. Eleven of 13 patients with hepatorenal syndrome and all 10 with cirrhosis (due to alcoholism) had tubular bile casts. These casts significantly correlated with higher serum total and direct bilirubin levels, and a trend toward higher serum creatinine, AST, and ALT levels. Bile casts may contribute to the kidney injury of severely jaundiced patients by direct bile and bilirubin toxicity, and tubular obstruction. Both mechanisms are analogous to the injury by myeloma or myoglobin casts. Accounting for the presence of renal bile casts provides a more complete representation of the renal injury that can occur in this unique clinical setting. Thus, bile cast nephropathy is an appropriate term for the severe form of injury observed in the spectrum of cholemic nephrosis. Additional studies are needed to establish the significance of this parameter for patient management in different clinical settings. PMID:23486516

  12. The pathological diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors: common questions and tentative answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Volante; Luisella Righi; Alfredo Berruti; Guido Rindi; Mauro Papotti

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) develop in many organs, and although they share some pathological and clinical features, significant\\u000a differences do exist among different tumor types and locations. The correct classification of NENs is based on the recently\\u000a published WHO classification according to the various locations, and is relevant for the appropriate treatment in each group.\\u000a The apparently easy diagnostic categorization in

  13. Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam T. W.; Schroer-Joosten, Dianne P. H.; Fid-Fourkour, Aicha; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Debyser, Isolde; Moulin, Véronique; Moormann, Rob J. M.; de Smit, Abraham J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43%) from 5 ewes (56%). %). BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82%) from 6 ewes (67%). Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology. PMID:24358112

  14. Pathologic Findings in Prophylactic Oophorectomy Specimens in High-Risk Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Leeper; Rochelle Garcia; Elizabeth Swisher; Barbara Goff; Benjamin Greer; Pamela Paley

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain the frequency of significant pathologic alterations in prophylactic oophorectomy specimens in high-risk women referred to a tertiary care center.Methods. Surgical cases for prophylactic oophorectomy referred to a gynecologic oncology clinic from November 1996 to January 2001 were reviewed. Serial sections of entirely submitted tubes and ovaries were procured and reviewed by a pathologist with expertise in gynecologic

  15. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis--a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Y; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-02-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the National Cancer Institute (1995 to 2010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%), with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%), followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically, the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades, with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed, and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared with grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders on the basis of the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

  16. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial of nimodipine after SAH in monkeys. Part 2: Pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, F; Weir, B; Shnitka, T; Overton, T; Boisvert, D

    1984-06-01

    Chronic cerebral vasospasm was induced in monkeys by placement of an autologous blood clot after the basal cisterns had been opened over the arteries of the circle of Willis on one side. The experimental protocol was detailed in Part 1 of this paper. Twenty of the 30 monkeys studied from both groups (one receiving placebo and the other nimodipine) underwent cerebral fixation (Day 14) at controlled pressure by intra-arterial perfusion. The arteries at the base of the brain were studied by light microscopy and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cerebral angiography on Day 7 showed that vasospasm was significantly more common (p less than 0.0001) and more severe (p less than 0.01) on the clot side compared to the control or non-clot side. Vasospasm was less severe on Day 14, just before sacrifice. On SEM, 80% of the 20 middle cerebral artery (MCA) specimens that had been in spasm (Day 7) showed marked corrugation , and in some the endothelium had a fish-scale appearance. All of the 10 MCA's on the clot side examined by TEM that had been in spasm (Day 7) showed marked changes such as endothelial swelling, subendothelial proliferation, corrugation of the elastic lamina, and myonecrosis. With few exceptions, none of the basilar arteries or MCA's on the non-clot (control) side showed any abnormalities. The pathological findings of vessels in spasm were considered to be slightly less severe in the nimodipine group; however, the trial drug (1 mg/kg/8 hrs) did not prevent such abnormalities from occurring. The ultrastructural changes in the arterial walls of specimens from both placebo and nimodipine groups in vasospasm are described. Since dramatic changes are present in the vessel walls even after radiologically visible vasospasm has almost completely abated, we believe that vasospasm is due to long-lasting smooth-muscle constriction and not to vessel wall thickening caused by a cellular or subcellular infiltrate. PMID:6726361

  17. Endometriosis of abdominal and pelvic wall scars: multimodality imaging findings, pathologic correlation, and radiologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Gidwaney, Rita; Badler, Ruth L; Yam, Benjamin L; Hines, John J; Alexeeva, Vlada; Donovan, Virginia; Katz, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of an endometriotic lesion within a pelvic or abdominal wall scar is an uncommon but well-described condition that may be the underlying cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal or pelvic pain, especially after cesarean section. Radiologists may not consider scar endometriosis when it is encountered at cross-sectional imaging. Cesarean section scars are the most common site of extraovarian or extrauterine endometriosis. The condition also has been identified in other uterine surgery-related scars and in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and abdominal and pelvic wall musculature adjacent to these scars. The most plausible cause of scar endometriosis is implantation of endometrial stem cells at the surgical site at the time of uterine surgery. Patients with scar endometriosis may be asymptomatic or present with cyclical pain corresponding to the menstrual cycle. Cross-sectional imaging findings vary from the nonspecific to those suggestive of the diagnosis when combined with clinical history. In particular, the presence of blood products in an anterior abdominal wall mass at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with no other explanation is strongly suggestive of scar endometriosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging may be used to depict an endometriotic lesion, exclude endometriosis, or provide evidence for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:23150856

  18. New pathological findings in emphysema of childhood: 1. Polyalveolar lobe with emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Hislop; Lynne Reid

    1970-01-01

    A new pathological entity is here described—a polyalveolar lobe with or without emphysema—giving rise to the clinical features of childhood lobar emphysema.A detailed and quantitative study of the airways, alveoli and arteries was carried out on the left upper lobe removed because of shortness of breath, thought to be due to `childhood lobar emphysema'. The child was 17 days old

  19. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Seth H; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Roy, Chad J

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  20. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  1. Pathologic findings suggest long-term abnormality after conservative management of complex acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Matthew; Chalupka, Andrew; Butler, Kathryn; Gupta, Alok; Odom, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    Perforated or phlegmonous appendicitis is often treated with antibiotics and drainage as needed. The rationale, risk of recurrence, timing, or even the necessity of subsequent elective interval appendectomy (IA) is debated. We retrospectively reviewed all appendectomies performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 1997 and 2011. We determined if the appendix was removed emergently or as IA. Demographic characteristics, hospital length of stay, computed tomography (CT) results, and operation type (open or laparoscopic) were determined. In IA specimens, narrative pathology reports were assessed for evidence of anatomic, acute, or chronic abnormality. A total of 3562 patients had their appendix removed during this time period. Thirty-four patients were identified as having IA. Of these, only three (8.8%) had a pathologically normal appendix. All three patients were female and all had initially abnormal CT scans. Eight specimens (23.5%) had evidence of chronic and 10 (29.4%) had evidence of acute appendicitis. An additional 10 (29.4%) specimens contained a combination of acute and chronic inflammation. Mean time to operation in the IA group was 57.1 days (range, nine to 234 days) after index diagnosis by CT scan. Given the high percentage of IA specimens with acute or chronic appendicitis and the extremely high proportion (91%) of patients with pathologically abnormal specimens, it appears that IA may be justified in most cases. PMID:25760207

  2. Finding a common ordination for several data sets by individual differences scaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jari Oksanen; Pertti Huttunen

    1989-01-01

    Individual differences scaling is a multidimensional scaling method for finding a common ordination for several data sets. An individual ordination for each data set can then be derived from the common ordination by adjusting the axis lengths so as to maximize the correlations between observed proximities and individual ordination distances. The importance of the various axes for each data set

  3. ["...impossible, to find something specific in it". Rudolf Virchow and tumor pathology].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Axel W

    2004-01-01

    The idea that cancerous tumours may contain specific ("heterologous") elements became widespread at the beginning of the 1850s, especially in France and among the followers of the clinical pathologist Hermann Lebert (1813-1878). Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), however, was convinced that the strategy of searching for physiological, chemical, and microscopic singularities was wrong if the scientist wanted to differentiate between tumorous and other tissues. The reason for Virchow's sceptical view was that he deeply disagreed with ontological pathologists who tried to specify the entity of disease outside the patient's body. Virchow strongly believed that the tumour, like any other physiological or pathological phenomenon, was always a part of the patient's body, being strictly subject to the laws of biology. Virchow consistently applied the concept of the cell as the place of all pathological processes even to tumour pathology. This idea had been very helpful to a uniform examination of all biological processes during the 1850s, but was losing much of its advantage with regard to the histopathological diagnosis of cancer towards the end of the 19th century. Virchow was convinced that he could only preserve his uniform cellular theory by doing without a specific characterization of the tumour cell. The dilemma intensified because even in the 1880s he insisted that tumour cells descended from the connective tissues. This precarious situation can be demonstrated by a historical review of Virchow's diagnostic problems concerning the larynx carcinoma of the Prussian crown prince in 1887/88. While Virchow still concentrated on his former opponents of the 1850s, these scholars were no longer doing any scientific research during the late 1880s. PMID:15224589

  4. Wnt and lithium: a common destiny in the therapy of nervous system pathologies?

    PubMed

    Meffre, Delphine; Grenier, Julien; Bernard, Sophie; Courtin, Françoise; Dudev, Todor; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz; Massaad, Charbel

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3?, a central enzyme of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system. PMID:23749084

  5. Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Rüegg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population. PMID:17323569

  6. Executive functioning among female pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Moya, E M; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Moragas, L; Gómez-Peña, M; Aymamí, M N; Ochoa, C; Sánchez-Díaz, I; Menchón, J M; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2009-03-01

    Shared vulnerabilities have been described across disorders of impulse control, including pathological gambling (PG) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Our aim was to compare the executive functioning of PG and BN females in order to confirm their similarity at a neurocognitive level. A total of 15 BN females, 15 PG females, and 15 healthy control (HC) females were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stroop Color and Word Test. Analysis of covariance adjusted for age and education was conducted to compare groups. PG showed the greatest impairment, that is, the highest percentage of WCST perseverative errors (p = .023), the lowest percentage of conceptual-level responses (p = .034), and the highest number of total trials administered (p = .021), while BN showed the highest percentage of WCST nonperseverative errors (p = .003). Both BN and PG females demonstrated executive dysfunction relative to HCs but different specific correlates (i.e., greater vulnerability to distraction in BN, but more cognitive inflexibility in PG). PMID:19203440

  7. [The most common occupational pathologies in Poland and methods of their prevention].

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the most common occupational disease groups observed in our country over the years, as well as their nature and prevention. The analysis of the literature on unfavorable working conditions and improper work practices indicates that a number of factors are responsible for the type and frequency of occupational diseases. Those most frequently mentioned are as follows: the type and concentration of harmful substances, degree of workload, number of people exposed to the agent, conditions and work organization, development of safety and hygiene, psychosocial burden, and quality of medical care. Not without significance are the legal regulations concerning occupational diseases and the system of their certification for granting pensions. According to the data of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in ?ód? in the years 1971-2009, the most common health disorders certified as occupational disease in Poland were: hearing loss (24.1%), infectious and parasitic diseases (15.5%), chronic voice disorders (15.2%), pneumoconiosis (12.3%), skin diseases (8.9%), acute and chronic intoxications (7.1%) and vibration syndrome (6%). PMID:21452570

  8. Fulminant amoebic colitis: a rare fierce presentation of a common pathology.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Abdul Rehman; Jawad, Ahmed; Fazal, Fariha; Sayyed, Raza

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of patients with fulminant amoebic colitis (FAC) over a 20 year period in an urban tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. After consideration for inclusion and exclusion criteria 25 cases were identified as FAC with the most common presentations being abdominal pain (84%). Nineteen (76%) underwent laparotomy for peritonitis with evidence of: colonic perforation in 10 (40%); faecal peritonitis in eight (32%); bowel gangrene in one (4%); and intra-abdominal abscess in two (8%). Nine (36%) deaths were recorded in the series - eight (53%) in the operated group and one (16.6%) in the medically-treated group. The optimal outcome can be achieved in FAC with aggressive resuscitation, intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, and total colectomy without anastomosis in patients with peritonitis. PMID:23796678

  9. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses.

  10. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Di Cesare, A; Basso, W; Guscetti, F; Riond, B; Glaus, T; Crisi, P; Deplazes, P

    2014-04-01

    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus parasitizes the respiratory tract and can heavily affect the breathing and general condition of cats. Experimental infections of six cats were initiated by intragastric administration with 100 or 800 third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. First-stage larvae were isolated from faecal samples after 35-41 days post infection (dpi) in five animals and until end of study (84 dpi) in two cats. Cough and respiratory sounds were observed starting from 28 to 41 dpi and dyspnoea and panting starting from 52 dpi. All cats had enlarged lymph nodes and, starting from 56 dpi, reduced body weight, and four cats showed intermittent reduced general condition with apathia and anorexia. Eosinophilia and leucocytosis partially with massive lymphocytosis, and occasional basophilia and monocytosis were observed. Mild anaemia was present in five cats, while alterations in coagulation parameters suggested stimulation of the coagulation cascade with increased consumption of coagulation factors (delayed PT, hypofibrinogenemia). Adult A. abstrusus specimens were isolated from the five patent cats at necropsy and all six cats showed pathological changes in the lungs, including disseminated inflammatory cell infiltrates, often associated with incorporated larvae and eggs. There was some degree of overlap between the severity and the inoculation doses. Infections starting from 100 L3 of A. abstrusus had an impact on the lung tissues and on the health of the cats, despite the presence of only mild haematological abnormalities. Due to the worldwide occurrence of feline lung worms, parasitic infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases regardless of the presence of clinical signs and larval excretion. PMID:24504600

  11. Lookahead Pathology in Real-Time Path-Finding Mitja Lustrek

    E-print Network

    LuÂ?trek, Mitja

    Large real-time search problems such as path-finding in com- puter games and robotics limit the applicability of complete search methods such as A*. As a result, real-time heuris- tic methods are becoming-agent search. As real-time search methods gain ground in applications, the importance of un- derstanding

  12. Clinical and pathological findings related to malnutrition and husbandry in captive giant tortoises (Geochelone species).

    PubMed

    Samour, J H; Hawkey, C M; Pugsley, S; Ball, D

    1986-03-15

    A biomedical survey was carried out on the population of giant tortoises housed in some of the major zoological collections in the United Kingdom. Wasting syndrome was diagnosed in individuals which were kept under suboptimal conditions of housing and diet. Clinical manifestations and laboratory and post mortem findings are discussed. PMID:3705358

  13. A practical approach to bladder sampling and diagnostic reporting of pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, A; Bollito, E; Luque, R J; Montironi, R

    2001-12-01

    The most common bladder specimens are obtained from endoscopic biopsies and transurethral resections (TURB), both of which sample subepithelial tissue of varying depth. Other specimens can be obtained from cystectomy, cystoprostatectomy, pelvic exenteration ("en bloc" resection), and partial cystectomy including resection of diverticulae and surgical excision of a urachal carcinoma. The correct assessment of bladder specimens may provide clinically relevant diagnostic and prognostic data. This protocol is intended to assist pathologists in providing clinically useful information as a result of examination of surgical specimens. PMID:11785124

  14. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Roffe, T J; Stroud, R K; Windingstad, R M

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area. PMID:2775094

  15. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  16. Pediatric AIDS and perinatal HIV infection in Zaire: epidemiologic and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A M; Firpo, A; Kamenga, M; Davachi, F; Angritt, P; Mullick, F G

    1992-01-01

    HIV infection in women and children is a special problem in Zaire and in other countries where heterosexual transmission is predominant. Nearly half of the cases of HIV infection are in women 15 to 30 years old and as many as seven infected infants may be born each year. Whether or not infected at birth, these children have mothers, and often fathers, who are infected and likely to die while they are still very young. Such orphaned children, as well as those whose families cannot provide adequate food and health care, add to the problematic economies of developing countries. The problems of children of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries may be compounded further by factors directly related to their mother's disease. Infected mothers who are sick may produce insufficient levels of antibodies and be unable to provide their children with adequate natural passive immunity before birth. Their infants may also receive inadequate levels of breast-milk-derived antibodies possibly enhancing their already increased susceptibility to perinatal infections, and lastly, the volume of breast milk produced by these mothers may be inadequate for the nutrition of these infants. All these factors may further compromise the already difficult task of distinguishing those infants of HIV-infected mothers who are ill because they are infected from those who are ill because of their mother's disease. Regardless of the mechanisms accounting for the increased vulnerability of infants of HIV--seropositive and AIDS-afflicted mothers to perinatal infections, infant mortality can be expected to increase significantly as a direct consequence of the progression of the HIV pandemic throughout Africa and possibly other developing countries; this in populations already with a total under five-years-of-age mortality rate exceeding 15%. The association of chorioamnionitis with HIV seropositivity and with the clinical status of the mother seems to suggest that impaired maternal immunity increases the risk of premature birth, its consequent lower birth weight, and to HIV or other perinatally acquired infections. The identification of women at higher risk of chorioamnionitis and their treatment might provide a means to decrease the risk of premature delivery and possibly reduce the rate of HIV transmission to their infants. The pathologic changes in organs of infants and children with HIV infection require in-depth, systematic study to better define the natural history of perinatal HIV disease and infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1606299

  17. Silent soft tissue pathology is common with a modern metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported to be a cause of pain in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. We assessed the incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic adverse reactions in a consecutive series of patients with a modern large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Methods We studied the early clinical results and results of routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening in a series of 79 large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (ASR; DePuy, Leeds, UK) in 68 patients. 75 hips were MRI scanned at mean 31 (12–52) months after surgery. Results 27 of 75 hips had MRI-detected metal debris-related abnormalities, of which 5 were mild, 18 moderate, and 4 severe. 8 of these hips have been revised, 6 of which were revised for an adverse reaction to metal debris, diagnosed preoperatively with MRI and confirmed histologically. The mean Oxford hip score (OHS) for the whole cohort was 21. It was mean 23 for patients with no MRI-based evidence of adverse reactions and 19 for those with adverse reactions detected by MRI. 6 of 12 patients with a best possible OHS of 12 had MRI-based evidence of an adverse reaction. Interpretation We have found a high early revision rate with a modern, large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. MRI-detected adverse rections to metal debris was common and often clinically “silent”. We recommend that patients with this implant should be closely followed up and undergo routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening. PMID:21504335

  18. Character Education, Religion, and Community Values: Toward Finding Common Ground via The California Three Rs Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Addresses some of the concerns surrounding the controversy of religion and public education. Finds some common ground in the ethical issues shared by character education and citizenship education and the nondenominational moral teachings in religious education. Outlines four broad strategies for maintaining productive community discussions. (MJP)

  19. Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens

    E-print Network

    Jensen, David

    Technology, Language, and Public Decisions: Finding Common Ground for Experts and Citizens David D@cs.umass.edu Todd M. La Porte School of Systems Engineering & Policy Analysis Delft University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands tlaporte@tmn.com Abstract---Many conflicts over specific technologies could be alleviated

  20. Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing--a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Jeng, Linda Jo Bone; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories. PMID:25684271

  1. Recent findings on the role of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Bollettini, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience difficulties in information processing and in the cognitive control of emotions. Mood-congruent biases, which parallel illness episodes, find a neural correlate in abnormal reactivity to stimuli in specific brain regions, and in disrupted functional connectivity among brain areas pertaining to corticolimbic circuitries. It is suggested that a reduced integrity of white matter tracts could underpin dysfunctions in networks implicated in the generation and control of affect. Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging techniques found that (1) independent of drug treatment, patients with BD show widespread signs of disrupted white matter microstructure, suggesting significant demyelination/dysmyelination without axonal loss, and (2) effective long-term treatment with lithium is associated with increased axial connectivity, proportional to the duration of treatment. These findings suggest that changes of white matter microstructure in specific brain networks could parallel disrupted neural connectivity during illness episodes in BD and that these changes might play a major role in the mechanistic explanation of the biological underpinnings of BD psychopathology. PMID:25377606

  2. Correlation of transrectal ultrasonographic findings with histo pathology in prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wanie, Mohd Saleem; Ganie, Shabir Ahmad; Lone, Hafezulla; Gani, Masaratul; Mir, Mohd Farooq; Khan, Naseer Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the incidence of hyperechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, prostatic cancer in TRUS (transrectal ultrasound guided) guided prostatic specimens. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and ninety three patients with raised serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and abnormal DRE findings were subjected to TRUS-Guided prostate biopsy. Lateralized sextant biopsy plus prostatic cores from suspicious areas were obtained. Results: Out of 493 patients who were enrolled in the study, 65 (13.18) patients showed hyperechoic lesions on TRUS and 211 (42.79) patients had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS. Conclusion: Our study has revealed that hyperechoic lesions on transrectal ultrasonography have more chances of prostatic cancer as reported in previous literature, so we suggest that we should take additional biopsy of hyperechoic lesions and perhaps it should be part of the standard protocol in patients suspected cancer prostate. PMID:25013831

  3. Tropism and pathological findings associated with canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Judy A; Brooks, Harriet W; Szladovits, Balázs; Erles, Kerstin; Gibbons, Rachel; Shields, Shelly; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-03-23

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) occurs frequently in densely housed dog populations. One of the common pathogens involved is canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), however little is known regarding its pathogenesis and the role it plays in the development of CIRD. The pathogenesis of five geographically unrelated canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) isolates was investigated. Following experimental infection in dogs, all five CRCoV isolates gave rise to clinical signs of respiratory disease consistent with that observed during natural infection. The presence of CRCoV was associated with marked histopathological changes in the nares and trachea, with loss and damage to tracheal cilia, accompanied by inflammation. Viral shedding was readily detected from the oropharynx up to 10 days post infection, but there was little or no evidence of rectal shedding. The successful re-isolation of CRCoV from a wide range of respiratory and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues, and lung lavage fluids demonstrates a clear tropism of CRCoV for respiratory tissues and fulfils the final requirement for Koch's postulates. By study day 14 dogs had seroconverted to CRCoV and the antibodies raised were neutralising against both homologous and heterologous strains of CRCoV in vitro, thus demonstrating antigenic homogeneity among CRCoV strains from the two continents. Defining the role that CRCoV and other agents play in CIRD is a considerable, but important, challenge if the disease is to be managed, treated and prevented more successfully. Here we have successfully developed a model for studying the pathogenicity and the role of CRCoV in CIRD. PMID:23280006

  4. Periosteum: characteristic imaging findings with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bisseret, Damien; Kaci, Rachid; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Alison, Marianne; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Bousson, Valérie

    2015-03-01

    The periosteum covers most bone structures. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cambial layer that exhibits osteogenic activity. The periosteum is a dynamic structure that plays a major role in bone modeling and remodeling under normal conditions. In several disorders such as infections, benign and malignant tumors, and systemic diseases, the osteogenic potential of the periosteum is stimulated and new bone is produced. The newly formed bone added onto the surface of the cortex adopts various configurations depending on the modalities and pace of bone production. Our aim here is to describe the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the periosteum and to review the various patterns of periosteal reaction with emphasis on relations between radiological and histopathological findings. A careful evaluation of the periosteal reaction and appearance of the underlying cortex, in combination with the MRI, clinical, and laboratory data, provides valuable information on lesion duration and aggressiveness, thereby assisting in the etiological diagnosis and optimizing patient management. A solid reaction strongly suggests a benign and slow-growing process that gives the bone enough time to wall off the lesion. Single lamellar reactions occur in acute and usually benign diseases. Multilamellar reactions are associated with intermediate aggressiveness and a growth rate close to the limit of the walling-off capabilities of the bone. Spiculated, interrupted, and complex combined reactions carry the worst prognosis, as they occur in the most aggressive and fast-growing diseases: the periosteum attempts to create new bone but is overwhelmed and may be breached. PMID:25269751

  5. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings in 70 camels (Camelus dromedarius) with Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Seventy camels with confirmed Johne’s disease were examined by ultrasonography and subsequent necropsy; 15 healthy camels were included as controls. The most outstanding findings were visible enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 (74%) camels. Lesions had either echogenic (26%; n = 18) or anechoic (69%; n = 48) capsule and the contents were either anechoic (21%; n = 15), echogenic (27%; n = 19), or heterogeneous (46%; n = 32). Clumps of echogenic tissue interspersed with fluid pockets were imaged between the intestinal loops in 9 (13%) camels. There was mild, moderate, or severe thickening and corrugation of the intestinal wall, excessive anechoic fluid in the abdominal cavity in 18 (26%) camels, increased hepatic brightness in 30 (43%) camels, and pericardial and pleural effusions in 22 (31%) camels. Sensitivity values for detecting intestinal lesions and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were 95% and 84%, respectively. PMID:23115369

  6. Pathological findings of slaughtered camels' (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Nourani, Hossein; Sadeghian, Sirous; Imani, Hadi; Raisi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed. PMID:25568724

  7. Pseudogout in the temporomandibular joint with imaging, arthroscopic, operative, and pathologic findings. Report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Laviv, Amir; Sadow, Peter M; Keith, David A

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a destructive painful condition in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that proved to be calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposits at subsequent biopsy examination. The patient presented with the chief complaints of pain and limitation that had not resolved with splint therapy, medications, and habit control. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed internal derangement without reduction. Right TMJ arthroscopy with manipulation of the jaw under anesthesia showed unique findings of fronds of synovial tissue in the posterior joint space and areas of white matter. Because there was no long-term improvement in her clinical symptoms, she subsequently underwent arthroplasty of the right joint, with the white material clearly seen at surgery, and the biopsy examination confirmed the clinical and arthroscopic impression of pseudogout. The presentation, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of pseudogout of the TMJ are discussed. PMID:25843817

  8. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  9. Impaired Cardiovascular Function Caused by Different Stressors Elicits a Common Pathological and Transcriptional Response in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish embryos have been widely used to study the genes and processes needed for normal vertebrate heart development. We recently observed that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or retinoic acid (RA) produces very similar signs of heart failure in developing zebrafish via divergent molecular pathways. The fact that diverse stressors and mutations cause severe pericardial edema and circulatory collapse in developing zebrafish has been largely unexplored. We hypothesized that unrelated chemicals can trigger a common pathological response leading to the same end-stage heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of TCDD, RA, carbaryl, valproic acid, and morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown of TBX5 on the developing heart in zebrafish embryos. These model stressors have all been previously reported to affect zebrafish heart development, and elicited very similar signs of embryonic heart failure. Microarray analysis showed that one cluster of 92 transcripts affected by these different treatments was significantly downregulated by all treatments. This gene cluster is composed of transcripts required for chromosome assembly, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. We refer to this cluster as the cell cycle gene cluster (CCGC). Immunohistochemistry revealed that downregulation of the CCGC precedes a halt in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the hearts of zebrafish exposed to any of the treatments. Previous work has shown that the initial response to TCDD is a decrease in cardiac output. Since this precedes the signs of edema, heart failure, and fall in CCGC expression, we postulated that any factor that decreases cardiac output will produce the same syndrome of heart failure responses. To test this, we used MO knockdown of cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2) to specifically block contractility. The TNNT2-MO produced exactly the same signs of cardiotoxicity as the other treatments, including downregulation of the signature CCGC. Our results indicate that agents altering cardiac output can have amplified consequences during specific periods in development. PMID:23837677

  10. http://w w w .campustimes.org/2011/09/29/from-china-to-peru-finding-our-common-ground/ October 14, 2011 From China to Peru: Finding our common ground |

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    http://w w w .campustimes.org/2011/09/29/from-china-to-peru-finding-our-common-ground/ October 14, 2011 From China to Peru: Finding our common ground | Campus Times By NATALIE PETERMAN · Published When I left Rochester last December, I knew I would be spending my next two semesters in China and Peru

  11. Clinical and pathological findings of fatal 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Tamme, Kadri; Minajeva, Ave; Adamson, Vivika; Ristmägi, Kaarina; Põder, Jaak; Lutsar, Irja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze all deaths from A (H1N1) in Estonia during the 2009-2010 epidemic to find out the reasons of high mortality and optimize management strategies for future influenza epidemics. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A retrospective review of medical records, autopsy reports, and reassessment of autopsy slides of all fatal cases of proven A (H1N1) influenza in Estonia from October 2009 to May 2010 was carried out. RESULTS. There were a total of 21 proven fatal cases (median age, 57 years); the population mortality rate of 1.56 per 100 000 inhabitants was one of the highest in the world. Altogether, 18 of the 21 patients had known risk factors for influenza, and 3 patients were previously healthy children. Three decedents had received antiviral treatment, and none had been immunized. There were 19 decedents autopsied, with viral pneumonia (58%) being the most frequent pathological finding; 40% had evidence of bacterial superinfection. In 4 cases, influenza was not clinically suspected and was diagnosed postmortem. Influenza was the primary cause of death in 15 decedents, while in 9 cases, comorbidities played a significant role in fatal outcome. In the remaining 4 cases, another illness was considered the primary cause of death with influenza as an accompanying factor. CONCLUSIONS. High autopsy rate and liberal postmortem PCR testing enables the detection of additional A (H1N1) influenza cases, yet it might lead to overestimation of the population mortality rates, especially in a small population with low number of events. Increased vaccine coverage, vigilant diagnosing including wide PCR testing, and early more liberal use of antiviral medications during the influenza A (H1N1) epidemic may hold the potential of lowering population mortality. PMID:22370505

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of abnormal galactographic and sonographic findings in the diagnosis of intraductal pathology in patients with abnormal nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Blum, Katrin S; Rubbert, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Mohrmann, Svjetlana; Obenauer, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of galactography and ultrasound in patients with pathologic nipple discharge. Fifty-six patients with pathologic nipple discharge were included in the study. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each method and the combination of both were calculated. Both methods together had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 91%, 17%, 61%, and 57%. The combined sensitivity of galactography and ultrasound for intraductal pathologies is higher than either modality alone, with a low specificity. No specific signs exist to predict benign or malignant lesions. PMID:25778387

  13. Characteristic and Non-characteristic Pathological Findings in Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) of Sheep in the Ege District of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Toplu

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical findings in naturally infected lambs from three outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Mugla and Aydin provinces of the Ege district of Turkey. At necropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, catarrhal or fibrinous bronchopneumonia, and acute catarrhal enteritis were observed. Histopathologically, syncytial cells containing inclusion bodies were seen in the tongue and in the buccal,

  14. Focal nodular hyperplasia: findings at state-of-the-art MR imaging, US, CT, and pathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid M; Terkivatan, Türkan; Zondervan, Pieter E; Lanjouw, Esmée; de Rave, Sjoerd; Ijzermans, Jan N M; de Man, Rob A

    2004-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma. FNH is classified into two types: classic (80% of cases) and nonclassic (20%). Distinction between FNH and other hypervascular liver lesions such as hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hypervascular metastases is critical to ensure proper treatment. An asymptomatic patient with FNH does not require biopsy or surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has higher sensitivity and specificity for FNH than does ultrasonography or computed tomography. Typically, FNH is iso- or hypointense on T1-weighted images, is slightly hyper- or isointense on T2-weighted images, and has a hyperintense central scar on T2-weighted images. FNH demonstrates intense homogeneous enhancement during the arterial phase of gadolinium-enhanced imaging and enhancement of the central scar during later phases. Familiarity with the proper MR imaging technique and the spectrum of MR imaging findings is essential for correct diagnosis of FNH. PMID:14730031

  15. Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2005-06-01

    The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the antigen distribution in the various organs, and the amount of antigen varied among both species. Therefore, the diagnostician may choose organs for histology and immunohistochemistry as well as RT-PCR depending on the investigated species in order to avoid false-negative results. PMID:16094831

  16. Subclinical peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.; Eng, Cathy; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R.; Simone, Donald A.; Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Of the numerous complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment, peripheral neuropathy is a deleterious and persistent patient complaint commonly attributed to chemotherapy. The present study investigated the occurrence of subclinical peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. Experimental Design Fifty-two (52) patients underwent extensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) prior to receiving chemotherapy. Changes in multiple functions of primary afferent fibers were assessed and compared to a group of healthy control subjects. Skin temperature, sensorimotor function, sharpness detection, and thermal detection were measured, as was touch detection, using both conventional (von Frey monofilaments) and novel (Bumps detection test) methodology. Results Patients had subclinical deficits, especially in sensorimotor function, detection of thermal stimuli, and touch detection that were present prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. The measured impairment in touch sensation was especially pronounced when using the Bumps detection test. Conslusions The colorectal cancer patients in this study exhibited deficits in sensory function prior to undergoing chemotherapy treatment, implicating the disease itself as a contributing factor in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. The widespread nature of the observed deficits further indicated that cancer is affecting multiple primary afferent subtypes. Specific to the finding of impaired touch sensation, results from this study highlight the use of newly employed methodology, the Bumps detection test, as a sensitive and useful tool in the early detection of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22496202

  17. Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Keun Hee; Chung, Seung Joon; Kang, Min Jae; Yoon, Ju Young; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ah; Yang, Sei Won

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP) were investigated. Methods Sixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]); group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty); and group III (incidental or normal findings). Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed. Results Brain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74%) with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30%) with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88%) with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT), and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01) and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05) than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05). Conclusion Earlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up. PMID:24904875

  18. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1WT and mutant SOD1G93A) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43A315T) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1G93A and TDP43A315T mice, but not in SOD1WT. At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1G93A mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43A315T mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved. PMID:24154542

  19. Pathological findings and PSA outcomes after radical prostatectomy in men eligible for active surveillance: does the risk of misclassification vary

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Clément Abbou, Alexandre de la Taille INSERM U955 eq07 Departments of Urology and Pathology, APHP, CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France Correspondence: Dr A. de la Taille INSERM U955 Eq07 Department of Urology, CHU-5Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Urology The 2010;183(2):539-44" DOI : 10.1016/j

  20. Pulmonary pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne E. deMello

    2004-01-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis.

  1. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ung, Yee C., E-mail: yee.ung@sunnybrook.c [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hornby, Jennifer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  2. FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

  3. Top Databases Are you wondering where to find articles? Here are a few of our most commonly-used

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Top Databases Are you wondering where to find articles? Here are a few of our most commonlySearch You can also do searches for articles and book content directly in GalterSearch. Run your search and click on the Articles link at the top of the results set. This will take you to Primo Central, a multi

  4. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yap?c?er, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Akak?n, Ak?n; Urgun, Kamran; K?l?ç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  5. Finding a needle in the common carotid artery 3 years after ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Marie; Couchet, Geoffroy; Carrieres, Caroline; Ribal, Jean-Pierre; Rosset, Eugenio

    2014-07-01

    A woman presented with an ischemic stroke involving the right middle cerebral artery. Investigations revealed a foreign body in the cervical area. It was identified as a metal needle, perforating the posterior pharyngeal wall and migrating into the right common carotid artery (CCA). Three years previously, this patient had complained of odynophagia, brought on by needle ingestion. Three days before her stroke, she had hematemesis, caused by migration of the needle into the CCA. The stroke was caused by migration of the thrombus. This type of event is rarely encountered in Europe. Early recognition could avoid dangerous vascular complications. PMID:24447848

  6. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project. PMID:21525420

  7. Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species. PMID:15529979

  8. Myomatous hepatic angiomyolipoma: imaging findings in 14 cases with radiological–pathological correlation and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Yang, L; Luo, D-Q; Zhang, H-T; Zhou, C-W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To display and analyse the imaging features of myomatous hepatic angiomyolipomas (MHAMLs). Methods: The imaging features (CT?=?9; MRI?=?10; ultrasound?=?10; contrast-enhanced ultrasound?=?4) of 14 patients with pathologically proven MHAMLs were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MHAMLs were surgically resected in the 14 patients (10 females and 4 males; age, 27–64 years; mean, 45 years), all of whom had negative hepatitis markers and were positive for the immunohistochemical stain homatropine methylbromide-45. The tumours were solitary and well defined, and ranged in size from 1.9 to 9.1?cm (mean, 5.7?cm). On dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, MRI and ultrasound scans, all tumours showed fast strong enhancement in the arterial phase and moderate washout in the portal venous and delayed phases, and the greater portions of the tumours were slightly lower than the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. In some cases, a small area of prolonged or increasing enhancement in the tumour was recognized in the delayed phase. Early draining vessels to the portal vein or hepatic vein could be seen in some cases. However, no capsular signs could be confidently identified in the delayed phase. Haemorrhagic cavities were recognized in two cases, and nodular low-intensity areas in the tumours on T2 weighted imaging that showed slow and faint enhancement on dynamic scans were seen in two cases. However, no necrosis was identified. Conclusion: Dynamic enhanced imaging studies revealed some specific features of MHAMLs that distinguish them from other hypervascular hepatic tumours, especially when combined with clinical features. Familiarity with imaging and clinical features of MHAMLs could avoid unnecessary surgical resection of these generally benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: This article systematically describes the imaging features of MHAMLs. PMID:24670055

  9. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of three-dimensional shear-wave elastographic findings in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Ogawa, Saori; Honjo, Mitsuyoshi; Hara, Takeshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the liver ablation volume after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. METHODS: RF ablation was performed in vivo in 10 rat livers using a 15-gauge expandable RF needle. 3D SWE as well as B-mode ultrasound (US) were performed 15 min after ablation. The acquired 3D volume data were rendered as multislice images (interslice distance: 1.10 mm), and the estimated ablation volumes were calculated. The 3D SWE findings were compared against digitized photographs of gross pathological and histopathological specimens of the livers obtained in the same sectional planes as the 3D SWE multislice images. The ablation volumes were also estimated by gross pathological examination of the livers, and the results were then compared with those obtained by 3D SWE. RESULTS: In B-mode US images, the ablation zone appeared as a hypoechoic area with a peripheral hyperechoic rim; however, the findings were too indistinct to be useful for estimating the ablation area. 3D SWE depicted the ablation area and volume more clearly. In the images showing the largest ablation area, the mean kPa values of the peripheral rim, central zone, and non-ablated zone were 13.1 ± 1.5 kPa, 59.1 ± 21.9 kPa, and 4.3 ± 0.8 kPa, respectively. The ablation volumes depicted by 3D SWE correlated well with those estimated from gross pathological examination (r2 = 0.9305, P = 0.00001). The congestion and diapedesis of red blood cells observed in histopathological examination were greater in the peripheral rim of the ablation zone than in the central zone. CONCLUSION: 3D SWE outperforms B-mode US in delineating ablated areas in the liver and is therefore more reliable for spatially delineating thermal lesions created by RF ablation. PMID:25206291

  10. Common and unusual urogenital Crohn's disease complications: spectrum of cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tonolini, Massimo; Villa, Chiara; Campari, Alessandro; Ravelli, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Cornalba, Gianpaolo

    2013-02-01

    Involvement of the urinary tract and genital organs is not uncommon in patients affected with Crohn's disease (CD). Occurring in both sexes, uro-gynecological complications are often clinically unsuspected because of the dominant intestinal or systemic symptoms. Knowledge of their manifestations and cross-sectional imaging appearances is necessary to recognize and report them, since correct medical or surgical treatment choice with appropriate specialist consultation allows to prevent further complications. Besides uncomplicated urinary tract infections that usually do not require imaging, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis represent the most commonly encountered urinary disorders: although very useful, use of computed tomography (CT) should be avoided whenever possible, to limit lifetime radiation exposure. Hydronephrosis due to ureteral inflammatory entrapment and enterovesical fistulization may result from penetrating CD, and require precise imaging assessment with contrast-enhanced CT to ensure correct surgical planning. Representing the majority of genital complication, ano- and rectovaginal fistulas and abscesses frequently complicate perianal inflammatory CD and are comprehensively investigated with high-resolution perianal MRI acquired with phased-array coils, high-resolution T2-weighted sequences and intravenous contrast. Finally, rare gynecological manifestations including internal genital fistulas, vulvar and male genital involvement are discussed. PMID:22456714

  11. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  12. Female sexual dysfunction, voiding symptoms and depression: common findings in partners of men with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Ridwan; Anastasiades, Aristotelis; Cooper, Kimberly L; Rutman, Matthew P

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), urinary symptoms, and depressive symptoms in female partners of men presenting with erectile dysfunction (ED). A multi-component questionnaire was administered to female partners of men with erectile dysfunction presenting to a urology center. It contained a standardized sexual function component (the Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women), a depression scale (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D), a demographics questionnaire and a general medical questionnaire. A total of 73 consecutive female partners of male patients presenting with ED, were surveyed using the questionnaire at their counterpart's visit. Fifty-two women responded, of whom 50 filled out the questionnaire adequately for proper evaluation. This indicated a response rate of 68% (50/73). The mean age was 44.8 years (range 20.0-83.0). Thirty-eight of the 50 women (76%) reported being sexually active. A variety of sexual behaviors were reported including 40% (20/50) of women engaging in vaginal intercourse. Sexual dysfunction symptoms included: anxiety/inhibition (26%), hypoactive desire (20%), arousal/lubrication difficulty (30%), orgasmic difficulty (24%), dyspareunia (18%), incontinence during intercourse (8%), and sexual dissatisfaction (34%). Eight women (16%) reported difficulty communicating sexual issues with their partners. Forty-one women (82%) rated sexual activity as an important part of their lives. Urinary symptoms of frequency and urgency were reported by 18/50 (36%). Depressive symptoms were present in 22/50 (44%). FSD disorders, urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms are common in partners of men with erectile dysfunction. PMID:17082939

  13. Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Tosun, Ozgur [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: ztosun@yahoo.com; Sanlidilek, Umman [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Cetin, Huseyin [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Ozdemir, Ozcan [Ankara Akay Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kurt, Aydin; Sakarya, Mehmet Emin; Tas, Ismet [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels.

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Axilla and Adrenal Gland: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Soo Heui; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Kim, WooGyeong; Kim, Suk Jung; Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Yedaun; Park, Young Mi

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is characterized by a high incidence of locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis, and often requires short-term follow-up after treatment. In this present paper, we describe a rare case of MCC, which presented as a palpable axillary mass and an incidental adrenal mass, and report on the ultrasonography, computed tomography, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography findings. The patient underwent surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Seven months after the initial diagnosis, distant metastasis was detected during a follow-up examination.

  15. Pulmonary pathology.

    PubMed

    deMello, Daphne E

    2004-08-01

    Common causes of neonatal respiratory distress include meconium aspiration, pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pneumothorax and cystic adenomatoid malformation. Genomics and proteomics have enabled the recent recognition of several additional disorders that lead to neonatal death from respiratory disease. These are broadly classified as disorders of lung homeostasis and have pathological features of proteinosis, interstitial pneumonitis or lipidosis. These pathological changes result from inherited disorders of surfactant proteins or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Abnormal lung vascular development is the basis for another cause of fatal neonatal respiratory distress, alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without associated misalignment of veins. Diagnosis of these genetically transmitted disorders is important because of the serious implications for future siblings. There is also a critical need for establishing an archival tissue bank to permit future molecular biological studies. PMID:15251148

  16. Hepatic angiosarcoma occurring 65 years after thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) exposure: imaging, surgical and histo- pathologic findings of a historical case.

    PubMed

    Coulier, B; Pierard, F; Gielen, I; Maldague, Ph

    2014-01-01

    We report the CT, surgical and histopathologic findings of a rare case of Hepatic Angiosarcoma (HAS) diagnosed in a 85-year old women 65 years afterThorotrast (Th232) exposure for angiography. At the early arterial phase of dynamic MDCT, peripheral curvilinear and central nodular puddling of contrast produced in the 8 cm tumor.Then progressive contrast filling of the tumor was observed on the delayed scans. Associated pathognomonic signs related to previous Th232 exposure were also found comprising diffuse intrahepatic reticular bands of calcifications, numerous calcified epigastric lymph nodes and a calcified shrunken spleen. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of associated hemoperitoneum. With a delay of 65 years afterThorotrast exposure, this historical case probably represents, to our knowledge, the most delayed presentation of Th232 related HAS ever published. PMID:25603638

  17. Primary hepatocellular lesions: imaging findings on state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging, with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Indra C; Hussain, Shahid M; de Man, Robert A; Zondervan, Pieter E; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely used for the workup of patients with focal or diffuse liver disease, including primary hepatocellular lesions, storage diseases, metastatic liver disease, and diseases of the hepatobiliary tree. The most important magnetic resonance imaging sequences used for diagnostic imaging of the liver consist of T1-weighted sequences, T2-weighted sequences, and at least the arterial and delayed phases of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging. This article provides an overview of magnetic resonance imaging of primary hepatocellular lesions and will describe the following: (1) the classification and etiology of primary hepatocellular lesions, including focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma; (2) the stepwise carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis on magnetic resonance imaging; and (3) the typical imaging findings of primary hepatocellular lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, with differential diagnoses. PMID:18436110

  18. Type, duration, and incidence of pathologic findings after retroorbital bleeding of mice by experienced and novice personnel.

    PubMed

    Fried, Joanna H; Worth, David B; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Retroorbital blood collection is a common technique in laboratory rodents due to the ease with which it can be performed and the sample volumes obtained for subsequent blood analyses. However, its use has been discouraged recently due to aesthetic discomfort and anecdotal reports of potential for ocular injury during blood collection. We hypothesized that a single standardized session of in-person training would be sufficient to learn the appropriate technique and minimize the likelihood for adverse outcomes. Experienced instructors (n = 2) conducted hands-on training classes to teach novice personnel (n = 40) to perform this procedure. Blood was collected from anesthetized mice (n = 40) via a capillary tube first placed at the medial canthus of the right eye and then advanced into the retroorbital space; the left retroorbital spaces served as unmanipulated controls. For comparison, the experienced instructors similarly collected blood from 40 additional mice. The tube could be inserted only once in each mouse, with the goal of obtaining 50 to 100 ?L blood. Overall, 79 of 80 mice (98.8%) showed normal body condition, posture, and behavior throughout the 14-d study. Thus, any clinical observation scores pertained specifically to ocular lesions, which occurred at least once after sampling in 43 (53.8%) of the mice. Clinical and histopathologic scores of mice after bleeding did not differ between experienced and novice personnel. We conclude that a coordinated hands-on training program can provide consistent and sufficient instruction for research personnel to conduct retroorbital blood collection with competence in anesthetized laboratory mice. PMID:26045459

  19. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE RHINOCEROSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Montall; Scott B. Citino

    Reports of bacterial diseases in rhinoceroses are sporadic and include systemic infections with Salmonella and Clostridia 25 32* 39. Leptospirosis has been considered as an etiologic possibility for the fatal hemolytic anenlia syndrome of black rhinoceroses 22. Fatal colibacillosis occurred in a premature black rhinoceros neonate in St. Louis with typical septicemic lesions with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also described

  20. Mental pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Janet

    1905-01-01

    Discusses the direction taken and the developments made in the investigation of mental pathology, in the area of pathological psychology. The study of oscillations of mind brought to light by pathological psychology, call attention to the neglected phenomena of fatigue, sleep, emotions, various forms of intoxication, and neuropathic disorders. The modifications of mental states illustrated by semi-normal, semi-pathological conditions of

  1. Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N.; Türkbey, Bar??; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Minhaj Siddiqui, M.; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. RESULTS The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. CONCLUSION In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (?3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:24509182

  2. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    PubMed

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. PMID:25981034

  3. Pathologic Evaluation of Appendectomy Specimens in Children: Is Routine Histopatholgic Examination Indicated?

    PubMed Central

    Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Hagghi-Ashtiani, Mohammad-Taghi; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Ahmadi, Hamed; Zargoosh, Heidar; Kalantari, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Similarity between signs and symptoms of appendicitis and other common pediatric illnesses, atypical manifestations of appendicitis in young children, and children's inability to give precise explanation for their symptoms contribute to considerable delay in proper diagnosis and increased rate of perforation. Current study reports the surgical and pathological findings of appendectomies in the largest Children's Hospital in Iran. It also evaluates whether common protocol for pathologic evaluation following appendectomy is beneficial. Methods Pathologic reports of 947 appendectomies, performed with the presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis, were gathered. Correlation between surgical and pathologic findings was assessed. Demographic characteristics of patients between surgical and pathological subgroups were also compared. Findings The mean age of participants was 6.9±3.5 years. Eighty seven (25.5%) children had abnormal pathological findings and normal surgical report. None of miscellaneous findings including appendicular carcinoid tumor 3 (0.3%), oxyuriasis 2 (0.2%), and mycobacterial infection 4 (0.5%) were recognizable during the surgery. Of all pathologically confirmed cases with perforated appendicitis, 9.7% were not detected during the surgery. Conclusion In current study, acute appendicitis was the most common pathological diagnosis, however, high normal appendectomy rate along with noticeable proportion of surgically missed perforated appendicitis and unusual histopathologies strongly supported routine histological examination. PMID:23056836

  4. Noninflammatory fallopian tube pathology in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Merlini; Mehrak Anooshiravani; Aaron Vunda; Irene Borzani; Marcello Napolitano; Sylviane Hanquinet

    2008-01-01

    Noninflammatory tubal abnormalities are rare in children and usually not well covered by traditional educational material.\\u000a The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and are common to many other conditions, so its preoperative diagnosis is rarely made.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to review the hospital charts and imaging findings in children and sexually inactive adolescents\\u000a who showed fallopian tube pathology.

  5. Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Web Links to Commonly Used Sites Can't find the page you are looking for? Please review the Statler College Favorite Links list (below in alphabetical order) to jump to all other web sites. Have a site you Emeritus o Leaving o New · Emergency Alert o WVU Alert Web site o WVU Phone/Email Alert o Monongalia County

  6. Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology 20 Pathology and Diagnostic Pathology and adenocarcinoma ·Application of molecular pathology to pathological diagnosis · Discovery of cancer therapy target and acceleration of pathological diagnostic processes Investigation of the development of EB virus

  7. Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harper, Hazel J

    2003-01-01

    Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into underserved communities to deliver the oral health message. Involvement and participation on all levels, with diverse and non-traditional partners will make a difference. The National Dental Association applauds the commitment of the American Dental Assistants Association to form alliances that address the issues of access and disparities. Groups working together for a common good are linked together by one common notion: Caring Counts. PMID:12861781

  8. Pathological Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorne M. Korman; Tony Toneatto; Wayne Skinner

    ?? The diagnosis of pathological gambling first appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980, and appears again in DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Although the DSM-IV categorizes pathological gambling as an impulse-control disorder not elsewhere categorized, the criteria specified for diagnosing this disorder are somewhat similar to those for alcohol and substance dependence

  9. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  10. Noninflammatory fallopian tube pathology in children.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Vunda, Aaron; Borzani, Irene; Napolitano, Marcello; Hanquinet, Sylviane

    2008-12-01

    Noninflammatory tubal abnormalities are rare in children and usually not well covered by traditional educational material. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and are common to many other conditions, so its preoperative diagnosis is rarely made. The purpose of this study was to review the hospital charts and imaging findings in children and sexually inactive adolescents who showed fallopian tube pathology. Understanding of the pertinent findings of previous imaging examinations might assist radiologists in making the correct preoperative diagnosis and increase the likelihood of preserving the fallopian tubes. The clinical entities described in this article include isolated tubal torsion, paratubal cysts, hydrosalpinx, undescended/ectopic fallopian tube, and tubal inguinal hernia. PMID:18936935

  11. Incidental Findings on Brain MR Imaging in Older Community-Dwelling Subjects Are Common but Serious Medical Consequences Are Rare: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandeman, Elaine M.; Hernandez, Maria del Carmen Valdes; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Corley, Janie; Henderson, Ross; Deary, Ian J.; Starr, John M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Incidental findings in neuroimaging occur in 3% of volunteers. Most data come from young subjects. Data on their occurrence in older subjects and their medical, lifestyle and financial consequences are lacking. We determined the prevalence and medical consequences of incidental findings found in community-dwelling older subjects on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Design Prospective cohort observational study. Setting Single centre study with input from secondary care. Participants Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, a study of cognitive ageing. Main Outcome Measures Incidental findings identified by two consultant neuroradiologists on structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years; resulting medical referrals and interventions. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Prevalence of incidental findings by individual categories: neoplasms, cysts, vascular lesions, developmental, ear, nose or throat anomalies, by intra- and extracranial location; visual rating of white matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy. Results There were 281 incidental findings in 223 (32%) of 700 subjects, including 14 intra- or extracranial neoplasms (2%), 15 intracranial vascular anomalies (2%), and 137 infarcts or haemorrhages (20%). Additionally, 153 had moderate/severe deep white matter hyperintensities (22%) and 176 had cerebral atrophy at, or above, the upper limit of normal (25%) compared with a normative population template. The incidental findings were unrelated to white matter hyperintensities or atrophy; about a third of subjects had both incidental findings and moderate or severe WMH and a quarter had incidental findings and atrophy. The incidental findings resulted in one urgent and nine non-urgent referrals for further medical assessment, but ultimately in no new treatments. Conclusions In community-dwelling older subjects, incidental findings, including white matter hyperintensities and atrophy, were common. However, many findings were not of medical importance and, in this age group, most did not result in further assessment and none in change of treatment. PMID:23967214

  12. Cytokine mRNA expression and pathological findings in pigs inoculated with African swine fever virus (E-70) deleted on A238L.

    PubMed

    Salguero, F J; Gil, S; Revilla, Y; Gallardo, C; Arias, M; Martins, C

    2008-07-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) induces a variety of immune responses and clinical forms in domestic pigs. As it is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, ASFV encodes many novel genes not encoded by other virus families. Among these genes, A238L may regulate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, controlled mainly by NFkappaB and NFAT pathways. In this study, we inoculated two groups of pigs, one with the ASFV highly virulent E-70 isolate, deleted on A238L gene, and the other group with the parental E-70 isolate. No significant differences were observed in the clinical signs or pathology between both groups. However, the TNF-alpha mRNA expression was strongly enhanced in the PBMC from pigs inoculated with the virus deleted in A238L, reinforcing the role of the A238L gene in the inhibition of the NFkappaB pathway of expression of cytokines. No up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed in the PBMC of animals inoculated with the E-70 isolate, even though apoptosis and haemorrhages were evident and might be related to the presence of bystander monocyte-macrophages expressing these cytokines. Other studies using ASFV deleted in other genes inoculated in the natural hosts should be performed to gain further insight into the role of these genes in the pathogenesis of ASF. PMID:18384883

  13. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with a V180I Mutation: Comparative Analysis with Pathological Findings and Diffusion-Weighted Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Mutsukura; Katsuya Satoh; Susumu Shirabe; Itsuro Tomita; Takayasu Fukutome; Minoru Morikawa; Masachika Iseki; Kensuke Sasaki; Yusei Shiaga; Tetsuyuki Kitamoto; Katsumi Eguchi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a useful technique for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The present study reported DWI results in cases of familial CJD with a V180I mutation (CJD180) in the prion protein gene as well as neurological findings. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3 patients with V180I was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, brain MRI,

  14. The externalizing spectrum in youth: incorporating personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; De Clercq, Barbara; Sharp, Carla

    2014-07-01

    Although personality disorder characteristics are often grouped with externalizing problems in adults, little is known about the extent to which they define the externalizing spectrum in youth. We examined the extent to which personality pathology traits in youth reflected common and specific variance in externalizing problems and explored differentiation of these connections by age. Parents reported on physical aggression, rule-breaking, relational aggression, and personality pathology traits for 1080 youth (48.8% male) ages 6-18 years. Disagreeableness and emotional instability traits were correlated with a general externalizing factor as well as with specific behavioral subfactors. The magnitude of these correlations varied across age, with the highest magnitude evidenced during the developmental periods of greatest prevalence for the specific externalizing behavior subtype. Taken together, these findings suggest that personality pathology is tightly connected with externalizing problems in youth, especially during developmental periods when externalizing problems are common. PMID:24263222

  15. Pathological Renal Findings of Chronic Renal Failure in a Patient with the E66Q Mutation in the ?-galactosidase A Gene.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Atsushi; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Kusano, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Eiichi; Hamada, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with interstitial nephritis on a renal biopsy at 45 years of age and began to receive hemodialysis at 65 years of age. He was suspected of having Fabry disease as a result of a screening study for Fabry disease performed in hemodialysis patients. He had an E66Q mutation in the ?-galactosidase A gene. We conducted an electron microscopic examination of a renal biopsy specimen obtained when the patient was diagnosed with chronic renal failure at 45 years of age in order to elucidate the pathogenicity of the E66Q mutation. Interestingly, an electron microscopic examination of the renal biopsy specimen indicated no characteristic findings of Fabry disease. PMID:26179544

  16. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings of natural highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in tufted ducks during 2010-2011 outbreaks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Katou, Yuki; Goto, Minami; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    In the winter of 2010-2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

  17. Immunization with short peptides from the 60-kDa Ro antigen recapitulates the serological and pathological findings as well as the salivary gland dysfunction of Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scofield, R Hal; Asfa, Sima; Obeso, David; Jonsson, Roland; Kurien, Biji T

    2005-12-15

    Sjögren's syndrome is a poorly understood autoimmune inflammatory illness that affects the salivary and lacrimal glands as well as other organ systems. We undertook the present study to determine whether mice immunized with short peptides from the 60-kDa Ro (or SSA) Ag, which is a common target of the autoimmunity of Sjögren's syndrome, develop an illness similar to Sjögren's syndrome. BALB/c mice were immunized with one of two short peptides from 60-kDa Ro that are know to induce epitope spreading. The animals were analyzed for the presence of anti-Ro and anti-La (or SSB) in the sera by immunoblot and ELISA. Salivary glands were collected and examined by histology after H&E staining. Salivary lymphocytes were purified and studied for cell surface makers by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Timed stimulated salivary flow was measured. As reported previously, BALB/c mice immunized with 60-kDa Ro peptides developed an immune response directed against the entire Ro/La ribonucleoprotein particle that was similar to that found in humans with lupus or Sjögren's syndrome. Functional studies showed a statistical decrease in salivary flow in immunized mice compared with controls. Furthermore, there were lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary glands of immunized animals that were not present in controls. The infiltrates consisted of both CD4- and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes. BALB/c mice immunized with 60-kDa Ro peptides develop anti-Ro, salivary gland lymphocyte infiltrates, and salivary dysfunction that is highly reminiscent of human Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:16339583

  18. Pathologic findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project: prognostic significance of erbB-2 protein overexpression in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, S; Hazan, R; Fisher, E R; Sass, R E; Fisher, B; Redmond, C; Schlessinger, J; Lippman, M E; King, C R

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the prognostic significance of erbB-2 overexpression, immunohistochemical staining for the erbB-2 protein was performed on sections from paraffin blocks of 292 primary invasive breast cancers obtained from women enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) protocol B-06. Positive reaction indicative of erbB-2 overexpression was observed on tumor cells in 62 (21%) samples. Women whose cancers were judged to have erbB-2 overexpression had a significantly worse overall survival (P = .0012) with twice the mortality rate of women without detectable erbB-2 expression. No statistically significant effect was evident for disease-free survival (P = .22). In multivariate analysis, detection of erbB-2 overexpression was the second most predictive independent variable for survival after nodal status. Overexpression of erbB-2 was more common among tumors of poor nuclear grade (29%) than those of good nuclear grade (12%). The association of erbB-2 overexpression with decreased survival was evident only among women with tumors of good nuclear grade. In this subgroup, erbB-2 overexpression was associated with an approximately fivefold increase in mortality rate (P = .00001). The combined predictive value of erbB-2 overexpression and nuclear grade was evident regardless of their lymph node status. These results provide evidence that detection of erbB-2 overexpression may be an independent prognostic variable for patient survival. Moreover, when combined with evaluation of nuclear grade, it may be possible to use immunostaining for erbB-2 protein to identify patients at increased risk from within a relatively low-risk group. PMID:1967301

  19. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  20. Behavioral activation for pathological grief.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anthony; Rummel, Clair; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Sewell, M Todd

    2013-01-01

    The death of a significant other often entails far-reaching changes in individuals' life that can contribute to pathological grief responses. This article reviews 3 prominent theories of grief resolution, highlights common factors proposed to be associated with pathological grief responses, and suggests that behavioral activation (Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001) may address the factors contributing to pathological grieving. Behavioral activation applied to pathological grief may address loss related disruption by engaging bereaved individuals in their social environment and increasing contact with positive reinforcers that maintain sense of self. Two case studies are provided to demonstrate how behavioral activation can be adapted to remediate environmental disengagement, avoidance, and rumination typical of pathological grief responses. PMID:24517521

  1. Occipitocervical junction: imaging, pathology, instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Benke, Michael; Yu, Warren D; Peden, Sean C; O'Brien, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    The occipitocervical junction (OCJ) is a highly specialized area of the spine. Understanding the unique anatomy, imaging, and craniometry of this area is paramount in recognizing and managing the potentially devastating effects that pathology has on it. Instrumentation techniques continue to evolve, the goal being to safely obtain durable, rigid constructs that allow immediate stability, anatomical alignment, and osseous fusion. This article reviews the pathologic conditions at the OCJ and the current instrumentation and fusion options available for treatment. The general orthopedist needs to recognize the pathology common in this region and appropriately refer patients for treatment. PMID:22263204

  2. Psychopharmacologic treatment of pathologic aggression.

    PubMed

    Fava, M

    1997-06-01

    Several drugs are apparently effective in treating pathologic anger and aggression. Because many of the studies on aggressive populations allowed the use of concomitant medications, it is unclear whether the efficacy of each drug in a particular population is dependent on the presence of other medications, such as antipsychotic agents. Finally, one needs to be circumspect in inferring efficacy of a particular drug in aggressive patients with neuropsychiatric conditions other than the ones in which some efficacy has been established. Lithium appears to be an effective treatment of aggression among nonepileptic prison inmates, mentally retarded and handicapped patients, and among conduct-disordered children with explosive behavior. Certainly, lithium would be the treatment of choice in bipolar patients with excessive irritability and anger outbursts, and it has been shown to be effective in this population. Anticonvulsant medications are the treatment of choice for patients with outbursts of rage and abnormal EEG findings. The efficacy of these drugs in patients without a seizure disorder, however, remains to be established, with the exception perhaps of valproate and carbamazepine. In fact, dyphenylhydantoin did not appear to be effective in treating aggressive behavior in children with temper tantrums and was found to be effective in only a prison population. There is some evidence for the efficacy of carbamazepine and valproate in treating pathologic aggression in patients with dementia, organic brain syndrome, psychosis, and personality disorders. As Yudofsky et al point out in their review of the literature, although traditional antipsychotic drugs have been used widely to treat aggression, there is little evidence for their effectiveness in treating aggression beyond their sedative effect in agitated patients or their antiaggressive effect among patients whose aggression is related to active psychosis. Antipsychotic agents appear to be effective in treating psychotic aggressive patients, conduct-disordered children, and mentally retarded patients, with only modest effects in the management of pathologic aggression in patients with dementia. Furthermore, at least in one study, these drugs were found to be associated with increased aggressiveness in mentally retarded subjects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e., clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine) may be more effective than traditional antipsychotic drugs in aggressive and violent populations, as they have shown efficacy in patients with dementia, brain injury, mental retardation, and personality disorders. Similarly, benzodiazepines can reduce agitation and irritability in elderly and demented populations, but they also can induce behavioral disinhibition. Therefore, one should be careful in using this class of drugs in patients with pathologic aggression. Beta-blockers appear to be effective in many different neuropsychiatric conditions. These drugs seem effective in reducing violent and assaultive behavior in patients with dementia, brain injury, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and organic brain syndrome. As pointed out by Campbell et al in their review of the literature, however, systematic research is lacking, and little is known about the efficacy and safety of beta-blockers in children and adolescents with pathologic aggression. Although widely used in the management of pathologic aggression, the use of this class of drugs has been limited partially by marked hypotension and bradycardia, which are side effects common at the higher doses. The usefulness of the antihypertensive drug clonidine in the treatment of pathologic aggression has not been assessed adequately, and only marginal benefits were observed with this drug in irritable autistic and conduct disorder children. Psychostimulants seem to be effective in reducing aggressiveness in brain-injured patients as well as in violent adolescents with oppositional or conduct disorders, particu PMID:9196923

  3. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  4. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  5. Validation of natural language processing to extract breast cancer pathology procedures and results

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Arika E.; Bowles, Erin J. A.; Cronkite, David; Wernli, Karen J.; Gao, Hongyuan; Carrell, David; Buist, Diana S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathology reports typically require manual review to abstract research data. We developed a natural language processing (NLP) system to automatically interpret free-text breast pathology reports with limited assistance from manual abstraction. Methods: We used an iterative approach of machine learning algorithms and constructed groups of related findings to identify breast-related procedures and results from free-text pathology reports. We evaluated the NLP system using an all-or-nothing approach to determine which reports could be processed entirely using NLP and which reports needed manual review beyond NLP. We divided 3234 reports for development (2910, 90%), and evaluation (324, 10%) purposes using manually reviewed pathology data as our gold standard. Results: NLP correctly coded 12.7% of the evaluation set, flagged 49.1% of reports for manual review, incorrectly coded 30.8%, and correctly omitted 7.4% from the evaluation set due to irrelevancy (i.e. not breast-related). Common procedures and results were identified correctly (e.g. invasive ductal with 95.5% precision and 94.0% sensitivity), but entire reports were flagged for manual review because of rare findings and substantial variation in pathology report text. Conclusions: The NLP system we developed did not perform sufficiently for abstracting entire breast pathology reports. The all-or-nothing approach resulted in too broad of a scope of work and limited our flexibility to identify breast pathology procedures and results. Our NLP system was also limited by the lack of the gold standard data on rare findings and wide variation in pathology text. Focusing on individual, common elements and improving pathology text report standardization may improve performance.

  6. Pathology of inhalational anthrax animal models.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A

    2010-09-01

    Anthrax is a lethal disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There are three principal forms of the disease in humans-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational-depending on the route of exposure. Of these, inhalational anthrax is the most dangerous; it is rapidly fatal; and it has been used as a deadly biological warfare agent in the last decade. Suitable animal models of inhalational anthrax have been utilized to study pathogenesis of disease, investigate bacterial characteristics such as virulence, and test effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics. To date, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates are the principal animal species used to study inhalational anthrax. Mice are valuable in studying early pathogenesis and bacterial characteristics. Few pathologic changes occur in the mouse models but may include marked bacteremia and lymphocyte destruction in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. Rabbits and guinea pigs rapidly develop fulminate systemic disease, and pathologic findings often include necrotizing lymphadenitis; splenitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. Nonhuman primates consistently develop the full range of classic lesions of human inhalational anthrax, including meningitis; lymphadenitis; splenitis; mediastinitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. This review focuses on basic characteristics of the bacterium and its products, key aspects of pathogenesis, and the pathologic changes commonly observed in each animal model species. PMID:20656900

  7. Rare, but clinically significant cases of abnormalities of coronary arteries: "pathological valves".

    PubMed

    Alekhin, D I; Koudrina, A V; Goloshchapova, J A; Kokorishvili, M A; Vlasko, A A

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly occurring pathology of carotid arteries (CAs) is an atherosclerotic stenosing lesion thereof (accounting for up to 80% of all cases), to be immediately followed by pathological tortuosity of carotid arteries. Of much less frequent occurrence are vasculitides, vasculopathies and thrombotic lesions [1-4]. The authors revealed rarely encountered, yet clinically significant abnormalities of the CA structure, which we called "pathological valves" (PVs). However, we failed to find any published reports describing the pathology concerned in the available literature dedicated to ultrasonographic, roentgenological diagnosis or surgical management, hence our article. The present study was aimed at investigating the structure of the wall of the common carotid artery in the area of its bifurcation in the presence of blood flow obstruction caused by nonatherosclerotic alterations detected during ultrasonographic examination and confirmed by angiography. The obtained results were then compared with the findings of clinical studies and the morphological picture of the operative material. There were twenty-six cases of the so-called "pathological valves" amongst more than six thousand ultrasonographic examinations of the brachiocephalic arteries we performed. All the patients operated on turned out to have a history of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) or degree I-II cerebral infarctions in the respective carotid basin. Both morphological and histological examinations revealed that the "pathological valves" consisted of the interrupted, not forming an entire, solid layer, collagenous and elastic ribles covered with the endothelium similar in the morphological structure to that of the tunica intima of the artery. PMID:20977140

  8. Clinical and Pathological Features of Korean Patients with DNM2-Related Centronuclear Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Eun; Choi, Young-Chul; Bae, Jong-Suk; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyang-Suk; Shin, Jin-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is characterized by the presence of central nuclei within a large number of muscle fibers. Mutations of the dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) are common causes of autosomal dominant or sporadic CNM. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and pathological features of CNM relative to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Methods Six patients with clinical and pathological features of CNM were recruited. Detailed clinical and pathological findings were analyzed according to the presence of DNM2 mutations. Results We detected DNM2 mutations in four of the six sporadic CNM patients, and identified the following distinct clinical and pathological features in those patients with DNM2 mutations: preferential involvement of the distal lower limbs, typical nuclear centralization, and radially distributed sarcoplasmic strands in muscle pathology. In contrast, those without DNM2 mutations exhibited rather diffuse muscular involvement, and nuclear internalization and myofibrillar disorganization were more pronounced features of their muscle pathology. Conclusions These findings suggest the presence of specific features in Korean CNM patients. A detailed clinical and pathological examination of CNM patients would be helpful for molecular genetic analyses of this condition. PMID:24465259

  9. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2010 / 2011 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang SPEAKER: TOPIC: January 13th MDCL ­ 3023 Dr. F. DeNardi HRLMP ­ McMaster University TBA ­ GI Pathology

  10. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2011 / 2012 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p Standards2 Quality ­ Guidelines for Quality Management in Surgical Pathology Professional Practices Sciences GI Pathology November 10th MDCL ­ 2232 Dr. Robin Edwards McMaster University Professionalism

  11. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

  12. Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chen, Lei

    This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâ??s history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  16. Oligodendroglial tumors: diagnostic and molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Giannini, Caterina

    2010-05-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors, which encompass pure oligodendroglioma and mixed oligoastrocytoma, represent the second most common glioma in adults after glioblastoma. They remain controversial neoplasms in the realm of surgical neuropathology. The early recognition of their more favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment when compared with diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas has influenced the pathologic diagnostic interpretation, and resulted in a pervasive interobserver variability. The more recent finding of an increased frequency of 1p/19q deletion in these tumors by cytogenetic analysis, and the association of this molecular abnormality with a better prognosis has greatly impacted the field of neuro-oncology. In this review, we focus on important histopathologic aspects in the evaluation of oligodendroglial tumors, key differential diagnoses, and highlight particular clinical and molecular characteristics, as well as current diagnostic and conceptual controversies. PMID:20860317

  17. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI?=?15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI?=?14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI?=?11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI?=?3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI?=?0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  18. Pathological defects in congenital myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline A. Sewry

    2008-01-01

    Congenital myopathies are a molecularly, pathologically and clinically heterogenous group of disorders defined by hypotonia\\u000a and muscle weakness, that usually present at birth or early childhood, in association with a characteristic morphological\\u000a defect. The most common morphological defects are nemaline rods, cores of varying size, central nuclei, and type I fibre hypotrophy,\\u000a with or without an additional abnormality. The defective

  19. Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    French, Jacqueline A.

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâ??s brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  20. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for <2% of all bone tumors. The calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ?38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  1. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  2. Radiology-Pathology Conference: carcinosarcoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Newrhee; Luchs, Jonathan S; Halpern, David; Davis, Elena; Donovan, Virginia; Weston, Shiobhan R; Katz, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas are very uncommon tumors, which are comprised of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. They occur most commonly in the head and neck, respiratory tract, and female reproductive organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, they are most often found in the oropharynx, esophagus, and, to a lesser extent, in the stomach. Carcinosarcomas rarely originate from the colon, but when they do, they are extremely aggressive malignancies. We report the radiologic and pathologic findings of a patient with a carcinosarcoma believed to have arisen from the colon and which involved the adjacent mesentery and omentum. PMID:15967317

  3. Unusual manifestations of astroblastoma: a radiologic-pathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Srinivas; Kleiner, Laurence I; Mirkin, David L; Broxson, Emmett

    2009-02-01

    Astroblastoma is a very rare primary glial tumor occurring in children and young adults that is almost exclusively supratentorial in location. We report an extremely unusual presentation of a densely calcified posterior fossa astroblastoma with disseminated spinal and supratentorial metastasis. The mass exhibited neoplastic bone formation, which has not been reported, although calcifications are commonly seen in astroblastomas. A companion case of a low-grade astroblastoma that demonstrated classic histologic features but nonspecific and atypical imaging findings is also included. These cases expand the imaging and pathologic spectrum of this controversial tumor that shows highly variable biologic behavior and is difficult to distinguish from ependymoma. PMID:18958463

  4. Description of Laryngeal Pathologies in Children Evaluated by Otolaryngologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobres, Rachel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected on 731 patients (age birth to 18) at a children's hospital otolaryngology clinic. Most frequent laryngeal pathologies were subglottic stenosis, vocal nodules, laryngomalacia, and vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal pathologies were more common to males than females, were most common in the youngest patients, and were distributed…

  5. Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Molecular Pathology (Gregg) Clinical Organizational Structure Department Chair (Howell) Vice Chair, Strategic Technology (Levenson) Vice Chair, Research (Wan) Senior Director, Anatomic Pathology (Bishop) Vice (Jin) Surgical Pathology (Bishop) Directors of: Senior Director, Clinical Pathology (Gregg) Progenitor

  6. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  7. SNOMED CT in pathology.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible. PMID:22925793

  8. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  9. A new pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin-long

    2015-02-01

    Lumbar disc protrusion is common. Its clinical manifestations and treatments are closely related to the pathological changes; however, the pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion is controversial. This article introduces a new pathological classification comprising four types of lumbar disc protrusion according to intraoperative findings. The damage-herniation type is probably caused by injury and is characterized by soft herniation, the capsule can easily be cut and the broken disc tissue blocks overflow or is easily removed. The broken disc substances should be completely removed; satisfactory results can be achieved by minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. The degeneration-protrusion type is characterized by hard and tough protrusions and the pathological process by degeneration and proliferative reaction. The nerve should be decompressed and relaxed with minimally invasive removal of the posterior wall; the bulged or protruded disc often need not be excised. The posterior vertebral osteochondrosis with disc protrusion type is characterized by deformity of the posterior vertebral body, osteochondral nodules and intervertebral disc protrusion. The herniated and fragmented disc tissue should be removed with partially protruding osteochondral nodules. Intervertebral disc cyst is of uncertain pathogenesis and is characterized by a cyst that communicates with the disc. Resection of the cyst under microscopic or endoscopic control can achieve good results; and whether the affected disc needs to be simultaneously resected is controversial. The new pathological classification proposed here is will aid better understanding of pathological changes and pathogenesis of lumbar disc protrusion and provides a reference for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25708029

  10. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America. PMID:24758866

  11. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  12. Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  13. Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis. PMID:21674412

  14. Pathologic Review of Cystic and Cavitary Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions caused by diverse etiologies are commonly encountered in chest imaging. The terms "cyst" and "cavity" are used to describe air-filled regions in the center of a nodule or consolidation of the lung. To date, only radiologic aspects of these lesions have been addressed. The morphologies of pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions exhibit a broad spectrum, ranging from benign to malignant pulmonary diseases of acquired or congenital origin, including variable infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the differential diagnosis of pathological entities to provide pathologists and radiologists with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions in adults and children. The results showed slightly different patterns in the distribution of the diseases in the two groups. The most common causes of cavitary lesions include malignancy and infection in adults, and congenital malformation in children. Therefore, identification of pathologic entities correlating with the radiologic findings, clinical course, and location of the lesion is important in the evaluation of cystic and cavitary lung lesions in order to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures or delayed treatment. PMID:23136566

  15. Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Sonya

    This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  18. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  19. Pathology of human influenza revisited.

    PubMed

    Kuiken, Thijs; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2008-09-12

    The pathology of human influenza has been studied most intensively during the three pandemics of the last century, the last of which occurred in 1968. It is important to revisit this subject because of the recent emergence of avian H5N1 influenza in humans as well as the threat of a new pandemic. Uncomplicated human influenza virus infection causes transient tracheo-bronchitis, corresponding with predominant virus attachment to tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. The main complication is extension of viral infection to the alveoli, often with secondary bacterial infection, resulting in severe pneumonia. Complications in extra-respiratory tissues such as encephalopathy, myocarditis, and myopathy occur occasionally. Sensitive molecular and immunological techniques allow us to investigate whether these complications are a direct result of virus infection or an indirect result of severe pneumonia. Human disease from avian influenza virus infections is most severe for subtype H5N1, but also has been reported for H7 and H9 subtypes. In contrast to human influenza viruses, avian H5N1 virus attaches predominantly to alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium, corresponding with diffuse alveolar damage as the primary lesion. Viremia and extra-respiratory complications appear to be more common for infections with avian H5N1 virus than with human influenza viruses. Further understanding and comparison of the pathology of human and avian influenza virus infections only can be achieved by directed and careful pathological analysis of additional influenza cases. PMID:19230162

  20. Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Headache

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  2. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-? aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-?4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOE?4?4 carriers, 50 years for ?2?4 carriers, 55 years for ?3?4 carriers, 65 years for ?3?3 carriers, and 95 years for ?2?3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462

  3. ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY/HEMATOPATHOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment

  4. Learning Community: Finding Common Ground in Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Patricia E.

    This volume explores multiple layers of educational community and the conditions that contribute to their resilience and growth. Using a backdrop of the experiences of different schools, the discussion depicts community as a process rather than a commodity and illustrates how ideas of community develop. Issues of identity, leadership, voice, and…

  5. Placental pathology in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levy, R A; Avvad, E; Oliveira, J; Porto, L C

    1998-01-01

    One of the major targets of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is the placenta, the evolution of which during pregnancy has been well documented. Histopathological findings are related to gestational age, and several physiologic and pathologic alterations that occur during its development. The major findings in placentae from aPL positive patients are thrombosis, acute atherosis, a decreased number of syncytio-vascular membranes, increased number of syncytial knots and obliterative arteriopathy. These findings are not specific to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and sometimes do not correlate with the fetal outcome. Histopathological study of placentae may elucidate mechanisms of action of aPL in fetal loss and other obstetric complications. In addition, it may assist in the investigation of the differential diagnosis between APS and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Immunohistochemical studies of local placental proteins contribute to this differential diagnosis. PMID:9814679

  6. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ?18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  7. PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    of developmental pathology including Cytogenetics. The Clinical Oncology and Pediatric Pathology Programs PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM at the UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA #12 ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Pediatric Anatomical Pathology Rotation

  8. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  9. Pathology of Treated GI Neoplasia Pathology section seminar

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    Pathology of Treated GI Neoplasia Pathology section seminar Liverpool DDF meeting Tuesday 19th June for LGD #12;#12;p53 #12;BSG/DDF 2012 Pathology Slide Seminar Dr Adrian C Bateman Southampton University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Southampton Cellular Pathology #12;History · 56 year old man · Refractory

  10. THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    THE BANFF PATHOLOGY COURSE GASTROINTESTINAL/LIVER PATHOLOGY UPDATE September 3 - 6, 2014 The Rimrock Resort Hotel Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine University of Calgary and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Alberta http://.banffpathology.ucalgary.ca Ms Carol Burrows

  11. Evidence that meningeal mast cells can worsen stroke pathology in mice.

    PubMed

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Nepomuceno, Andrew R B; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  12. Early Experience after Developing a Pathology Laboratory in Malawi, with Emphasis on Cancer Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Marie-Josephe; Shores, Carol G.; Alide, Noor; Kamiza, Steve; Kampani, Coxcilly; Chimzimu, Fred; Fedoriw, Yuri; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Hoffman, Irving F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing cancer burden in Malawi, pathology services are limited. We describe operations during the first 20 months of a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional study of specimens from the Kamuzu Central Hospital pathology laboratory between July 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. Patient and specimen characteristics, and final diagnoses are summarized. Diagnoses were categorized as malignant, premalignant, infectious, other pathology, normal or benign, or nondiagnostic. Patient characteristics associated with premalignancy and malignancy were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2772 specimens, 2758 (99%) with a recorded final diagnosis were included, drawn from 2639 unique patients. Mean age was 38 years and 63% were female. Of those with documented HIV status, 51% had unknown status, and 36% with known status were infected. Histologic specimens comprised 91% of cases, and cytologic specimens 9%. Malignant diagnoses were most common overall (n?=?861, 31%). Among cancers, cervical cancer was most common (n?=?117, 14%), followed by lymphoma (n?=?91, 11%), esophageal cancer (n?=?86, 10%), sarcoma excluding Kaposi sarcoma (n?=?75, 9%), and breast cancer (n?=?61, 7%). HIV status was known for 95 (11%) of malignancies, with HIV prevalence ranging from 9% for breast cancer to 81% for cervical cancer. Increasing age was consistently associated with malignancy [bivariable odds ratio 1.24 per decade increase (95% CI 1.19–1.29) among 2685 patients with known age; multivariable odds ratio 1.33 per decade increase (95% CI 1.14–1.56) among 317 patients with known age, gender, and HIV status], while HIV infection and gender were not. Conclusions Despite selection and referral bias inherent in these data, a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe has created a robust platform for cancer care and research. Strategies to effectively capture clinical information for pathologically confirmed cancers can allow these data to complement population-based registration. PMID:23950924

  13. Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Pathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling Requirements For Pathology Waste: · All pathology waste must be placed in a red bag and labeled with the words

  14. Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klionsky, Bernard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  15. Analysis of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Morbidity of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic T3 Disease or Positive Surgical Margins After Radical Prostatectomy Using National Cancer Institute Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: choo.c@mayo.edu; Pearse, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 or positive surgical margins after RP were treated with RT plus 2 years of androgen suppression, according to a Phase II study. Acute and late GI and GU toxicity was prospectively assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was estimated using a cumulative incidence method. A Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive factors for late toxicity. Results: The median patient age was 61 years at RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. The median follow-up was 42.4 months. Of the 78 patients, 76 and 74 were available for the acute and late toxicity analysis, respectively. Of these patients, 66%, 29%, and 1% experienced Grade 1, 2, and 3 acute GI or GU toxicity, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GI toxicity at 36 months was 8.1% and 0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 or greater late GU toxicity at 36 months was 16.4% and 2.7%, respectively. None had Grade 4 or greater late toxicity. The severity of acute GU toxicity (less than Grade 2 vs. Grade 2 or greater) was a significant predictor factor for Grade 2 or greater late GU toxicity after adjusting for pre-existing GU dysfunction. Conclusions: Postoperative RT was generally well tolerated. Grade 3 or greater late GI or GU toxicity was uncommon.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Driscoll, Eileen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Davie, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Petechiae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Hyperammonemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diven, Warren

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a female neonate only two days old became lethargic and developed focal seizures. Visitors are given the high performance liquid chromatography, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  20. Plant Pathology Career Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  3. Liquidity commonality beyond best prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kempf; Daniel Mayston

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the commonality of liquidity in an open limit order book market. We find that commonality in liquidity becomes stronger the deeper we look into the limit order book. While commonality is only about 2% at the best prices, it increases up to about 20% inside the limit order book. Furthermore, we find strong time variation in commonality

  4. Vascular pathology and osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Findlay

    2007-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced

  5. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  6. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  7. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  8. Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Left Thyroid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 66 year old man who presented with a left thyroid mass. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickson, H.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Left Chest Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This soft tissue pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a patientâ??s chest and back pain. A chest X-ray and CT scan revealed a chest mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Microscopic images of the biopsy are included in the case study along with a gross description and image of the specimen. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Left Upper Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Craig, Fiona

    This surgical pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a mass in the patientâ??s neck. Gross and microscopic descriptions of the surgically removed mass are included in the case study to aid in understanding the diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  13. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  14. Pathologists overseas: coordinating volunteer pathology services for 19 years.

    PubMed

    Hoenecke, Heinz; Lee, Victor; Roy, Indrojit

    2011-02-01

    Pathologists Overseas is a nonprofit organization that has been coordinating the efforts of volunteer pathologists and technologists for 19 years to improve and provide affordable pathology services to underserved patients worldwide. This is accomplished by aiding and establishing pathology laboratories, providing diagnostic pathology services, and training local physicians as pathologists. Projects have been completed or are currently active in Kenya, Eritrea, Madagascar, Ghana, Nepal, Bhutan, Peru, El Salvador, and St Lucia. The main challenge is finding enough volunteers to provide uninterrupted service to maintain a project. Our goal is to build on these experiences and continue to both support existing and establish more pathology laboratories worldwide. PMID:21284432

  15. Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, M; Good, A

    2013-07-01

    Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

  16. Detailed Shoulder MRI Findings in Manual Wheelchair Users with Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Van Straaten, Meegan G.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Braman, Jonathan P.; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10?MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities. PMID:25180192

  17. Pathology Case Study: An Adrenal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This endocrine pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 71-year-old female experiencing â??fainting spellsâ? is the focus of this case. The patientâ??s history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of endocrine pathology.

  18. Pathology in East Timor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephen R

    2002-10-01

    East Timor is the newest nation in Southeast Asia and, with its recent turbulent history, also one of the poorest. Infectious and parasitic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are endemic, and the poor infrastructure in the wake of Indonesia's sudden withdrawal has left the country with enormous health challenges. Australia's key role in the emergence of East Timor as an independent country brings with it a long-term interest in the future development of its health services, including pathology. PMID:12408349

  19. Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in clinical glenohumeral instability

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Manisha; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Nag, Hiralal; Mittal, Ravi; Upadhyay, Ashish Dutt

    2011-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body, and anterior instability is the most common type of shoulder instability. Depending on the etiology and the age of the patient, there may be associated injuries, for example, to the anterior-inferior labro-ligamentous structures (in young individuals with traumatic instability) or to the bony components (commoner in the elderly), which are best visualized using MRI and MR arthrography. Anterior instability is associated with a Bankart lesion and its variants and abnormalities of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL), whereas posterior instability is associated with reverse Bankart and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions. Cases of multidirectional instability often have no labral pathology on imaging but show specific osseous changes including increased chondrolabral retroversion. This article reviews the relevant anatomy in brief and describes the MRI findings in each type, with the imaging features of the common abnormalities. PMID:21799591

  1. [Specialised pediatric pathology service].

    PubMed

    Grinenko, A Ia; Glukhovets, N G

    2005-01-01

    Leningrad Regional Children's Bureau of Pathology was established in May 1992. The program of this bureau consisted of: revealing causes of early and late abortions; assessment of ultrasound diagnosis of congenital deficiencies of fetus development and clinical assessment of chronic placental insufficiency; pathogenetic explanation of intrauterine fetuses death; prognosis of neonatal pathology; systemic analysis of dynamics of perinatal, natal and infant mortality; organisation of independant expertise of medical causes of reproductive losses. The following principles in the work of the bureau were established: 1) mass investigation of placentas of newborns; 2) use of urgent pathomorphological diagnosis which allows to present information about placentas not later than 24 hrs after the delivery; 3) complex investigation of placentas with the use of various methods; 4) systemic informational analysis of placental pathology; 5) constant updating of physicians knowledge in the field of practical placentology. Results of mass placentas investigation show a principal pathogenetic role of ascending infection in perinatal mortality in opportunistic pathogenic microflora with the development of inflammatory responses in the system mother-placenta-fetus. PMID:15822796

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of type IIIa biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) findings of type IIIa biliary atresia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a medical database of patients pathologically confirmed to have biliary atresia, Kasai type IIIa, between January 2002 and May 2013 (n=18). We evaluated US findings including the visible common bile duct (CBD), triangular cord thickness, gallbladder size and shape, and subcapsular flow on color Doppler US; laboratory data; and pathological hepatic fibrosis grades. We divided them into two groups-those with visible (group A) and invisible (group B) CBD on US-and compared all parameters between the two groups. Results: CBD was visible on US in five cases (27.8%; group A) and invisible in 13 cases (72.2%; group B). US was performed at an earlier age in group A than in group B (median, 27 days vs. 60 days; P=0.027) with the maximal age of 51 days. A comparison of the US findings revealed that the triangular cord thickness was smaller (4.1 mm vs. 4.9 mm; P=0.004) and the gallbladder length was larger (20.0 mm vs. 11.7 mm; P=0.021) in group A. The gallbladder shape did not differ between the two groups, and the subcapsular flow was positive in all cases of both groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory data between the two groups. Upon pathological analysis, group A showed low-grade and group B showed low- to high-grade hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: When CBD is visible on US in patients diagnosed with type IIIa biliary atresia, other US features could have a false negative status. A subcapsular flow on the color Doppler US would be noted in the type IIIa biliary atresia patients. PMID:25036753

  3. Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whisnant, Richard

    This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâ??s immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopez-Plaza, Iliana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâ??s medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the â??Patient Historyâ? section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the â??Patient Historyâ? and â??Laboratory Investigationsâ? sections, students should proceed on to the â??Questionsâ? section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the â??Diagnosisâ? section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Bloating and Discomfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 64-year-old woman initially diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Visitors are given an extensive patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient using the findings before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  7. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234

  8. Imaging findings of splenic hamartoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Shi-Zheng Zhang; Jian-Ming Hua

    AIM: To assess CT and MR manifestations and their diagnostic value in splenic hamartoma with review of literatures. METHODS: We described a woman who was accidentally found to have a splenic tumor by ultrasound of the abdomen. CT and MR findings of this splenic hamartoma were proved by pathology retrospectively. RESULTS: The CT and MR findings in this case included

  9. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R.; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of ?-amyloid (A?) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for ?-amyloid precursor protein and ?-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for A? genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain. PMID:25871402

  10. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-05-10

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of ?-amyloid (A?) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for ?-amyloid precursor protein and ?-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for A? genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain. PMID:25871402

  11. Put your back into it: pathologic conditions of the spine at chest CT.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cristopher A; Vagal, Achala S; Seaman, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    It is common to encounter pathologic processes of the lower cervical, thoracic, or upper lumbar spine in the course of routine computed tomography (CT) of the chest. Although magnetic resonance (MR) is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating known spinal disease, evaluation of the spine is an integral part of interpreting a chest CT study. Spinal diseases often have a characteristic CT appearance that allows the radiologist to make the diagnosis or provide a structured differential diagnosis. Pathologic conditions of the spine that can be identified at chest CT are categorized into benign or incidental findings, congenital anomalies, traumatic injuries, infectious spondylitis, primary or secondary neoplastic involvement, and associations with systemic disease. CT also provides information about bone mineralization and lesion calcification that complements the superior soft-tissue imaging capability of MR. In addition, chest CT data may be reformatted to create volumetric or multiplanar images of the spine to facilitate management decisions about spinal stabilization in symptomatic patients. PMID:21918053

  12. Radiologic-Pathologic Findings in Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A. Rowley; Rosalie M. Uht; Kevin R. Kazacos; Wendy V. Wheaton; A. James Barkovich; Andrew W. Bollen

    Summary: A 13-month-old boy developed eosinophilic me- ningoencephalitis, retinitis, and a protracted encephalopa- thy with severe residual deficits. The initial MR examina- tion revealed diffuse periventricular white matter disease, and follow-up images showed atrophy. Brain biopsy, se- rology, and epidemiologic studies lead to the diagnosis of Baylisascaris procyonis infection, a parasitic disease con- tracted through exposure to soil contaminated by

  13. Intrasellar ependymoma: clinical, imaging, pathological, and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Parish, Jonathan M; Bonnin, Jose M; Goodman, Julius M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-04-01

    Ependymomas arising in the intrasellar compartment are extremely rare and most often are not included in the differential diagnosis of an intrasellar tumor mass. We review the literature to further advance awareness regarding unusual presentations of this type of tumor and present an illustrative case of an intrasellar cystic ependymoma that developed in an uncommon location. In our illustrative case, the patient had a 2 year history of hypopituitarism, but no headaches or visual disturbance. Preoperatively, the lesion was thought to be a pituitary macroadenoma. PMID:25744072

  14. Intrasellar pilocytic astrocytomas: clinical, imaging, pathological, and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Parish, Jonathan M; Bonnin, Jose M; Payner, Troy D; Goodman, Julius M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-04-01

    A pilocytic astrocytoma is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of an intrasellar tumor. An awareness of this tumor as primarily an intrasellar entity is important to avoid confusion during its diagnosis. We retrospectively examined the records of 631 patients treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010 who underwent transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumors and identified those diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytoma. We excluded patients who harbored a pituicytoma. We also searched the literature for patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of intrasellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Only two patients in our series harbored intrasellar tumors and had a histologic diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma. We also found two other cases in the literature that met our criteria. Pilocytic astrocytoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intrasellar lesion. An understanding of this tumor's radiological features can avoid diagnostic confusion. PMID:25560386

  15. Quantitative Pathology of Inhalational Anthrax I: Quantitative Microscopic Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lev M. Grinberg; Faina A. Abramova; Olga V. Yampolskaya; David H. Walker; Jerome H. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forty-one cases of documented inhalational anthrax from the Sverdlovsk epidemic of 1979 traced to release of aerosols of Bacillus anthracis at a secret biologic-agent production facility were evaluated by semiquantitative histopathologic analysis of tissue concentrations of organisms, inflammation, hemorrhage, and other lesions in the mediastinum, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchi, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, intestines, kidneys, adrenal glands, and central nervous

  16. A contact dermatitis of broilers ?clinical and pathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan A. Greene; R. M. McCracken; R. T. Evans

    1985-01-01

    A new skin condition of broilers which results in the downgrading of up to 15–30% of broiler carcases\\/week is described. Unsightly brown?black coloured erosions and ulcers occur on the breast, hock and foot skin. Histopathological examination of these revealed acute inflammation with necrosis of the epidermis and in more severe cases, the upper dermis. A study of the condition has

  17. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and those pregnant women with medium obesity and obesity (p = 0.046). Body mass index (BMI) during normal pregnancy development is lower (p = 0.002) but the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL in blood are higher Blood pressure in pregnant women with pathological pregnancy was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were found in 19 pregnant women with the pathological pregnancy. Statistically, in those women, a significantly higher appearance of psychological symptoms and disorders was observed in comparison to the pregnant women without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). The research has shown that 87.8% from all pregnant women included in this study have been hospitalized due to premature birth, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes in pregnancy, and also due to bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943

  18. Applications in hip pathology.

    PubMed

    Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Huten, D; Odri, G-A; Morin, C; Parent, H-F

    2010-05-01

    Everyday clinical practice frequently leads us to suspect a close relationship between the lumbar spine and the hip-joints. Sagittal balance fundamentally expresses a postural strategy mobilizing the dynamic structure of the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex in an authentic balance by which obligatory coupled movements transmit stresses in a single structure, the spine, to the two-part structure of the lower limbs, and vice-versa. Flexion contracture is a frequent hip pathology, but congenital dislocation and ankylosis of the hip have the greatest impact on the spine, due to excessive mechanical strain and/or spinal malalignment, which is initially supple but becomes fixed. Clinical analysis, backed up if necessary by infiltration tests and imaging, guides indications for surgical management. These considerations suggest a general attitude that considers not just the hip itself, for which the patient is consulting, but the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex as a whole (and also the knee) before undertaking total hip replacement. Femoro-acetabular impingement is a recently described pathology associating morphological hip-joint abnormality and labral and joint cartilage lesions, leading to early osteoarthritis of the hip. Abnormal spinal or pelvic parameters have not been found associated with femoro-acetabular impingement. Congenital pelvic tilt is a benign and often overlooked pathology in children. Supra- and infra-pelvic pelvic tilt in childhood palsy raises the difficult strategic issue of how to get these children in their wheelchair with a well-balanced spine over a straight pelvis and frontally and sagittally balanced hips. PMID:20447890

  19. [Cyberknife and benign pathologies].

    PubMed

    Lallemand, F; Janvary, Z L; Jansen, N; Coucke, Ph

    2011-11-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is known to be an effective treatment approach even for "benign" pathologies. However, this kind of treatment yields a high potential for side effects. The Cyberknife, a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy device, enables to offset a large proportion of the disadvantages encountered with conventional radiotherapy essentially through the high precision of dose administration and sparing of healthy tissues. Therefore, it seems to be a treatment of choice in the approach of some benign intracranial diseases. We review published data on indications and outcome of Cyberknife for intracranial "non-malignant" disease. PMID:22216729

  20. Cancer: pathological nuclear reprogramming?

    PubMed

    Goding, Colin R; Pei, Duanqing; Lu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    The ability of stem cells to self-renew and generate different lineages during development and organogenesis is a fundamental, tightly controlled, and generally unidirectional process, whereas the 'immortality' of cancer cells could be regarded as pathological self-renewal. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are remarkably similar to those that are deregulated in cancer - so much so that aberrant reprogramming is tumorigenic. The similarities also suggest that mutations in genes implicated in DNA methylation dynamics might represent a hallmark of cancers with a stem cell origin, and they highlight an alternative view of cancer that may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25030952

  1. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology of a 51 year-old man with epilepsy. Images and results from a neurological examination are provided in this case. The patientâ??s diagnosis is found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section, which also includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Fevers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors in the health sciences field. In this case, a 68-year-old male patient experiencing fevers, chills, an associated non-productive cough, and weight loss was admitted to the hospital for examination. The â??Gross Description,â? â??Microscopic Description,â? and â?? Microbiologyâ? sections provide key information and images that contributed to the patientâ??s diagnosis. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ? provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment from the contributing doctors.

  3. Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, N A

    1991-01-01

    When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

  4. Glenoid labrum pathology.

    PubMed

    Clavert, P

    2015-02-01

    The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects. The labrum is often involved in shoulder pathology, by single trauma or, more often, repeated microtrauma. It seems logical to classify and to describe tears according to two criteria: the sector involved, and associated pain or instability. In the superior labrum, SLAP lesions are the most frequent. These combine labral lesion and lesion of the proximal insertion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The most frequent form is SLAP II. They may be associated with instability or not. In the antero-inferior and postero-inferior labrum, lesions are mainly due to instability, particularly Bankart lesions (capsulolabral avulsion) anteriorly and Kim's lesion posteriorly. Circumferential labral lesions may be found in unstable shoulder. Finally, postero-superior lesions involve Walch's internal impingement: repeated contact between the deep surface of the cuff and the labrum, which takes on a degenerative aspect, with a kissing lesion of the cuff. There is no general rule for management: some labral lesions are resected and others fixed. The cause (which is usually shoulder instability), however, needs to be assessed and treated. PMID:25596985

  5. Error in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Foucar, E

    2001-12-01

    Error in anatomic pathology is a topic that is currently making the difficult transition from a problem peculiar to a subset of poorly trained or otherwise inadequate pathologists to a problem shared by the specialty of pathology. This transition will involve a number of difficult steps, including sorting error from both inherent diagnostic uncertainty andfrom variations in practice patterns from which no evidence-based best practice has emerged. Identification of error will require scientifically valid diagnostic gold standards, and in those areas of diagnosis without such a standard, the identification of and response to error will continue to be heavily influenced by hindsight bias and subjective opinion. The pathologist, like other physicians, has limited options to "make things right" following a significant error The silver lining is that many errors have the potential to prompt changes that will prevent future patient harm. Unfortunately, a dysfunctional legal system that values punishment and transfer of assets over future improvements in health care has wrung much of the positive potential out of error, leaving only the damaged patient and damaged pathologist. PMID:11993701

  6. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  7. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  8. Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lopes, M. Beatriz S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  9. Pathological Gambling: Biological and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Topf, Jocelyn L.; Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is categorized as an impulse control disorder (ICD). Phenomenological, neurobiological and pharmacological data suggest similarities in the pathophysiologies of substance use disorders (SUDs) and PG. Both behavioral and pharmacological approaches, including those that have been empirically validated for SUDs, have shown promise in the treatment of PG. Findings from biological studies of PG are reviewed, and treatment approaches based on controlled studies are summarized. PMID:20161094

  10. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

    1994-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

  11. ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professor in Pathology The Department of Pathology and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality basic science research-eligible in Clinical Pathology or Anatomic Pathology/Clinical Pathology, are encouraged to apply. The successful

  12. Common Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

    A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

  13. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Gates, Vanessa [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Nayar, Ritu [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology (United States); Wang, Ed [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.ed [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2010-12-15

    To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa ({kappa}) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have {>=}85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The {kappa} coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis.

  14. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms.

    PubMed

    Macanovic, M; Gangidi, S; Porter, G; Brown, S; Courtney, D; Porter, J

    2010-10-01

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions. PMID:20797471

  15. Natural pathology of the Baboon (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Malapati, Adinarayana R.; Owston, Michael A.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Baboons are useful animal models for biomedical research, but the natural pathology of the baboon is not as well defined as other non-human primates. Methods A computer search for all morphologic diagnoses from baboon necropsies at the Southwest National Primate Research Center was performed and included all the natural deaths and animals euthanized for natural causes. Results A total of 10,883 macroscopic or microscopic morphologic diagnoses in 4297 baboons were documented and are presented by total incidence, relative incidence by sex and age-group, and mean age of occurrence. The most common diagnoses in descending order of occurrence were hemorrhage, stillborn, amyloidosis, colitis, spondylosis, and pneumonia. The systems with the most diagnoses were the digestive, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and respiratory. Conclusion This extensive evaluation of the natural pathology of the baboon should be an invaluable biomedical research resource. PMID:21226714

  16. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Richard J; Balint, Peter V; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Filippucci, Emilio; Backhaus, Marina; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Sanchez, Esperanza Naredo; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Bruyn, George A W; Bruyn, George; Kane, David; O'Connor, Philip J; Manger, Bernhard; Joshua, Fred; Koski, Juhani; Grassi, Walter; Lassere, Marissa N D; Swen, Nanno; Kainberger, Franz; Klauser, Andrea; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Brown, Andrew K; Machold, Klaus P; Conaghan, Philip G

    2005-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis. PMID:16331793

  17. Recurrent pathological jealousy.

    PubMed

    Hollender, M H; Fishbein, J H

    1979-08-01

    A 36-year-old man suffered from pathological jealousy during three marriages. The episodes involving delusions of infidelity were usually preceded by premonitory symptoms. At first, the patient responded by discontinuing his medication (a phenothiazine) so that he might remain vigilant. Later he came to recognize the premonitory symptoms as signals indicating a need for help, and he would request hospitalization. In the periods between his marriages he was never troubled by feelings of jealousy. The chief determinant of delusions of infidelity in this instance, as in three reported by Docherty and Ellis, seemed to be exposure to the mother's extramarital sexual relations. This case, in which three different wives were subjected to the same pattern of behavior, would seem to be an exception to the rule that if marital problems occur both partners are responsible for creating them. PMID:469516

  18. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  19. Magnetic Resonance Image findings of Spinal Tuberclosis at first presentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal tuberculosis presents in various pathological patterns. The clinical presentation and often the management depend on exact pathological findings. Objective of study was to evaluate the Pathology of spinal tuberculosis as depicted by MRI findings in 119 consecutive cases of spinal TB. Methodology It was a cross sectional and observational study conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi from July 2010 to December 2012.Total numbers of participants were 119. Diagnosis was based on positive histopathology results along with the supportive evidence in MRI. A pre-structured questionnaire was constructed to record the data. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Sample size was calculated by using Open-EPI software. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result There were 119 patients who participated in this study out of which 52 were males and 67 were females. Most common level was Dorso-lumbar (33.6%) and 87.5% of them had spondylodiscitis while 90% had cord compression. All 6 (100%) patients who had their upper- dorsal region affected had gibbus formation while all those patients having lumbosacral region involved had thecal compression 4 (100%). Most common mode of treatment used in patients having Spinal TB at Lumbar region was conservative (86.2%). Conclusion MRI findings were mostly shadowed with features such as disc destruction and thecal or cord compression. MRI scan could be used for early detection of spinal TB which can reduce disability and deaths in patients. Major clinical findings in spinal TB were fever, Para paresis and back pain. PMID:24655918

  20. Tau immunotherapy modulates both pathological tau and upstream amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Guerrero-Muñoz, Marcos J; Sengupta, Urmi; Hernandez, Caterina; Barrett, Alan D T; Dineley, Kelly; Kayed, Rakez

    2015-03-25

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathological accumulation of tau appears to be a downstream effect of amyloid ? protein (A?). However, the relationship between these two proteins and memory loss is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the specific removal of pathological tau oligomers in aged Tg2576 mice by passive immunotherapy using tau oligomer-specific monoclonal antibody. Removal of tau oligomers reversed memory deficits and accelerated plaque deposition in the brain. Surprisingly, A?*56 levels decreased, suggesting a link between tau and A? oligomers in the promotion of cognitive decline. The results suggest that tau oligomerization is not only a consequence of A? pathology but also a critical mediator of the toxic effects observed afterward in AD. Overall, these findings support the potential of tau oligomers as a therapeutic target for AD. PMID:25810517

  1. Pathology Case Study: Girl in Coma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Najjar, Hazim

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 15-year-old girl found unresponsive near her bed. Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with laboratory findings, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  2. Pathology Dynamics Predict Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Secondary injury, the complex cascade of cellular events following spinal cord injury (SCI), is a major source of post-insult neuron death. Experimental work has focused on the details of individual factors or mechanisms that contribute to secondary injury, but little is known about the interactions among factors leading to the overall pathology dynamics that underlie its propagation. Prior hypotheses suggest that the pathology is dominated by interactions, with therapeutic success lying in combinations of neuroprotective treatments. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive, system-level characterization of the entire secondary injury process using a novel relational model methodology that aggregates the findings of ~250 experimental studies. Our quantitative examination of the overall pathology dynamics suggests that, while the pathology is initially dominated by “fire-like,” rate-dependent interactions, it quickly switches to a “flood-like,” accumulation-dependent process with contributing factors being largely independent. Our evaluation of ~20,000 potential single and combinatorial treatments indicates this flood-like pathology results in few highly influential factors at clinically realistic treatment time frames, with multi-factor treatments being merely additive rather than synergistic in reducing neuron death. Our findings give new fundamental insight into the understanding of the secondary injury pathology as a whole, provide direction for alternative therapeutic strategies, and suggest that ultimate success in treating SCI lies in the pursuit of pathology dynamics in addition to individually involved factors. PMID:19125684

  3. Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

    2012-01-20

    INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

  4. Fibrous lesions of the breast: imaging-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Neeti B; Knight, Thomas E; Pandey, Shilpa; Riddick-Young, Michelle; de Paredes, Ellen Shaw; Trivedi, Ami

    2005-01-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast are commonly seen in clinical practice. The masses are composed of a combination of prominent stroma and varying glandular elements. Fibroadenomas, benign lesions that derive from the terminal duct lobular unit, are the most common and are often identified at clinical examination or mammography as circumscribed masses. Benign mesenchymal tumors include focal fibrosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, and fibromatosis or desmoid tumor. Phyllodes tumor, which is similar to fibroadenoma but has increased cellularity in the stroma, is typically benign but has malignant potential. Diabetic fibrous mastopathy, a stromal proliferation found in patients with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes, is a reactive fibrous lesion. Most of these lesions manifest as masses at clinical and/or mammographic examination. Some (eg, fibroadenomas) may be associated with calcifications. Except for fibromatosis and phyllodes tumor, fibroepithelial lesions need not be excised if the diagnosis is confirmed by the results of histologic analysis at percutaneous biopsy. To correctly differentiate between fibrous breast lesions that are benign and those that should be resected, the physician must be familiar with the correlated radiologic-pathologic findings in the various lesion types. PMID:16284134

  5. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lu, Kuan-Ying; Hu, Ching-Chih; Huang, Wen-Hung; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution (P = 0.001), band and segmented cells (P = 0.021), and lymphoid cells (P = 0.029) than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78), and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3%) followed by respiratory failure (10%). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P = 0.001) and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P = 0.004) megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group), as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P = 0.011), were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:25802835

  6. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  7. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  8. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801

  9. Common pathobiochemical hallmarks of progranulin-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Götzl, Julia K; Mori, Kohji; Damme, Markus; Fellerer, Katrin; Tahirovic, Sabina; Kleinberger, Gernot; Janssens, Jonathan; van der Zee, Julie; Lang, Christina M; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Arzberger, Thomas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Haass, Christian; Capell, Anja

    2014-06-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene and the resulting reduction of GRN levels is a common genetic cause for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43. Recently, it has been shown that a complete GRN deficiency due to a homozygous GRN loss-of-function mutation causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disorder. These findings suggest that lysosomal dysfunction may also contribute to some extent to FTLD. Indeed, Grn(-/-) mice recapitulate not only pathobiochemical features of GRN-associated FTLD-TDP (FTLD-TDP/GRN), but also those which are characteristic for NCL and lysosomal impairment. In Grn(-/-) mice the lysosomal proteins cathepsin D (CTSD), LAMP (lysosomal-associated membrane protein) 1 and the NCL storage components saposin D and subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) were all found to be elevated. Moreover, these mice display increased levels of transmembrane protein (TMEM) 106B, a lysosomal protein known as a risk factor for FTLD-TDP pathology. In line with a potential pathological overlap of FTLD and NCL, Ctsd(-/-) mice, a model for NCL, show elevated levels of the FTLD-associated proteins GRN and TMEM106B. In addition, pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 occurs in Ctsd(-/-) mice to a similar extent as in Grn(-/-) mice. Consistent with these findings, some NCL patients accumulate pathologically phosphorylated TDP-43 within their brains. Based on these observations, we searched for pathological marker proteins, which are characteristic for NCL or lysosomal impairment in brains of FTLD-TDP/GRN patients. Strikingly, saposin D, SCMAS as well as the lysosomal proteins CTSD and LAMP1/2 are all elevated in patients with FTLD-TDP/GRN. Thus, our findings suggest that lysosomal storage disorders and GRN-associated FTLD may share common features. PMID:24619111

  10. Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Shortness of Breath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with worsening dyspnea and cough for 8 months and new onset chest pain. Visitors are given patient history, immunohistochemistry, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pushkar, Irina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Right Upper Quadrant Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorvault, Christine

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a two-year-old white female was seen for a routine well child exam. On physical examination, a right upper quadrant mass was palpable. The case study provides radiologic findings, gross description and microscopic description in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  16. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  17. Platelet parameters in healthy and pathological pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maconi, Mariacaterina; Cardaropoli, Simona; Cenci, A M

    2012-01-01

    Changes in platelet count (PLT) are very important during pregnancy. Many platelet disorders occur during pregnancy and a reduction in PLT is the most common hemostasis abnormality identified, and this has important implications for mother and foetus. Many of these disorders share clinical and laboratory features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals of platelet parameters for some of the more important pathologies associated to pregnancy (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, autoimmune disorders, viral infections) using the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XE-2100 and to evaluate the difference between healthy and pathological pregnancy. We enrolled in our study 100 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The parameters analyzed included PLT, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume (MPV). We found statistically significant difference in PLT in pre-eclampsia, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Our results demonstrated also a statistically significant difference in MPV in pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. Our results allow the clinicians to detect hematologic change by simple complete blood count useful for the management of the pathological pregnancies. In conclusion, the overall picture of platelet disorders is extremely variegated, leading to numerous diagnostic and therapeutic problems whose solutions require close collaboration between clinicians and laboratory specialists. PMID:24833533

  18. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus ? Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

  19. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  20. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  1. Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christakos, Peter

    This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  2. Pathology of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Colby, Thomas V

    2015-08-01

    Pathologists are frequently involved in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis on conventional biopsies or examining bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and assisting bronchoscopists when performing bronchial or transbronchial biopsies or transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)/endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided biopsies of enlarged lymph nodes. Histology generally does not pose difficult tasks in the correct clinical and imaging scenario, but atypical forms of sarcoidosis exist, and in these cases, the diagnosis may become difficult. When faced with granulomas in the lung, the evaluation of their qualitative features, anatomic distribution, and accompanying findings usually allows the pathologist to narrow considerably the differential diagnosis. The final diagnosis always requires the careful integration of the histology with the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. How robust is the histologic component of the diagnosis varies from case to case, and the pathologist should always clearly discuss this point with the clinician; in general, the weaker the histology is, the stronger should be the clinical-radiologic findings, and vice versa. The differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis includes granulomatous infections, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, several collagen vascular diseases (particularly Sjögren), drug reactions, chronic aspiration, and even diffuse fibrosing diseases. In this review, conventional and unusual histologic findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis are presented, highlighting the role of the pathologist and discussing the main differential diagnoses. PMID:25762348

  3. Clinical rotation in pathology: description of a case based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, J; Wasserman, E; Mansvelt, E; Meyer, C; van Zyl, G; Orth, H; Els, A

    2006-01-01

    Background The implementation of a system based, integrated curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences of Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, resulted in less contact time for the pathology disciplines during theoretical modules, while a weekly rotation in pathology was introduced during clinical training in the fourth and fifth years. Objective To describe a problem based approach for this rotation. Methods Students are presented with a clinical “paper” case daily, integrating as many of the pathology disciplines as possible to demonstrate the interdependence of the various disciplines. They receive chemical pathology tutorials, visit the various laboratories, and receive practical training in fine needle aspiration biopsy. On the final day, the case studies are assessed and discussed. Results Most students appreciated all activities. This rotation enhanced student interactivity and autonomy and guaranteed immediate feedback. On evaluation of the rotation it was found that the students enjoyed the rotation, learnt something new, and realised the value of group work. Conclusions This innovation integrates pathology with clinical practice and illustrates the use of laboratory medicine in the management of common diseases seen in this country. Students appreciate learning practical skills and having to request special investigations under a pathologist's supervision changes their approach to pathology requests. Familiarity with the pathology environment empowers the student to use pathology with greater ease. A bank of case studies that can be expanded to include all medical disciplines will facilitate the application of a problem based approach and enhance communication between the basic science disciplines and the clinical and pathology disciplines. PMID:16489182

  4. Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine "The Challenge patient journeys Display: Real time diagnostics in surgery and molecular pathology approaches that have potential to be disruptive healthcare tools Proudly sponsored by the Department of Pathology & Laboratory

  5. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  7. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  8. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  9. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  10. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of proficiency...

  11. Daily Tobacco Smoking in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers: Clinical Correlates and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco smoking and pathological gambling (PG) frequently co-occur. Little is known, however, about the clinical correlates and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with and without daily tobacco smoking. Methods Among a sample of 465 consecutive treatment-seeking subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with daily tobacco smoking were compared to those without daily tobacco smoking on measures of gambling symptom severity (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling [PG-YBOCS]), types of gambling, social and legal problems, and co-occurring disorders. Results Two hundred and nine (44.9%) of the 465 subjects with PG reported current daily tobacco smoking. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking as compared to those without had higher SOGS scores, had more severe PG-YBOCS behavior scores, endorsed more DSM-IV PG criteria, lost more money gambling, and were more likely to engage in non-strategic gambling, and were less likely to have a co-occurring mood disorder. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking and a current substance use disorder reported a greater percentage of income lost to gambling during the past year. Conclusions Daily tobacco smoking in PG is common and associated with multiple important clinical features including more severe gambling and financial problems. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers with daily tobacco smoking might need unique or enhanced treatment strategies. PMID:19690628

  12. Relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis – insights from pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ranjan; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW The predominant clinical disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS) starts with reversible episodes of neurological disability, which transforms into progressive neurological decline. This review provides insight into the pathological differences during relapsing and progressive phases of MS. RECENT FINDINGS The clinical course of MS is variable and the disease can be classified into relapsing and progressive phases. Pathological studies have been successful in distinguishing between these two forms of the disease and correlate with the clinical findings in terms of cellular responses, the inflammatory environment, and the location of lesions. SUMMARY Available therapies for MS patients, while effective during the relapsing phase, have little benefit for progressive MS patients. Development of therapies to benefit progressive MS patients will require a better understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive MS. This review discusses and compares the pathological findings in relapsing and progressive MS patients. PMID:24722325

  13. Influence of APOE genotype and the presence of Alzheimer's pathology on synaptic membrane lipids of human brains.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Naoto; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-01

    The APOE genotype is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it remains unclarified how the ?4 allele accelerates whereas the ?2 allele suppresses AD development, compared with the more common ?3 allele. On the basis of the previous finding that the assembly of the amyloid-? protein (A?) into fibrils in the brain, an early and invariable pathological feature of AD, depends on the lipid environment, we determined the levels of synaptic membrane lipids in aged individuals of different APOE genotypes. In the comparison between amyloid-free ?2/?3 and ?3/?3 brains, the presence of the ?2 allele significantly decreased the level of cholesterol. Alternatively, in the comparison among ?3/?3 brains, the presence of AD pathology substantially decreased the levels of cholesterol. This study suggests that the ?2 allele suppresses the initiation of AD development by lowering the cholesterol levels in synaptic membranes. PMID:24446209

  14. The pathology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Vanderwinden; Hao Liu; Roberte Menu; Jean-Louis Conreur; Marc-Henri De Laet; Jean-Jacques Vanderhaeghen

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common surgical affection of unknown etiology. The muscular hypertrophy is known to resolve within a few months after pyloromyotomy (PM). The pathology of IHPS has been studied extensively at the time of PM, but the fate of the pylorus after healing remains unknown. Materials and Methods: We had the rare opportunity to

  15. Towards a sensing system for quantification of pathological tremor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Widjaja; C. Y. Shee; W. L. Au; P. Poignet; W. T. Ang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a sensing system is proposed to quantify pathological tremor in human upper limb. Tremor is the most common movement disorder, defined as the involuntary rhythmic or semi rhythmic body part oscillation resulting from simultaneous alternating antagonistic muscle group contractions. Patients with tremor face difficulty doing simple things like inserting a key to a keyhole, social embarrassment and

  16. DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, neuropathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology

  17. DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    DIRECTOR OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY In this position, the selected candidate will have major responsibility for all of surgical pathology diagnostic services including gynecologic pathology, renal pathology, uropathology and general surgical pathology. The Stanford Department of Pathology provides diagnostic services

  18. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  19. Pathology Case Study: Post-operative bleeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kiss, Joseph

    This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves an 83-year-old woman with post-operative bleeding and anemia. Laboratory values are provided in Table 1. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings in a Splenic Lymphangioma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ting; Kuang, Anren

    2015-07-01

    A 16-year-old girl with abdominal pain for 3 years underwent FDG PET/CT scan for evaluating identifiable origin. The images showed multifocal, subcapsular thin-walled low-attenuation masses on CT and focal, slight increased F-FDG uptake on PET with an SUVmax of 3.0. Based on the findings, malignancy cannot be excluded. Then, pathologic examination was performed, and it was identified to be splenic lymphangioma. We herein presented the FDG PET/CT findings of this splenic lymphangioma, which is a rare benign vascular tumor and commonly caused by congenital malformation of the lymphatic vessels. PMID:26018722

  1. Extracting Structured Information from Free Text Pathology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Schadow, Gunther; McDonald, Clement J.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a method that extracts structured information about specimens and their related findings in free-text surgical pathology reports. Our method uses regular expressions that drive a state-automaton on top of XSLT and Java. Text fragments identified are coded against the UMLS®. This paper describes the technical approach and reports on a preliminary evaluation study, designed to guide further development. We found that of 275 reviewed reports, 91% were coded at least so that all specimens and their critical pathologic findings were represented in codes. PMID:14728240

  2. The distribution of cancer specimens from two pathology centres in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, A; Pickering, J L

    1992-01-01

    A relative frequency study of cancers in Ethiopia was conducted using pathology data from two major Ethiopian pathology centres. The cancer distribution is similar to that described in other East African countries. Carcinomas of the cervix and breast are the most common biopsied cancers in women. Lymphatic cancer and soft tissue sarcomas are the commonest biopsied cancers in men. PMID:1563358

  3. MOLECULAR IMAGING OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Kejal

    2014-01-01

    Development of molecular imaging agents for fibrillar ?–amyloid (A?) positron emission tomography (PET) during the last decade brought molecular imaging of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology into the spotlight. Large cohort studies with longitudinal follow-up in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment and AD patients indicate that A? deposition can be detected many years before the onset of symptoms with molecular imaging and its progression can be followed longitudinally. The utility of A? PET in differential diagnosis of AD is greatest when there is no pathologic overlap between the two dementia syndromes such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and AD. However A? PET alone may be insufficient in distinguishing dementia syndromes that commonly have overlapping A? pathology, such as dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia, which represent the two most common dementia pathologies after AD. The role of molecular imaging in AD clinical trials is growing rapidly especially in an era when preventive interventions are designed towards eradicating the pathology targeted by molecular imaging agents. PMID:24503555

  4. Personalized cancer medicine and the future of pathology.

    PubMed

    Moch, H; Blank, P R; Dietel, M; Elmberger, G; Kerr, K M; Palacios, J; Penault-Llorca, F; Rossi, G; Szucs, T D

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, a group of pathologists from different departments in Europe met in Zurich, Switzerland, to discuss opportunities and challenges for pathology in the era of personalized medicine. The major topics of the meeting were assessment of the role of pathology in personalized medicine, its future profile among other biomedical disciplines with an interest in personalized medicine as well as the evolution of companion diagnostics. The relevance of novel technologies for genome analysis in clinical practice was discussed. The participants recognize that there should be more initiatives taken by the pathology community in companion diagnostics and in the emerging field of next-generation sequencing and whole genome analysis. The common view of the participants was that the pathology community has to be mobilized for stronger engagement in the future of personalized medicine. Pathologists should be aware of the challenges and the analytical opportunities of the new technologies. Challenges of clinical trial design as well as insurance and reimbursement questions were addressed. The pathology community has the responsibility to lead medical colleagues into embracing this new area of genomic medicine. Without this effort, the discipline of pathology risks losing its key position in molecular tissue diagnostics. PMID:22143935

  5. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10–1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98–1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  6. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  7. Perception testing in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Berbaum, K S; Platz, C

    1988-10-01

    A test predictive of mature pathologic expertise could be of great value in the selection of individuals entering the field. Some individuals may have an aptitude superior to others to discriminate images based on the discovery of distinctive image features. This may enhance their ability to draw pathologic conclusions from clinical images and may favorably affect their performance as pathologists. A form of the Facial Recognition Test was administered to pathology residents and faculty to test this hypothesis. Facial recognition results correlated well with resident performance measured by overall faculty ratings, but only marginally with performance measured by scores on "direct recognition" slides of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists' in-service pathology exams. These preliminary results indicate that testing of visual discrimination may be predictive of resident performance in pathology. A test of this type could eventually be useful in selection and self selection of resident candidates and in development of remedial training for residents experiencing difficulty in learning morphologic interpretation. PMID:3169722

  8. ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: Tenure track assistant professors in Pathology The Department of Pathology related to molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease. The Department of Pathology supports high quality of the Department of Pathology. Applicants must have a Ph.D., M.D., or M.D./Ph.D. degree. Applicants who are board

  9. ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL SPEECH PATHOLOGY HONOURS RESEARCH MINICONFERENCE 2012 Every year the Speech Pathology CRICOSProviderCode00301J(WA),02637B(NSW) All interested are welcome. This invitation extends to Speech Pathology.Yuen@curtin.edu.au Telephone +61 8 9266 7984 or visit psych.curtin.edu.au School of Psychology & Speech Pathology Monday 15th

  10. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  11. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day. PMID:24590540

  12. Placental pathology in fetal bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Parkash, Vinita

    2002-01-01

    Bartter syndrome, which presents clinically with polyuria, urinary potassium loss, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, and alkalosis, is an autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in genes encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, the chloride channel CLC-NKB, and the potassium channel ROMK. Prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome is now possible; however, there are no reports of the placental pathology associated with fetal Bartter syndrome. We present the placental pathologic findings in two siblings with fetal Bartter syndrome. Both pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and preterm delivery. The first pregnancy delivered at 30 weeks, and Bartter syndrome was diagnosed in the perinatal period. The subsequent pregnancy required periodic therapeutic amniocentesis secondary to massive polyhydramnios and delivered at 32 weeks gestation. The suspicion of fetal Bartter syndrome was very high in this second pregnancy, and the infant was confirmed to have Bartter syndrome subsequently. Both placentas were large for gestational age, weighing greater than the 95th percentile. Microscopic examination showed extensive subtrophoblastic basement membrane mineralization (special stains positive for iron and calcium) in the chorionic villi. This striking finding was present in both placentas. Subtrophoblastic mineralization has been described in the literature in placentas of fetuses with abnormalities including anencephaly, trisomy 21, and other congenital abnormalities; however, it has also been described in normal pregnancies. Mechanisms of calcification in the placenta are not well understood, but these striking cases suggest that defects in fetal renal excretion of ions can lead to dystrophic calcification within the placenta, particularly in a subtrophoblastic pattern. PMID:11815871

  13. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the ?-?-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent shrinkage greatly compared to the standard antioxidant vitamin E, %shrinkage at 11.6 ±1.3 for hydroquinone and 27.8 ±2.2 for vitamin E, P = .001. Conclusion Free radicals crosslinked unsaturated lipid fatty acids into thermoset polymers through Fenton reactions when combined with acrolein. Further, hydroquinone was a superior antioxidant to vitamin E. PMID:25909053

  14. Common cold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124

  15. Finding trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Morris; Kobus Barnard

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical learning approach for finding recreational trails in aerial images. While the problem of recognizing relatively straight and well defined roadways in digital images has been well studied in the literature, the more difficult problem of extracting trails has received no attention. However, trails and rough roads are less likely to be adequately mapped, and change more

  16. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Becich, Michael J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ejadi, Samuel

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hardy, Hunter T.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowler, Jason C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DeFrances, Marie C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Skin Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Holst, Valerie

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman with uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma with focal squamous differentiation arising in complex atypical hyperplasia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  6. Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangheng Dong; Qilin Lu; Hui Zhou; Xuan Zhao; Jeremy Miles

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the roles of pathological disorders in Internet addiction disorder and identify the pathological problems in IAD, as well as explore the mental status of Internet addicts prior to addiction, including the pathological traits that may trigger Internet addiction disorder.Methods and Findings59 students were measured by Symptom CheckList-90 before and after they became addicted to the

  7. Pathology Case Study: HIV Positive Man Died Following Bleeding from Mouth and Nose

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aronica, Patricia

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. This autopsy pathology case provides the patient history, gross and microscopic description and final diagnosis of an HIV positive male. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  8. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

  9. Diagnostic difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, R K; Odze, R D

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes some of the common diagnostic problems encountered by pathologists when evaluating patients with chronic colitis and in whom inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either suspected or within the differential diagnosis. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) show characteristic, but non-specific, pathological features that may overlap and result in a diagnosis of 'indeterminate colitis' (IC). However, other reasons why pathologists may entertain a diagnosis of IC include failure to recognize or accept certain 'hardcore' histological features as indicative of CD, an attempt to classify cases of chronic colitis based on mucosal biopsy material or in the absence of adequate clinical and radiographic information, and the presence of other disease processes that mask, or mimic, IBD. In addition, some cases of UC may show unusual CD-like features, such as discontinuous or patchy disease, ileal inflammation, extracolonic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation in response to ruptured crypts, aphthous ulcers, or transmural inflammation. Furthermore, other forms of colitis, such as microscopic colitis, diverticulitis and diversion colitis may, on occasion, also show IBD-like changes. The clinical and pathological features that aid in the distinction between these entities, and others, are covered in detail in this review. PMID:16405661

  10. Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Robert Young, MD. The rich history of pathology at the Massachusetts General. This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view

  11. katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology

    E-print Network

    katherine henderson Pathology Slide Scanning rev1 Page 1 10/21/14 Scanning in Pathology Pathology and multi-function printers, which also allow scanning. Whole Slide Scanning for Virtual Pathology: Use be dropped off in Surgpath Available Spectrum Server/ Pathology Digital Slide Collection Use Path course

  12. Congenital myotonic dystrophy can show congenital fiber type disproportion pathology.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kayo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goto, Kanako; Minami, Narihiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Nonaka, Ikuya; Miki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-04-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is associated with markedly expanded CTG repeats in DMPK. The presence of numerous immature fibers with peripheral halo is a characteristic feature of CDM muscles together with hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. Smaller type 1 fibers with no structural abnormality are a definitive criterion of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Nonetheless, we recently came across a patient who was genetically confirmed as CDM, but had been earlier diagnosed as CFTD when he was an infant. In this study, we performed clinical, pathological, and genetic analyses in infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD to evaluate CDM patients indistinguishable from CFTD. We examined CTG repeat expansion in DMPK in 28 infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD. Mutation screening of ACTA1 and TPM3 was performed, and we compared clinical and pathological findings of 20 CDM patients with those of the other cohorts. We identified four (14%) patients with CTG expansion in DMPK. ACTA1 mutation was identified in four (14%), and TPM3 mutation was found in two (7%) patients. Fiber size disproportion was more prominent in patients with ACTA1 or TPM3 mutations as compared to CFTD patients with CTG expansion. A further three patients among 20 CDM patients showed pathological findings similar to CFTD. From our results, CDM should be excluded in CFTD patients. PMID:20179953

  13. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: correlation of radiographic and pathological observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Tuchman; L. A. Alvarez; A. B. Kantrowitz; F. G. Moser; J. Llena; S. L. Moshe

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuroradiological studies indicated a lesion in the cerebellar vermis. A cerebellar biopsy revealed changes consisting of Purkinje and granular cell loss with gliosis. This case report documents the correlation of radiologic and pathological findings in a patient with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

  14. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (CA)); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  15. Pathological non-response to chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting of breast cancer: an inter-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Balmativola, D; Marchiò, C; Maule, M; Chiusa, L; Annaratone, L; Maletta, F; Montemurro, F; Kulka, J; Figueiredo, P; Varga, Z; Liepniece-Karele, I; Cserni, G; Arkoumani, E; Amendoeira, I; Callagy, G; Reiner-Concin, A; Cordoba, A; Bianchi, S; Decker, T; Gläser, D; Focke, C; van Diest, P; Grabau, D; Lips, E; Wesseling, J; Arisio, R; Medico, E; Wells, C; Sapino, A

    2014-12-01

    To identify markers of non-response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) that could be used in the adjuvant setting. Sixteen pathologists of the European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology reviewed the core biopsies of breast cancers treated with NAC and recorded the clinico-pathological findings (histological type and grade; estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER2 status; Ki67; mitotic count; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; necrosis) and data regarding the pathological response in corresponding surgical resection specimens. Analyses were carried out in a cohort of 490 cases by comparing the groups of patients showing pathological complete response (pCR) and partial response (pPR) with the group of non-responders (pathological non-response: pNR). Among other parameters, the lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were significantly more common in pNR (p < 0.001). By ROC curve analyses, cut-off values of 9 mitosis/2 mm(2) and 18% of Ki67-positive cells best discriminated the pNR and pCR + pPR categories (p = 0.018 and < 0.001, respectively). By multivariable analysis, only the cut-off value of 9 mitosis discriminated the different response categories (p = 0.036) in the entire cohort. In the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, a mitotic count <9, although not statistically significant, showed an OR of 2.7 of pNR. A lobular histotype and the absence of inflammation were independent predictors of pNR (p = 0.024 and <0.001, respectively). Classical morphological parameters, such as lobular histotype and inflammation, confirmed their predictive value in response to NAC, particularly in the Luminal B/HER2- subgroup, which is a challenging breast cancer subtype from a therapeutic point of view. Mitotic count could represent an additional marker but has a poor positive predictive value. PMID:25395316

  16. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  17. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  18. Career Opportunities in The Intersociety Committee on Pathology Information, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    · Lung #12;Pathology Specialties (Fellowship Training) Mixed Specialties: · Forensic Pathology academic department in U.S. has a vacancy (130 medical schools; 155 training programs) · PathologyCareer Opportunities in PATHOLOGY The Intersociety Committee on Pathology Information, Inc. #12

  19. 1H MR SPECTROSCOPY IN COMMON DEMENTIAS

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Kejal; Petersen, Ronald C.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Tang-Wai, David F.; O'Brien, Peter C.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Edland, Steven D.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the 1H MR spectroscopic (MRS) findings and inter-group differences among common dementias: Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Methods We consecutively recruited 206 normal elderly, 121 patients with AD, 41 with FTLD, 20 with DLB, and 8 with VaD. We evaluated the 1H MRS metabolite ratio changes in common dementias with respect to normal, and also differences among the common dementias. Results N-acetylaspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was lower than normal in patients with AD, FTLD, and VaD. Myo-inositol (mI)/Cr was higher than normal in patients with AD and FTLD. Choline (Cho)/Cr was higher than normal in patients with, AD, FTLD, and DLB. There were no metabolite differences between patients with AD and FTLD, nor between patients with DLB and VaD. NAA /Cr was lower in patients with AD and FTLD than DLB. MI /Cr was higher in patients with AD and FTLD than VaD. MI /Cr was also higher in patients with FTLD than DLB. Conclusions NAA/Cr levels are decreased in dementias that are characterized by neuron loss such as AD, FTLD, and VaD. MI/Cr levels are elevated in dementias that are pathologically characterized by gliosis such as AD and FTLD. Cho/Cr levels are elevated in dementias that are characterized by a profound cholinergic deficit such as AD and DLB. PMID:15505154

  20. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  1. Total claviculectomy for pathological fractures.

    PubMed

    Spar, I

    1977-01-01

    Two patients with pathological fractures of the clavicle were treated by total claviculectomy with relief of symptoms. Subsequent drooping of the shoulder with mild weakness of the affected upper extremity seems related to the loss of normal arcuate shoulder motion that is dependent upon the yardarm function of the clavicle. PMID:608283

  2. Central mechanisms of pathological pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Kuner

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

  3. Normal versus pathological voice signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVERTHON S. FONSECA; JOS E C. PEREIRA

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a method to analyze the time-frequency characteristics to distinguish pathological voices from patients with Reinke's edema and nodules in vocal folds was developed. Daubechies discrete wavelet transform (DWT) components of approximation and detail in convenient scales of frequency for different voice signals were used to analyze the time-frequency signal characteristics. In this work, 71 voice signals were

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Journal of Pathology

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 2 Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3 Medical Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 5 Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

  5. Three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas: a 13-year surgical pathology review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of adrenal incidentalomas due to the widespread use of sophisticated abdominal imaging techniques has resulted in an increasing trend of adrenal gland specimens being received in the pathology laboratory. In this context, we encountered three uncommon adrenal incidentalomas. The aim of this manuscript is to report in detail the three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas in the context of a 13-year retrospective surgical pathology review. Methods The three index cases were investigated and analyzed in detail with relevant review of the English literature as available in PubMed and Medline. A 13-year retrospective computer-based histopathological surgical review was conducted in our laboratory and the results were analyzed in the context of evidence-based literature on adrenal incidentalomas. Results A total of 94 adrenal specimens from incidentalomas were identified, accounting for 0.025% of all surgical pathology cases. In all 76.6% were benign and 23.4% were malignant. A total of 53 females (56.4%) and 41 males (43.6%) aged 4 to 85?years were identified. The benign lesions included cortical adenoma (43.1%), pheochromocytoma (29.3%) and inflammation/fibrosis/hemorrhage (8.3%). Metastatic neoplasms were the most common malignant lesions (50%) followed by primary adrenocortical carcinomas (31.8%) and neuroblastoma (13.6%). These cases were discovered as adrenal incidentalomas that led to surgical exploration. The three index cases of adrenal incidentalomas with unusual pathologies were encountered that included (a) adrenal ganglioneuroma, (b) periadrenal schwannoma and (c) primary adrenal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. These cases are discussed, with a literature and clinicopathological review. Conclusions Adrenal lesions are uncommon surgical specimens in the pathology laboratory. However, higher detection rates of adrenal incidentalomas aided by the ease of laparoscopic adrenalectomy has resulted in increased adrenal surgical specimens leading to unsuspected diagnostic and management dilemmas. Accurate pathological identification of common and uncommon adrenal incidentalomas is essential for optimal patient management. PMID:22540324

  6. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

  7. Pathological Gambling Among Youthful Multiple Substance Abusers in a Therapeutic Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY R. LESIEUR; MARY HEINEMAN

    1988-01-01

    Summary Patients in a therapeutic community were questioned about their gambling behavior in order to find out what percentage of them were pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (the SOGS) was used to screen the clients for gambling-related problems. Out of 100 residents tested, 14 were diagnosed as pathological gamblers and an additional 14 showed signs of problematic gambling.

  8. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26045858

  9. Pathology Case Study: Right Chest and Right Foot Masses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gharaibeh, Burhan

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 16-year-old woman has been admitted to the hospital with masses on her right foot and in her right chest. Visitors are given the patient history and cytogenetic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and cytogenetics.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Abnormal Preoperative RBC Type and Crossmatch Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 67-year-old woman has presented to the hospital for a radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma. Visitors are given the immuohematological findings, including patient charts, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  11. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  12. Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological dermis through polarization second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hong, Jin-Bon; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    We used polarization-resolved, second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy at single pixel resolution for medical diagnosis of pathological skin dermis, and found that P-SHG can be used to distinguish normal and dermal pathological conditions of keloid, morphea, and dermal elastolysis. We find that the histograms of the d33/d31 ratio for the pathological skins to contain two peak values and to be wider than that of the normal case, suggesting that the pathological dermal collagen fibers tend to be more structurally heterogeneous. Our work demonstrates that pixel-resolved, second-order susceptibility microscopy is effective for detecting heterogeneity in spatial distribution of collagen fibers.

  13. Department of Pathology Medical Service Plan Clinical Pathology Coagulation Laboratory Patient Information Label

    E-print Network

    Dai, Yang

    Department of Pathology ­ Medical Service Plan Clinical Pathology ­ Coagulation Laboratory Patient or coagulopathy screen, interpretation and report 85396 Coagulation/fibrinolysis assay 85576-26 26, 91 Platelet

  14. Pathology of acute myocardial infarction with particular reference to occlusive coronary thrombi.

    PubMed Central

    Davies,, M J; Woolf, N; Robertson, W B

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the pathological findings in 500 cases of fatal acute myocardial infarction showed that in 469 this was localized to one transmural area of the left ventricle; in 31 there was diffuse subendocardial necrosis. In the former occlusive coronary thrombus was found in the related artery in 95 per cent of cases. Variation in the percentage of occlusions found was noted between different prosectors and when coronary artery calcification was present. Only 4 of the 31 patients with subendocardial necrosis had recent occlusion; triple vessel disease was common in this group suggesting general failure of coronary perfusion. It is essential in necropsy studies of the relation of coronary thrombosis to myocardial infarction to be sure that muscle necrosis is present, to distinguish the two forms of myocardial necrosis, and to employ a meticulous dissection technique with decalcification of the arteries when necessary. PMID:973888

  15. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients?pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients?>?40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. PMID:26021584

  16. Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during imaging performed for research: current legal and ethical implications

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Jackson, A; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Waldman, A D

    2010-01-01

    Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during research imaging are common and have important implications for study design and performance, particularly in the areas of informed consent, subjects' rights, clinical image analysis and disclosure. In this study, we aimed to determine current practice and regulations concerning information that should be given to research subjects when obtaining consent, reporting of research images, who should be informed about any incidental findings and the method of disclosure. We reviewed all UK, European and international humanitarian, legal and ethical agencies' guidance. We found that the guidance on what constitutes incidental pathology, how to recognise it and what to do about it is inconsistent between agencies, difficult to find and less complete in the UK than elsewhere. Where given, guidance states that volunteers should be informed during the consent process about how research images will be managed, whether a mechanism exists for identifying incidental findings, arrangements for their disclosure, the potential benefit or harm and therapeutic options. The effects of incidentally discovered pathology on the individual can be complex and far-reaching. Radiologist involvement in analysis of research images varies widely; many incidental findings might therefore go unrecognised. In conclusion, guidance on the management of research imaging is inconsistent, limited and does not address the interests of volunteers. Improved standards to guide management of research images and incidental findings are urgently required. PMID:20335427

  17. Focal liver lesions: MR imaging-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, C; Cioni, D; Donati, F; Lencioni, R

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance signal intensity of focal liver lesions is affected by numerous pathologic factors. Lesion histologic features, such as cellularity, vascularity, stromal component, and intratumoral necrosis or hemorrhage, strongly affect T1 and T2 relaxation times. Additionally, intracellular content of certain substances, such as glycogen, fat, melanin, iron, and copper, may also have a substantial role in determining MR signal behavior. In this review we discuss the correlations between MR imaging features and pathologic findings in benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Knowledge of imaging-pathology correlations greatly assist in charac terizing focal lesions. Moreover, in certain tumor histotypes, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, careful analysis of lesion signal intensity may help predict the degree of tumor differentiation. PMID:11519546

  18. Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, Nancy M.; Johnson, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographic-matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug-use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and two questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the first time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

  19. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-01-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  20. Optical diagnostics of liver pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2003-10-01

    The applicability of reflectance spectroscopy to detect pathological changes in human liver tissue was investigated. Post mortem reflectance spectra were collected from liver tissue originating from 13 individuals. A point counting method was applied to determine relative areas of connective tissue, liver cells with or without fat vacuoles, and vascular spaces in the liver. Preliminary results show that the amount of fat and connective tissue in liver can be estimated from reflectance spectra.

  1. [Pathologic anatomy of large fetuses].

    PubMed

    Iakovtsova, A F; Grishchenko, V I; Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Sorokina, I V; Simacheva, A V

    1986-01-01

    A controlled clinicomorphological study of 170 big fetuses versus 70 medium body mass fetuses (controls) was performed with a special emphasis on the endocrine regulation in the functional system mother-placenta-fetus. Clinically, there was no evidence of mother's endocrine system pathology, though morphological studies (histological, histochemical, morphometric, immunofluorescent) revealed significant morphofunctional peculiarities of adenohypophysis, epiphysis, thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, endocrine apparatus of the pancreas and placenta in big fetuses in comparison with those in medium body mass fetuses. PMID:3800683

  2. Choroid plexus: biology and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Paulus

    2010-01-01

    The choroid plexus is an epithelial–endothelial vascular convolute within the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain.\\u000a It consists of epithelial cells, fenestrated blood vessels, and the stroma, dependent on various physiological or pathological\\u000a conditions, which may contain fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, granulocytes or other infiltrates, and a rich extracellular\\u000a matrix. The choroid plexus is mainly involved in the production of

  3. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  4. Forensic pathology and the autopsy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C S

    1984-06-01

    Questionnaires sent to representative medicolegal jurisdictions in the United States showed that medicolegal necropsies comprise a substantial proportion of the total number of autopsies performed. Qualitative differences between customary hospital autopsies and their forensic counterparts include autopsy bias, the importance of trauma, biological variability, and medicolegal logic. Because of these differences, medicolegal autopsies have an important role to play in the education of undergraduate and graduate medical students and should be incorporated into the training programs of academic departments of pathology. PMID:6547300

  5. Relapsing central and peripheral demyelinating diseases. Unusual pathologic features.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, S M; Ropper, A H; Dickersin, G R; Harris, N L; Ferry, J A; Richardson, E P

    1986-06-01

    We treated a patient who had a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy and a central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease. The unusual pathologic feature of dense infiltrates of atypical macrophages was observed in many areas of the brain; otherwise the process had several features in common with either multiple sclerosis or chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. The illness followed "swine-flu" inoculation; exacerbation followed pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:3013137

  6. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in alpers disease.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Raj P; Fligner, Corinne; Maghsoodi, Bita; Jaffe, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Alpers disease is a recessive mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in POLG1 and characterized primarily by progressive neurological and hepatic degeneration. Intestinal dysmotility is a frequent symptom, but it is often overshadowed by other clinical manifestations. The onset and progression of Alpers disease vary; however, most patients die during childhood, often before a specific diagnosis has been established. The gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology of 4 patients, obtained largely from postmortem specimens, showed distinctive eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in a subset of enteric ganglia and patchy atrophy of small intestinal muscularis externa. The cytoplasmic inclusions corresponded to abnormal mitochondria, which have been reported previously in another mitochondrial disorder (mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy) but not in Alpers disease. Recognition of these distinctive light microscopic findings, in an appropriate clinical setting, should prompt the evaluation of an underlying primary mitochondriopathy. PMID:21451360

  7. [Current medicolegal and ethical issues in pathology].

    PubMed

    Robienski, J; Hoppe, N

    2013-02-01

    The increase in density of information available in relation to patients and research participants, in particular in the context of genetic diagnostics and analysis, results in an increased potential for uncovering details which were unexpected but are of particular significance for the patient. Deciding how this information is dealt with and who is entitled to receive this information, is a medicolegal and ethical balancing act. Incidental findings and the challenges posed by the advent of personalised medicine are but two areas which increasingly impact medical disciplines that do not conventionally work directly with patients. Both areas raise questions of what is legally required and morally necessary. The authors briefly sketch these two areas and the medicolegal and ethical implications for diagnostics and research in pathology. PMID:23322303

  8. Pathology Case Study: Destructive Palate Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dacic, Sanja

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which examines " a 46-year-old HIV-positive man with a history of substance abuse who presented with a destructive palate lesion that eroded into nasal cavity and maxillary sinus." Visitors are given microscopic description, including images, as well as immunohistochemistry and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Parietal Lobe Lesion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolenc-Strazar, Zvezdana

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 15-year-old girl admitted to the hospital because of a seizure attack. Images from a CT scan and MRI, and microscopic results provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biernat, Wojciech

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, â??and a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâ?. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâ??s brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  11. Pathology Case Study: Arthralgia and Myalgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study a 35-year-old woman with a history of arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and myalgia is treated for progressive weakness, shortness of breath and a dry cough. Detailed observations examinations are available along with X-ray images and gross and microscopic descriptions of the patientâ??s condition. Clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ? link will take you to the patientâ??s official diagnosis and notes from the contributing doctors. Students in the health sciences will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Prolonged Oral Bleeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bontempo, Franklin

    This transfusion medicine case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 2-year-old boy presenting with prolonged oral bleeding. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of the patientâ??s physical exam, as well as lab test results and additional workup are all included in the case study. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Dementia with Motor Dysfunction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Spencer, David C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which a "77-year-old Hispanic-American man with a history of alcoholism and hepatitis C infection suffered severe bouts of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  15. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of musculoskeletal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas correlates the pathologic and radiologic features of a wide variety of lesions of the bone and soft tissue. Multiple imaging techniques are illustrated with an emphasis on plain radiographs. The author stresses the interpretation of radiographic images in terms of underlying pathology rather than as isolated images. Illustrations of plain radiographs and other radiographic imaging techniques are correlated with numerous micro- and macroscopic pathologic illustrations showing typical histologic and gross pathologic features.

  16. Axis II pathology in outpatients with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, P F

    1998-06-01

    Forty-two outpatients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and 16 outpatients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) were administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). DID patients manifested severe personality pathology (BR > 84) on a mean of 4.0 MCMI-II scales: avoidant (76%), self-defeating (68%), borderline (53%), and passive-aggressive (45%). DDNOS cases had severe personality pathology on fewer MCMI-II scales (mean = 1.69): avoidant (50%) and self-defeating (31%). The DID and DDNOS groups differed in their scores on the DES (means = 54.9 vs. 25.9), the PK-PTSD scale of the MMPI-2 (means = 33.6 vs. 21.7), and in the incidence of severe borderline pathology (53% vs. 6%). These data on personality pathology in DID patients are virtually identical to those of seven previous studies of personality pathology in chronic PTSD patients (i.e., avoidant, self-defeating, borderline, and passive-aggressive). Such robust convergence of findings supports the construct validity of DID as a form of posttraumatic disorder and suggests that there is a quite predictable personologic core to the clinical picture of severely traumatized individuals. PMID:9653419

  17. Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh.; Pirko, Istvan; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article summarizes the pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases and discusses neuropathologic studies that have yielded novel insights into potential mechanisms of demyelination. Recent Findings The pathologic hallmark of MS consists of focal demyelinated plaques within the CNS, with variable degrees of inflammation, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Active MS lesions show a profound pathologic heterogeneity with four major patterns of immunopathology, suggesting that the targets of injury and mechanisms of demyelination in MS may be different in different disease subgroups. Recent pathologic studies have suggested that the subarachnoid space and cortex may be initial sites and targets of the MS disease process, that inflammatory cortical demyelination is present early in MS, and that meningeal inflammation may drive cortical and white matter injury in some MS patients. Summary MS is heterogeneous with respect to clinical, genetic, radiographic, and pathologic features; surrogate MRI, clinical, genetic, serologic, and/or CSF markers for each of the four immunopatterns need to be developed in order to recognize them in the general nonbiopsied MS population. Inflammatory cortical demyelination is an important early event in the pathogenesis of MS and may be driven by meningeal inflammation. These observations stress the importance of developing imaging techniques able to capture early inflammatory cortical demyelination in order to better understand the disease pathogenesis and to determine the impact of potential disease-modifying therapies on the cortex. PMID:23917093

  18. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  19. Graduate Student SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    1 Graduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY P;2 Dear Prospective student: Welcome to the Program website for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Stephen F Austin State University. The field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology is concerned

  20. Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek

    E-print Network

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    1 Pathology in heuristic search Mitja Lustrek Jozef Stefan Institute Department of Intelligent, showed the opposite. This paradox was termed minimax pathology. Our real- valued minimax model demonstrates that appropriate modeling of the heuristic error is enough to eliminate the pathology. We examine

  1. DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES AND PLANT PATHOLOGY Montana State University Bozeman, MT Graduate and Plant Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 2 April 4, 2013 precedence over Pathology Graduate Student Policies & Procedures Page 3 April 4, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

  2. Undergraduate Student SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    Undergraduate Student Handbook SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PROGRAM STEPHEN F. AUSTIN STATE UNIVERSITY and Disorders Program #12;2 Contents SECTION PAGE 1.0 Speech-Language Pathology Program 4 1.1 History 4 1-Language-Hearing Association 27 #12;4 1.0 SFASU SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY PROGRAM 1.1 History The Speech

  3. DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    DIALETHEISM, SEMANTIC PATHOLOGY, AND THE OPEN PAIR Bradley Armour-Garb and James A. Woodbridge Over wish to address the dialetheist's treatment of cases of semantic pathology and to pose a worry, afflicting both consistent and inconsistent proposals for resolving semantic pathology. Thus, while our

  4. Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Unique, hands-on study programs for students, biochemistry, plant physiology and agronomy. Plant Pathology Option Most research projects in this option are problem-oriented and pertain to major plant pathological problems in the state. Current research projects

  5. Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Plant Pathology 290 Graduate Seminar Series Fall 2014 CRN: 57411 Mondays 9:00-10:00am 115 Hutchison Storer Seminar Speaker Professor, Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin-Madison Multi-gene copy number Detection of plant diseases by smell October 27 Jeremy Warren, PhD Candidate, Plant Pathology Exit Seminar

  6. Major diagnostic and pathological features of iniencephaly based on twenty-four cases.

    PubMed

    Joó, József Gábor; Beke, Artúr; Papp, Csaba; Szigeti, Zsanett; Csaba, Akos; Papp, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Iniencephaly is quite a rare malformation the etiology of which is still not fully understood. In the majority of cases it is a grave and lethal condition. It is often complicated by other abnormalities affecting the central nervous system (spina bifida, anencephaly), but malformations involving other organs and systems may also be observed. Based on 24 cases the authors have surveyed the diagnostics of iniencephaly with special regard to the disorders affecting the central and non-central nervous systems. In addition, they have compared the results of prenatal diagnostics and pathological investigations. In the sample, maternal age ranged between 17 and 42 (median 24) years. Positive obstetrical-gynecological and genetic findings in the patients' history have been reported in 4 and 2 cases, respectively. In these cases, the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) values ranged between 0.7 and 3.9 (median 2.0) MoM, while the amniotic fluid AFP values were between 0.9 and 2.7 (median 1.4) MoM. Spina bifida (50%) and anencephaly (42%) were the most commonly occurring complications affecting the central nervous system. Among the non-central nervous system disorders, malformations of the abdominal (omphalocele) and thoracic walls (diaphragmatic hernia) were found most frequently and the tendency to develop associated polyhydramnios was also very high (75%). Pathological investigations revealed developmental disorders such as cleft lip and palate, ventricular septal defect and facial dysmorphism, which are difficult to detect using ultrasonography. PMID:18504373

  7. Can the Follicle-Crown Ratio of the Impacted Third Molars be a Reliable Indicator of Pathologic Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Nosrati, Kamran; Abbaszadeh, Naghi; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Hakimeh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The presence of impacted third molars in the jaws is a common finding in the routine dental examination of patients. Concerning the odontogenic components of the dental follicle, it can be the origin of different types of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Purpose: The aim of this study was to find feasible radiographic criteria to help differentiate between normal and pathological dental follicles. Materials and Method: 134 asymptomatic impacted third molars were recruited in this study. Then, based on the radiographic measurements, the ratio between the diameter of the dental follicle and the mesiodistal width of the tooth crown was calculated. After surgical removal of impacted third molars, the related dental follicles were evaluated histopathologically. Statistical analyses were performed by adopting chi-square test, t-test, receiver oprating characteristic (ROC) curve, and logistic regression using SPSS-19 software. Results: The mean ratio of the dental follicle’s diameter to the mesiodistal width, in the normal and cystic follicle group was 1.18 ± 0.07 and 1.18 ± 0.08, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between this ratio and the histopathological evaluation. Based on the logistic regression analysis, only the age >20 years and inflammation had predictive value in identifying cystic changes in dental follicle. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, the ratio of dental follicle diameter to the mesiodistal width of the teeth cannot not be employed as a diagnostic index to differentiate between normal and pathological dental follicle. PMID:25469358

  8. Toxicologic Pathology, 33:441448, 2005 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    Toxicologic Pathology, 33:441­448, 2005 Copyright C by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology ISSN: 0192-6233 print / 1533-1601 online DOI: 10.1080/01926230590953097 Skeletal Pathology in White Storks of Veterinary Pathology, 2 Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada 3

  9. Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty appointments

    E-print Network

    Anatomic and Clinical Pathology PATH 422a. Faculty: Pathology Faculty with LSUHSC-NO Faculty: 1.) To become familiar with surgical pathology grossing technique and tissue sign-out procedures. 2 related to anatomic pathology including fine needle aspiration, autopsy, surgical specimen grossing

  10. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Background Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Methods Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Results Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). Conclusion EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology. PMID:24714761

  11. Bone Metastasis and Pathological Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A. McDuffee; Nigel Colterjohn; Gurmit Singh

    Bone metastasis commonly occurs in association with solid malignant tumors such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal cancers\\u000a (1–5). Thirty to seventy percent of cancer patients have skeletal metastasis (6), making the axial skeleton the third most common site for metastasis after lung and liver. Because all of these cancers\\u000a (breast, prostate, lung, and renal) are common, metastatic bone lesions

  12. High-resolution computed tomographic imaging and pathologic features of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: a review of three patients.

    PubMed

    Ozsoyoglu, Aliye A; Swartz, Justin; Farver, Carol F; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare and severe form of pulmonary hypertension that is often difficult to differentiate from primary pulmonary hypertension. Differentiating these two entities before medical treatment is critical, as therapy commonly indicated for patients with primary pulmonary hypertension can be harmful and even fatal in patients with PVOD. In the setting of known pulmonary hypertension, computed tomography findings that are highly suggestive of PVOD include extensive, patchy centrilobular ground-glass opacities, ill-defined nodular densities, and interlobular septal thickening. Definitive diagnosis requires lung biopsy, demonstrating fibrous obliteration of the pulmonary venules and small veins of the lobular septa, with secondary medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteries. The purpose of this article is to review reported radiographic clues to the diagnosis of PVOD, as well as to illustrate these high-resolution computed tomography findings along with pathologic correlation. PMID:17084237

  13. Pathology Case Study: Intraventricular Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Visitors are given admission data, CT scan images as well as microscopic description and images in order to provide the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Flank Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ohori, N. Paul

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man noticed a large and painful mass on his right flank. A previous mass had been removed surgically but developed a post- operation fever and related difficulties. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of clinical microbiology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bahler, David

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 17-year-old female has cervical lymphadenopathy. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  17. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional…

  18. World Deltas: Finding Common Ground Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

    E-print Network

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    Orleans #12;Climate Change Vulnerability Sustainability Resilience Safety Prosperity Biodiversity scientific community. · Focus and intensity of a global "Apollo Project" towards global sustainability #12

  19. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  20. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

  1. Finding Common Concerns for the Children We Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Mainstream education often misunderstands the ways that some rural black families display involvement in their children's lives. Teachers may tend to attribute children's academic struggles to what they perceived as a lack of care, concern, and involvement of the families. Such views could keep children from reaching and exceeding their…

  2. Morning, Midday Most Common Time for Babies' Arrival, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... typically occurred in the early morning -- after 1 a.m. "In general, these births have fewer interventions, and ... hospital births in 2013 occurred in the 8 a.m. hour, and another 6 percent at the noon ...

  3. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  4. 3-D Constraint-Based Modeling: Finding Common Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric N.

    1999-01-01

    Uses Shneiderman's Object-Action Interface model along with the engineering design process as a framework for understanding software interface elements. Provides an educational framework from which instructional materials can be developed. (Author/CCM)

  5. The role of septated concha bullosa on sinonasal pathologies.

    PubMed

    San, Turhan; San, Selma; Gürkan, Emre; Erdo?an, Bar??

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the possible role of septated concha bullosa on sinonasal pathologies. Paranasal sinus computerized tomography scans of patients with symptoms of headache, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction and smell disorders were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-eight subjects with unilateral septated concha bullosa and 13 subjects with unilateral concha bullosa without septation were selected as the study and control groups, respectively. Both groups were compared according to the presence of septal deviation and sinus pathology. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics (age and gender) between the groups. Sinus involvement was found in 20 patients (71.4 %) in the study group and in 10 patients (76.9 %) in the control group. The most common pathology accompanying septated concha bullosa was maxillary sinusitis (65 %), and ethmoid sinus was the second most involved sinus (25 %). Similar results in terms of sinus involvement were also seen in the control group. Septal deviation was seen in 18 patients in the study group (64.2 %) and in 12 patients in the control group (92.3 %). Eventually, there was no statistically significant difference between septated and non-septated concha bullosa groups according to the accompanying sinonasal pathologies. PMID:25091322

  6. THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Luo, Haoxiang

    THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY FACULTY AND STUDENT HANDBOOK: REQUIREMENTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Revised November, 2009 #12;Pathology Graduate ........................................................................................................ 4 Electives in the Department of Pathology

  7. ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ADVERTISEMENT: ASSISTANT, ASSOCIATE OR FULL PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY OF CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY LABORATORY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University. Candidates must be board certified in clinical pathology, anatomic pathology or both

  8. [Informed consent for aortic pathology].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients and their families before surgery, particularly for aortic pathology, is a necessary, and very important, step. This is because, although the risk of death from asymptomatic disease is underestimated in many cases, surgery for aortic pathology is generally associated with higher risks of mortality and morbidity than that in other fields. The importance of informed consent is the same in principle even in emergency cases. The surgeon must faithfully provide accurate medical information to the patient and family members, including a summary of the patient's condition, the purposes and necessity of treatment, alternatives, details of the procedure, risks, and possible postoperative complications. Extra consideration should be given to offering explanations at a level appropriate for the individual patient, according to factors such as age-group, philosophy, and comprehension ability, to ensure that patients fully understand and are in a position to make a decision of their own volition. The process of giving information and obtaining informed consent offers a prime opportunity to build a strong surgeon-patient relationship. PMID:25549434

  9. Patterns of Lymph Node Pathology; Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy as an Evaluation Tool for Lymphadenopathy: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Conducted at the Largest Hospital in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Denasha Lavanya; Venter, Willem Daniel Francois; Pather, Sugeshnee

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical presentation of disease in South Africa (SA), particularly in the era of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Methods Data from 560 lymph node biopsy reports of specimens from patients older than 12 years at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 was extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), division of Anatomical Pathology. Cytology reports of lymph node fine needle aspirates (FNAs) performed prior to lymph node biopsy in 203 patients were also extracted from the NHLS. Consent was not obtained from participants for their records to be used as patient information was anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis. Results The majority of patients were female (55%) and of the African/black racial group (90%). The median age of patients was 40 years (range12–94). The most common indication for biopsy was an uncertain diagnosis (more than two differential diagnoses entertained), followed by a suspicion for lymphoma, carcinoma and TB. Overall, malignancy constituted the largest biopsy pathology group (39%), with 36% of this group being carcinoma and 27% non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 22% of the total sampled nodes displayed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (including histopathology and cytology demonstrating definite, and suspicious for mycobacterial infection), 8% comprised HIV reactive nodes; in the remainder no specific pathology was identified (nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia). Kaposi sarcoma (KS) accounted for 2.5% of lymph node pathology in this sample. Concomitant lymph node pathology was diagnosed in four cases of nodal KS (29% of the subset). The co-existing pathologies were TB and Castleman disease. HIV positive patients constituted 49% of this study sample and the majority (64%) of this subset had CD4 counts less than 350 cells/ul. 27% were HIV negative and in the remaining nodes, the HIV status of patients was unknown. The most common lymph node pathologies in HIV positive patients were Mycobacterial infection (31%), HIV reactive nodes (15%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (15%) and nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (15%). Only 8.7% were of Hodgkin lymphoma. In contrast, the most common lymph node pathologies in HIV negative patients were nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (45%), carcinoma (25%) and Mycobacterial infection (11%). In this group, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma constituted 9% and 8%, respectively. There were more cases of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the HIV positive group compared to the HIV negative group. FNA and lymph node biopsy had statistically significant good agreement with regard to Hodgkin lymphoma (K 0.774, SE 0.07, 95% CI 0.606-0.882, p=0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (K 0.640, SE 0.07, 95% CI 0.472-0.807, p=0.001), carcinoma (K 0.723, SE 0.069, 95% CI 0.528-0.918, p=0.001), and mycobacterial infection (K 0.726, SE 0.07, 95% CI 0.618-0.833, p=0.001). Conclusions The most common lymph node pathologies in CHBAH are malignancies, nonspecific reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and HIV reactive nodes. The distribution of disease differs in HIV positive patients. Overall, adequate FNA samples of lymph nodes have been found to have good correlation with lymph node biopsy findings in our setting. PMID:26091519

  10. Pathology Case Study: Acute Leukemia, Nodular Skin Lesions and Splenomegaly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deal, Karen

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. In this case, a 22-year-old patient was diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia after receiving treatment for a rib injury. Gross and microscopic descriptions and images are provided along with molecular and immunohistologic information to aid in understanding the final diagnosis. In addition to the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section, the patientâ??s treatment plan is also included in the section titled "Therapy." Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  11. Theory of Mind in normal ageing and neurodegenerative pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jennifer; Després, Olivier; Sellal, François; Dufour, André

    2012-04-01

    This paper reviews findings in three subcomponents of social cognition (i.e., Theory of Mind, facial emotion recognition, empathy) during ageing. Changes over time in social cognition were evaluated in normal ageing and in patients with various neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Parkinson's disease. Findings suggest a decline in social cognition with normal ageing, a decline that is at least partially independent of a more general cognitive or executive decline. The investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies showing specific deficits in Theory of Mind in relation to damage to specific cerebral regions led us to suggest a neural network involved in Theory of Mind processes, namely a fronto-subcortical loop linking the basal ganglia to the regions of the frontal lobes. PMID:22186031

  12. Sinusitis in the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

  13. [Common obstetric practices in Niger].

    PubMed

    Vangeenderhuysen, C; Olivier de Sardan, J P; Moumouni, A; Souley, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe common practices and representations concerning pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care in Niger. We interviewed everyone involved in antenatal care and delivery in 12 villages. We describe here common practices for diagnosis of pregnancy, antenatal care, normal and problem deliveries and postnatal care. Our findings raise questions about maternal health policies in developing countries, which do not always fully take into account the requirements of the population. PMID:9794036

  14. Staging TDP-43 pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Keith A; Murray, Melissa E; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Parisi, Joseph E; Petrucelli, Leonard; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2014-03-01

    TDP-43 immunoreactivity occurs in 19-57 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. Two patterns of TDP-43 deposition in AD have been described involving hippocampus (limbic) or hippocampus and neocortex (diffuse), although focal amygdala involvement has been observed. In 195 AD cases with TDP-43, we investigated regional TDP-43 immunoreactivity with the aim of developing a TDP-43 in AD staging scheme. TDP-43 immunoreactivity was assessed in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, hippocampal dentate gyrus, occipitotemporal, inferior temporal and frontal cortices, and basal ganglia. Clinical, neuroimaging, genetic and pathological characteristics were assessed across stages. Five stages were identified: stage I showed scant-sparse TDP-43 in the amygdala only (17 %); stage II showed moderate-frequent amygdala TDP-43 with spread into entorhinal and subiculum (25 %); stage III showed further spread into dentate gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex (31 %); stage IV showed further spread into inferior temporal cortex (20 %); and stage V showed involvement of frontal cortex and basal ganglia (7 %). Cognition and medial temporal volumes differed across all stages and progression across stages correlated with worsening cognition and medial temporal volume loss. Compared to 147 AD patients without TDP-43, only the Boston Naming Test showed abnormalities in stage I. The findings demonstrate that TDP-43 deposition in AD progresses in a stereotypic manner that can be divided into five distinct topographic stages which are supported by correlations with clinical and neuroimaging features. Given these findings, we recommend sequential regional TDP-43 screening in AD beginning with the amygdala. PMID:24240737

  15. Symptomatic Rathke's Cleft Cysts: A Radiological, Surgical and Pathological Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Billeci; Elisabetta Marton; Massimo Tripodi; Enrico Orvieto; Pierluigi Longatti

    2004-01-01

    Rathke's cleft cyst is a non neoplastic lesion remnant of the Rathke's poutch. Symptomatic cysts must be surgically treated.\\u000a There are no specific neuroradiological features for this lesion. We present a series of 14 symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts\\u000a treated with transphenoidal endoscopic technique, and we correlate the MRI intensity images with the intraoperative findings,\\u000a the pathological analysis, the growth pattern

  16. REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubna Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

  17. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: imaging findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Han; M.-J. Kim; H.-K. Yoon; Jin Young Chung; Kyuchul Choeh

    2001-01-01

    Background. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney (RTK) is a rare tumour, but it is the most aggressive malignant neoplasm of the kidney in children.\\u000a Objective. To analyse the radiological findings of RTK in children. Materials and methods. The clinical and radiological findings in seven children (age range 6 months to 4.7 years; median 18 months) with pathologically\\u000a proven RTK were

  18. Laparoscopy in elective and emergency management of ovarian pathology in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Korlacki, Wojciech; Pasierbek, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ovaries are one of the most common locations of tumor masses in children. Some of them require surgery due to the risk of malignancy or necrosis. This organ seems to be ideal for the laparoscopic approach. Aim To evaluate the usefulness of laparoscopy in surgery of lesions located in the ovaries in patients under 18 years of age and assess the risk of changes in the ovaries in girls with acute abdominal symptoms. Material and methods Retrospective evaluation of hospital records of the period 1996–2012 from a single hospital was performed. 105 laparoscopic procedures of ovarian pathology in patients aged 0–18 (mean: 13.5) years were reviewed. The overall sample was divided into groups depending on the indication and mode of surgery. Group I: elective or emergency surgery, imaging findings of ovarian cysts bigger than 5 cm or causing pain. Group II: elective surgery, the ovarian tumor visible in imaging (solid mass or mixed). Group III: treatment for acute abdomen, without visible ovarian pathology in the preoperative imaging studies. Group IV: elective treatment of other indications, incidental finding. Results There were no deaths or major complications. There were no conversions. Average length of hospital stay after surgery was 2.5 days. The risk of appendicitis in patients referred for surgery due to ovarian cysts visualized in ultrasound, in the factual absence of ovarian pathology (false positive ultrasound), in the presented material was 5.2%. The risk of lesions in the ovaries in patients operated on due to acute abdominal pain, with no findings in the pre-operative ultrasound (false negative ultrasound), in the presented material was 7.4%. The risk of coexistence of changes in the ovaries with appendicitis found during the procedure due to acute abdominal pain in the study group was 6%. Conclusions The laparoscopic treatment for ovarian masses is safe and efficient. The risk of wrong preoperative diagnosis (ovary mass vs. appendicitis) is in any direction between 5 and 8%, which is a number large enough to be taken into consideration when surgical training and legislation is concerned. PMID:25097682

  19. Historical perspectives in clinical pathology: a history of glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Nareshni; Ngxamngxa, Unathi; Turzyniecka, Magdalena J; Pillay, Tahir S

    2015-04-01

    This is the second in the series of historical articles dealing with developments in clinical pathology. As one of the most commonly measured analytes in pathology, the assessment of glucose dates back to the time of the ancient Egyptians. It was only in the 19th century that advances in chemistry led to the identification of the sugar in urine being glucose. The following century witnessed the development of more chemical and enzymatic methods which became incorporated into the modern analysers and point-of-care instruments which are as ubiquitous as the modern day cellphones. Tracking the milestones in these developments shows the striking paradigms and the many parallels in the development of other clinical chemistry methods. PMID:25568429

  20. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kadish, Yael Adira

    2012-04-01

    A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

  1. Proteome analysis in thyroid pathology.

    PubMed

    Pagni, Fabio; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Bono, Francesca; Garancini, Mattia; Roversi, Gaia; De Sio, Gabriele; Galli, Manuel; Smith, Andrew James; Chinello, Clizia; Magni, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has continuously increased due to its detection in the preclinical stage. Clinical research in thyroid pathology is focusing on the development of new diagnostic tools to improve the stratification of nodules that have biological, practical and economic consequences on the management of patients. Several clinical questions related to thyroid carcinoma remain open and the use of proteomic research in the hunt for new targets with potential diagnostic applications has an important role in the solutions. Many different proteomic approaches are used to investigate thyroid lesions, including mass spectrometry profiling and imaging technologies. These approaches have been applied to different human tissues (cytological specimens, frozen sections, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue or Tissue Micro Arrays). Moreover, other specimens are used for biomarker discovery, such as cell lines and the secretome. Alternative approaches, such as metabolomics and lipidomics, are also used and integrated within proteomics. PMID:26132359

  2. Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

  3. Glomerular Disease: Looking beyond Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Roger C.; Alpers, Charles E.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; He, John C.; Salant, David J.; Chugh, Sumant S.; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A.; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases–supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796

  4. The history and pathology of crucifixion.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2003-12-01

    In antiquity crucifixion was considered one of the most brutal and shameful modes of death. Probably originating with the Assyrians and Babylonians, it was used systematically by the Persians in the 6th century BC. Alexander the Great brought it from there to the eastern Mediterranean countries in the 4th century BC, and the Phoenicians introduced it to Rome in the 3rd century BC. It was virtually never used in pre-Hellenic Greece. The Romans perfected crucifion for 500 years until it was abolished by Constantine I in the 4th century AD. Crucifixion in Roman times was applied mostly to slaves, disgraced soldiers, Christians and foreigners--only very rarely to Roman citizens. Death, usually after 6 hours--4 days, was due to multifactorial pathology: after-effects of compulsory scourging and maiming, haemorrhage and dehydration causing hypovolaemic shock and pain, but the most important factor was progressive asphyxia caused by impairment of respiratory movement. Resultant anoxaemia exaggerated hypovolaemic shock. Death was probably commonly precipitated by cardiac arrest, caused by vasovagal reflexes, initiated inter alia by severe anoxaemia, severe pain, body blows and breaking of the large bones. The attending Roman guards could only leave the site after the victim had died, and were known to precipitate death by means of deliberate fracturing of the tibia and/or fibula, spear stab wounds into the heart, sharp blows to the front of the chest, or a smoking fire built at the foot of the cross to asphyxiate the victim. PMID:14750495

  5. Medicolegal liability in pathology: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Wick, Mark R; Foucar, Elliott; Allen, Philip W; Alves, Venancio A F; Bjornsson, Johannes; Bosman, Fred; Churg, Andrew W; Drut, Ricardo; Foster, Christopher S; Hauptmann, Steffen; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Kuo, Tseng-tong; Matsubara, Osamu; Nappi, Oscar; Pervez, Shahid; Rosai, Juan; Sasano, Hironobu; Vielh, Philippe; Zelger, Bernhard

    2007-05-01

    An inevitable outcome of modern Medicine in any country is that some patients will experience adverse events, some of which would have been preventable. Different nations have developed various approaches to such cases; their legal efficacies are probably dissimilar and dependent on a number of disparate variables. An international "snapshot" of the results of the interacting forces can be obtained by asking physicians in several countries how they view selected subjective facets of their tort systems. In the U.S., many physicians view the structure of malpractice torts as unfair, and that belief is shared by at least some pathologists. The American Medical Association has declared that a multiregional malpractice "crisis" exists which raises medical costs and threatens access to care. Furthermore, malpractice tort decisions are often flawed scientifically because lay jurors and judges cannot properly evaluate the quality of "expert" testimony given by adversarial witnesses. Despite these factors, there has been little effort to investigate the views of pathologists on malpractice actions outside the U.S. In this paper, the authors have collected the responses of an international group of pathologists to a questionnaire on that topic. The respondents practice in academic centers in 15 countries outside the U.S. As expected, a range of views was represented, with some pathologists reporting that malpractice litigation was uncommon and others noting a worrisome trend toward its growth. Interestingly, so-called "defensive medicine" was found to be relatively common in pathology in many countries. PMID:17633348

  6. Pathology of captive moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    PubMed

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Cheng, Lily I; St Claire, Marisa E; Ward, Jerrold M; Elkins, William R

    2008-04-01

    The pathology of 33 moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) previously used in hepatitis A and GB virus studies is reported. Chronic lesions in colon, heart, and kidney were common in the monkeys and appeared not to be due to the experimental exposures. Colitis cystica profunda (CCP), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis was present in 22 (66.6%) animals, and various degrees of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis occurred in 28 (84.8%) monkeys. In addition, 28 (84.8%) tamarins demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation with mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, possibly as a result of the experimental infections, and peliosis hepatis occurred in 7 (21.2%) animals. The etiology of CCP is unknown, and no reliable animal models are available because most cases in animals are reported only sporadically. Myocardial fibrosis in tamarins has not been reported previously, and all current animal models require experimental manipulation of the animal to mimic the human disease. The results from this study suggest that captive S. mystax has high incidence of spontaneous CCP, myocardial fibrosis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This species may be a spontaneous animal model for pathogenesis and experimental therapy studies of the analogous human diseases. PMID:18524178

  7. Pathology of Captive Moustached Tamarins (Saguinus mystax)

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Cheng, Lily I; Claire, Marisa E St; Ward, Jerrold M; Elkins, William R

    2008-01-01

    The pathology of 33 moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) previously used in hepatitis A and GB virus studies is reported. Chronic lesions in colon, heart, and kidney were common in the monkeys and appeared not to be due to the experimental exposures. Colitis cystica profunda (CCP), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis was present in 22 (66.6%) animals, and various degrees of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis occurred in 28 (84.8%) monkeys. In addition, 28 (84.8%) tamarins demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation with mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, possibly as a result of the experimental infections, and peliosis hepatis occurred in 7 (21.2%) animals. The etiology of CCP is unknown, and no reliable animal models are available because most cases in animals are reported only sporadically. Myocardial fibrosis in tamarins has not been reported previously, and all current animal models require experimental manipulation of the animal to mimic the human disease. The results from this study suggest that captive S. mystax has high incidence of spontaneous CCP, myocardial fibrosis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This species may be a spontaneous animal model for pathogenesis and experimental therapy studies of the analogous human diseases. PMID:18524178

  8. Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M Petry

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral and self-report indices of impulsiveness in pathological gambling substance abusers (n=27), non-pathological gambling substance abusers (n=63), and non-pathological gambling\\/non-substance abusing controls (n=21). The Bechara card task measured preferences for decks of cards that ranged in magnitude and probability of delayed and immediate rewards and punishers. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI) assessed orientation to the future,

  9. Periodontal disease burden and pathological changes in organs of dogs.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Juntes, Polona; Erzen, Damjan; Crossley, David A; Skaleric, Uros

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial plaque associated periodontal disease is the most common chronic infection in man and dogs. In man, there is an association between periodontal disease and myocardial infarction and stroke, while in dogs it has also been associated with changes in internal organs. Inflamed periodontal tissues present a 'periodontal disease burden' to the host and the extent of this inflammatory disease burden is likely to affect the degree of associated pathological change in distant organs. This hypothesis was investigated in dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease. Post-mortem investigations including periodontal assessment, standard necropsy, and organ histology were performed on 44 mature toy and miniature Poodles (related, periodontitis predisposed breeds) that died naturally or were euthanized based on clinical disease. Animals with gross primary organ pathology were excluded. The periodontal disease burden was estimated from the total surface area of periodontal pocket epithelium using six measurements of probing depth for each tooth and the tooth circumferences. Ordinal logistic regression (OR) analysis established that for each square centimeter of periodontal disease burden there was a 1.4-times higher likelihood of greater changes being present in the left atrio-ventricular valves (OR = 1.43), plus 1.2 and 1.4 times higher likelihoodfor greater liver and kidney pathology (OR = 1.21; OR = 1.42), respectively The results show that there is a link between the estimated 'periodontal disease burden' resulting from plaque-bacteria associated periodontal disease and the level of internal pathology in this population, implying that periodontitis might contribute to the development of systemic pathology in dogs. PMID:18751659

  10. CT and MRI of diffuse lobar involvement pattern in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Karçaaltincaba, Mu?turay; Sirlin, Claude B

    2011-12-01

    Focal, segmental, and diffuse liver pathologies have been described in the literature. This article describes a pattern in which liver pathology is confined to a lobe. This lobar pattern has not been described previously to our knowledge. Herein, we illustrate computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of diffuse lobar involvement patterns in various liver conditions. Diffuse lobar involvement can be observed in benign (steatosis, hepatic iron overload, cholestasis, perfusion alterations, infarction, alveolar hydatid cysts, trauma, and hemangiomas) and primary malignant (hepatocellular carcinoma) pathologies. Diffuse lobar involvement in metastatic disease appears to be rare. Due in part to their potentially unusual appearances, the diagnosis of lobar pathologies using imaging can be challenging, and entities with lobar patterns can cause diagnostic confusion. Liver MRI can be used as a problem-solving tool for diffuse lobar pathologies detected on ultrasonography and CT. Inand out-of-phase MRI can help in the assessment of lobar fat accumulation. PMID:21053176

  11. Solitary fibrous tumors in abdomen and pelvis: Imaging characteristics and radiologic-pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Ming; Reng, Jing; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Ying; Cheng, Zhu-Zhong; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Guo-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) in the abdomen and pelvis, and the clinical and pathologic correlations. METHODS: Fifteen patients with pathologically confirmed SFTs in the abdomen and pelvis were retrospectively studied with imaging techniques by two radiologists in consensus. Patients underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced imaging, as follows: 3 with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, 8 with CT examination only, and 4 with MRI examination only. Image characteristics such as size, shape, margin, attenuation or intensity, and pattern of enhancement were analyzed and correlated with the microscopic findings identified from surgical specimens. In addition, patient demographics, presentation, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 15 patients evaluated, local symptoms related to the mass were found in 11 cases at admission. The size of the mass ranged from 3.4 to 25.1 cm (mean, 11.5 cm). Nine cases were round or oval, 6 were lobulated, and 10 displaced adjacent organs. Unenhanced CT revealed a heterogeneous isodense mass in 7 cases, homogeneous isodense mass in 3 cases, and punctuated calcification in one case. On MRI, most of the lesions (6/7) were heterogeneous isointense and heterogeneous hyperintense on T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images, respectively. All tumors showed moderate to marked enhancement. Heterogeneous enhancement was revealed in 11 lesions, and 7 of these had cysts, necrosis, or hemorrhage. Early nonuniform enhancement with a radial area that proved to be a fibrous component was observed in 4 lesions, which showed progressive enhancement in the venous and delayed phase. No statistical difference in the imaging findings was observed between the histologically benign and malignant lesions. Three patients had local recurrence or metastasis at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Abdominal and pelvic SFTs commonly appeared as large, solid, well-defined, hypervascular masses with variable degrees of necrosis or cystic change that often displaced adjacent structures. PMID:24803820

  12. The Pathology of an Autoimmune Astrocytopathy: Lessons Learned from Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Guo, Yong; Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh.; Fujihara, Kazuo; Itoyama, Yasuto; Misu, Tatsuro

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a disabling autoimmune astrocytopathy characterized by typically severe and recurrent attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally-extensive myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered an acute aggressive variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), despite the fact that early studies postulated that NMO and MS may be two distinct diseases with a common clinical picture. With the discovery of a highly specific serum autoantibody (NMO-IgG), Lennon and colleagues provided the first unequivocal evidence distinguishing NMO from MS and other CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders. The target antigen of NMO-IgG was confirmed to be aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel protein in the central nervous system (CNS), mainly expressed on astrocytic foot processes at the blood brain barrier, subpial and subependymal regions. Pathological studies demonstrated that astrocytes were selectively targeted in NMO as evidenced by the extensive loss of immunoreactivities for the astrocytic proteins, AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as perivascular deposition of immunoglobulins and activation of complement even within lesions with a relative preservation of myelin. In support of these pathological findings, GFAP levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute NMO exacerbations were found to be remarkably elevated in contrast to MS where CSF-GFAP levels did not substantially differ from controls. Additionally, recent experimental studies showed that AQP4 antibody is pathogenic, resulting in selective astrocyte destruction and dysfunction in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that NMO is an autoimmune astrocytopathy where damage to astrocytes exceeds both myelin and neuronal damage. This chapter will review recent neuropathological studies that have provided novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms, cellular targets, as well as the spectrum of tissue damage in NMO. PMID:24345222

  13. Structural pathology underlying neuroendocrine dysfunction in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Morris B.; Wang, Lei; Wachi, Carly; Daudi, Sheeraz; Csernansky, John; Marlow-O'Connor, Megan; Keedy, Sarah; Torres, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Polydipsic hyponatremic schizophrenic (PHS) patients exhibit altered neuroendocrine activity that has been linked to their life-threatening water imbalance, as well as to impaired function and reduced volume of the anterior hippocampus. Polydipsic patients without hyponatremia (polydipsic normonatremic schizophrenics: PNS) exhibit similar, albeit less marked, changes in neuroendocrine activity and anterior hippocampal function, but not reduced anterior hippocampal volume. Indeed, reduced anterior hippocampal volume is seen in patients with normal water balance (nonpolydipsic normonatremic schizophrenics: NNS) whose neuroendocrine activity and anterior hippocampal function differ markedly from those with polydipsia. In an effort to reconcile these findings we measured hippocampal, amygdala and 3rd ventricle shapes in 26 schizophrenic patients (10 PNS, 7 PHS, 9 NNS) and 12 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Bilateral inward deformations were localized to the anterior lateral hippocampal surface (part of a neurocircuit which modulates neuroendocrine responses to psychological stimuli) in PHS and to a lesser extent in PNS, while deformations in NNS were restricted to the medial surface. Proportional deformations of the right medial amygdala, a key segment of this neurocircuit, were seen in both polydipsic groups, and correlated with the volume of the 3rd ventricle, which lies adjacent to the neuroendocrine nuclei. Finally, these structural findings were most marked in those with impaired hippocampal-mediated stress responses. These results reconcile previously conflicting data, and support the view that anterior lateral hippocampal pathology disrupts neuroendocrine function in polydipsic patients with and without hyponatremia. The relationship of these findings to the underlying mental illness remains to be established. PMID:21093493

  14. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ?90% by 21%, and ?50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ?90% by 37%, and ?50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support their pathology education. PMID:25337431

  15. National PTA Common Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US National Parents and Teachers Association, in conjunction with GTE Corporation, furnishes this site, an information hub for the promotion of drug- and alcohol-free children. Presently, the site is divided into three sections of both serious and fun activities. The Parent's Center consists of interactive quizzes and tip sheets related to developing drug awareness, being a role model, and getting involved in your kids' activities. Visitors to the Family Room will find activities to help kids with their self-esteem, as well as teach them drug-awareness. Family games, quizzes, and cartoons are also available. Help and Hotlines points to organizations that can provide further support and information (links are provided), as well as books and videos. Finally, the site includes an interactive poll, several bulletin boards (registration required), and information for PTA leaders, highlighted by a library of resources to help spread the common sense message.

  16. MAXIMAL LENGTH COMMON NONINTERSECTING PATHS

    E-print Network

    Urrutia, Jorge

    @scs.carleton.ca) Jorge Urrutia zy (jorge@csi.uottawa.ca) Abstract Given a set P n of n points on the plane la­ beled and Souvaine [1] and Kranakis and Urrutia [5] studied the problem of finding common tri­ angulations of point

  17. Plant Pathology: Past to PresentPlant Pathology: Past to Present Illustrated Storybook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank Tainte (American Phytopathological Society; )

    1998-01-01

    Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults.

  18. Indexing and filing of pathological illustrations.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R A; Fawkes, R S; Beck, J S

    1975-01-01

    An inexpensive feature card retrieval system has been combined with the Systematised Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP) to provide simple but efficient means of indexing and filing 2 in. x 2 in. transparencies within a department of pathology. Using this system 2400 transparencies and the associated index cards can be conveniently stored in one drawer of a standard filing cabinet. Images PMID:1123438

  19. Shame and Gender Issues in Pathological Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John OLeary; Fred Wright

    1986-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of a close monitoring of the emotion of shame in psychoanalysis. Shame is distinguished from guilt, and its special relationship to pathological narcissism is discussed. A typology of narcissistic pathology is also described, which is mediated by the extent to which grandiosity is consciously experienced by the patient. Specifically, where grandiosity is conscious and central,

  20. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  1. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  2. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  3. Severe digestive pathology associated with chronic Chagas' disease in Ecuador: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Guevara, A G; Eras, J W; Recalde, M; Vinueza, L; Cooper, P J; Ouaissi, A; Guderian, R H

    1997-01-01

    DNA extracted from peripheral blood of two Ecuadorian patients showing severe digestive pathology was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using a Trypanosoma cruzi specific oligonucleotide primers derived from the primary sequence of a cDNA encoding for a 24 kDa excretory/secretory protein. The positive PCR results together with the clinical findings confirmed that both patients had a digestive pathology due to Chagas' disease. This pathology could be more frequent than previously described in the chagasic endemic regions of Andean countries. PMID:9322425

  4. Drug-related cardiac pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Butany; E Ahn; A Luk

    2009-01-01

    Many commonly used drugs, with each causing changes that may be potentially lethal, can adversely affect the function of the heart. In addition some drugs have synergistic effects that can also damage cardiovascular tissues. The drug-related cardiotoxic effects of antineoplastic agents, psychotropic medications, heavy metals, substances of abuse, promotility agents, antihistamines, antimicrobials and antiarrhythmic agents are discussed. Hypersensitivity myocarditis is

  5. Gastrointestinal pathology in South America.

    PubMed

    Rolón, P A

    1979-04-01

    Non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disease in South America is largely related to environmental conditions. Parasitic disorders, including Chagas' disease with megacolon, predominate in endemic regions. Common enteritides of various etiologie are frequent, whereas appendicits, diverticulosis of the colon, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are extremely rare. There was no appendicitis in native Indians of Paraguay. PMID:109417

  6. Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the most predominant components of the genetic architecture that has yet to be explained. There are ... Plenge RM. Bayesian inference analyses of the polygenic architecture of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Genet. 2012 Mar 25; ...

  7. Osteochondrosis in the horse. II. Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rejnö, S; Strömberg, B

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the pathology of osteochondritis dissecans of young foals and horses with clinical signs of the lesion. A randomly selected material of fetuses and young foals without clinical signs was also examined. It was demonstrated that osteochondritis dissecans is primarily a cartilaginous disease, as previously described in pigs and dogs. Thickening, disturbance of endochondral ossification, degeneration and necrosis of the cartilage were the four main features of osteochondritis dissecans. Cracks and fissures occurred in the degenerated and necrotic parts of the cartilage. This led to formation of cartilage flaps and eventually to loose bodies. It was shown that small pieces of subchondral bone could be ripped off when a cartilage flap was formed. This was one explanation as to why many flaps and loose bodies contained bone in contrast to the findings in pigs and dogs. Endochondral ossification could also take place in the thickened joint cartilage in some cases. Even some loose bodies could undergo endochondral ossification if they were well nourished. Osteochondritis dissecans was often found bilaterally in the knee and hock joint and this was interpreted as an indication that osteochondritis dissecans is a manifestation of a generalized condition called osteochondrosis. Simultaneous occurrence of lesions in joints other than the knee and hock and in several metaphyseal growth plates was another indication of the generalized nature. PMID:233595

  8. Ultrasonography in lung pathologies: new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, ultrasound techniques have not gained importance in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung pathologies yet because of the high mismatch in acoustic impedance between air and intercostal tissues. However, it is evident that B-mode imaging provides important information on pulmonary tissue, although in the form of image artifacts. Findings Notwithstanding medical evidences, there exists no ultrasound-based method dedicated to the lung, hampering de facto the full exploitation of ultrasound potentials. A chance is given by the experience acquired in other fields, where acoustic attenuation is used to estimate concentrations of suspended particles in liquids and of air-bubbles in aerated foods. Conclusions Custom hardware must be developed since commercial echographic equipment has been optimized to work with low acoustic impedance mismatches, and, in general, does not provide the primitive radiofrequency (RF) signals nor the possibility to tune key acquisition parameters such as ultrasound carrier frequency and pulse bandwidth, which are surely needed for our application. PMID:24834347

  9. [Pathology seen in French "Hikikomori"].

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Tadaaki; Figueiredo, Cristina; Pionnié-Dax, Nancy; Fansten, Maïa; Vellut, Natacha; Castel, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Young people who meet the definition of "Hikikomori" have come to be seen in France since around 2008. However, simply "fitting the definition" does not necessarily mean that they are the same as "Hikikomori" in Japan. Rather, it is important to ask what kind of young people "fit the definition of Hikikomori in France" and what kind of pathology they have. With these questions, our Japanese-French joint research team comprising specialists in various fields conducted a survey of "Hikikomori" in French youth, with support from a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (overseas research), and started a comparative joint study on "Hikikomori" in Japan and "Hikikomori" in France. In that study it was found that whereas one aspect of "Hikikomori" in Japan is described by the word déraillement (coming off the "rails"), "Hikikomori" in France is a state closer to dropping out and is accompanied by a type of "sense of insufficiency". This "sense of insufficiency" is above all related to something in the society and culture of France, and an investigation of how it is linked to "Hikikomori" is an issue for the future. PMID:23234197

  10. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  11. Pathological aspects of Australian Stringhalt.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, R F; Huntington, P J; Friend, S C; Jeffcott, L B; Luff, A R; Finkelstein, D K

    1992-05-01

    Nine horses with clinical signs of Australian Stringhalt were killed and tissues collected for a detailed pathological study. Lesions were limited to peripheral nerves and muscles. The most severely affected nerves were the superficial and deep peroneal, distal tibial, plantar digital, volar and recurrent laryngeal nerve with changes characterised by a selective loss of large diameter myelinated fibres with various degrees of demyelination, fibrosis, Schwann cell proliferation and onion-bulb formation. A routine evaluation of the brain and spinal cord by light microscopy failed to reveal any consistent abnormalities. Morphometric analysis of deep peroneal and recurrent laryngeal nerves confirmed the reduced number of large diameter myelinated axons. Teased fibre preparations of these nerves did not show any abnormalities in internodal distance. The most severe muscle lesions were in the long and lateral digital extensors, cranial tibial, dorsal cricoarytenoid, gracilis and lateral deep digital flexor with extensive atrophy of fibres and diffuse fibrosis. Histochemical evaluation of the long digital extensor from 3 affected horses showed an abnormally wide distribution in fibre size and a reduction in type II fibres compared with controls. These lesions are consistent with a distal axonopathy leading to neurogenic muscle atrophy. The distribution of neuromuscular lesions in Australian Stringhalt may be explained by the susceptibility of longer, larger myelinated nerve fibres to injury, but the cause for this distal axonopathy remains unknown. PMID:1606929

  12. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Breastfeeding > Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Common breastfeeding challenges Sore nipples Low milk supply Oversupply of milk Engorgement Plugged ducts Breast ...

  13. Pathological tau burden and distribution distinguishes progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism from Richardson's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Williams; Janice L. Holton; Catherine Strand; Alan Pittman; Rohan de Silva; Andrew J. Lees; Tamas Revesz

    2007-01-01

    Clinical syndromes associated with progressive supranuclear palsy-tau pathology now include progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P), in addition to classic Richardson's syndrome (RS) and pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF). Although pathological heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has also been established, attempts to correlate this with clinical findings have only rarely provided conclusive results. The aim of this study was to

  14. Cardiac sarcoidosis: the challenge of radiologic-pathologic correlation: from the radiologic pathology archives.

    PubMed

    Jeudy, Jean; Burke, Allen P; White, Charles S; Kramer, Gerdien B G; Frazier, Aletta Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but potentially fatal disorder with a nonspecific spectrum of clinical manifestations, including conduction disorders, congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Although early treatment to improve morbidity and mortality is desirable, sensitive and accurate detection of cardiac sarcoidosis remains a challenge. Except for the histopathologic finding of noncaseating granulomas in an endomyocardial biopsy specimen, most diagnostic tests are limited and nonspecific at best. Therefore, the decision to initiate treatment is based largely on the patient's clinical symptoms and the course of the disease, rather than histologic confirmation. Successful recognition of cardiac sarcoidosis ultimately requires rigorous collaboration among a clinician, radiologist, and pathologist. Advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose, have become increasingly useful in facilitating diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, although limited prospective studies exist. This article describes the clinical parameters and pathologic findings of cardiac sarcoidosis and the advanced imaging features and differential diagnostic challenges that must be considered for a successful diagnostic approach. In addition, to improve the understanding of abnormalities detected with different imaging modalities, we suggest a unified terminology in describing radiologic findings related to cardiac sarcoidosis. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25969930

  15. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  16. ?-synuclein pathology accumulates in sacral spinal visceral sensory pathways.

    PubMed

    VanderHorst, Veronique G; Samardzic, Tamara; Saper, Clifford B; Anderson, Matthew P; Nag, Sukriti; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-07-01

    Urinary urgency and frequency are common in ?-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. These symptoms cannot be managed with dopamine therapy, and their underlying pathophysiology is unclear. We show that in individuals with Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, or multiple system atrophy, ?-synuclein pathology accumulates in the lateral collateral pathway, a region of the sacral spinal dorsal horn important for the relay of pelvic visceral afferents. Deposition of ?-synuclein in this region may contribute to impaired micturition and/or constipation in Parkinson disease and other ?-synucleinopathies. Ann Neurol 2015;78:142-149. PMID:25893830

  17. Pathologic conditions of the external ear and auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, V B; Wiet, R J

    1996-09-01

    Primary care physicians are influential in diagnosing and initiating treatment of most pathologic conditions in patients with a history of hearing loss, chronic ear infection, diabetes, immunosuppression, or otologic symptoms with excessive exposure to sunlight. Lesions of the external ear and the external auditory canal (external acoustic meatus) are significant and common. Patients with such a history should have a thorough basic examination, which can be done with simple tools. Symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, aural fullness, vertigo, and facial weakness may warrant referral of the patient to an otolaryngologist. The crux of preventing worsening otologic sequelae is early detection and treatment. PMID:8795656

  18. Widespread Nitration of Pathological Inclusions in Neurodegenerative Synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Duda, John E.; Giasson, Benoit I.; Chen, Qiping; Gur, Tamar L.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Stern, Matthew B.; Gollomp, Steven M.; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2000-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species may play a mechanistic role in neurodegenerative diseases by posttranslationally altering normal brain proteins. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that an anti-3-nitrotyrosine polyclonal antibody stains all of the major hallmark lesions of synucleinopathies including Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and neuraxonal spheroids in dementia with Lewy bodies, the Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1, as well as glial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. This antibody predominantly recognized nitrated ?-synuclein when compared to other in vitro nitrated constituents of these pathological lesions, such as neurofilament subunits and microtubules. Collectively, these findings imply that ?-synuclein is nitrated in pathological lesions. The widespread presence of nitrated ?-synuclein in diverse intracellular inclusions suggests that oxidation/nitration is involved in the onset and/or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11073803

  19. Widespread nitration of pathological inclusions in neurodegenerative synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Duda, J E; Giasson, B I; Chen, Q; Gur, T L; Hurtig, H I; Stern, M B; Gollomp, S M; Ischiropoulos, H; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    2000-11-01

    Reactive nitrogen species may play a mechanistic role in neurodegenerative diseases by posttranslationally altering normal brain proteins. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that an anti-3-nitrotyrosine polyclonal antibody stains all of the major hallmark lesions of synucleinopathies including Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and neuraxonal spheroids in dementia with Lewy bodies, the Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1, as well as glial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. This antibody predominantly recognized nitrated alpha-synuclein when compared to other in vitro nitrated constituents of these pathological lesions, such as neurofilament subunits and microtubules. Collectively, these findings imply that alpha-synuclein is nitrated in pathological lesions. The widespread presence of nitrated alpha-synuclein in diverse intracellular inclusions suggests that oxidation/nitration is involved in the onset and/or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11073803

  20. PAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY*

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    ligand binding/activation to downstream transducer proteins. PAS1 domains are structural modules that can sequences of the different PAS domains show little similarity, their three-dimensional structures appearPAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY* Received for publication, February 19, 2003

  1. Pathological mandibular fracture: A severe complication of periimplantitis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campo, Francisco; Naval-Parra, Beatriz; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, dental implant treatment is a very common option for patients even in medical compromised conditons. Some complications related to them have been described. Periimplantitis (PI) is one of the biggest concerns complications of these kind of treatments, probably has a multifactorial aethiology. Usually the consequences of PI are the loss of the implants and prostheses, expenses of money and time for dentists and patients. Very often PI implies the necesity of repeating the treatment . Pathological mandibular fracture due to PI is a severe but infrequent complication after dental implant treatment, especially after PI. In this study we present three cases of mandibular pathologic fractures among patients with different medical and dental records but similar management: two of them had been treated years ago of oral squamous cell carcinoma with surgery and radiotherapy, the other patient received oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis some years after implantation. We analized the causes, consequences and posible prevention of these fractures as well as the special features of this kind of mandibular fractures and the different existing treatments. Key words:Periimplantitis, pathological mandibular fracture, mandibular atrophy, bicortical implants.

  2. Modeling Pathological Speech Perception From Data With Similarity Labels.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie; Sandoval, Steven; Utianski, Rene; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The current state of the art in judging pathological speech intelligibility is subjective assessment performed by trained speech pathologists (SLP). These tests, however, are inconsistent, costly and, oftentimes suffer from poor intra- and inter-judge reliability. As such, consistent, reliable, and perceptually-relevant objective evaluations of pathological speech are critical. Here, we propose a data-driven approach to this problem. We propose new cost functions for examining data from a series of experiments, whereby we ask certified SLPs to rate pathological speech along the perceptual dimensions that contribute to decreased intelligibility. We consider qualitative feedback from SLPs in the form of comparisons similar to statements "Is Speaker A's rhythm more similar to Speaker B or Speaker C?" Data of this form is common in behavioral research, but is different from the traditional data structures expected in supervised (data matrix + class labels) or unsupervised (data matrix) machine learning. The proposed method identifies relevant acoustic features that correlate with the ordinal data collected during the experiment. Using these features, we show that we are able to develop objective measures of the speech signal degradation that correlate well with SLP responses. PMID:25435817

  3. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. PMID:25595996

  4. Effects of pathology dyes on Raman bone spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-05-01

    We report an overlooked source of artifacts for clinical specimens, where unexpected and normally negligible contaminants can skew the interpretation of results. During an ongoing study of bone fragments from diabetic osteomyelitis, strong Raman signatures were found, which did not correspond with normal bone mineral or matrix. In a bone biopsy from the calcaneus of a patient affected by diabetic osteomyelitis, Raman microspectroscopic analysis revealed regions with both abnormal mineral and degraded collagen in addition to normal bone. Additional bands indicated a pathological material. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified in the wound culture by independent microbiologic examination. We initially assigned the unusual bands to xanthomonadin, a bacterial pigment from S. maltophilia. However, the same bands were also found more than a year later on a second specimen that had been noticeably contaminated with pathology marking dye. Drop deposition/Raman spectroscopy of commonly used pathology dyes revealed that a blue tissue-marking dye was responsible for the unusual bands in both specimens, even in the first specimen where there was no visible evidence of contamination.

  5. Common carotid artery dissection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zach, Victor; Zhovtis, Svetlana; Kirchoff-Torres, Kathryn F; Weinberger, Jesse M

    2012-01-01

    Common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is a rare and poorly characterized cause of ischemic stroke. We describe a case of multiple cerebral infarcts in a patient with CCAD initially detected by carotid duplex ultrasonography, and review the literature on CCAD. A Medline search from 1960 to the present for cases of CCAD yielded 46 cases. We extracted demographic data, anatomical location, symptoms, neurosonography, neuroradiology, pathological findings, treatment, and outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 48.8 ± 15.8 years (range, 19-89 years). With our patient, our search found 20 cases of spontaneous CCAD, 11 cases of traumatic CCAD, 4 cases of iatrogenic CCAD, and 12 cases of CCAD associated with aortic arch dissection. The most common presenting neurologic symptoms of CCAD were hemiparesis, decreased consciousness, headache/neck pain, aphasia, and monocular field deficit. The most frequently reported neurosonographic findings included a double lumen, mural thrombus, intraluminal hyperechoic/isoechoic lesion, and intimal flap. Most cases of CCAD were subsequently confirmed with conventional angiography, computed tomography angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment differed based on etiology; anticoagulation was used most commonly for spontaneous CCAD, and surgical repair was most often done for traumatic and aortic dissection-associated CCAD. Prognosis was generally good; the majority of patients achieved complete clinical recovery, but 3 died. Our findings indicate that carotid Doppler is a widely accessible, rapid, and noninvasive technique for diagnosing CCAD. Our case and literature review further characterizes the diverse etiologies, clinical course, and radiographic features of CCAD. PMID:20851634

  6. Convergence of circuit dysfunction in ASD: a common bridge between diverse genetic and environmental risk factors and common clinical electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Port, Russell G.; Gandal, Michael J.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Siegel, Steven J.; Carlson, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Most recent estimates indicate that 1 in 68 children are affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Though decades of research have uncovered much about these disorders, the pathological mechanism remains unknown. Hampering efforts is the seeming inability to integrate findings over the micro to macro scales of study, from changes in molecular, synaptic and cellular function to large-scale brain dysfunction impacting sensory, communicative, motor and cognitive activity. In this review, we describe how studies focusing on neuronal circuit function provide unique context for identifying common neurobiological disease mechanisms of ASD. We discuss how recent EEG and MEG studies in subjects with ASD have repeatedly shown alterations in ensemble population recordings (both in simple evoked related potential latencies and specific frequency subcomponents). Because these disease-associated electrophysiological abnormalities have been recapitulated in rodent models, studying circuit differences in these models may provide access to abnormal circuit function found in ASD. We then identify emerging in vivo and ex vivo techniques, focusing on how these assays can characterize circuit level dysfunction and determine if these abnormalities underlie abnormal clinical electrophysiology. Such circuit level study in animal models may help us understand how diverse genetic and environmental risks can produce a common set of EEG, MEG and anatomical abnormalities found in ASD. PMID:25538564

  7. [Pathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors].

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Guillet, J L; Houissa-Vuong, S; Lhommé, C; Proust, A; Cristalli, B

    2000-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic tumours result from an abnormal proliferation of different types of trophoblasts. The morphological pattern, together with the immunohistochemical aspect, the cytogenetic data and the clinical profile, helps identify each pathological entity. Hydatiform moles represent malformed placentas caused by genetic aberrations of the villous trophoblast. A complete hydatiform mole displays an hydropic degeneration of all the chorionic villi with a more or less marked proliferation of trophoblasts. A partial hydatiform mole is made up of molar vesicles interspersed with normal chorionic villi. In an invasive hydatiform mole or chorioma destruens, molar vesicles penetrate the myometrium giving rise to a mass distorting the uterine wall. A choriocarcinoma is a malignant proliferation of atypical villous trophoblasts without villi formation. Necrosis, haemorrhage, vascular invasion and distant metastases strongly compromise its outcome. A trophoblastic implantation site tumor, clearly less frequent, results from a proliferation of extravillous trophoblasts, particular for their secretion of human placental lactogen hormone (hPL). This tumour, exceptionally malignant, should be differentiated from the exaggerated placental site and its variants. Except for the placental site trophoblastic tumour, and whatever the outcome (benign or malignant), all gestational trophoblastic tumours secrete the beta-subunit of the chorionic gonadotropic hormone (beta-hCG) more or less abundantly. The serum or urinary level of this unit is proportional to the tumour volume and represents a fundamental basis for the follow-up of these tumours. Multidisciplinary care of high-risk cases allows us to cure the disease, and helps the patient recover her reproductive uterine function. PMID:11192198

  8. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  9. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: The moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Gratz, Kim L.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. PMID:23375184

  10. Risk factors for uncommon histologic subtypes of breast cancer using centralized pathology review in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Work, Meghan E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Liao, Yuyan; Zhang, Fang Fang; Knight, Julia A.; West, Dee W.; Milne, Roger L.; Giles, Graham G.; Longacre, Teri A.; O’Malley, Frances; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Southey, Melissa C.; Hibshoosh, Hanina

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of histologic types of breast cancer including mucinous, medullary, and tubular carcinomas have primarily relied on International Classification of Diseases-Oncology (ICD-O) codes assigned by local pathologists to define histology. Using data from the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), we compared histologic agreement between centralized BCFR pathology review and ICD-O codes available from local tumor registries among 3,260 breast cancer cases. Agreement was low to moderate for less common histologies; for example, only 55 and 26 % of cases classified as mucinous and medullary, respectively, by centralized review were similarly classified using ICD-O coding. We then evaluated risk factors for each histologic subtype by comparing each histologic case group defined by centralized review with a common set of 2,997 population-based controls using polytomous logistic regression. Parity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 0.2–0.9, for parous vs. nulliparous], age at menarche (OR = 0.5, 95 % CI: 0.3–0.9, for age ?13 vs. ?11), and use of oral contraceptives (OCs) (OR = 0.5, 95 % CI: 0.2–0.8, OC use >5 years vs. never) were associated with mucinous carcinoma (N = 92 cases). Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI: 1.0–1.1, per unit of BMI) and high parity (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI: 1.1–6.0 for ?3 live births vs. nulliparous) were associated with medullary carcinoma (N = 90 cases). We did not find any associations between breast cancer risk factors and tubular carcinoma (N = 86 cases). Relative risk estimates from analyses using ICD-O classifications of histology, rather than centralized review, resulted in attenuated, and/or more imprecise, associations. These findings suggest risk factor heterogeneity across breast cancer tumor histologies, and demonstrate the value of centralized pathology review for classifying rarer tumor types. PMID:22527103

  11. Sclerosing cholangitis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Teefey, S A; Baron, R L; Rohrmann, C A; Shuman, W P; Freeny, P C

    1988-12-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the detection of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary systems was assessed by comparing CT scans of 20 cases of PSC with cholangiographic findings. In 16 of 19 cases of extrahepatic duct disease demonstrated with cholangiography, CT demonstrated abnormalities of the common hepatic duct, or bile duct, including duct stenosis, mural nodularity, duct dilatation, wall thickening, and mural enhancement. CT demonstrated intrahepatic disease in all 20 cases, including duct dilatation, duct stenosis, pruning, and beading. CT was superior to cholangiography in characterization of the status of the intrahepatic duct system in 11 of 20 cases. In addition, CT demonstrated extrabiliary complications of PSC in 12 cases and superimposed cholangiocarcinoma in three cases. While cholangiography remains the standard for diagnosis and follow-up of PSC, CT can provide valuable information about the extent and complications of the disease. PMID:3055028

  12. HPV vaccination in head and neck HPV-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Józefiak, Agata; Jackowska, Joanna; Szyd?owski, Jaros?aw; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in pathologies other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck malignancies, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). High-risk HPV16 and 18, and low risk HPV6 and 11 play the main role in HPV-related pathologies. As more and more information about the role of HPV infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic HPV vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. HPV vaccination programs for the cervical pathology are being implemented worldwide. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011. These vaccination programs were aimed at the genital, HPV-related lesions, and there was not much recognition at that time of how HPV vaccination programs might affect oral HPV infection, which is a risk factor for the development of HPV-related head and neck cancers. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy, and an extant recommendation is aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers with the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. This review is aimed at presenting the evidence-based knowledge concerning HPV vaccination and highlighting the trials and strategies for vaccine administration in HPV-dependent head and neck pathologies. PMID:24981297

  13. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

  14. Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bontempo, Franklin

    This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myalgias After Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Giuliani, Michael J.

    This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  18. Differential Virulence and Disease Progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Via, Laura E.; Weiner, Danielle M.; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L.; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M. Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J.; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades. PMID:23716617

  19. Pathology of the optic nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Doron; A. Behar

    1968-01-01

    The optic nerves and chiasma were examined histologically in 124 unselected autopsy cases with clinical histories of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) and liver parenchymal damage (LPD) with a view to find out possible changes particularly associated with one of the three respective conditions. Statistical test applied to our material revealed, as was to be expected, a

  20. CLN6 disease caused by the same mutation originating in Pakistan has varying pathology.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose T; Vieira, Mariana; Warrier, Varun; Agrawal, Shakti; Stewart, Helen; Anderson, Glenn; Mole, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), the most common neurodegenerative diseases in children, are characterised by storage of autofluorescent material that has a characteristic ultrastructure. We report two families with variant late infantile NCL, both originating from Pakistan. Probands from both families were homozygous for the same mutation (c.316dupC) but had variable pathology to that currently thought to be typical for CLN6 disease, late infantile variant. The observed pathology of one proband resembled condensed fingerprints, previously described in late infantile CLN7 and CLN8 diseases, and pathology from the second proband was thought to be absent even after repeated skin biopsy, but observed after review. This mutation is the most common NCL mutation in families originating from Pakistan and could be prioritised for testing. Finally, this report contains the first prenatal diagnosis for late infantile CLN6 disease, initially made on the basis of EM and now confirmed by mutation analysis. PMID:23735787

  1. Ultrasonographic Findings in a Large Series of Patients with Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Artul, Suheil; Khazin, Fadi; Hakim, Jeries; Habib, George

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) is becoming more and more popular in the evaluation of different musculoskeletal abnormalities. The aim of this retrospective study was to document the prevalence and spectrum of MSKUS findings at the painful knee. Materials and Methods: All the studies of MSKUS that were performed for the evaluation of knee pain during the previous 2 years at the Department of Radiology in Nazareth hospital were reviewed. Demographic and clinical parameters including age, gender, side, and MSKUS findings were documented. Results: Two hundred and seventy-six patients were included in the review. In 21 of them, both knees were evaluated at the same setting (total number of knees evaluated was 297). One hundred and forty-four knees were of the left side. Thirty-three pathologies were identified. 34% of the studies were negative. The most common MSKUS findings were medial meniscal tear (MMT) (20%), Baker's cyst (BC) (16%), and osteoarthritis (OA) (11%). Only one knee of all the knees evaluated in our study showed synovitis. Fifty-three knees (18% of all the knees evaluated) had more than one imaging finding, mosty two and while some had three findings. The most common combination of findings was MMT and BC (8 knees), MMT with OA (8 knees), and MMT with fluid (6 knee). In 67% of the patients who had simultaneous bilateral knee evaluation, at least one knee had no abnormal findings and in 43%, both knees were negative. Conclusions: MSKUS has the potential for revealing huge spectrum of abnormalities. In nearly 90% of the positive studies, degenerative/mechanical abnormalities were reported, with MMT, BC, and osteoarthritic changes being the most common. PMID:25250194

  2. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  3. Spontaneous findings in the heart of Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Vidal, Justin D; Drobatz, Lita S; Holliday, Denise F; Geiger, Lee E; Thomas, Heath C

    2010-02-01

    The cynomolgus macaque is the most commonly used nonhuman primate in nonclinical toxicity testing, but the impact of the geographic source of cynomolgus macaque on differences in spontaneous pathology and response to xenobiotics has only recently been explored. Previous work from the authors' facility has described spontaneous cardiac findings in predominantly Indonesian-source animals; however, the authors have recently observed a novel spectrum of cardiac findings in Mauritian-source animals. This review evaluated the spontaneous macroscopic and microscopic cardiac findings in vehicle control Mauritian-source macaques used for routine toxicity testing. When compared to the prior review in predominantly Indonesian macaques, a higher incidence of myocardial degeneration was observed with additional novel findings including macroscopic and microscopic subendocardial hemorrhage with hemosiderin, myocardial fibrosis, and arterial medial degeneration/hemorrhage. Other findings including inflammatory cell infiltrates, anisokaryosis, and squamous plaques were observed with a comparable incidence as previously reported in Indonesian macaques. Myocardial degeneration, subendocardial hemorrhage, and myocardial fibrosis can mimic test-article-related cardiac toxicity, and a thorough understanding of the incidence and severity of these spontaneous findings is necessary to prevent misidentifying test-article-related cardiac findings in this genetic source of cynomolgus macaque in nonclinical safety testing. PMID:20124493

  4. Pathology and Pathophysiology of Inhalational Anthrax in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Savransky, Vladimir; Sanford, Daniel C.; Syar, Emily; Austin, Jamie L.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Anderson, Michael S.; Stark, Gregory V.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Briscoe, Crystal M.; Lemiale-Biérinx, Laurence; Park, Sukjoon; Ionin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits are the animal models most commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of medical countermeasures against anthrax in support of licensure under the FDA's “Animal Rule.” However, a need for an alternative animal model may arise in certain cases. The development of such an alternative model requires a thorough understanding of the course and manifestation of experimental anthrax disease induced under controlled conditions in the proposed animal species. The guinea pig, which has been used extensively for anthrax pathogenesis studies and anthrax vaccine potency testing, is a good candidate for such an alternative model. This study was aimed at determining the median lethal dose (LD50) of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain in guinea pigs and investigating the natural history, pathophysiology, and pathology of inhalational anthrax in this animal model following nose-only aerosol exposure. The inhaled LD50 of aerosolized Ames strain spores in guinea pigs was determined to be 5.0 × 104 spores. Aerosol challenge of guinea pigs resulted in inhalational anthrax with death occurring between 46 and 71 h postchallenge. The first clinical signs appeared as early as 36 h postchallenge. Cardiovascular function declined starting at 20 h postexposure. Hematogenous dissemination of bacteria was observed microscopically in multiple organs and tissues as early as 24 h postchallenge. Other histopathologic findings typical of disseminated anthrax included suppurative (heterophilic) inflammation, edema, fibrin, necrosis, and/or hemorrhage in the spleen, lungs, and regional lymph nodes and lymphocyte depletion and/or lymphocytolysis in the spleen and lymph nodes. This study demonstrated that the course of inhalational anthrax disease and the resulting pathology in guinea pigs are similar to those seen in rabbits and NHPs, as well as in humans. PMID:23357384

  5. Surgical and pathologic outcomes of fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy for FIGO stage IB1 cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum; Nikki Neubauer; Yukio Sonoda; Kay J. Park; Mary Gemignani; Kaled M. Alektiar; William Tew; Mario M. Leitao; Dennis S. Chi; Richard R. Barakat

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTo describe the surgical and pathologic findings of fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy using a standardized surgical technique, and report the rate of post-trachelectomy adjuvant therapy that results in permanent sterility.

  6. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY HEMATOPATHOLOGY/CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY HEMATOPATHOLOGY/CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY The Department of Pathology at Stanford University School of Medicine seeks to fill two of Pathology in the Medical Center Professoriate. The major criterion for appointment

  7. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  12. The SENEX Project: knowledge representation in molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Ball, S S; Mah, V H

    1992-01-01

    SENEX is a computer program for students, educators, and research investigators in the domain of molecular pathology. The application allows an individual to ask a sequence of questions in a single interactive session, thereby facilitating the development and testing of several hypotheses in a short period of time. Graphical representations of molecules and molecular events help enable individuals to grasp spatial and functional relationships (and in the future, temporal relationships) among molecules, cellular compartments, and cell regions. Fairly simple but well-defined reasoning capabilities allow an individual to ask sophisticated questions and to predict novel molecular events or pathways. SENEX contains information about: 1) molecules and the motifs that impart function to these molecules; 2) molecular events; 3) cell-specific expression of genes; 4) disease processes. SENEX is being developed through object-oriented programming in a portable programming environment supported by COMMON LISP and the COMMON LISP INTERFACE MANAGER. PMID:1482900

  13. Gastrointestinal Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cersosimo, Maria Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical features whereas pathological confirmation is only possible with autopsy examination. The neuropathological hallmarks of PD are neuronal loss and the presence of inclusions termed Lewy bodies/neurites in affected regions. A major component of these inclusions is phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (?-SYN) protein. There is evidence that ?-SYN pathology is widely distributed outside the central nervous system in patients with PD. The gastrointestinal tract is importantly affected by ?-SYN containing inclusions and typically there is a rostrocaudal gradient for the distribution of the pathology. The highest amounts of Lewy bodies/neurites are found at the submandibular gland together with the lower esophagus and the lowest amounts are found in the rectum. Autopsy findings prompted research aimed at achieving in vivo pathological diagnosis of PD by demonstrating the presence of ?-SYN pathology in biopsy material of these peripheral accessible tissues. So far, biopsy studies of the gut have demonstrated the presence of ?-SYN pathology in the salivary glands, stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum. Further research is necessary in order to determine which are the most sensitive targets for in vivo ?-SYN pathology detection and the safest techniques for these approaches in patients with PD.

  14. Meckel's diverticulum in children, clinical and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    St?nescu, Georgeta Ligia; Ple?ea, Iancu Emil; Diaconu, Radu; Gheonea, Cristian; Sabetay, Corneliu; ?î?tea, Dalia; Niculescu, Elena Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) represents one of the most common malformations of the digestive tract, being a vestige of the proximal end of omphalo-mesenteric duct, which normally obliterates and atrophiates between the sixth and ninth week of intrauterine life. It is estimated that 2-4% of people are carriers of this malformation. The interest in this organ study lies in the fact that it presents its own non-specific pathology, mimicking a cecal, colon or small intestine pathology. It seems that most MD cases are asymptomatic (AS MD), being arbitrary discovered during surgeries, whereas only a small part are being symptomatic (S MD). MD may be clinically expressed at any age but it is more common in children. In our study, we evaluated a group of 44 children, aged between 0 and 16 years, diagnosed with AS MD (15 cases) or S MD (29 cases). Of the 29 S MD cases, 14 had intestinal obstruction, seven cases showed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, five cases presented acute inflammation (diverticulitis) and three cases were complicated with peritonitis; 15 cases of AS MD were discovered during surgical interventions for acute appendicitis (14 cases) or inguinal hernia (one case). Most cases of MD were recorded between 1-4-year-old and 7-16-year-old. PMID:25607401

  15. Diagnostic Pathology of Diffuse Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The pathologic classification of diffuse lung disease in children and adolescents has undergone revision in recent years in response to rapid developments and new discoveries in the field. A number of important advancements have been made in the last 10 years including the description of new genetic mutations causing severe lung disease in infants and children, as well as the description of new pathologic entities in infants. These recently described entities, including ABCA3 surfactant disorders, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, are being recognized with increasing frequency. This review will include brief discussion of the etiology and pathogenesis of the major groups of diffuse lung disease in children. Histopathologic features are discussed for each of the major categories of diffuse lung disease in children, beginning with the genetic, developmental, and alveolar growth disorders common in infancy, followed by brief discussion of airway diseases, immunologic diseases, and pulmonary vascular diseases seen more commonly in older children. A protocol for handling pediatric wedge lung biopsies is also discussed, which optimizes the diagnostic yield of lung biopsies in this population. PMID:22332032

  16. Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Engwerda Experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania donovani results: Leishmania; liver; spleen; pathology; granuloma Leishmania parasites of different species cause a broad. Leishmania parasites are obligate intra- cellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted

  17. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  18. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or social characteristics that confer a vulnerability to develop pathological gambling behaviors. Being able to recognize those who are at risk to become pathological gamblers is the first step toward developing effective prevention and early intervention programs. This is Part Two of a three-part series on pathological gambling. Part One appeared in the March issue of Psychiatry 2005. PMID:21179650

  19. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  20. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...