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Sample records for common pathological findings

  1. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;

  2. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  3. Primary Pulmonary Lymphoid Lesions: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, Arlene; Raparia, Kirtee; Lewis, Vanessa A; Franks, Teri J; Dhand, Sabeen; Galvin, Jeffrey R; White, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761531

  4. Conventional videodefecography: Pathologic findings according to gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Lusa Costa; Correia, Hugo; Semedo, Lus Curvo; Ilharco, Jos; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the most common disorders depicted with conventional videodefecography, and to compare the defecographic abnormalities between symptomatic patients according to their gender and age. Methods Conventional videodefecography studies of 300 patients (24 men, 266 women; mean age 57.7) performed in a 32-month period were reviewed for the following parameters: anorectal angle, movement of the pelvic floor, intussusceptions, incontinence and rectocele. The results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results Normal findings were observed in 16.7% men and 7.5% women. In women, the most frequent pathological findings were rectocele (62%), descending perineum syndrome (42.8%), intussusceptions (33.8%), incontinence (10.5%), dyskinetic puborectalis syndrome (9.4%) and rectal prolapse (4.5%); in men the most frequent pathology was the dyskinetic puborectalis syndrome (37.5%). This syndrome is more likely in men than in women (p=0.01; OR 5.78); descending perineum syndrome (p=0.027; OR 2.8) is more likely to occur in women. Women with perineal descent younger than 50 years frequently present an increased descent during evacuation (81.8%), while those older than 50 years already have a low pelvic floor during rest (60.3%) (p<0.001; OR 6.8), with little change in evacuation. Conclusion Videodefecographic findings vary with age and gender.

  5. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  7. From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rachel B; Mehrotra, Anupamjit K; Rodrguez, Pablo; Manning, Maria A; Levine, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. PMID:25384294

  8. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    PubMed

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valrie; Lanon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

  9. Myocarditis in puppies: clinical, pathological and virological findings.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A N; Crowe, S P; Allen, D G; Downey, R S

    1980-07-01

    The clinical, pathological and virological findings in puppies affected with myocarditis are reported. A parvo-like virus was isolated from pooled heart specimens, which is similar to the virus isolated from gastroenteritis cases. PMID:7427845

  10. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain

  11. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,

  12. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  13. Orbital granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis): clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Muller, Karra; Lin, Jonathan H

    2014-08-01

    The pathology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly Wegener granulomatosis, typically features a granulomatous and sometimes necrotizing vasculitis targeting the respiratory tract and kidneys. However, orbital involvement occurs in up to 60% of patients and is frequently the first or only clinical presentation in patients with systemic or limited forms of GPA. Orbital GPA can cause significant morbidity and potentially lead to complete loss of vision and permanent facial deformity. Fortunately, GPA is highly responsive to medical treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide or, more recently, rituximab. Therefore, it is imperative for this disease to be accurately diagnosed on orbital biopsy and distinguished from other histologically similar orbital lesions. Herein, we review the clinical and pathologic findings of orbital GPA, focusing on the differentiation of this disease from other inflammatory orbital lesions. PMID:25076302

  14. Molecular pathological epidemiology gives clues to paradoxical findings.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Reiko; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Shibuya, Kenji; Mittleman, Murray A; Wang, Molin; Field, Alison E; Giovannucci, Edward; Lochhead, Paul; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have described what appear to be paradoxical associations, where an incongruous relationship is observed between a certain well-established risk factor for disease incidence and favorable clinical outcome among patients with that disease. For example, the "obesity paradox" represents the association between obesity and better survival among patients with a certain disease such as coronary heart disease. Paradoxical observations cause vexing clinical and public health problems as they raise questions on causal relationships and hinder the development of effective interventions. Compelling evidence indicates that pathogenic processes encompass molecular alterations within cells and the microenvironment, influenced by various exogenous and endogenous exposures, and that interpersonal heterogeneity in molecular pathology and pathophysiology exists among patients with any given disease. In this article, we introduce methods of the emerging integrative interdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE), which is founded on the unique disease principle and disease continuum theory. We analyze and decipher apparent paradoxical findings, utilizing the MPE approach and available literature data on tumor somatic genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Through our analyses in colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and glioblastoma (malignant brain tumor), we can readily explain paradoxical associations between disease risk factors and better prognosis among disease patients. The MPE paradigm and approach can be applied to not only neoplasms but also various non-neoplastic diseases where there exists indisputable ubiquitous heterogeneity of pathogenesis and molecular pathology. The MPE paradigm including consideration of disease heterogeneity plays an essential role in advancements of precision medicine and public health. PMID:26445996

  15. Iliac vein compression syndrome: Clinical, imaging and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Katelyn N; Sheth, Rahul A; Khademhosseini, Ali; Bautista, Jemianne; Oklu, Rahmi

    2015-11-28

    May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is the pathologic compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery, resulting in left lower extremity pain, swelling, and deep venous thrombosis. Though this syndrome was first described in 1851, there are currently no standardized criteria to establish the diagnosis of MTS. Since MTS is treated by a wide array of specialties, including interventional radiology, vascular surgery, cardiology, and vascular medicine, the need for an established diagnostic criterion is imperative in order to reduce misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although MTS has historically been diagnosed by the presence of pathologic features, the use of dynamic imaging techniques has led to a more radiologic based diagnosis. Thus, imaging plays an integral part in screening patients for MTS, and the utility of a wide array of imaging modalities has been evaluated. Here, we summarize the historical aspects of the clinical features of this syndrome. We then provide a comprehensive assessment of the literature on the efficacy of imaging tools available to diagnose MTS. Lastly, we provide clinical pearls and recommendations to aid physicians in diagnosing the syndrome through the use of provocative measures. PMID:26644823

  16. Iliac vein compression syndrome: Clinical, imaging and pathologic findings

    PubMed Central

    Brinegar, Katelyn N; Sheth, Rahul A; Khademhosseini, Ali; Bautista, Jemianne; Oklu, Rahmi

    2015-01-01

    May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is the pathologic compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery, resulting in left lower extremity pain, swelling, and deep venous thrombosis. Though this syndrome was first described in 1851, there are currently no standardized criteria to establish the diagnosis of MTS. Since MTS is treated by a wide array of specialties, including interventional radiology, vascular surgery, cardiology, and vascular medicine, the need for an established diagnostic criterion is imperative in order to reduce misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although MTS has historically been diagnosed by the presence of pathologic features, the use of dynamic imaging techniques has led to a more radiologic based diagnosis. Thus, imaging plays an integral part in screening patients for MTS, and the utility of a wide array of imaging modalities has been evaluated. Here, we summarize the historical aspects of the clinical features of this syndrome. We then provide a comprehensive assessment of the literature on the efficacy of imaging tools available to diagnose MTS. Lastly, we provide clinical pearls and recommendations to aid physicians in diagnosing the syndrome through the use of provocative measures. PMID:26644823

  17. Pathological findings in 165 patients explored for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, D; Kozak-Ribbens, G; Rodet, L; Aubert, M; Borsarelli, J; Cozzone, P J; Pellissier, J F

    1993-01-01

    The pathological findings in 165 patients explored for malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility are reported. The first group of 120 subjects were patients investigated for MH. These patients had suffered an attack of MH under anaesthetic or were members of families in which a subject had died of MH. In vitro contracture tests revealed 25 malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) subjects, with positive contracture tests for halothane and caffeine, 5 malignant hyperthermia subjects with reaction to caffeine only (MHC), 3 malignant hyperthermia subjects with reaction to halothane only (MHH) and 87 malignant hyperthermia negative (MHN) subjects with normal contracture tests. The second group of 45 subjects had exertional heat stroke. In vitro contracture tests performed at least 3 months after the exertional heat stroke revealed 11 MHS, 6 MHC, 2 MHH subjects and 26 MHN. In both groups, whatever the in vitro contracture test results, pathological findings were heterogeneous and revealed various changes: rhabdomyolysis, mitochondrial myopathy, denervation, type II atrophy, AMPase deficiency, non-specific findings or normal features. Central core myopathy was only observed in the first subgroup and was the only disease significantly associated with MH. In contrast to previous reports, this study demonstrates the absence of a specific malignant hyperthermia or exertional heat stroke myopathy. Furthermore, the discovery of MHS subjects among the EHS group of patients highlights the need for systematic exploration of all these patients. PMID:8186710

  18. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal studies provide the basis for the challenging translation endothelial nanomedicine into the clinical domain. PMID:26435455

  19. Pathological findings in wild harvested dugongs Dugong dugon of central Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Woolford, L; Franklin, C; Whap, T; Loban, F; Lanyon, J M

    2015-03-01

    The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines. PMID:25751852

  20. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonsurgical treatments for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) results in unpredictable success rates. Surgical treatment may be chosen as reports show mostly encouraging but variable success rates depending on the pathology. The distribution of surgically confirmed pathologies in AT is largely unknown. Purpose: To ascertain the distributions of macroscopically observed anomalies in participants undergoing surgical treatment for chronic AT. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed. The surgeries were performed on professional and recreational athletes during the years 1976-1980, 1986-1990, 1996-2000, and 2006-2010. Surgical diagnoses, along with age- and sport-specific characteristics, were collected retrospectively from patient records. Results: The relative proportion of tendinosis increased during the study period from 4.2% to 21%, and paratenonitis decreased from 50% to 26%. Retrocalcaneal pathologies were the most common surgically confirmed lesions at 30%, while the mean age at surgery increased by 11 years over the entire study period. Conclusion: Surgically confirmed pathologies in and around the Achilles tendon showed coherent changes, chronic paratenonitis, and retrocalcaneal problems as the most prevalent findings. The classification of midportion and insertional tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis in AT should strictly be used as a clinical diagnosis. During surgical evaluations, the diagnosis is further clarified as more specific pathologies may be identified. PMID:26535293

  1. Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-04-01

    The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability. PMID:22441196

  2. Pathological findings in enucleated eyes after intravitreal melphalan injection.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Amoli, Fahimeh Asadi

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the pathological findings of the eye after intravitreal melphalan for viable vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma. All enucleated eyes receiving an intravitreal injection of melphalan (10-50 ?g in 0.05 cc) were evaluated for histological changes. Of 25 treated cases, 8 eyes needed enucleation because of phthisis, parent request, or new tumor development. One of the cases was excluded from the study because of a history of intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan. There was no case of needle-site scleral involvement by retinoblastoma cells. In two eyes receiving 50 ?g melphalan, no viable retinoblastoma cell was detectable in the eye. Severe gliosis, vascular occlusion, retinal necrosis, hemorrhage and neovascularization were seen. Histologically, intravitreal melphalan for recalcitrant or recurrent vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma appears to provide acceptable vitreous seed control. It seems that higher doses could be destructive causing ischemic necrosis in the retina, severe gliosis and secondary neovascular changes as well as having a destructive effect on retinoblastoma cells. PMID:24043335

  3. Findings of non-pathologic perfusion defects by CT arterial portography and non-pathologic enhancement of CT hepatic arteriography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Pei-Hong; Lin, Hao-Gao; Li, Jin-Qing; Mo, Yun-Xian; Zheng, Lie; Lu, Li-Xia; Ruan, Chao-Mei; Chen, Lin

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To recognize the characteristic findings of non-pathologic perfusion defects with CT arterial portography (CTAP) and nonpathologic enhancement found in CT hepatic arteriography (CTHA). METHONDS: The manifestations of nonpathologic perfusion defects with CTAP and non-pathologic enhancement found in CTHA were analyzed in 50 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The false-positive rate of perfusion defects detected in CTAP was 15.1%. The shapes of perfusion defects were peripheral wedge, small, round, and patchy. The occurrence rate of non-pathologic enhancement found in CTHA was 22.0%. The shapes of non-pathologic enhancement were small, round, irregular, and wedge. CONCLUSION: There was high frequency of non-pathologic perfusion defects detected with CTAP and non-pathologic enhancement found in CTHA. The simultaneous use of both procedures may help decrease the false-positive rate, and increase the veracity of diagnosis for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11819358

  4. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Jewells, Valerie; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts. PMID:26288757

  5. Transrectal electrical impedance tomography of the prostate: Spatially coregistered pathological findings for prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuqing; Borsic, Andrea; Heaney, John; Seigne, John; Schned, Alan; Baker, Michael; Wason, Shaun; Hartov, Alex; Halter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common malignancies and currently represents the second leading cancer-specific cause of death in men. The current use of single modality transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance has a limited sensitivity and specificity for accurately identifying cancerous lesions within the prostate. This study introduces a novel prostate cancer imaging method that combines TRUS with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and reports on initial clinical findings based on in vivo measurements. Methods: The ultrasound system provides anatomic information, which guides EIT image reconstruction. EIT reconstructions are correlated with semiquantitative pathological findings. Thin plate spline warping transformations are employed to overlay electrical impedance images and pathological maps describing the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, with the latter used as reference for data analysis. Clinical data were recorded from a total of 50 men prior to them undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment. Student's t-tests were employed to statistically examine the electrical property difference between cancerous tissue and benign tissue as defined through histological assessment of the excised gland. Results: Example EIT reconstructions are presented along with a statistical analysis comparing EIT and pathology. An average transformation error of 1.67% is found when 381 spatially coregistered pathological images are compared with their target EIT reconstructed counterparts. At EIT signal frequencies of 0.4, 3.2, and 25.6 kHz, paired-testing demonstrated that the conductivity of cancerous regions is significantly greater than that of benign regions (?p < 0.0304). Conclusions: These preliminary clinical findings suggest the potential benefits electrical impedance measurements might have for prostate cancer detection. PMID:23718610

  6. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, A.; Cesaretti, M.; Tirone, A.; Francioli, N.; Piccolomini, A.; Vuolo, G.; Verre, L.; Savelli, V.; Di Cosmo, L.; Carli, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  7. Giant Sigmoid Diverticulum: A Rare Presentation of a Common Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, A; Cesaretti, M; Tirone, A; Francioli, N; Piccolomini, A; Vuolo, G; Verre, L; Savelli, V; Di Cosmo, L; Carli, A F

    2009-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulum is a common disease, affecting about 35% of patients above the age of 60, giant sigmoid diverticulum is an uncommon variant of which only relatively few cases have been described in the literature. We report on our experience with a patient affected by giant sigmoid diverticulum who was treated with diverticulectomy. Resection of the diverticulum is a safe surgical procedure, provided that the colon section close to the lesion presents no sign of flogosis or diverticula; in addition, recurrences are not reported after 6-year follow-up. PMID:20651957

  8. Pathological changes in the lumbar spine of pigs: gross findings.

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C E

    1979-01-01

    The lumbar vertebral columns from 60 sows and 30 slaughter weight pigs were examined grossly for pathological changes. Asymmetry of lumbar articular facets and minor periarticular osteophytes were seen in the slaughter weight group. Degeneration of intervertebral discs or vertebral osteophytes were not present. In contrast, 38% of 60 sows had vertebral osteophytes and 40% had degeneration of intervertebral discs. Extensive ankylosing spondylosis was present in two sows. Other vertebral lesions observed in sows include asymmetry and arthrosis of articular facets, fissures and areas of cavitation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral end plate, and vertebral osteomyelitis and/or vertebral fracture. Extravertebral skeletal lesions, some of which could be related to a clinical history of lameness or posterior paralysis, include sacroiliac arthrosis, pelvic deformity, polyarthritis, femoral osteomyelitis, sacroiliac dislocation and epiphyseolysis involving the femoral head or tuber ischii. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:556197

  9. Pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons.

    PubMed

    Bonar, C J; Garner, M M; Weber, E S; Keller, C J; Murray, M; Adams, L M; Frasca, S

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective study of the pathologic findings in weedy (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy (Phycodurus eques) seadragons was performed on specimens submitted to 2 reference laboratories from 1994 to 2012 to determine the range and occurrence of diseases affecting aquarium-held populations. One hundred two and 94 total diagnoses were recorded in weedy and leafy seadragons, respectively. Two of the more common etiologic diagnoses in both species were mycobacteriosis and scuticociliatosis, whereas myxozoanosis was common in weedy seadragons. Metazoan parasite infections were less common etiologic diagnoses. There were no correlations between mycobacteriosis and ciliate protozoan infections in either species. Myxozoanosis was usually found in combination with other diseases and, except for 1 case, was restricted to weedy seadragons. Phaeohyphomycosis, nonmycobacterial bacterial infections, and trauma were also important but less frequent diagnoses. Intestinal coccidiosis was found in weedy but not leafy seadragons. Mineralization of the swim bladder was detected in 26 of 197 leafy seadragons and only 2 of 257 weedy seadragons. Although weedy and leafy seadragons share certain diseases of significance to exhibit populations, there are diseases unique to each species about which the veterinary pathologist, clinician, or diagnostician should be aware. PMID:23528940

  10. Two Cases of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia of Similar Appearance in Adult Monozygotic Twin: Pathology and Computed Tomographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Sun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is related to decreased lung function throughout life. However, the pathology and radiology pattern of BPD of adults are not documented well yet. In this case report, we present BPD case of an adult monozygotic twin showing nearly identical lesions on chest computed tomography (CT). CT images showed mixed areas of ground-glass and reticular opacities in both lungs. They had common histories of pneumonias requiring mechanical ventilations in period of infants. Pulmonary function test of one patient showed a pulmonary insufficiency with airway obstruction. Pathologic findings showed bronchiolar hyperplasia and peribronchiolar fibrosis which was similar to classic BPD patients. Our twin case report might help provide distinguishing pathology and radiology pattern of an adult pulmonary sequelaes of BPD. It might be reasonable to make close follow-up for BPD patients to evaluate the long-term outcomes of BPD survivors. PMID:25861348

  11. Two cases of bronchopulmonary dysplasia of similar appearance in adult monozygotic twin: pathology and computed tomographic findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Pyo; Chun, Eun Mi; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Sun Hee

    2015-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is related to decreased lung function throughout life. However, the pathology and radiology pattern of BPD of adults are not documented well yet. In this case report, we present BPD case of an adult monozygotic twin showing nearly identical lesions on chest computed tomography (CT). CT images showed mixed areas of ground-glass and reticular opacities in both lungs. They had common histories of pneumonias requiring mechanical ventilations in period of infants. Pulmonary function test of one patient showed a pulmonary insufficiency with airway obstruction. Pathologic findings showed bronchiolar hyperplasia and peribronchiolar fibrosis which was similar to classic BPD patients. Our twin case report might help provide distinguishing pathology and radiology pattern of an adult pulmonary sequelaes of BPD. It might be reasonable to make close follow-up for BPD patients to evaluate the long-term outcomes of BPD survivors. PMID:25861348

  12. MR Imaging Findings of Painful Type II Accessory Navicular Bone: Correlation with Surgical and Pathologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Tai; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. Materials and Methods The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. Results The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. Conclusion The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients. PMID:15637478

  13. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T

    2015-09-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  14. Ribosomopathies: how a common root can cause a tree of pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Nadia; Gazda, Hanna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, of which Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features shared among human DBA and animal models have emerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise from differences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. PMID:26398160

  15. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging

    PubMed Central

    Crary, John F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Schneider, Julie A.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Abner, Erin L.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E.; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Knopman, David S.; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J.; Murray, Melissa E.; Neltner, Janna H.; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W.; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L.; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R.; Toledo, Jonathan B.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We recommend a new term, primary age-related tauopathy (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (A?) plaques. For these NFT+/A?? brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFT are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as tangle-only dementia and tangle-predominant senile dementia, are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of A? accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  16. Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Worwa, Gabriella; Hilbe, Monika; Chaignat, Valrie; Hofmann, Martin A; Griot, Christian; Ehrensperger, Felix; Doherr, Marcus G; Thr, Barbara

    2010-08-26

    Twenty-seven sheep of the four most common Swiss breeds and the English breed Poll Dorset were experimentally infected with a northern European field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Animals of all breeds developed clinical signs, viremia and pathological lesions, demonstrating that BTV-8 is fully capable of replicating and inducing bluetongue disease (BT) in the investigated sheep. Necropsy performed between 10 and 16 days post-infectionem (d.p.i.) revealed BT-typical hemorrhages, effusions, edema, erosions and activation of lymphatic tissues. Hemorrhages on the base of the Arteria pulmonalis and the left Musculus papillaris subauricularis were frequently present. Histology confirmed the macroscopical findings. Using a score system, clinical manifestation and pathology were found to be significantly related. Furthermore, clinical signs and fever were shown to be indicative for the concurrent presence of high amounts of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) in blood. Spleen, lung, lymph nodes and tonsils from all animals were analyzed regarding viral RNA loads and infectivity using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation in cell culture, respectively. The highest amount of viral RNA was detected in spleen and lung and rRT-PCR revealed to be a more sensitive method for virus detection compared to virus isolation. A long-term follow-up was performed with three sheep showing that BTV-8 viral RNA in blood was present up to 133 d.p.i. and in certain tissues even on 151 d.p.i. No significant breed-related differences were observed concerning clinicopathological picture and viremia, and the Swiss sheep were as susceptible to BTV-8 infection as Poll Dorset sheep, demonstrating a remarkably high virulence of BTV-8 for indigenous sheep breeds. PMID:20153937

  17. Usual and unusual MRI findings of ovarian fibroma: correlation with pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian fibromas typically exhibit low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted images, which reflects their abundant fibrocollagenous stroma. However, the mass of larger tumors often demonstrates high signal intensity on T(2)-weighted images, which reflects varied degenerative changes, such as cystic degeneration, edematous change, hemorrhagic infarction, or necrosis caused by torsion and myxomatous change. We illustrate typical and atypical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of ovarian fibromas and correlate them with histopathologic findings. PMID:18460848

  18. Ultrasound pitfalls and artifacts related to six common fetal findings.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hanna M; Ankola, Anita; Coleman, Beverly

    2012-06-01

    Routine use of ultrasound (US) in antenatal screening has increased over the past decade among both low- and high-risk pregnancies. Recognition of common US imaging pitfalls and artifacts associated with frequently encountered fetal anomalies on obstetric US is imperative to avoid misdiagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present practical tips on how to accurately diagnose 6 fetal anomalies including choroid plexus cyst, mild ventriculomegaly, echogenic intracardiac focus, prominent thymus, mild renal pelviectasis, and echogenic bowel. A suspected fetal anomaly should always be visualized in the correct plane and confirmed in at least one other plane. If the abnormal finding persists, performance of precise measurements in the relevant planes using appropriate gain settings, color Doppler imaging, and the application of specific criteria is necessary to achieve the correct diagnosis and to recommend appropriate patient referral. PMID:22572863

  19. A review of common oral pathology lesions, with a focus on periodontology and implantology.

    PubMed

    Meiller, Timothy F; Garber, Karen; Scheper, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The recognition, diagnosis, and management of common oral conditions requires knowledge of the lesion's clinical characteristics as well as the underlying pathology of the lesion. A thorough medical history, knowledge of normal anatomy, and a complete head and neck examination are necessary for the early recognition of oral lesions. Once any oral pathology is noted, clinical characteristics of size, location, texture, color, symptoms, and duration are necessary to arrive at a working plan and eventually a definitive diagnosis. In the end, the diagnosis often requires a biopsy or culture of the lesion. The clinical and histopathologic and/or mycologic correlation renders a final diagnosis leading to therapeutic options. A thorough knowledge of common oral lesions will allow the dentist/specialist to provide proper therapy or allow for referral to an oral medicine or oral surgery specialist. This review covers common infectious, reactive/traumatic, white, red, and bone lesions, as well as the vesiculobullous/desquamative gingival conditions, with a focus on periodontology and implantology. We cover the etiology, clinical features, histopathology, and treatment of each oral pathological condition. PMID:23040352

  20. Incidental Finding of a Rare Urachal Pathology: Urachal Mucinous Cystic Tumour of Low Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath; Tanny, Sharman Tan; Norris, Briony; Appu, Sree; Pan, David

    2016-01-01

    Urachal mucinous cystic tumours are rare pathological findings with only 23 previously reported cases in the literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidentally found urachal mucinous cystic tumour laparoscopically excised. With its known potential to cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete surgical excision is important. Long-term cystoscopic and radiological surveillance is also required.

  1. Pathological findings on peripheral nerves, lymph nodes, and visceral organs of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Liu, T C; Qiu, J S

    1984-09-01

    Pathological findings in a) 103 autopsies, b) biopsy material of peripheral nerve tissue from 210 tuberculoid patients, and c) inguinal lymph nodes from 106 leprosy cases are presented. Overall, lesions in peripheral nerves were most common in the ulnar (85.7% in the TT type, 98.3% in LL), peroneal (77.8% in TT, 97.9% in LL), median (80% in TT, 90.2% in LL), radial (66.6% in TT, 82% in LL), and the great auricular, tibial and supraorbital nerves. The ratio of bilateral nerve involvement in the same nerve was higher than unilateral involvement (approximately 5:1). Lesions of the peripheral nerve ganglion were seen in the LL type (22 cases, 61.1%) and the TT type (8 cases, 53.3%). These have seldom been mentioned in past literature. Superficial lymph nodes were most commonly affected in all types of leprosy. Lymph nodes in the hepatic and splenic portal areas were sometimes involved in lepromatous or borderline cases. Between the two polar types of leprosy, the lesions in the lymph nodes showed gradual transitions in a spectrum-like pattern which were similar to the changes in the lesions in the skin. In lepromatous leprosy, lesions could be found in 85.3% of the cases in the liver, 41.1% in the spleen, 86.7% in the testes, approximately 50% in the upper respiratory tract (including 36.4% in the nasopharynx), and 34.4% in the adrenal gland. Three cases had ophthalmologic lesions. In borderline leprosy, biphasic lesions of leprosy were found in various internal organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6541205

  2. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  3. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  4. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  5. African horse sickness outbreaks in Namibia from 2006 to 2013: clinical, pathological and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Scacchia, Massimo; Molini, Umberto; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Maseke, Adrianatus; Bortone, Grazia; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Monacoo, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Pini, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector?borne viral disease of equids, endemic in Sub?Saharan Africa. This article reports the clinic?pathological and laboratory findings observed in the framework of passive surveillance during the AHS outbreaks which occurred in Namibia between 2006 and 2013. This study was conducted in the framework of the collaboration among the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (Teramo, Italy), the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry, and the Namibian National Veterinary Association. A total of 92 horses were investigated, showing different clinical form of AHS: peracute/acute (n = 43), sub?acute (n = 21) and mild AHS fever (n = 19). Clinical data were not available for 9 horses, because they were found dead. Pathological findings have been recorded for 35 horses. At necropsy, pulmonary and subcutaneous oedema, haemorrhages and enlargement of lymph nodes were mainly observed. Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory testing, AHS virus (AHSV) was isolated from 50 horses and the identified serotypes were: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The phylogenetic analysis of the S10 genome sequences segregated the Namibian AHSV strains in the same clusters of those circulating in South Africa in recent years. The description of AHS clinical, pathological, and laboratory features of AHS provided in this article is of value for differential diagnosis and control of AHS, especially in areas currently free from this disease. PMID:26129663

  6. Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%2.5% and 75%96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time. PMID:15833980

  7. Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a new study says, citing burnout and school debt as two possible reasons why. "Our findings clearly ... younger age, not being married, and large educational debt, the researchers found. The average cost of medical ...

  8. Skin Infections Common in High School Wrestlers, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 000 exposures (one athlete participating in one practice, competition or performance) were 28.5 among wrestlers and ... findings showed. Most athletes with infections returned to competition within three to six days, but some of ...

  9. Autism or autisms? Finding the lowest common denominator.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of a minicolumnopathy in autism. Minicolumnar abnormalities as well as certain migratory and proliferative defects, common to autism, may be rooted in the general mechanics of periventricular germinal cell division and maturation. Increased numbers of periventricular germinal cell/radial glia can be mimicked by a variety of different transgenic mouse models and environmental factors. These murine models and environmental factors illustrate how a fairly homogenous neuroanatomical phenotype can diverge at the genetic level. By first defining the lowest common denominator (i.e., the minicolumn) and then examining which pathways are vulnerable to involved genetic and environmental factors, we may gain a greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Autism Spectrum Conditions. PMID:21766543

  10. Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: From Common Pathologies to Potential New Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a major health risk in the United States, with over 20% of individuals over the age of 60 currently suffering from this disease and an additional 1.5 million new cases diagnosed in patients over 20 years of age in 2005. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease represents a major risk to the aging population, with recent statistics estimating up to 16 million people diagnosed by 2050 in the United States alone. As type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are now recognized as members of the broader class of amyloid diseases and because the pathologies of disease progression between these indications is similar, common strategies focused on the design of next-generation therapeutics can be envisioned and are discussed herein. PMID:19885123

  11. Finding Common Ground: Weed Management in Lincoln County, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonner, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes a personal experience in the effort to avoid widespread herbicide spraying. Provides insights for building a successful campaign: involvement, finding support, acceptance of differences of opinion, autonomy from political factions, and not assuming people are closed to healthier alternatives. (MCO)

  12. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and

  13. A natural language processing (NLP) program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil Abraham; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Introduction and Objective Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex, free text into simplified, organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. Methods An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included: TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a "gold standard" compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. Results: NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in <1 second, whereas the manual reviewers averaged 3.2 minutes per report. Conclusions: This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases. PMID:25083914

  14. The Pathologic Findings of Skin, Lymph Node, Liver, and Bone Marrow in Patients With Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Kwon, Jee Eun; Yim, Hyunee; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju-Yang; Han, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is characterized by fever, skin rash, and lymphadenopathy with leukocytosis and anemia as common laboratory findings. We investigated the characteristic pathologic findings of skin, lymph node, liver, and bone marrow to assist in proper diagnosis of AOSD. Forty AOSD patients were included in the study. The skin (26 patients), lymph node (8 patients), liver (8 patients), or bone marrow biopsies (22 patients) between 1998 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. AOSD patients were diagnosed according to the Yamaguchi criteria after excluding common infections, hematological and autoimmune diseases. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and EpsteinBarr virusencoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization were performed. Most skin biopsies revealed mild lymphocytic or histiocytic infiltration in the upper dermis. Nuclear debris was frequently found in the dermis in 14 cases (53.8%). More than half of the cases (n?=?14, 53.8%) showed interstitial mucin deposition. Some cases showed interface dermatitis with keratinocyte necrosis or basal vacuolization (n?=?10; 38.5%). The lymph node biopsies showed a paracortical or diffuse hyperplasia pattern with immunoblastic and vascular proliferation. The liver biopsies showed sparse portal and sinusoidal inflammatory cell infiltration. All cases showed various degrees of Kupffer cell hyperplasia. The cellularity of bone marrow varied from 20% to 80%. Myeloid cell hyperplasia was found in 14 out of the 22 cases (63.6%). On immunohistochemistry, the number of CD8-positive lymphocytes was greater than that of CD4-positive lymphocytes in the skin, liver, and bone marrow, but the number of CD4-positive lymphocytes was greater than that of CD8-positive lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. The relatively specific findings with respect to the cutaneous manifestation of AOSD were mild inflammatory cell infiltration in the upper dermis, basal vacuolization, keratinocyte necrosis, presence of karyorrhexis, and mucin in the dermis. In all cases, pathologic findings in the lymph nodes included paracortical hyperplasia with vascular and immunoblastic proliferation. Skin and lymph node pathology in addition to clinical findings can aid in the diagnosis of AOSD. PMID:25929927

  15. Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Byrd, K.L.; Rutherford, M.B.; Brown, S.R.; Clark, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing current conflict over large carnivore conservation and designing effective strategies that enjoy broad public support depend on a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and demands of those who are involved or affected. We conducted a workshop attended by diverse participants involved in conservation of large carnivores in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains, and used Q methodology to elucidate participant perspectives regarding "problems" and "solutions". Q methodology employs qualitative and quantitative techniques to reveal the subjectivity in any situation. We identified four general perspectives for both problems and solutions, three of which (Carnivore Advocates, Devolution Advocates, and Process Reformers) were shared by participants across domains. Agency Empathizers (problems) and Economic Pragmatists (solutions) were not clearly linked. Carnivore and Devolution Advocates expressed diametrically opposed perspectives that legitimized different sources of policy-relevant information ("science" for Carnivore Advocates and "local knowledge" for Devolution Advocates). Despite differences, we identified potential common ground focused on respectful, persuasive, and creative processes that would build understanding and tolerance. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathologic findings in patients with targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate needle core biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Rachel L; Nour, Sherif G; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the routine (non-targeted) sampling approach of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-GB), targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies (TMRI-GB) target regions of the prostate suspicious for prostate cancer (PCa), based on findings on multiparametric MRI. We sought to examine the pathologic findings identified on TMRI-GB, due to the fact that there are limited studies on this in the Pathology literature. A search was made through our Urologic Pathology files for prostate needle core biopsies that were obtained via TMRI-GB. Forty-six patients were identified. Mean patient (PT) age was 62 years (range: 50-78 years). Twenty one of 46 PTs (46%) had a history of PCa, 10/46 PTs (22%) had a history of negative TRUS-GB and rising PSA, and the remaining 15/46 PTs (32%) had never undergone biopsy. Cancer detection rate on TMRI-GB was 57% for PTs with a prior diagnosis of PCa, 50% for PTs with a history of benign biopsy, and 67% who were biopsy nave. An average of 3.16 cores were sampled from malignant lesions and an average of 2.74 were sampled from benign lesions (P=0.02). TMRI-GB has a higher cancer detection rate than TRUS-GB. TMRI-GB may have a critical role as a tool for active surveillance, tumor mapping, and primary detection of PCa, which will likely evolve as the ability to identify malignant lesions improve. The roles of pathologists and radiologists in the validation of this procedure will continue to be even more vital in the future. PMID:26617689

  17. Malignant lymphoma in ferrets: clinical and pathological findings in 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Erdman, S E; Moore, F M; Rose, R; Fox, J G

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in 19 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with malignant lymphoma are reviewed. Peripubescent ferrets had rapidly progressive stage IV high grade immunoblastic or small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. Adult ferrets had stage II or IV low grade diffuse small lymphocytic (DSL) lymphoma, stage IV high grade small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, or stage IV high grade immunoblastic polymorphous (IBP) lymphoma. Three ferrets had concurrent IBP and DSL lymphoma involving different organs. The IBP admixture of immunoblasts, large atypical lymphocytes, Reed-Sternberg-like cells, lymphoblasts and small lymphocytes has been associated with certain retrovirally associated lymphomas and nodal hyperplasias in man, non-human primates and cats. Aleutian disease, a parvovirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease, also involves clinical and histological features similar to certain lymphomas in ferrets. Seven ferrets tested were seronegative for feline leukaemia virus antigen. Only one of eight ferrets was positive for Aleutian parvovirus antibody. The clinical and pathological findings are suggestive of a viral aetiology for certain lymphomas in ferrets. PMID:1556256

  18. Finding common ground: redefining women's work in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J K

    1992-01-01

    Colombia's women's organizations which help household workers are profiled. In Bogota the Asociacion de Mujeres Trabajadoras del Hogar (AMUTRAHOGAR) provides legal counseling, educational courses, and a friendly gathering place. The experiences of several women are highlighted, e.g., Emma Ojeda comes to the weekly meetings for legal and moral support. AMUTRAHOGAR is an alliance of unskilled and largely rural workers and professional and urban women who are concerned with the joint recognition of the importance of domestic service. The stigma is by gender, social rank, and sometimes race. This informal economy does not have very accurate figures on workers. The estimate is half a million of mostly rural migrants. Another important organization is the Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poplacion (ACEP) which is a nongovernmental organization in Bogota begun in 1981. The aim was to review existing labor laws and evaluate how well the code was meeting women's needs. Magdalena Leon has been a research sociologist studying women's issues for 20 years through ACEP. ACEP has worked with the Sindicato de Trabajadoras del Servicio Domesticao (SINTRASEDOM) which represents and lobbies for household workers. Violation of the law on live-ins, wages, and time off duty was discovered a common occurrence. In the application of the law, employers found loopholes, and, for instance, subtracted food, clothing, and shelter which left little pocket money. The ACEP program was expanded to other cities in 1983. Program expansion included informal courses on citizenship, sexuality, and the role of women in Colombian society. When the social security code was reformed in 1977, household workers became eligible for benefits, but many employers were unaware of it. The law also excluded those with wages under the minimum wage. A public campaign was begun in 1985 by ACEP and SINTRASEDOM to inform people about the law. Community action was disrupted by unrelated political violence and a volcanic eruption. In January 1988 after 5 years of hard work Law 11 was passed which assured household workers social security benefits. A by-product was consciousness raising of many women and the formation of autonomous women's groups. Radio broadcasts now use the term professional household workers. PMID:12286185

  19. Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    Simola, O; Wiberg, M; Jokela, J; Wahlsten, M; Sivonen, K; Syrjä, P

    2012-09-01

    A 3-year-old Cairn Terrier dog that had been in contact with sea water containing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was euthanized because of acute hepatic failure and anuria after a 5-day illness. Histologic findings included lytic and hemorrhagic centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and renal tubular necrosis. The cyanotoxin nodularin was detected in liver and kidney by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nodularin is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the algal species Nodularia spumigena. The intensity of algal blooms has increased during the past decades in the Baltic Sea region, thus increasing the risk for intoxications in domestic and wild animals. The authors describe the pathologic findings of cyanobacterial toxicosis in a dog with direct identification of the toxin from organ samples. PMID:21825312

  20. Scientists Find Many Common Genetic Variations Play a Role in Common Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cause of four common diseases — rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes — is ... genetic factors and environmental factors could lead to celiac disease, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, or other ...

  1. Perforated duodenal diverticulum, a rare complication of a common pathology: A seven-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Andrea; Christian, Buchs Nicolas; Pascal, Bucher; Stephane, Dominguez; Philippe, Morel

    2013-03-27

    Duodenal diverticula (DD) are frequently encountered and are usually asymptomatic, with an incidence at autopsy of 22%. Perforation of DD is a rare complication (around 160 cases reported) with potentially dramatic consequences. However, little evidence regarding its treatment is available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our experience of perforated DD, with a focus on surgical management. Between January 2001 and June 2011, all perforated DD were retrospectively reviewed at a single centre. Seven cases (5 women and 2 men; median age: 72.4 years old, rang: 48-91 years) were found. The median American Society of Anesthesiologists' score in this population was 3 (range: 3-4). The perforation was located in the second portion of duodenum (D2) in six patients and in the third portion (D3) in one patient. Six of these patients were treated surgically: five patients underwent DD resection with direct closure and one was treated by surgical drainage and laparostomy. One patient was treated conservatively. One patient died and one patient presented a leak that was successfully treated conservatively. The median hospital stay was 21.1 d (range: 15-30 d). Perforated DD is an uncommon presentation of a common pathology. Diverticular excision with direct closure seems to offer the best chance of survival and was associated with a low morbidity, even in fragile patients. PMID:23556061

  2. Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Jimnez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benk, Maria; Schniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

    2011-04-01

    An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention. PMID:21441198

  3. Hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in goats naturally infection with Cysticercus tenuicollis.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj

    2014-03-01

    In Iran, Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic. The migration of this parasite causes traumatic hepatitis and death in young animals. The objective of this work was to evaluate hematological, biochemical and pathological findings in 50 goats infected with C. tenuicollis in comparison with 50 non-infected goats, as control group. This study was carried out as case-control. Blood and liver samples were taken from the goats, analyzed for hematology and biochemical parameters and liver samples were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further microscopic study in pathology laboratory. Significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total protein (P<0.05) and significant increase in white blood cell count, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in infected goats (P<0.05), compared with those in non-infected control group. The microscopic lesion in liver included large concentric foci of hemorrhage in migration stage and decreased number of hepatocytes, dilation of sinusoids, presence of inflammatory cells in portal areas and double layered parasitic cyst formation in chronic stages. In conclusion, various changes in parameters could have deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality of the herd. PMID:24505181

  4. Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites with different endocrinological and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Chiho; Tani, Mineto; Nibe, Kazumi; Kitahara, Go; Haneda, Shingo; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyake, Yoh-Iichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-04-01

    Two cases of bovine male pseudohermaphrodites (PH) were subjected for clinical investigation with transrectal ultrasonography, endocrinology with adoption of hCG-stimulation test, cytogenetics with analysis of sex chromosome and Y-specific DNA, and finally histological examination. Results were compared with normal calves. Case 1 was a 10-month-old calf with XX/XY chimeras, showing elevation of testosterone (T) levels, but no change in progesterone (P(4)) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes in the cavitas pelvis. Case 2 was an 18-month-old calf with SRY positive-XY chromosome, showing lower level of plasma T and P(4) after hCG test, and possessed atrophied testes and undifferentiated genital ducts. Both cases possessed female-like external genitalia with similar pathological findings, however endocrinological and cytogenetical aspects were different each other. PMID:20009424

  5. MR Imaging of Deltoid Ligament Pathologic Findings and Associated Impingement Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Subhawong, Ty K.; Carrino, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Injuries of the deltoid ligament of the ankle are increasingly recognized with the widespread use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The use of higher magnetic field strengths requires familiarity with the anatomic substructure of the deltoid ligament to better localize and characterize pathologic findings. Specifically, improved image resolution allows components of the superficial (tibiocalcaneal, tibionavicular, posterior superficial tibiotalar, and tibiospring ligaments) and deep (anterior tibiotalar and posterior deep tibiotalar ligaments) portions of the ligament to be evaluated separately. Awareness of the deltoid ligament substructure and associated injury patterns can guide the radiologist in defining underlying mechanical derangement, such as that seen in various impingement disorders. In this review article, the MR imaging technique for the deltoid ligament is summarized, and the normal and abnormal MR imaging appearances of various components of the deltoid ligament and associated impingement syndromes are presented. PMID:20462992

  6. Cutaneous, multilocular T-cell lymphosarcoma in a horse--clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Kbber-Heiss, A; Schilcher, F

    1998-02-01

    Clinical, ultrasonographic and pathological findings of a cutaneous, multilocular T-cell lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma) in a 13-year-old, brown Austrian warmblood mare are reported. The horse was under clinical observation, and the tumours were sonographically monitored over an 8 month period, revealing worsening of body condition, weight loss, lameness of the left hindlimb and a slight increase in the tumours size. Most of the tumours were covered by normal skin, one showed ulceration. Ultrasonography of the tumours allowed accurate anatomical localization in relation to the adjoining tissue, assessment of their internal structure, of involvement of adjacent muscles and of a regional lymph node, and it facilitated the percutaneous fine-needle aspiration. Necropsy confirmed muscular infiltration in three locations. Light microscopy and immunohistology led to the diagnosis of a T-cell lymphosarcoma. PMID:9557123

  7. Endoscopic findings and pathologic characteristics of gastric eosinophilic granuloma: A report of 18 patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wen-Chong; Yu, Jie-Ping; Shen, Lei; Xia, Hong; Luo, He-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the endoscopic findings and patholo-gic characteristics of gastric eosinophilic granuloma (GEG). METHODS: A retrospective study of 18 cases of gastric eosinophilic granulomas was conducted. Gastroscopy was performed and all specimens of biopsies were stained by H&E and observed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Ulcer was the most frequent endoscopic appearance. The others included deformed pylorus and/or duodenal bulb, esophagitis, mucous hyperemia and/or mucosal erosion. Eosinophilic cell infiltration and generous hyperplasia of arterioles, venules and lymph vessels were found in the lesions of the patients. Interstitium had massive eosinophilic infiltrates and was made up of collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Lymphoid follicles were revealed in some sections of biopsies. CONCLUSION: GEG is lack of specific symptoms and physical signs. It can be misdiagnosed as gastric ulcer in most cases before biopsies. Endoscopy and endoscopic multiple deep biopsies in suspected areas are indispensable for correct diagnosis of GEG. PMID:17167848

  8. Characteristics of lung dusts and their relation to dust exposure and pathological findings in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, M; Burilkov, T; Kolev, K; Lalova, P

    1975-09-01

    Lung dusts were investigated, post-mortem, in twenty-five miners from mixed metal mines, tunnels, and quarries who had exposed to high concentrations of mixed dust containing about 20-25% free crystalline silica. The character of the relations found between the amount of quartz per 100 g dry tissue and the clinical, X-ray and pathological findings is similar to that established in coal miners. The difference lies in the fact that with equal amounts of quartz per 100 g dry tissue, there is less silicosis in coal miners than in our cases; the average residence time of retained dust is longer in coal miners, but its quartz per cent is lower. PMID:198369

  9. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel Garca; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

  10. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    PubMed

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. PMID:25209917

  11. Finding regions of interest in pathological images: an attentional model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Francisco; Villalón, Julio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces an automated method for finding diagnostic regions-of-interest (RoIs) in histopathological images. This method is based on the cognitive process of visual selective attention that arises during a pathologist's image examination. Specifically, it emulates the first examination phase, which consists in a coarse search for tissue structures at a "low zoom" to separate the image into relevant regions.1 The pathologist's cognitive performance depends on inherent image visual cues - bottom-up information - and on acquired clinical medicine knowledge - top-down mechanisms -. Our pathologist's visual attention model integrates the latter two components. The selected bottom-up information includes local low level features such as intensity, color, orientation and texture information. Top-down information is related to the anatomical and pathological structures known by the expert. A coarse approximation to these structures is achieved by an oversegmentation algorithm, inspired by psychological grouping theories. The algorithm parameters are learned from an expert pathologist's segmentation. Top-down and bottom-up integration is achieved by calculating a unique index for each of the low level characteristics inside the region. Relevancy is estimated as a simple average of these indexes. Finally, a binary decision rule defines whether or not a region is interesting. The method was evaluated on a set of 49 images using a perceptually-weighted evaluation criterion, finding a quality gain of 3dB when comparing to a classical bottom-up model of attention.

  12. Pathological findings in Gaucher disease type 2 patients following enzyme therapy.

    PubMed

    Bove, K E; Daugherty, C; Grabowski, G A

    1995-09-01

    The pathological outcomes following intravenous acid beta-glucosidase (alglucerase) infusions were compared in two siblings with Gaucher disease type 2, the acute neuronopathic variant. In case 1 enzyme infusions (four doses at 7 months) had no effect when severe progressive visceral and neuronopathic disease were present. Death from progressive disease occurred at 9 months. Case 2 was prenatally diagnosed. Enzyme infusions were initiated presymptomatically at 4 days of age and continued until death at 15.2 months. Development progressed satisfactorily, albeit at a slower than normal rate until age 10 months when progressive brain stem involvement became evident. Death occurred after slowly progressive brain stem dysfunction, but gross motor and cognitive skills were nearly normal. Postmortem light and electron microscope (EM) studies in both cases showed typical central nervous system (CNS) findings and massive infiltration of the lungs and lymph nodes by Gaucher cells. The liver, spleen, and bone marrow, except that in the temporal bone, in case 2 were normal. These studies show that enzyme therapy may slow but does not prevent the development of lethal CNS disease in Gaucher disease type 2, even when initiated presymptomatically. These findings also indicate the nonuniformity of tissue responses to enzyme therapy implying the existence of therapeutically inaccessible compartments that, in less severe variants, may create unexpected long-term disease complications. PMID:7672788

  13. MRI of common and uncommon pathologies involving the periportal space: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine U; Glockner, James F

    2016-01-01

    Imaging detection and differential diagnoses of pathology involving the periportal space can be challenging. MRI is a useful technique for assessment of the periportal space since it readily distinguishes normal and abnormal vascular and biliary anatomy, and the excellent soft tissue discrimination allows for detection of subtle lesions. This pictorial essay describes the anatomy of the periportal space and illustrates the MRI appearance of a variety of pathologies that can affect this region. PMID:26830621

  14. Sensitization, pathologic, and imaging findings comparing symptomatic and quiescent failed renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Feld, Rick I; Colombe, Beth W; Farber, John L; Herman, Jay H; Gulati, Rakesh; Maley, Warren R; Frank, Adam M

    2014-12-01

    Late allograft failure (LAF) is a common cause of end stage renal disease. These patients face interrelated challenges regarding immunosuppression management, risk of graft intolerance syndrome (GIS), and sensitization. This retrospective study analyzes sensitization, pathology, imaging, and transfusion requirements in 33 LAFs presenting either with GIS (22) or grafts remaining quiescent (11). All patients underwent immunosuppression weaning to discontinuation at LAF. Profound increases in sensitization were noted for all groups and occurred in the GIS group prior to transplant nephrectomy (TxN). Patients with GIS experienced a major upswing in sensitization at, or before the time of their symptomatic presentation. For both GIS and quiescent grafts, sensitization appeared to be closely linked to immunosuppression withdrawal. Most transfusion naïve patients became highly sensitized. Fourteen patients in the GIS group underwent TxN which revealed grade II acute cellular rejection or worse, with grade 3 chronic active T-cell-mediated rejection. Blinded comparisons of computed tomography scan of GIS group revealed swollen allografts with fluid collections compared with the quiescent allografts (QAs), which were shrunken and atrophic. The renal volume on imaging and weight of explants nearly matched. Future studies should focus on interventions to avoid sensitization and GIS. PMID:25297845

  15. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.

    PubMed

    Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

  16. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS) IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Garner, Michael M; Bonar, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. PMID:26667536

  17. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

  18. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  19. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theu, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection. PMID:24920091

  20. Methadone-Induced Delayed Posthypoxic Encephalopathy: Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manoj; Wang, Yunxia; Reeves, Alan; Newell, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings in a patient with methadone-induced delayed posthypoxic encephalopathy (DPHE). Case Report. A Thirty-eight-year-old man was found unconscious for an unknown duration after methadone and diazepam ingestion. His initial vitals were temperature 104 degree Fahrenheit, heart rate 148/minute, respiratory rate 50/minute, and blood pressure 107/72?mmhg. He developed renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver enzymes which resolved completely in 6 days. After 2 weeks from discharge he had progressive deterioration of his cognitive, behavioral and neurological function. Brain MRI showed diffuse abnormal T2 signal in the corona radiata, centrum semiovale, and subcortical white matter throughout all lobes. Extensive work up was negative for any metabolic, infectious or autoimmune disorder. Brain biopsy showed significant axonal injury in the white matter. He was treated successfully with combination of steroids and antioxidants. Follow up at 2 year showed no residual deficits. Conclusion. Our observation suggests that patients on methadone therapy should be monitored for any neurological or psychiatric symptoms, and in suspected cases MRI brain may help to make the diagnosis of DPHE. A trial of steroids and antioxidants may be considered in these patients. PMID:21209817

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of Pancreatic Carcinoma: Correlation with Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Kun; Fan, Zhihui; Sun, Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We concluded that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has clinical value in identifying the pathologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas. Forty-three patients diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma through surgery were retrospectively investigated. CEUS examinations were performed on all patients before surgery. Enhancement patterns on CEUS were observed. Time-intensity curves of CEUS were generated for the regions of interest in the pancreas, and quantitative parameters were obtained. Resected cancer specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis, and the microvascular density (MVD) of the specimens was determined by CD34 immunohistochemical staining. Enhancement patterns of CEUS were compared with histopathologic findings in pancreatic carcinomas. Correlations between time-intensity curve parameters and microvascular density were analyzed. Twenty cases manifested centripetal enhancement, and 23 cases, global enhancement. The amount of tumor necrosis or mucus in the centripetally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas was greater than that in the globally enhanced pancreatic carcinomas (p = 0.027). Thirty-eight of 43 (88.4%) pancreatic carcinomas manifested hypo-enhancement with a maximum intensity (IMAX) <90%. Contrast arrival time in pancreatic carcinoma was longer than that in adjacent pancreatic tissue (p < 0.05). IMAX was positively correlated with microvascular density (r = 0.577, p < 0.05). We concluded that CEUS manifestations could reflect the histologic changes of pancreatic carcinomas and CEUS can be used to evaluate blood perfusion of tumors, as IMAX is positively correlated with microvascular density. PMID:26806440

  2. CT findings of the main pathological conditions associated with horseshoe kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Schiappacasse, G; Soffia, P; Silva, C S; Zilleruelo, N

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion anomaly, with a prevalence of 0.25% among the general population. It consists of kidney fusion across the midline. HSK can be present as an isolated condition in 30%, but there is a wide variety of associated abnormalities. The most frequent include ureteropelvic obstruction, lithiasis and infections. There is also a higher risk of kidney lesions in trauma and an increased incidence of malignancies. Awareness of embryology and anatomy is essential to assess and understand the complications affecting HSK. CT is an excellent method for identification of its main findings. PMID:25375751

  3. CT findings of thoracic manifestations of primary Sjgren syndrome: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Ryoko; Kondo, Tetsuya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Yakushiji, Mai; Yamasaki, Fumio; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Primary Sjgren syndrome is an immune-mediated exocrinopathy characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Various systemic extraglandular disorders are associated with primary Sjgren syndrome, and the thorax is commonly affected. The pulmonary manifestations of primary Sjgren syndrome may be categorized as airway abnormalities, interstitial pneumonias, and lymphoproliferative disorders; in each category, bronchiectasis or centrilobular nodules, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia are common. These manifestations do not usually occur in isolation; they are concomitantly seen with other types of lesions. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and amyloidosis are key components of lymphoproliferative disorders, and MALT lymphoma should always be considered because its morphologic characteristics are similar to those of benign lymphoproliferative disorders. Amyloidosis is rare but important because it carries a risk for underlying MALT lymphoma or plasmacytoma, and it may lead to hemoptysis during biopsy. In addition, thin-walled air cysts are characteristic of primary Sjgren syndrome, irrespective of the main pulmonary manifestations. Lymphadenopathy and multilocular thymic cysts may be seen in the mediastinum. During the follow-up period, there is a risk for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and development of malignant lymphoma. Often, primary Sjgren syndrome is subclinical, but there are various underlying risks. Thus, imaging findings are important. In addition to the various types of interstitial pneumonia and airway abnormalities, air cysts and mediastinal manifestations may help diagnose primary Sjgren syndrome. PMID:24224588

  4. The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Weber, A L; Randolph, G; Aksoy, F G

    2000-09-01

    Thyroid imaging approach is based on the preliminary clinical evaluation. Lesions that are smaller than 2 cm should be assessed with US, which is capable of discriminating masses as small as 2 mm and distinguishing solid from cystic nodules. US-guided FNAB provides tissue for cytologic examination of thyroid nodules. CT and MR imaging are indicated for larger tumors (greater than 3 cm diameter) that extend outside the gland to adjoining structures, including the mediastinum, and retropharyngeal region. Metastatic lymph nodes in the neck and invasion of the aerodigestive tract are also in the realm of CT and MR imaging. Thyroid nodules are categorized on scintigraphy as hot or cold nodules. Hot nodules are rarely malignant, whereas cold nodules have an incidence of 10% to 20% of malignancy. Calcifications (amorphous, globular, nodular, and linear) occur in adenomas and carcinomas and have no differential diagnostic features except for psammomatous calcifications, which are a pathognomonic finding in papillary carcinomas and a small percentage of medullary carcinomas. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor (80%) followed by follicular (20% to 25%); medullary (5%); undifferentiated; anaplastic carcinomas (< 5%); lymphoma (5%); and metastases. Lymph node metastases are common in papillary carcinoma, 50% at presentation, and less common in follicular carcinomas. The metastatic nodes in papillary carcinoma may enhance markedly (hypervascular); show increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images (increased thyroglobulin content or hemorrhage); and reveal punctate calcifications. Localized invasion of the larynx, trachea, and esophagus occurs predominantly in papillary and follicular carcinomas; the incidence is less than 5%. Ectopic thyroid tissue may be encountered in the tongue (foramen cecum); along the midline between posterior tongue and isthmus of thyroid gland; lateral neck; mediastinum; and oral cavity. Goiter and malignant tumors, notably papillary carcinoma, may develop in ectopic thyroid tissue. Carcinomas may also arise in thyroglossal duct cysts, which develop from duct remnants between the foramen cecum and thyroid isthmus. Infectious disease of the thyroid gland is not common and the CT and MR imaging findings are similar as described under neck infection. Other types of inflammatory disorders including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, granulomatous thyroiditis, and Riedel's struma display no specific imaging features. Imaging studies may, however, be indicated to confirm a suspected clinical diagnosis and assess compromise of the airway (Riedel's struma). HPT is a clinical diagnosis in which hypercalcemia is the most important finding. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma represent underlying lesions. To relieve the patient's symptoms surgical extirpation is indicated. The surgical success rate without imaging is 95%. The indications for imaging studies vary but it is generally agreed that reoperation after a previous failed surgical attempt and suspicion of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma should be investigated by imaging. These consist of US, nuclear medicine studies, CT and MR imaging. US and technetium sestamibi scanning have the highest accuracy rate for localizing an adenomatous gland at and near the thyroid gland. Ectopic adenomas, particularly if they are located in the mediastinum, are preferrably investigated with CT and MR imaging with gadolinium and fat suppression. Carcinomas and parathyroid cysts are optimally evaluated by CT and MR imaging. On MR imaging adenomas are low in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high in signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and enhance post introduction of gadolinium. PMID:11054972

  5. Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam T. W.; Schroer-Joosten, Dianne P. H.; Fid-Fourkour, Aicha; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Debyser, Isolde; Moulin, Vronique; Moormann, Rob J. M.; de Smit, Abraham J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43%) from 5 ewes (56%). %). BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82%) from 6 ewes (67%). Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology. PMID:24358112

  6. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  7. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  8. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis, a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo Y.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the NCI (19952010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%) with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%) followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared to grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders based on the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

  9. Pathological prenatal Doppler sonography findings and their association with neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities in a high risk collective.

    PubMed

    Meyberg-Solomayer, G C; Soen, M; Speer, R; Poets, C; Goelz, R; Wallwiener, D; Solomayer, E-F

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal Doppler ultrasound plays a role in the risk assessment of neonatal abnormal cranial ultrasound findings (NACU). Doppler examinations of blood flow velocities in the umbilical artery (n = 132), the fetal middle cerebral artery (n = 96) and the ductus venosus (n = 46) were conducted in 132 consecutive high-risk cases. The cases were divided into three groups: normal (I), pathological (II) and highly pathological Doppler (III) results, according to the resistance index calculated and were assessed for any association between the Doppler groups and the short-term outcome of the neonate, especially NACU. A significant association was found between Doppler groups and gestational age at delivery, birth weight, length and head circumference, growth restriction, cesarean section rate, Apgar score and pH values. NACU was diagnosed significantly more often in the pathological (12.1%) and highly pathological (38.5%) Doppler groups than in the group with normal Doppler (1.7%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the Doppler groups (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.84, p < 0.001) and gestational age at delivery (odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-2.74; p < 0.001) were independent variables that could be used to predict NACU. The present study showed that a pathological prenatal Doppler result is highly predictive for NACU in addition to gestational age and can therefore be used for risk assessment. PMID:17904726

  10. Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    sterhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; sten, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

  11. Pathologic findings suggest long-term abnormality after conservative management of complex acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Matthew; Chalupka, Andrew; Butler, Kathryn; Gupta, Alok; Odom, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    Perforated or phlegmonous appendicitis is often treated with antibiotics and drainage as needed. The rationale, risk of recurrence, timing, or even the necessity of subsequent elective interval appendectomy (IA) is debated. We retrospectively reviewed all appendectomies performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 1997 and 2011. We determined if the appendix was removed emergently or as IA. Demographic characteristics, hospital length of stay, computed tomography (CT) results, and operation type (open or laparoscopic) were determined. In IA specimens, narrative pathology reports were assessed for evidence of anatomic, acute, or chronic abnormality. A total of 3562 patients had their appendix removed during this time period. Thirty-four patients were identified as having IA. Of these, only three (8.8%) had a pathologically normal appendix. All three patients were female and all had initially abnormal CT scans. Eight specimens (23.5%) had evidence of chronic and 10 (29.4%) had evidence of acute appendicitis. An additional 10 (29.4%) specimens contained a combination of acute and chronic inflammation. Mean time to operation in the IA group was 57.1 days (range, nine to 234 days) after index diagnosis by CT scan. Given the high percentage of IA specimens with acute or chronic appendicitis and the extremely high proportion (91%) of patients with pathologically abnormal specimens, it appears that IA may be justified in most cases. PMID:25760207

  12. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  13. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Seth H; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Roy, Chad J

    2015-06-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  14. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  15. Regulation of Energy Balance by Inflammation: Common Theme in Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that less energy supply to immune cells, which favors energy saving in the body under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  16. Regulation of energy balance by inflammation: common theme in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia. In addition to the detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines also stimulate energy expenditure and facilitate adipose tissue remodeling. In caloric restriction (CR), inflammatory status is decreased by low energy intake that results in less energy supply to immune cells to favor energy saving under caloric restriction. During physical exercise, inflammatory status is elevated due to muscle production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to meet the muscle energy demand. In cancer cachexia, chronic inflammation is elevated by the immune response in the fight against cancer. The energy expenditure from chronic inflammation contributes to weight loss. Immune tolerant cancer cells gains more nutrients during the inflammation. In these conditions, inflammation coordinates energy distribution and energy demand between tissues. If the body lacks response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Inflammation Resistance), the energy metabolism will be impaired leading to an increased risk for obesity. In contrast, super-induction of the inflammation activity leads to weight loss and malnutrition in cancer cachexia. In summary, inflammation is a critical component in the maintenance of energy balance in the body. Literature is reviewed in above fields to support this view. PMID:25526866

  17. Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons. PMID:24881147

  18. Data set for volumetric and pathological findings of epicardial adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Hideya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Senoo, Atsuhiro; Yasui, Wataru; Sueda, Taijiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-12-01

    This article contains the data regarding clinically-assessed visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume on computed tomography (CT) images and EAT pathology, represented by inflammation and neoangiogenesis, complementing the data reported by Kitagawa et al. [1]. In 45 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery, we studied CT images obtained prior to surgery and the numbers of CD68+ individual macrophages and CD31+ neovessels in EAT samples subsequently obtained during surgery. The data revealed a moderate correlation between VAT area and EAT volume, and a strong correlation between EAT macrophage infiltration and neoangiogenesis. PMID:26568976

  19. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  20. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  1. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  2. Developmental venous anomaly, capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and arteriovenous malformation: spectrum of a common pathological entity?

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Zabramski, Joseph M; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations of the central nervous system are thought to originate from abnormal developmental processes during embryogenesis. Reports have cited the dynamic nature of these lesions and their "maturation" into other types of malformations. Herein we report on three patients with vascular malformations who exhibited dynamic alterations with stepwise progression of their lesions. These cases lend support to the hypothesis that these malformations may constitute the spectrum of a single disease caused by alterations in a common developmental program and that accumulating injury (e.g., by radiation) may allow one malformation type to mature into another. This concept warrants further investigation. PMID:26743915

  3. A matrix method for finding last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Si, Bingfeng; Yang, Xiaobao; Sun, Huijun; Gao, Ziyou

    2012-01-01

    Many algorithms have been presented to solve the traffic assignment problem. Recently, Bar-Gera introduced the concept of last common node into an origin-based algorithm to solve the traffic assignment problem. However, how to find the last common nodes has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we present a matrix method for finding the last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem. In an acyclic network, the power of binary adjacency matrix (A) will record the number of directed simple routes of length k. Taking this feature into consideration, Sp, the total number of the simple routes related to an origin node p in the subnetwork Gp, is counted by Sp=?kApk=(. Then, every common node for OD pair pq is picked out by comparing (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pr(mathvariant="bold">Sp)rq and (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pq, and the last common node for OD pair pq is filtered out according to the topological order l(r). Our method is implemented to find out all LCNs for all n?(n-1) OD pairs, then tested on three kinds of model networks and four urban transportation networks. We find that the overall computing time T and the size of network n, has a relation like T?O(n3), which is better than the theoretical estimation O(n4).

  4. Therapeutic antibodies: their mechanisms of action and the pathological findings they induce in toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masami; Kato, Chie; Kato, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies can swiftly provide therapeutics to target disease-related molecules discovered in genomic research. Antibody engineering techniques have been actively developed and these technological innovations have intensified the development of therapeutic antibodies. From the mid-1990s, a series of therapeutic antibodies were launched that are now being used in clinic. The disease areas that therapeutic antibodies can target have subsequently expanded, and antibodies are currently utilized as pharmaceuticals for cancer, inflammatory disease, organ transplantation, cardiovascular disease, infection, respiratory disease, ophthalmologic disease, and so on. This paper briefly describes the modes of action of therapeutic antibodies. Several non-clinical study results of the pathological changes induced by therapeutic antibodies are also presented to aid the future assessment of the toxic potential of an antibody developed as a therapeutic. PMID:26441475

  5. Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Regg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population. PMID:17323569

  6. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Lindsay, Scott A.; Krockenberger, Mark; Phalen, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. In recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the N. caninum life cycle and many have been implicated as intermediate hosts. However, in many instances these studies have utilized serological and molecular techniques to detect infection in clinically normal animals, and investigation of possible associated morbidity, mortality, and pathology has been neglected. As such, the occurrence and importance of Neospora-associated disease in wildlife species are unknown. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of N. caninum infection in nondomestic species, the present review provides an up-to-date summary of clinical neosporosis and N. caninum-associated pathologic lesions in naturally and experimentally infected wildlife species. We provide a list of all free-ranging and captive wildlife species identified with N. caninum infection to date using currently available diagnostic tools. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic methods in wildlife are addressed in order to recommend optimal diagnosis of confirming N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species. Although current data would suggest that N. caninum infection does not adversely impact wildlife populations, there is a need for greater international uniformity in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species in order to assess the true consequences of parasite infection. PMID:25973393

  7. Role of Histological Findings and Pathologic Diagnosis for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nikki S.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Mathew, Rahel; Abrahamsen, Martha; Van der Kooi, Kaisa; Jukic, Drazen M.; Stoler, Mark H.; Villa, Luisa L.; da Silva, Roberto Carvalho; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Messina, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Early HPV infection in males is difficult to detect clinically and pathologically. This study assessed histopathology in diagnosing male genital HPV. External genital lesions (n = 352) were biopsied, diagnosed by a dermatopathologist, and HPV genotyped. A subset (n = 167) was diagnosed independently by a second dermatopathologist and also re-evaluated in detail, tabulating the presence of a set of histopathologic characteristics related to HPV infection. Cases that received discrepant diagnoses or HPV-related diagnoses were evaluated by a third dermatopathologist (n = 163). Across dermatopathologists, three-way concordance was fair (k = 0.30). Pairwise concordance for condyloma was fair to good (k = 0.30–0.67) and poor to moderate for penile intraepithelial neoplasia (k = −0.05 to 0.42). Diagnoses were 44–47% sensitive and 65–72% specific for HPV 6/ 11-containing lesions, and 20–37% sensitive and 98–99% specific for HPV 16/18. Presence of HPV 6/ 11 was 75–79% sensitive and 35% specific for predicting pathologic diagnosis of condyloma. For diagnosis of penile intraepithelial neoplasia, HPV 16/18 was 95–96% specific but only 40–64% sensitive. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with HPV 6/11. Dysplasia was significantly (P= 0.001) associated with HPV 16/18. Dermatopathologists’ diagnoses of early male genital HPV-related lesions appear discordant with low sensitivity, while genotyping may overestimate clinically significant HPV-related disease. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels may help establish diagnosis of early condyloma. PMID:25945468

  8. Role of histological findings and pathologic diagnosis for detection of human papillomavirus infection in men.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nikki S; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Mathew, Rahel; Abrahamsen, Martha; Van der Kooi, Kaisa; Jukic, Drazen M; Stoler, Mark H; Villa, Luisa L; da Silva, Roberto Carvalho; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Sirak, Bradley A; Ingles, Donna J; Giuliano, Anna R; Messina, Jane L

    2015-10-01

    Early HPV infection in males is difficult to detect clinically and pathologically. This study assessed histopathology in diagnosing male genital HPV. External genital lesions (n = 352) were biopsied, diagnosed by a dermatopathologist, and HPV genotyped. A subset (n = 167) was diagnosed independently by a second dermatopathologist and also re-evaluated in detail, tabulating the presence of a set of histopathologic characteristics related to HPV infection. Cases that received discrepant diagnoses or HPV-related diagnoses were evaluated by a third dermatopathologist (n = 163). Across dermatopathologists, three-way concordance was fair (k = 0.30). Pairwise concordance for condyloma was fair to good (k = 0.30-0.67) and poor to moderate for penile intraepithelial neoplasia (k = -0.05 to 0.42). Diagnoses were 44-47% sensitive and 65-72% specific for HPV 6/11-containing lesions, and 20-37% sensitive and 98-99% specific for HPV 16/18. Presence of HPV 6/11 was 75-79% sensitive and 35% specific for predicting pathologic diagnosis of condyloma. For diagnosis of penile intraepithelial neoplasia, HPV 16/18 was 95-96% specific but only 40-64% sensitive. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with HPV 6/11. Dysplasia was significantly (P = 0.001) associated with HPV 16/18. Dermatopathologists' diagnoses of early male genital HPV-related lesions appear discordant with low sensitivity, while genotyping may overestimate clinically significant HPV-related disease. Rounded papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and dilated vessels may help establish diagnosis of early condyloma. PMID:25945468

  9. A Common STEP in the Synaptic Pathology of Diverse Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Micah A.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic function is critical for proper cognition, and synaptopathologies have been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase that normally opposes synaptic strengthening by dephosphorylating key neuronal signaling molecules. STEP targets include N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the tyrosine kinase Fyn. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation promotes the internalization of NMDARs and AMPARs and the inactivation of ERK and Fyn. Regulation of STEP is complex, and recent work has implicated STEP dysregulation in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Both high levels and low levels of STEP are found in a diverse group of illnesses. This review focuses on the role of STEP in three disorders in which STEP levels are elevated: Alzheimers disease, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. The presence of elevated STEP in all three of these disorders raises the intriguing possibility that cognitive deficits resulting from diverse etiologies may share a common molecular pathway. PMID:23239949

  10. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  11. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Psillas, George; Krommydas, Argyrios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Kanitakis, Jean; Markou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal) cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted. PMID:26681945

  12. [A patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension--comparison between MRI findings and meningeal pathology].

    PubMed

    Niwa, K; Yoshii, F; Katayama, M; Miyazaki, H; Koto, A

    1997-06-01

    We report a 44-year-old woman with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) who developed an acute, severe, nonthrobbing headache. The headache remained more severe in the occipital region and was markedly worse with upright posture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed an opening pressure of 55 mmH2O, and the CSF contained 38 cells/mm3 and 57 mg/dl of protein. The results of other laboratory examinations were unremarkable. T1-weighted MR images (MRI) of the head revealed an extensive diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement and bilateral subdural fluid accumulation. On the 21st hospital day, a meningeal biopsy was performed through a right parietal craniotomy. On histologic examination, the dural border cell layer demonstrated nonspecific granulation tissue with mild inflammatory changes. The remaining layers of the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane showed no obvious pathological changes. We speculated that the inflammatory changes of the dural border cell layer correspond to the zone of pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the MRI. The granulation tissue of the dural border cell layer and subdural fluid accumulation may represent secondary reactive phenomena, and were suspected to have been caused by downward displacement of the brain due to decreased intracranial pressure. PMID:9198095

  13. Scurvy in a child with autism: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tetsu; Aida, Noriko; Tanaka, Yukichi; Tanaka, Mio; Shiomi, Masae; Machida, Jiro

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of scurvy in a 6-year-old boy with autism and an unbalanced diet. The patient was admitted with difficulties in walking. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the thigh showed diffuse signal abnormality in the bone marrow, periosteum, and the femoral muscle. A biopsy specimen of the femur showed hematoma, proliferative fibroblasts, and few collagen fibers, which suggested a deficiency of vitamin C. Although recurrent periosteal hematoma may be suggestive of scurvy, this finding was subtle in the current case. It is important to be aware of this rare disease because it is easily cured with vitamin C supplementation. PMID:22258350

  14. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas: computed-tomographic, sonographic, and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfman, N.T.; Karstaedt, N.; Kawamoto, E.H.

    1985-02-01

    The authors present a series of eight cases of pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas, an uncommon lesion that contains bizarre giant cells and resembles sarcoma histologically. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described in the radiological literature. Clinical symptoms are similar to those of the usual pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma, but at presentation the primary tumor mass is usually large, and widespread metastatic disease is present. The most striking finding is massive lymphadenopathy, which may mimic lymphoma. A combination of clinical history, imaging findings, and results of percutaneous biopsy should lead to the proper diagnosis and may help to differentiate this entity from others that may affect lymph nodes.

  15. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: clinical and pathological findings in 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrong; Zhang, Weiwen; Wang, Zhentao; Jia, Huan; Ma, Yan; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and pathological features of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 29 parotid BCAs in 28 patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between October 2000 and June 2013. The tumors were categorized according to their location in the parotid gland as superior superficial lobe, inferior superficial lobe and deep lobe. Results: The mean age was 57.0 years (range, 32-83 years). The clinical manifestations of parotid BCAs were consistent with those of other benign parotid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, average disease duration and tumor size among the three tumor groups. There were 11 deep tumors (11/29, 37.9%), and five of them exhibited cystic degeneration (5/11, 45.5%). A total of 15 patients underwent FNAB examination, and the results were positive in seven patients (7/15, 46.7%). Mild facial nerve function impairment occurred in five patients (House-Brackmann grade II), of whom, three had recovered by the 6-month follow-up. No cases of local recurrence or malignant transformation were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The clinical features of BCA are consistent with those of other benign tumors. The deep lobe of the parotid gland is more likely to develop BCAs, and thus, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with deep-lobe tumors, especially when accompanied with cystic degeneration. FNAB can increase the rate of preoperative diagnoses. PMID:26045798

  16. Prostate Cancer: Correlation of MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy with Pathologic Findings after Radiation TherapyInitial Experience1

    PubMed Central

    Pucar, Darko; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Hricak, Hedvig; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Olgac, Semra; Ebora, Lanie E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Zakian, Kristen L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy for depiction of local prostate cancer recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy, with step-section pathologic findings as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study received institutional approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Study was compliant with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Sextant biopsy, digital rectal examination, MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, and salvage radical prostatectomy with step-section pathologic examination were performed in nine patients with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels after external-beam radiation therapy. MR imaging criterion for tumor was a focal nodular region of reduced signal intensity at T2-weighted imaging. MR spectroscopic criteria for tumor were voxels with choline (Cho) plus creatine (Cr) to citrate (Cit) ratio ([Cho + Cr]/Cit) of at least 0.5 or voxels with detectable Cho and no Cit in the peripheral zone. Sensitivity and specificity of sextant biopsy, digital rectal examination, MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy were determined by using a prostate sextant as the unit of analysis. For feature analysis, MR imaging and MR spectroscopic findings were correlated with step-section pathologic findings. RESULTS: MR imaging and MR spectroscopy showed estimated sensitivities of 68% and 77%, respectively, while sensitivities of biopsy and digital rectal examination were 48% and 16%, respectively. MR spectroscopy appears to be less specific (78%) than the other three tests, each of which had a specificity higher than 90%. MR spectroscopic feature analysis showed that a metabolically altered benign gland could be falsely identified as tumor by using MR spectroscopic criteria; further analysis of MR spectroscopic features did not lead to improved MR spectroscopic criteria for recurrent tumor. CONCLUSION: In summary, MR imaging and MR spectroscopy may be more sensitive than sextant biopsy and digital rectal examination for sextant localization of cancer recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy. PMID:15972335

  17. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  18. Image findings of cranial nerve pathology on [18F]-2- deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET/CT): a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Osama A; Muzaffar, Razi; Shetty, Vilaas; Osman, Medhat M

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to increase awareness about the utility of (18)F -FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of cranial nerve (CN) pathology. We discuss the clinical implication of detecting perineural tumor spread, emphasize the primary and secondary (18)F -FDG-PET/CT findings of CN pathology, and illustrate the individual (18)F -FDG-PET/CT CN anatomy and pathology of 11 of the 12 CNs. PMID:26634826

  19. Atypical clinical and pathological findings in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Fredrickson, Vance; Lin, Yicong; Piao, Yueshan; Wang, Xiangbo; Lu, Dehong; Li, Cunjiang

    2012-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis often produces a focal lesion. Because of the rapid development of collateral circulation, increased intracranial pressure has never been reported in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis is based mainly on MRI, catheter digital subtraction angiography, and histological findings, but may be challenging. We report a patient who presented with intermittent seizures and left-sided limb weakness. Her symptoms gradually progressed, and she eventually developed signs of increased intracranial pressure. Imaging studies showed a space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe of the brain. As we could not diagnose isolated cortical vein thrombosis based on the preoperative findings, surgical excision of the lesion was performed under general anesthesia. Histological examination showed destruction of the brain parenchyma with infiltration of macrophages, proliferation of reactive astrocytes and small vessels, and foci of hemorrhage. Further examination found that a number of small vessels in both the subarachnoid space and brain parenchyma were filled with thrombus, some of which was organized. Elastic fiber staining showed that the obstructed vessels were veins. We diagnosed isolated cortical vein thrombosis with atypical clinical features. PMID:25337098

  20. Structures and Molecular Mechanisms for Common 15q13.3 Microduplications Involving CHRNA7: Benign or Pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Schaaf, Christian P.; Person, Richard E.; Gibson, Ian B.; Xia, Zhilian; Mahadevan, Sangeetha; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema; Potocki, Lorraine; Kang, Sung-Hae; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Probst, Frank J.; Graham, Brett H.; Shinawi, Marwan; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated four ~1.6-Mb microduplications and 55 smaller 350680-kb microduplications at 15q13.2q13.3 involving the CHRNA7 gene that were detected by clinical microarray analysis. Applying high-resolution array-CGH, we mapped all 118 chromosomal breakpoints of these microduplications. We also sequenced 26 small microduplication breakpoints that were clustering at hotspots of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). All four large microduplications likely arose by NAHR between BP4 and BP5 LCRs, and 54 small microduplications arose by NAHR between two CHRNA7-LCR copies. We identified two classes of ~1.6-Mb microduplications and five classes of small microduplications differing in duplication size, and show that they duplicate the entire CHRNA7. We propose that size differences among small microduplications result from preexisting heterogeneity of the common BP4BP5 inversion. Clinical data and family histories of 11 patients with small microduplications involving CHRNA7 suggest that these microduplications might be associated with developmental delay/mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, we conclude that these microduplications and their associated potential for increased dosage of the CHRNA7-encoded ?7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are of uncertain clinical significance at present. Nevertheless, if they prove to have a pathological effects, their high frequency could make them a common risk factor for many neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:20506139

  1. Experimental infection of chicken embryos with recently described Brucella microti: Pathogenicity and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Bttcher, Denny; Melzer, Falk; Shehata, Awad Ali; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf

    2015-08-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens causing disease in a wide range of domestic and wild animals as well as in humans. Brucella (B.) microti is a recently recognized species and was isolated from common voles (Microtus arvalis), red foxes and soil in Austria and the Czech Republic. Its pathogenicity for livestock and its zoonotic potential has not been confirmed yet. In the present study 25 SPF chicken embryos were inoculated at day 11 of age with 1.610(3) and 1.610(5)B. microti by yolk sac and allantoic sac routes. Re-isolation of B. microti indicated rapid multiplication of bacteria (up to 1.710(12)CFU). B. microti provoked marked gross lesions, i.e. hemorrhages and necroses. All inoculated embryos were dead (100% mortality) in between 2nd and 4th day post inoculation. The predominant histopathological lesion was necroses in liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, spinal meninges, yolk sac and chorioallantoic membrane. Immunohistochemical examination showed the presence of Brucella antigen in nearly all of these organs, with infection being mainly restricted to non-epithelial cells or tissues. This study provides the first results on the multiplication and pathogenicity of the mouse pathogenic B. microti in chicken embryos. These data suggest that, even though chicken are not mammals, they could provide a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of B. microti associated disease. PMID:26264524

  2. Assessment of Invasive Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Using Whole-Tumor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Texture Analysis: Correlations With Detailed Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Sook; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lim, Yaeji; Han, Boo-Kyung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    There is no study that investigates the potential correlation between the heterogeneity obtained from texture analysis of medical images and the heterogeneity observed from histopathological findings. We investigated whether texture analysis of magnetic resonance images correlates with histopathological findings.Seventy-five patients with estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. Tumor entropy and uniformity were determined on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images under different filter levels. Two pathologists evaluated the detailed histopathological findings of the tumors including tumor cellularity, dominant stroma type, central scar, histologic grade, extensive intraductal component (EIC), and lymphovascular invasion. Entropy and uniformity values on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images were compared with detailed pathological findings.In a multivariate analysis, entropy significantly increased only on unfiltered T2-weighted images (P?=?0.013). Tumor cellularity and predominant stroma did not affect the uniformity or entropy on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. High histologic grades showed increased uniformity and decreased entropy on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, whereas the opposite tendency was observed on T2-weighted images. Invasive ductal carcinoma with an EIC or lymphovascular invasion only affected the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, through increased uniformity and decreased entropy. The best uniformity results were recorded on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images at a filter level of 0.5. Entropy showed the best results at a filter level of 0.5 on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. However, on T2-weighted images, an ideal model was achieved on unfiltered images.MRI texture analysis correlated with pathological tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26817878

  3. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, Terje D; Srensen, Karen K; Mrk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

    2007-01-01

    Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts and/or appropriate quality of feed has been the main cause of emaciation, though heavy infestation of parasites may have contributed to the emaciation in some cases. PMID:17903247

  4. Pathologic findings in malignant hyperthermia: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Lydia R; Collins, Kim A

    2004-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, potentially lethal disorder of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis characterized by muscle contracture and life-threatening hypermetabolic crisis following exposure to halogenated anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants. Susceptibility to MH results from mutations in calcium channel proteins that mediate excitation-contraction coupling, with the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel (RyR1) representing the major locus. The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. The authors report the death of a 60-year-old white male with a history of low back pain. He had undergone 2 back surgeries previously, the first occurring 10 years prior to his current presentation. Both previous procedures were done under generalized anesthetic with no complications. Recently, he developed stenosis and presented for fusion of vertebrae L3 and L4. The procedure was performed under general anesthetic including sevoflurane, with no intraoperative complications. The anesthesiologist noted that, near the end of the 2-hour procedure, the decedent's CO2 levels were slightly elevated. After the procedure, the decedent was extubated, the temperature probe which had been recording normal values was removed, and he was rolled from ventral to dorsal position. He immediately became hypotensive and bradycardic. Lifesaving interventions were begun. Subsequently, he went into cardiac arrest, at which time the temperature probe was reinserted into the trachea, where it read a body temperature of 109 degrees F. Malignant hyperthermia protocol was initiated, and interventions continued for over 2 hours, at which time they failed. At autopsy, the abdomen contained 1800 mL of blood, and bilateral hematomas were present in the psoas muscles. The authors present this case of clinically apparent malignant hyperthermia, discuss how to approach such a case, the gross and microscopic findings, ancillary studies, and a review of the literature. PMID:15577523

  5. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; lapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  6. Rethinking metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 pathological findings in psychiatric disorders: implications for the future of novel therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is of marked interest as a novel therapeutic mechanism to treat schizophrenia and major depression. However, the status of mGluR5 in the pathophysiology of these disorders remains unknown. Discussion The majority of studies in the schizophrenia post-mortem brain indicate that total mGluR5 expression is unaltered. However, close examination of the literature suggests that these findings are superficial, and in actuality, a number of critical factors have not yet been considered; alterations may be highly dependent on brain region, neuronal population or molecular organisation in specific cellular compartments. A number of genetic knockout studies (mGluR5, Norbin, Homer1 etc.) continue to lend support to a role of mGluR5 in the pathology of schizophrenia, providing impetus to explore the regulation of mGluR5 beyond total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels. With regards to major depression, preliminary evidence to date shows a reduction in total mGluR5 protein and mRNA levels; however, as in schizophrenia, there are no studies examining mGluR5 function or regulation in the pathological state. A comprehensive understanding of mGluR5 regulation in major depression, particularly in comparison to schizophrenia, is crucial as this has extensive implications for mGluR5 targeting novel therapeutics, especially considering that opposing modulation of mGluR5 is of therapeutic interest for these two disorders. Summary Despite the complexities, examinations of post-mortem human brain provide valuable insights into the pathologies of these inherently human disorders. It is important, especially with regards to the identification of novel therapeutic drug targets, to have an in depth understanding of the pathophysiologies of these disorders. We posit that brain region- and cell type-specific alterations exist in mGluR5 in schizophrenia and depression, with evidence pointing towards altered regulation of this receptor in psychiatric pathology. We consider the implications of these alterations, as well as the distinction between schizophrenia and depression, in the context of novel mGluR5 based therapeutics. PMID:24472577

  7. Candidate genes responsible for common and different pathology of infected muscle tissues between Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiliang; Nagano, Isao; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2008-09-01

    The gene expression profiles were compared between Trichinella spiralis- and T. pseudospiralis-infected muscle tissues by means of a cDNA microarray. Out of 30,000 genes, the expressions of 55 genes were up-regulated in both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections, 24 genes were down-regulated in both Trichinella infections, 30 genes were up-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 23 genes were down-regulated only in T. spiralis infection, 25 genes were up-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection, and 21 genes were down-regulated only in T. pseudospiralis infection. Many of these differentially expressed genes were associated with satellite cell activation and proliferation (paired box gene 7, Pax7; Pax3; desmin; M-cadherin), myogenesis and muscle development (eyes absent 2 homolog, Eya2; myocyte enhancer factor 2C, MEF2C; pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1, Pbx1; chordin-like 2, Chrdl2), cell differentiation (galectin 1; insulin like growth factors, IGFs; c-ski; msh-like 1, Msx1; Numb), cell proliferation and cycle regulation (retinoblastoma 1, Rb1; granulin; p21, CDK4, cyclin A2), and apoptosis (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, TNF-R1; programmed cell death protein 11, Pdcd11; Pdcd1; nuclear protein 1, Nuprl; clusterin, CLU). The differential expression of 17 genes was validated by quantitative real time PCR and 15 genes showed identical results with the microarray analysis. The present study listed the candidate genes that were commonly and differentially expressed between T. spiralis and/or T. pseudospiralis infection, thus suggesting that these genes need to be further investigated to reveal the mechanism of the common and/or different pathological changes induced by the two species Trichinella. PMID:18501667

  8. Pseudogout in the temporomandibular joint with imaging, arthroscopic, operative, and pathologic findings. Report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Laviv, Amir; Sadow, Peter M; Keith, David A

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a destructive painful condition in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that proved to be calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposits at subsequent biopsy examination. The patient presented with the chief complaints of pain and limitation that had not resolved with splint therapy, medications, and habit control. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed internal derangement without reduction. Right TMJ arthroscopy with manipulation of the jaw under anesthesia showed unique findings of fronds of synovial tissue in the posterior joint space and areas of white matter. Because there was no long-term improvement in her clinical symptoms, she subsequently underwent arthroplasty of the right joint, with the white material clearly seen at surgery, and the biopsy examination confirmed the clinical and arthroscopic impression of pseudogout. The presentation, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of pseudogout of the TMJ are discussed. PMID:25843817

  9. Pathologic findings in 74 dysfunctional Braile-Biomdica bovine pericardial heart valves recovered at reoperation, 1978 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Suzigan, S; Braile, D M; Souza, D R; Rossi, M A

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the morphological data obtained from 74 Braile-Biomdica bovine pericardial valves (previously named IMC bovine pericardial valve) recovered at reoperation in our institution between 1978 and 1990. This retrospective analysis allowed for a thorough evaluation of the pathologic findings after long-term implantation of the Braile-Biomdica pericardial xenograft. The major cause of valve failure was pericardial tissue calcification, causing cuspal stiffening or structural defect responsible for clinical symptoms of stenosis and/or regurgitation. Our results demonstrated calcification in 65% of the explanted bioprostheses. Calcific deposits were most extensive in the tunica fibrosa of the pericardium, more prevalent in patients less than 30 years old at the time of implantation, and in valves implanted in the mitral position. Mild to moderate degenerative changes of the native pericardium were observed. No differences between men and women could be detected. Endocarditis was the second most frequent cause of xenograft failure (16%). Cuspal tears, contrasting with previous reports on the pathological features in clinically failed pericardial valves, were relatively infrequent (6.8%). Two valves explanted (2.7%) because clinical manifestation of valvular incompetence showed marked degenerative changes of the pericardial native tissue as the only findings. These observations, very similar to those reported for porcine aortic valves, complement and give support to previously published data on the satisfactory clinical performance of the Braile-Biomdica pericardial bioprosthesis. The discrepancy between the present observations and those reported by other authors on different types of pericardial valves, reinforces the opinion that these pericardial bioprostheses should not be studied as an unified group, the results and conclusions must be specific for each one of them. PMID:8195274

  10. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  11. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  12. Pathologic findings of follow-up surgical excision for lobular neoplasia on breast core biopsy performed for calcification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengquan; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Florea, Anca; Mohammed, Khaled; Li, Xin; Dabbs, David

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to ascertain pathologic findings of surgical follow-up excision (FUE) on patients who had radiologic finding of calcifications and lobular neoplasia (LN) on core biopsy. Breast core biopsy specimens from 2006-2011 with a diagnosis of pure classic-type LN (lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS] and atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) with no history of invasive carcinoma (IC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were studied. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with the diagnosis of calcium on radiologic studies had FUE and were included in the study. Cases were divided into group 1 (pure ALH, n = 163) and group 2 (pure LCIS, n = 74). The interval between the core biopsy and FUE ranged from 0.2 to 7 months (mean, 1.5 1.1 months). The risk of upstaging on FUE (DCIS or IC) is as follows: LCIS, 8.1% (6/74) and ALH, 3.1% (5/163). The data indicate that there is a low risk of upstaging to DCIS/IC from a core biopsy diagnosis of lobular neoplasia. PMID:22706860

  13. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma in a Tertiary Referral Center: Clinical Characteristics, CT, and 18F-FDG PET Findings, With Pathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun Ha; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the patient characteristics, computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings, and clinical outcomes of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS), together with their pathologic correlations. The medical records of 14 patients with pathologically proven PPSS in a tertiary hospital from January 1997 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were evaluated. The maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the tumors was obtained, and clinical outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence and mortality were assessed by KaplanMeier analysis. The median tumor size was 10.2?cm and the most common anatomic location was the lung followed by the pleura/chest wall and mediastinum. Most of the tumors appeared as single lesions and had circumscribed margins. All the cases showed heterogeneous enhancement with necrotic or cystic portions, and intratumoral vessels were frequently seen. Half of the tumors had intratumoral calcifications, and tumor rupture, pleural/chest wall extension, and pleural effusion occurred frequently. However, lymph node enlargement was rare. The median maxSUV of the tumors was 4.35. Patient outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence (n?=?8, 57.1%) and death (n?=?3, 21.4%) were poor despite their young age, and the mean follow-up period was 28.5 months. In conclusion, PPSS usually occurs in young adults, generally in the lung, presents as a large, circumscribed mass, and tumor rupture or extension of the pleura/chest wall may occur. The tumors often contain calcifications and vessels; they may exhibit triple attenuation on enhanced CT images, and clinical outcomes are poor. PMID:26313782

  14. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  15. Caspase-Cleaved TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 is a Major Pathological Finding in Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohn, Troy Y.

    2008-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major constituent of inclusions found in frontotemporal dementia with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine a possible role for TDP-43 in Alzheimers disease (AD), a site-directed caspase-cleavage antibody to TDP-43 based upon a known caspase-3 cleavage consensus site within TDP-43 at position D219 was designed. In vitro, this antibody labeled the predicted 25 kDa caspase-cleavage fragment of TDP-43 without labeling full-length TDP-43 following digestion of recombinant TDP-43 with caspase-3 or treatment of Hela cells with staurosporine. Application of this antibody in postmortem brain sections indicated the presence of caspase-cleaved TDP-43 in Hirano bodies, tangles, reactive astrocytes and neuritic plaques of the AD brain. Caspase-cleaved TDP-43 also co-localized with ubiquitin labeled neurons as well as dystrophic neuritis within plaque regions. These results suggest that caspase-cleaved TDP-43 is a major pathological finding in AD and may contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with this disease. PMID:18634762

  16. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ? 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions among women at high risk of ovarian/tubal cancer. PMID:25199754

  17. Finding Common Ground: Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competencies in Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model is predicated on interprofessional collaborative practice and team-based care. While information on the roles of various providers is increasingly woven into the literature, the competencies of those providers have been generally profession-specific. In 2011, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative comprising the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Dental Education Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the Association of Schools of Public Health sponsored an expert panel of their members to identify and develop 4 domains of core competencies needed for a successful interprofessional collaborative practice: (1) Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice; (2) Roles/Responsibilities; (3) Interprofessional Communication; and (4) Teams and Teamwork. Their findings and recommendations were recorded in their Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel. This article explores these 4 domains and how they provide common ground for team-based care within the context of the medical home model approach to patient-centered primary care. PMID:26938181

  18. CloudLCA: finding the lowest common ancestor in metagenome analysis using cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoguang; Bu, Dechao; Liu, Changning; Li, Jing; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

    2012-02-01

    Estimating taxonomic content constitutes a key problem in metagenomic sequencing data analysis. However, extracting such content from high-throughput data of next-generation sequencing is very time-consuming with the currently available software. Here, we present CloudLCA, a parallel LCA algorithm that significantly improves the efficiency of determining taxonomic composition in metagenomic data analysis. Results show that CloudLCA (1) has a running time nearly linear with the increase of dataset magnitude, (2) displays linear speedup as the number of processors grows, especially for large datasets, and (3) reaches a speed of nearly 215 million reads each minute on a cluster with ten thin nodes. In comparison with MEGAN, a well-known metagenome analyzer, the speed of CloudLCA is up to 5 more times faster, and its peak memory usage is approximately 18.5% that of MEGAN, running on a fat node. CloudLCA can be run on one multiprocessor node or a cluster. It is expected to be part of MEGAN to accelerate analyzing reads, with the same output generated as MEGAN, which can be import into MEGAN in a direct way to finish the following analysis. Moreover, CloudLCA is a universal solution for finding the lowest common ancestor, and it can be applied in other fields requiring an LCA algorithm. PMID:22426983

  19. Low bone mineral density is a common finding in patients with homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Weber, David R; Coughlin, Curtis; Brodsky, Jill L; Lindstrom, Kristin; Ficicioglu, Can; Kaplan, Paige; Freehauf, Cynthia L; Levine, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Homocystinuria (HCU) due to deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthetase is associated with increased plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual impairment, ocular defects, thromboembolism and skeletal abnormalities. HCU has been associated with increased risk for osteoporosis in some studies, but the natural history of HCU-related bone disease is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a multi-center, retrospective cohort of children and adults with HCU. We identified 19 subjects (9 males) aged 3.5 to 49.2years who had DXA scans performed as a part of routine clinical care from 2002-2010. The mean lumbar spine (LS) BMD Z-score at the time of first DXA scan in this cohort was -1.2 (±SD of 1.3); 38% of participants had low BMD for age (as defined by a Z-score≤-2). Homocysteine and methionine were positively associated with LS BMD Z-score in multiple linear regression models. Our findings suggest that low BMD is common in both children and adults with HCU and that routine assessment of bone health in this patient population is warranted. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between HCU and BMD. PMID:26689745

  20. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  1. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal diarrhoea is a frequent clinical condition in commercial swine herds, previously regarded to be uncomplicated to treat. However, since 2008 it seems that a new neonatal diarrhoeic syndrome unresponsive to antibiotics and common management practices has emerged. Routine laboratory examinations have not detected any pathogen related to this syndrome. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if well-known enteric pathogens could be associated with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhoea, thus question the hypotheses of a new syndrome. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic findings associated with these outbreaks and if possible propose a preliminary piglet-level case-definition on syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea syndrome (NNPDS). Results Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea with no previously established laboratory conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non-haemorrhagic. Neither enterotoxigenic E. coli, Clostridium perfringens type A or C, Clostridium difficile, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora suis nor Strongyloides ransomi were associated with diarrhoea in the investigated outbreaks. Macroscopically, the diarrhoeic piglets were characterized by filled stomachs and flaccid intestines without mucosal changes. The predominant histological lesions were villous atrophy in jejunum and ileum. Epithelial lesions in colon were seen in one third of the case piglets. Conclusions The results of the study supported the hypothesis that a new neonatal porcine diarrhoea was present in the investigated herds, since no known pathogen(s) or management factors could explain the diarrhoeal outbreaks. Based on the findings in the four herds the following case-definition of NNPDS was suggested: Non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first week of life, without detection of known infectious pathogens, characterized by milk-filled stomachs and flaccid intestines at necropsy. PMID:24119974

  2. FINDING A COMMON DATA REPRESENTATION AND INTERCHANGE APPROACH FOR MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within many disciplines, multiple approaches are used to represent and access very similar data (e.g., a time series of values), often due to the lack of commonly accepted standards. When projects must use data from multiple disciplines, the problems quickly compound. Often sig...

  3. Implications for Variability of Practice from Pedagogy and Motor Learning Perspectives: Finding a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Coker, Cheryl; Bunker, Linda K.

    2006-01-01

    The discourse contained in this article is the result of an on-going discussion about "providing variability of practice" between professionals from different areas of study within kinesiology. The impetus for this discussion arose from a lack of common terminology, differing views, and the sometimes contrasting research and professional practices

  4. Specific Echocardiographic Findings Useful for the Diagnosis of Common Pulmonary Vein Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a case of common pulmonary vein atresia, which is a very rare disease characterized by cyanosis, heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Reverse flow in the pulmonary artery at end-diastole as well as in the isthmus of the aorta from early systole to end-diastole detected by echocardiography were found to be specific features useful in diagnosing the disease.

  5. Finding Common Ground: Democracy, Critical Literacy, and Technology in Four Diverse Learning Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoogd, Glenn; Patterson, Leslie; Baldwin, Sheila; Brenz, Susan; Hirtle, Jeannine

    1998-01-01

    Synthesizes findings of four case studies that examine technology-rich environments and how they might promote democratic learning. Discusses experiences of each via a matrix of four domains of democratic learning environments (power and voice; beliefs about knowledge and learning; modes of thinking and expression; and perspective on instructional…

  6. Pathological and Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in a Single-Center Study of 229 Consecutive Girls with Early or Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Srensen, Kaspar; Main, Katharina M.; Gideon, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. Objective To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Method A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. Results Thirteen out of 208 (6.3%) girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 89 years old. Twenty girls (9.6%) had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p?=?0.025); no cut of value was found as values overlapped. Conclusion A high frequency of 68 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI. PMID:22253792

  7. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  8. Prospective evaluation of plasma kinetic bipolar resection of bladder cancer: comparison to monopolar resection and pathologic findings

    PubMed Central

    Mashni, Joseph; Godoy, Guilherme; Haarer, Chadwick; Dalbagni, Guido; Reuter, Victor E.; Al Ahmadie, Hikmat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Gyrus ACMI plasma kinetic bipolar device (Gyrus ACMI, Southborough, MA) improves pathologic specimen preservation and clinical outcomes compared to standard monopolar electrocautery. Patients and methods In our prospective study, 83 patients underwent monopolar or bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors between April 2006 and February 2007 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Dedicated genitourinary oncology pathologists blinded to resection type and assessed pathologic features including stage and grade, presence of muscularis propria, fragment size, presence and thickness of thermal artifacts within the specimen, layer of tissue most affected, severity of tissue distortion, and diagnostic impact of thermal artifacts. Clinical outcomes including, perforation, obturator reflex, need for muscle paralysis, a catheter, or admission, were recorded. Clinical and pathologic outcomes between resection modality were compared. Results There were no significant thermal artifacts in 9/38 (23.7 %) and 11/45 (24.4 %) monopolar and bipolar specimens, respectively. The layer of bladder tissue most affected by thermal artifacts was readable in 18/38 (47.4 %) monopolar and 27/45 (60.0 %) bipolar specimens. Tissue distortion from thermal artifacts led to areas within 11/38 (28.9 %) monopolar and 7/45 (15.6 %) bipolar specimens being unreadable. Ultimately, thermal artifacts caused moderate diagnostic difficulty in 2/38 (5.3 %) specimens of the monopolar group and severe diagnostic difficulty in 1/45 (2.2 %) bipolar specimens. Clinically, there was no major difference between resection methods. Conclusion Plasma kinetic bipolar equipment appears to cause less tissue distortion and has the potential to facilitate staging and grading of bladder tumors. No differences in clinical outcomes were appreciated between resection methods. If these results can be repeated in larger studies, the bipolar device represents a small advancement in transurethral resection. PMID:24792236

  9. Extra-nigral pathological conditions are common in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: an in vivo positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Frey, Kirk A; Studenski, Stephanie; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Constantine, Gregory M; Scott, Peter J H; Albin, Roger L; Mller, Martijn L T M

    2014-08-01

    Cholinergic denervation has been associated with falls and slower gait speed and ?-amyloid deposition with greater severity of axial motor impairments in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the association between the presence of extra-nigral pathological conditions and freezing of gait (FoG). Patients with PD (n?=?143; age, 65.5??7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.4??0.6; Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, 25.9??2.6) underwent [(11) C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase and [(11) C]dihydrotetrabenazine dopaminergic PET imaging, and clinical, including FoG, assessment in the dopaminergic "off" state. A subset of subjects (n?=?61) underwent [(11) C]Pittsburgh compound-B ?-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Normative data were used to dichotomize abnormal ?-amyloid uptake or cholinergic deficits. Freezing of gait was present in 20 patients (14.0%). Freezers had longer duration of disease (P?=?0.009), more severe motor disease (P?common in patients with diminished neocortical cholinergic innervation (23.9%, ?(2) ?=?5.56, P?=?0.018), but not in the thalamic cholinergic denervation group (17.4%, ?(2) ?=?0.26, P?=?0.61). Subgroup analysis showed higher frequency of FoG with increased neocortical ?-amyloid deposition (30.4%, Fisher Exact test: P?=?0.032). Frequency of FoG was lowest with absence of both pathological conditions (4.8%), intermediate in subjects with single extra-nigral pathological condition (14.3%), and highest with combined neocortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy (41.7%; Cochran-Armitage trend test, Z?=?2.63, P?=?0.015). Within the group of freezers, 90% had at least one of the two extra-nigral pathological conditions studied. Extra-nigral pathological conditions, in particular the combined presence of cortical cholinopathy and amyloidopathy, are common in PD with FoG and may contribute to its pathophysiology. 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:24909584

  10. Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: finding common grounds.

    PubMed

    Frazo Santos, Catarina; Michel, Jaqueline; Neves, Mrio; Janeiro, Joo; Andrade, Francisco; Orbach, Michael

    2013-09-15

    A flow of key information links marine spatial planning (MSP) and oil spill risk analysis (OSRA), two distinct processes needed to achieve true sustainable management of coastal and marine areas. OSRA informs MSP on areas of high risk to oil spills allowing a redefinition of planning objectives and the relocation of activities to increase the ecosystem's overall utility and resilience. Concomitantly, MSP continuously generates a large amount of data that is vital to OSRA. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping system emerges as an operational tool to implement the MSP-OSRA link. Given the high level of commonalities between ESI and MSP data (both in biophysical and human dimensions), ESI tools (both paper maps and dynamic GIS-based product) are easily developed to further inform MSP and oil spill risk management. Finally, several other benefits from implementing the MSP-OSRA link are highlighted. PMID:23941806

  11. APO?2 and education in cognitively normal older subjects with high levels of AD pathology at autopsy: findings from the Nun Study

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Diego; Zandi, Peter; Gross, Myron; Markesbery, William R.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (ASYMAD) subjects are individuals characterized by preserved cognition before death despite substantial AD pathology at autopsy. ASYMAD subjects show comparable levels of AD pathology, i.e. ?-amyloid neuritic plaques (A?-NP) and tau-neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), to those observed in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and some definite AD cases. Previous clinicopathologic studies on ASYMAD subjects have shown specific phenomena of hypertrophy in the cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and other cerebral areas. Since it is well established that the allele APO?4 is a major genetic risk factor for AD, we examined whether specific alleles of APOE could be associated with the different clinical outcomes between ASYMAD and MCI subjects despite equivalent AD pathology. A total of 523 brains from the Nun Study were screened for this investigation. The results showed higher APO?2 frequency (p < 0.001) in ASYMAD (19.2%) vs. MCI (0%) and vs. AD (4.7%). Furthermore, higher education in ASYMAD vs. MCI and AD (p < 0.05) was found. These novel autopsy-verified findings support the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of APO?2 and education, both which seem to act as contributing factors in delaying or forestalling the clinical manifestations of AD despite consistent levels of AD pathology. PMID:26101858

  12. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the

  13. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima).

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Wells-Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, Daniel L; Flint, Paul L; Hollmén, Tuula

    2007-05-15

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds. PMID:17454562

  14. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  15. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations, pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A.; Perry, M.C.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, P.L.; Hollmen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  16. Findings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  17. PET CT Thresholds for Radiotherapy Target Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: How Close are we to the Pathologic Findings?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Kailiang; Ung, Yee C.; Hornby, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Optimal target delineation threshold values for positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) radiotherapy planning is controversial. In this present study, different PET CT threshold values were used for target delineation and then compared pathologically. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 non-small-cell lung cancer patients underwent PET CT before surgery. The maximal diameter (MD) of the pathologic primary tumor was obtained. The CT-based gross tumor volumes (GTV{sub CT}) were delineated for CT window-level thresholds at 1,600 and -300 Hounsfield units (HU) (GTV{sub CT1}); 1,600 and -400 (GTV{sub CT2}); 1,600 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT3}); 1,600 and -600 HU (GTV{sub CT4}); 1,200 and -700 HU (GTV{sub CT5}); 900 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT6}); and 700 and -450 HU (GTV{sub CT7}). The PET-based GTVs (GTV{sub PET}) were autocontoured at 20% (GTV{sub 20}), 30% (GTV{sub 30}), 40% (GTV{sub 40}), 45% (GTV{sub 45}), 50% (GTV{sub 50}), and 55% (GTV{sub 55}) of the maximal intensity level. The MD of each image-based GTV in three-dimensional orientation was determined. The MD of the GTV{sub PET} and GTV{sub CT} were compared with the pathologically determined MD. Results: The median MD of the GTV{sub CT} changed from 2.89 (GTV{sub CT2}) to 4.46 (GTV{sub CT7}) as the CT thresholds were varied. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT} compared with the pathologically determined MD ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub CT1} was the best (r = 0.87). The median MD of GTV{sub PET} changed from 5.72cm to 2.67cm as the PET thresholds increased. The correlation coefficient of the GTV{sub PET} compared with the pathologic finding ranged from 0.51 to 0.77. The correlation coefficient of GTV{sub 50} was the best (r = 0.77). Conclusion: Compared with the MD of GTV{sub PET}, the MD of GTV{sub CT} had better correlation with the pathologic MD. The GTV{sub CT1} and GTV{sub 50} had the best correlation with the pathologic results.

  18. Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Han, Boo-Kyung; Rhee, Sun Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Park, Hyojung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation. Methods Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated. Results BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status. Conclusion BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed. PMID:24155760

  19. Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Bolon, Brad; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main features proposed to delineate the presence of ARDS in laboratory animals. These should include histological changes in parenchymal tissue, altered integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier, inflammation, and abnormal pulmonary function. Murine ARDS models typically are defined by such features as pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in cytological preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung sections. Common pathophysiological indicators of ARDS in mice include impaired pulmonary gas exchange and histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates into the lung. Thus, morphological endpoints remain a vital component of data sets assembled from animal ARDS models. PMID:26296628

  20. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  1. High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

    2010-07-01

    Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. PMID:20398945

  2. Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Tosun, Ozgur Sanlidilek, Umman; Cetin, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Ozcan; Kurt, Aydin; Sakarya, Mehmet Emin; Tas, Ismet

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels.

  3. Experimental infection of lambs with C and S-type strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: immunological and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The two main genotypes of recognized isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) are cattle (C) and sheep (S) strains. An experimental infection was conducted to establish the effect of Map strain on the pathogenesis of ovine paratuberculosis. Twenty-four out of thirty 1.5-month-old Assaf lambs were divided into 4 groups of 6 and infected orally with three low passage field isolates, two of S- (22G and the pigmented Ovicap49) and one of C (764) type, and the reference K-10 strain (C type). The remaining six animals were unchallenged controls. Animals were euthanized at 150 and 390 days post-infection (dpi). Throughout the experiment, the peripheral immune response was assessed and histological and molecular (PCR) studies were conducted on samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue. Specific antibody and IFN-? production was significantly higher in animals infected with the C strains, while no consistent IFN- ? responses were observed in the S-type strain infected groups. A positive intradermal skin test response was detected in all infected groups. Lambs infected with S-type strains had granulomatous lesions restricted to the lymphoid tissue with no differences in the lesion intensity over time. In both Ctype strain groups, lesions were more severe at 150 dpi while at 390 dpi lesions, characterized by well-demarcated granulomas with fibrosis, decreased in severity. Only infected lambs were positive to PCR. These results suggest that the strain of Map has a strong influence over the immune and pathological responses developed by the host. Lesions induced by Ctype strains in lambs show a regressive character and tend to decrease as the infection progresses. PMID:24428881

  4. A case of Epstein-Barr virus associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with CNS involvement: pathological findings at both biopsy and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makiko; Kosugi, Isao; Terada, Tatsuhiro; Shirakawa, Kentarou; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with CNS involvement is an uncommon and fatal side effect of immunosuppressants. A 55-year-old man presented with non-fluent aphasia, fever, neck stiffness and disturbance of consciousness. Twenty-one years previously, the patient had undergone kidney transplantation for chronic renal failure. Brain MRI revealed multiple lesions in the bilateral cerebrum, right cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The brain biopsy showed EBV-positive lymphocytes infiltrating into the subarachnoid and Virchow-Robins space. The diagnosis of PTLD was made and the patient received a reduction in immunosuppressants. However, the patient died of massive bleeding from a rectal ulcer 3 months after the onset. An autopsy conducted 1 month after the biopsy revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at the biopsy site and extracranial PTLD lesions. Moreover, a human cytomegalovirus infection involving the rectum, pancreas, trachea and bladder was confirmed. Comparisons with past cases clarified the characteristics of this case, in particular, the clinicopathological involvement of leptomeninges. In addition, there have so far been only a limited number of such reports demonstrating detailed pathological findings, including both biopsy and autopsy findings. We herein describe the relationship between clinical and pathological findings and demonstrate the way CNS PTLD lesion progresses. PMID:21134001

  5. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yap?c?er, zlem; Onat, Elif; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Akak?n, Ak?n; Urgun, Kamran; K?l?, Trker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  6. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  7. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejnegers beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejnegers beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejnegers beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejnegers beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  8. Discrepancy between the Clinical Image and Pathological Findings of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Harboring an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutation That Was Surgically Resected after Gefitinib Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Oka, Soichi; Nagata, Shuya; Shimokawa, Hidehiko; So, Tomoko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a discrepancy between the clinical image and pathological findings in a non-small cell lung cancer patient with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation who underwent surgical resection after gefitinib treatment. The patient was a 66-year-old female with c-stage IIIA lung adenocarcinoma harboring an EGFR gene mutation; she was surgically treated after receiving gefitinib. The pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma, and the pathologically therapeutic effect was considered to be slight or of no response. EGFR T790M mutation and MET amplification were not present. The pathologically therapeutic effect is generally well correlated with the response rate after induction therapy. In this case, there was a discrepancy between the clinical image and pathological findings. Our findings, therefore, raise questions about the role of surgery after EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. PMID:24707260

  9. Hepatic angiosarcoma occurring 65 years after thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) exposure: imaging, surgical and histo- pathologic findings of a historical case.

    PubMed

    Coulier, B; Pierard, F; Gielen, I; Maldague, Ph

    2014-01-01

    We report the CT, surgical and histopathologic findings of a rare case of Hepatic Angiosarcoma (HAS) diagnosed in a 85-year old women 65 years afterThorotrast (Th232) exposure for angiography. At the early arterial phase of dynamic MDCT, peripheral curvilinear and central nodular puddling of contrast produced in the 8 cm tumor.Then progressive contrast filling of the tumor was observed on the delayed scans. Associated pathognomonic signs related to previous Th232 exposure were also found comprising diffuse intrahepatic reticular bands of calcifications, numerous calcified epigastric lymph nodes and a calcified shrunken spleen. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of associated hemoperitoneum. With a delay of 65 years afterThorotrast exposure, this historical case probably represents, to our knowledge, the most delayed presentation of Th232 related HAS ever published. PMID:25603638

  10. Type, Duration, and Incidence of Pathologic Findings after Retroorbital Bleeding of Mice by Experienced and Novice Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Joanna H; Worth, David B; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Retroorbital blood collection is a common technique in laboratory rodents due to the ease with which it can be performed and the sample volumes obtained for subsequent blood analyses. However, its use has been discouraged recently due to aesthetic discomfort and anecdotal reports of potential for ocular injury during blood collection. We hypothesized that a single standardized session of in-person training would be sufficient to learn the appropriate technique and minimize the likelihood for adverse outcomes. Experienced instructors (n = 2) conducted hands-on training classes to teach novice personnel (n = 40) to perform this procedure. Blood was collected from anesthetized mice (n = 40) via a capillary tube first placed at the medial canthus of the right eye and then advanced into the retroorbital space; the left retroorbital spaces served as unmanipulated controls. For comparison, the experienced instructors similarly collected blood from 40 additional mice. The tube could be inserted only once in each mouse, with the goal of obtaining 50 to 100 μL blood. Overall, 79 of 80 mice (98.8%) showed normal body condition, posture, and behavior throughout the 14-d study. Thus, any clinical observation scores pertained specifically to ocular lesions, which occurred at least once after sampling in 43 (53.8%) of the mice. Clinical and histopathologic scores of mice after bleeding did not differ between experienced and novice personnel. We conclude that a coordinated hands-on training program can provide consistent and sufficient instruction for research personnel to conduct retroorbital blood collection with competence in anesthetized laboratory mice. PMID:26045459

  11. Pulmonary Abnormalities in Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Sequential Study Comparing High Resolution Computed Tomography and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jos Miguel; de Oliveira Pascarelli, Bernardo Miguel; Patio, Jairo Hernando; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz Elena

    2010-01-01

    Background Human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic fungal disease of pulmonary origin. Follow-up of pulmonary lesions by image studies in an experimental model of PCM has not been previously attempted. This study focuses on defining patterns, topography and intensity of lung lesions in experimentally infected PCM mice by means of a comparative analysis between High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and histopathologic parameters. Methodology Male BALB/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 3106 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) conidia (n?=?50) or PBS (n?=?50). HRCT was done every four weeks to determine pulmonary lesions, quantify lung density, reconstruct and quantify lung air structure. Lungs were also analyzed by histopathology and histomorphometry. Results Three different patterns of lesions were evidenced by HRCT and histopathology, as follows: nodular-diffuse, confluent and pseudo-tumoral. The lesions were mainly located around the hilus and affected more frequently the left lung. At the 4th week post-challenge HRCT showed that 80% of the Pb-infected mice had peri-bronchial consolidations associated with a significant increase in upper lung density when compared with controls, (?26325 vs. ?42210 HU, p<0.001). After the 8th and 12th weeks, consolidation had progressed involving also the middle regions. Histopathology revealed that consolidation as assessed by HRCT was equivalent histologically to a confluent granulomatous reaction, while nodules corresponded to individual compact granulomas. At the 16th week of infection, confluent granulomas formed pseudotumoral masses that obstructed large bronchi. Discrete focal fibrosis was visible gradually around granulomas, but this finding was only evident by histopathology. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated that conventional HRCT is a useful tool for evaluation and quantification of pulmonary damage occurring in experimental mouse PCM. The experimental design used decreases the need to sacrifice a large number of animals, and serves to monitor treatment efficacy by means of a more rational approach to the study of human lung disease. PMID:20614019

  12. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3months), middle-aged (14months) and old (20-24months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  13. Quantitative analysis of lung elastic fibers in idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE): comparison of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The amount of elastic fibers (EF) and detailed differences between IPPFE and IPF have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to quantify the EF and identify the differences between IPPFE and IPF. Methods We evaluated six patients with IPPFE and 28 patients with IPF who underwent surgical lung biopsy or autopsy. The patients clinical history, physical findings, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathological features of lung specimens were retrospectively evaluated. The amounts of EF in lung specimens were quantified with Weigerts staining using a camera with a charge-coupled device and analytic software in both groups. Results Fewer patients with IPPFE than IPF had fine crackles (50.0% vs. 96.4%, p?=?0.012). Patients with IPPFE had a lower forced vital capacity (62.7??10.9% vs. 88.6??21.9% predicted, p?=?0.009), higher consolidation scores on HRCT (1.7??0.8 vs. 0.3??0.5, p?

  14. Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mkel, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. PMID:25119440

  15. Non-Alzheimer neurodegenerative pathologies and their combinations are more frequent than commonly believed in the elderly brain: a community-based autopsy series.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Milenkovic, Ivan; Whrer, Adelheid; Hftberger, Romana; Gelpi, Ellen; Haberler, Christine; Hnigschnabl, Selma; Reiner-Concin, Angelika; Heinzl, Harald; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter; Budka, Herbert

    2013-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by neuronal loss and cerebral deposition of proteins with altered physicochemical properties. The major proteins are amyloid-? (A?), tau, ?-synuclein, and TDP-43. Although neuropathological studies on elderly individuals have emphasised the importance of mixed pathologies, there have been few observations on the full spectrum of proteinopathies in the ageing brain. During a community-based study we performed comprehensive mapping of neurodegeneration-related proteins and vascular pathology in the brains of 233 individuals (age at death 77-87; 73 examined clinically in detail). While all brains (from individuals with and without dementia) showed some degree of neurofibrillary degeneration, A? deposits were observed only in 160 (68.7 %). Further pathologies included ?-synucleinopathies (24.9 %), non-Alzheimer tauopathies (23.2 %; including novel forms), TDP-43 proteinopathy (13.3 %), vascular lesions (48.9 %), and others (15.1 %; inflammation, metabolic encephalopathy, and tumours). TDP-43 proteinopathy correlated with hippocampal sclerosis (p < 0.001) and Alzheimer-related pathology (CERAD score and Braak and Braak stages, p = 0.001). The presence of one specific variable (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, A? parenchymal deposits, TDP-43 proteinopathy, ?-synucleinopathy, vascular lesions, non-Alzheimer type tauopathy) did not increase the probability of the co-occurrence of others (p = 0.24). The number of observed pathologies correlated with AD-neuropathologic change (p < 0.0001). In addition to AD-neuropathologic change, tauopathies associated well with dementia, while TDP-43 pathology and ?-synucleinopathy showed strong effects but lost significance when evaluated together with AD-neuropathologic change. Non-AD neurodegenerative pathologies and their combinations have been underestimated, but are frequent in reality as demonstrated here. This should be considered in diagnostic evaluation of biomarkers, and for better clinical stratification of patients. PMID:23900711

  16. ["Hic gaudet mors succurere vitae", autopsy findings of the Mainz Institute of Pathology 1971-2010. An analysis on the occasion of the 100 year jubilee].

    PubMed

    Hansen, T; Hring, S; Rosendahl, F; Dusolt, M; Kempe, C; Hechtner, M; Sommer, C; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2014-07-01

    In the past numerous analyses have studied several aspects of autopsies in particular with regard to the decline of frequency; however, long-term studies spanning more than one decade have rarely been published, especially in recent years. On the occasion of the 100 year jubilee the archive data of the Institute of Pathology of the University of Mainz were analyzed for autopsies performed between 1971 and 2010. In this cohort, we focused on patients over?14 years old (n?=?14,724) who died in the University hospital. We compared the number of autopsies with the total number of deceased patients and, in addition, studied several epidemiological aspects with special relevance for the cause of death (COD). In 1973 the peak autopsy frequency was reached with a value of 73.4?% followed by a decrease to 49.1?% in 1980. In the following decade a relatively steady state was achieved (frequency 53.3?% in 1985, and 43.2?% in 1990), followed by a remarkable decline after the 1990s (1997: 26.4?%, 1998: 15.9?% and 2010: 5.6?%). The mean overall age increased during the observation period (59.1 years in 1971 and 67.5 years in 2008). Among the COD groups cardiovascular diseases were predominantly recorded (between 35?% in the 1970s and 39?% in 1995-2010), followed by infectious diseases (between 20 and 25?%). Malignancies represented the third most common COD group with an increase in frequency from approximately 10.5?% in the 1970s to 17?% observed in the last decade. Among the single specific CODs, pulmonary embolism was most often encountered in the 1970s (about 11.5?%), while in the following decades myocardial infarction predominated (up to 15.8?% between 1995 and 2010). In the overall period, lung cancer was the single most common malignancy of the CODs (between 2.5 and 3.9?%). These data confirmed previous studies showing that in Germany the autopsy frequency began to decline remarkably in the 1990s. Besides general aspects, the specific local causes for these phenomena are discussed. PMID:24957867

  17. Buckle-up and smile for life: uncommon partners find common ground to collaborate and eliminate disparities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harper, Hazel J

    2003-01-01

    Disparities in health and lack of access to oral health are well-documented common concerns. Health education and health promotion increase awareness about the importance of prevention and the relationship of oral health to overall health. The benefits of collaboration and coalition building to enhance community outreach are well established. In order to combat and correct the problems of disparities and access, many more collaborative efforts must be put in place. Meaningful impact on the health of a community can be made by collaborations of both traditional and non-traditional partners. Grassroots efforts that mobilize coalitions around a specific cause and target specific populations can achieve far greater results than any one entity acting alone. Well-coordinated community projects that represent a collaboration of efforts can galvanize the resources, mobilize volunteers and engender public support that will achieve a positive outcome for a common good. The integration of oral health messages with other public health messages and partnership with a very non-traditional entity was an approach that was adopted by the National Dental Association (NDA). This paper describes the unique partnership between the NDA and the Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ([DOT-NHTSA], the funding agency) and the development and launch of a pilot program: "Buckle-Up and Smile for Life". Sections of the paper include: background information on the problems of disparity and access; the impact of community education and the benefits of collaboration; evolution of the unique partnership, including background information on disparities in seat belt usage among African Americans; a description on how the pilot program was structured and implemented; and future plans. The objective of this article is to encourage other oral health organizations to form alliances with the NDA (and other organizations committed to public health) to go into underserved communities to deliver the oral health message. Involvement and participation on all levels, with diverse and non-traditional partners will make a difference. The National Dental Association applauds the commitment of the American Dental Assistants Association to form alliances that address the issues of access and disparities. Groups working together for a common good are linked together by one common notion: Caring Counts. PMID:12861781

  18. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija; Kemiläinen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A; Webb, P; Green, A.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Webb, P.; Whiteman, D.; Fung, Annie; Yashiki, June; Peuteman, Gilian; Smeets, Dominiek; Brussel, Thomas Van; Corthouts, Kathleen; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Olchers, Til; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Maniscalco, Angela; Rossi, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Tranchant, Martine; Valois, Marie-France; Turgeon, Annie; Heguy, Lea; Sze Yee, Phuah; Kang, Peter; Nee, Kang In; Mariapun, Shivaani; Sook-Yee, Yoon; Lee, Daphne; Ching, Teh Yew; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Otsukka, Meeri; Mononen, Kari; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; staff, OFBCR; Krol-Warmerdam, E.; Molenaar, J.; Blom, J.; Brinton, Louise; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata; Zatonski, Witold; Chao, Pei; Stagner, Michael; Bos, Petra; Blom, Jannet; Crepin, Ellen; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Heemskerk, Annette; Higham, Sue; Cross, Simon; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Brock, Ian; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Chua, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  19. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID:24943594

  20. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: Some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmen, T.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, M.; Kilpi, M.; Smith, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    In 1997 and 1998, the authors collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,p{prime}-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that the authors found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  1. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael; Smith, Milton R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  2. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physicians diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.051.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.821.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  3. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  4. Cryptic deletions are a common finding in balanced reciprocal and complex chromosome rearrangements: a study of 59 patients

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, M; Ciccone, R; Magini, P; Pramparo, T; Gimelli, S; Messa, J; Novara, F; Vetro, A; Rossi, E; Maraschio, P; Bonaglia, M C; Anichini, C; Ferrero, G B; Silengo, M; Fazzi, E; Zatterale, A; Fischetto, R; Previder, C; Belli, S; Turci, A; Calabrese, G; Bernardi, F; Meneghelli, E; Riegel, M; Rocchi, M; SGuerneri; Lalatta, F; Zelante, L; Romano, C; Fichera, Ma; Mattina, T; Arrigo, G; Zollino, M; Giglio, S; Lonardo, F; Bonfante, A; Ferlini, A; Cifuentes, F; Van Esch, H; Backx, L; Schinzel, A; Vermeesch, J R; Zuffardi, O

    2007-01-01

    Using array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) 41 de novo reciprocal translocations and 18 de novo complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) were screened. All cases had been interpreted as balanced by conventional cytogenetics. In all, 27 cases of reciprocal translocations were detected in patients with an abnormal phenotype, and after array CGH analysis, 11 were found to be unbalanced. Thus 40% (11 of 27) of patients with a chromosomal phenotype and an apparently balanced translocation were in fact unbalanced, and 18% (5 of 27) of the reciprocal translocations were instead complex rearrangements with >3 breakpoints. Fourteen fetuses with de novo, apparently balanced translocations, all but two with normal ultrasound findings, were also analysed and all were found to be normal using array CGH. Thirteen CCRs were detected in patients with abnormal phenotypes, two in women who had experienced repeated spontaneous abortions and three in fetuses. Sixteen patients were found to have unbalanced mutations, with up to 4 deletions. These results suggest that genome?wide array CGH may be advisable in all carriers of balanced CCRs. The parental origin of the deletions was investigated in 5 reciprocal translocations and 11 CCRs; all were found to be paternal. Using customised platforms in seven cases of CCRs, the deletion breakpoints were narrowed down to regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. No susceptibility motifs were associated with the imbalances. These results show that the phenotypic abnormalities of apparently balanced de novo CCRs are mainly due to cryptic deletions and that spermatogenesis is more prone to generate multiple chaotic chromosome imbalances and reciprocal translocations than oogenesis. PMID:17766364

  5. Pathologic approach to spinal cord infections.

    PubMed

    Tihan, Tarik

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic evaluation of spinal cord infections requires comprehensive clinical, radiological, and laboratory correlation, because the histologic findings in acute, chronic, or granulomatous infections rarely provide clues for the specific cause. This brief review focuses on the pathologic mechanisms as well as practical issues in the diagnosis and reporting of infections of the spinal cord. Examples are provided of the common infectious agents and methods for their diagnosis. By necessity, discussion is restricted to the infections of the medulla spinalis proper and its meninges, and not bone or soft tissue infections. PMID:25952171

  6. Pathologic Evaluation of Appendectomy Specimens in Children: Is Routine Histopatholgic Examination Indicated?

    PubMed Central

    Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Hagghi-Ashtiani, Mohammad-Taghi; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Ahmadi, Hamed; Zargoosh, Heidar; Kalantari, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Similarity between signs and symptoms of appendicitis and other common pediatric illnesses, atypical manifestations of appendicitis in young children, and children's inability to give precise explanation for their symptoms contribute to considerable delay in proper diagnosis and increased rate of perforation. Current study reports the surgical and pathological findings of appendectomies in the largest Children's Hospital in Iran. It also evaluates whether common protocol for pathologic evaluation following appendectomy is beneficial. Methods Pathologic reports of 947 appendectomies, performed with the presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis, were gathered. Correlation between surgical and pathologic findings was assessed. Demographic characteristics of patients between surgical and pathological subgroups were also compared. Findings The mean age of participants was 6.93.5 years. Eighty seven (25.5%) children had abnormal pathological findings and normal surgical report. None of miscellaneous findings including appendicular carcinoid tumor 3 (0.3%), oxyuriasis 2 (0.2%), and mycobacterial infection 4 (0.5%) were recognizable during the surgery. Of all pathologically confirmed cases with perforated appendicitis, 9.7% were not detected during the surgery. Conclusion In current study, acute appendicitis was the most common pathological diagnosis, however, high normal appendectomy rate along with noticeable proportion of surgically missed perforated appendicitis and unusual histopathologies strongly supported routine histological examination. PMID:23056836

  7. Pathology Reports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists ... during a biopsy is sent to a pathology laboratory, where it is sliced into thin sections for ...

  8. Pathologic Findings and Trends in Mortality in the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Population of the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada, From 1983 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lair, S; Measures, L N; Martineau, D

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. This population has failed to recover despite the prohibition of hunting >30 years ago, suggesting the presence of other limiting factors. The authors summarize the reported causes of death and propose risk factors to explain the lack of recovery of this population. From 1983 to 2012, a total of 472 beluga were found stranded. Complete necropsies were carried out on 222 beluga, including 178 adults, 25 juveniles, and 19 newborn calves. Infectious diseases, the most prevalent cause of mortality in this population, accounted for the death of one-third of all beluga (32%). Verminous pneumonia was the cause of mortality of 13 juvenile beluga (52% of juvenile beluga). A total of 39 malignant neoplasms, diagnosed in 35 beluga, caused the death of 31 beluga (20% of beluga >19 years old). Median age at diagnosis of cancer was 48 years (range, 30-61 years). Dystocia and postpartum complications were the cause of death in 18 beluga, accounting for 19% of the females >19 years old examined. The occurrence of parturition-associated complications, as well as mortality of calves <1 year old, have increased recently in this population and may be the probable cause of the recent decrease in the size of this population. One of the hypotheses proposed to explain the unusually high occurrence of some of the pathologic conditions observed in this population is chronic exposure to environmental contaminants. PMID:26374277

  9. Pathologic and virologic findings in mid-gestational porcine foetuses after experimental inoculation with PCV2a or PCV2b.

    PubMed

    Saha, D; Lefebvre, D J; Van Doorsselaere, J; Atanasova, K; Barb, F; Geldhof, M; Karniychuk, U U; Nauwynck, H J

    2010-09-28

    Two major genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been described: PCV2a and PCV2b. Previous studies mainly used PCV2a to experimentally reproduce reproductive failure in sows. This study aims to determine the clinical and virological outcome of surgical inoculation of 55-day-old immuno-incompetent porcine foetuses with PCV2a or PCV2b. Twelve foetuses were inoculated with PCV2: three with the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-associated PCV2a strain Stoon-1010, three with the reproductive failure-associated PCV2a strain 1121, three with the PMWS-associated PCV2b strain 48285 and three with the porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome-associated PCV2b strain 1147. Four foetuses were mock-inoculated with cell culture medium. At 21 days post-inoculation eleven out of twelve PCV2-inoculated foetuses were oedematous and had distended abdomens, whereas one had a normal external appearance. All PCV2-inoculated foetuses had haemorrhages and congestion in internal organs and an enlarged liver. High PCV2 titres (>10(4.5)TCID(50)/g tissue) were found in all PCV2-inoculated foetuses, especially in the heart, spleen and liver. High numbers of PCV2-infected cells (>1000 infected cells/10mm(2) tissue) were observed in the hearts. PCR and DNA sequencing of the capsid gene recovered pure PCV2a and pure PCV2b sequences from PCV2a- and PCV2b-inoculated foetuses, respectively. All mock-inoculated and the remaining foetuses were normal in appearance and were PCV2 negative in virus titrations and indirect immunofluorescence stainings. The present study shows that PCV2a and PCV2b induce similar gross pathological lesions and replicate to similar high titres in organs of 55-day-old immuno-incompetent porcine foetuses. PMID:20395077

  10. Optical mammography: a new technique for visualizing breast lesions in women presenting non palpable BIRADS 4-5 imaging findings: preliminary results with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Alexandra; Vanel, Daniel; Fournier, Laure; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared breast optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 4-5 non-palpable lesions scheduled for biopsy, using pathology after core or excisional biopsy as a reference. The patient's breast was positioned onto a panel of red light-emitting diodes (640 nm). A soft membrane was inflated to exert a uniform pressure on the breast. Transmitted light was detected using a CCD camera. The entire acquisition sequence took 1 minute. Image processing generated dynamic images displayed in colour scale, to reveal time-dependent changes in the transmitted light intensity caused by the pressure change. Dynamic curves were classified in two categories: consistently decreasing intensity suspicious for malignancy, and sinusoidal increasing intensity considered as benign. Seventy-eight women consulting for non-palpable breast lesions were initially included in the study. An imaging-histology correlation was obtained for seventy-two patients, the remaining six patients were excluded for technical optical scan reasons. We experienced an overall sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 38%, the false negative results being mainly small size (<10 mm) infiltrating malignant lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). False positive results were seen in benign proliferative lesions. Dynamic optical breast imaging is a novel, low-cost, non-invasive technique yielding a new type of information about the physiology of breast lesions. Absorption is due to haemoglobin and its products, therefore reflecting the angiogenic status of breast tumours. PMID:17339139

  11. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. PMID:24342092

  12. Toxicological consequences of Aroclor 1254 ingestion by female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys and their nursing infants. Part 3: post-reproduction and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D L; Nera, E A; Stapley, R; Bryce, F; Fernie, S; Tolnai, G; Miller, D; Hayward, S; Campbell, J S; Greer, I

    1997-12-01

    A group of 80 menstruating rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys were randomly allocated to four similar rooms (20 monkeys/room) and then to one of five dose groups (four females/dose group/room). Each day the monkeys self-ingested capsules containing doses of 0, 5, 20, 40 or 80 microg Aroclor 1254/kg body weight. After 25 months of continuous dosing, approximately 90% of the treated females had attained a qualitative pharmacokinetic steady state with respect to the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in their nuchal fat pad. Concurrently, sebaceous glands were being examined for changes analogous to chloracne. Subsequently, the females were paired with untreated males. The infants' blood PCB levels at birth were not correlated with its dam's dose or blood PCB level. However, there was an association between an infants preweaning blood PCB levels and its dam's dose and PCB milk levels. After weaning, the infants were not dosed with PCB. The half-life for the PCB in the infants' blood was determined and found to be slightly more than 15 wk. After 6 yr on test, three monkeys from the 0, 5, 20 and 40 microg dose groups were randomly allocated to a depletion study to ascertain the half-lives of specific PCB congeners (Mes et al., Chemosphere 1995, 30, 789-800). Concurrently, necropsies began of the remaining females, and of seven infants from the treated dams and four infants from the control dams, which had attained an age of 2 yr. Approximately 3 yr later, the depletion monkeys were necropsied. The only statistically significant treatment-related pathological changes found during the study were in the adult females, in which an involution of the sebaceous glands and a dose related increase in liver weight due to hyperplasia were evident. PMID:9449225

  13. Imaging Findings of Common Benign Renal Tumors in the Era of Small Renal Masses: Differential Diagnosis from Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of small renal masses (SRM) has risen, paralleling the increased usage of cross-sectional imaging. A large proportion of these SRMs are not malignant, and do not require invasive treatment such as nephrectomy. Therefore, differentation between early renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign SRM is critical to achieve proper management. This article reviews the radiological features of benign SRMs, with focus on two of the most common benign entities, angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma, in terms of their common imaging findings and differential features from RCC. Furthermore, the role of percutaneous biopsy is discussed as imaging is yet imperfect, therefore necessitating biopsy in certain circumstances to confirm the benignity of SRMs. PMID:25598678

  14. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, María Victoria; Pérez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Tuñon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, María Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and β-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=20, mean age 82.1 years). Relative proteome abundance measurements have revealed protein interaction networks progressively disturbed across AD stages suggesting an early imbalance in splicing factors, subsequent interrupted cycling of neurotransmitters, alteration in toxic and protective mechanisms of β-amyloid, and finally, a mitochondrial dysfunction together with disturbance in neuron-neuron adhesion. We also present novel molecular findings in the OB in an autopsy cohort composed by Lewy body disease (LBD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), mixed dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases (n = 41, mean age 79.7 years). Olfactory mediators deregulated during the progression of AD such as Visinin-like protein 1, RUFY3 protein, and Copine 6 were also differentially modulated in the OB in LBD, FTLD, and mixed dementia. Only Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 showed a specific down-regulation in AD. However, no differences were observed in the olfactory expression of this protein panel in PSP subjects. This study demonstrates an olfactory progressive proteome modulation in AD, unveiling cross-disease similarities and differences especially for specific proteins involved in dendritic and axonic distributions that occur in the OB during the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26517091

  15. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Mara Victoria; Prez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martnez; Tuon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, Mara Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaqun; Santamara, Enrique

    2015-11-24

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and ?-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=20, mean age 82.1 years). Relative proteome abundance measurements have revealed protein interaction networks progressively disturbed across AD stages suggesting an early imbalance in splicing factors, subsequent interrupted cycling of neurotransmitters, alteration in toxic and protective mechanisms of ?-amyloid, and finally, a mitochondrial dysfunction together with disturbance in neuron-neuron adhesion. We also present novel molecular findings in the OB in an autopsy cohort composed by Lewy body disease (LBD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), mixed dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases (n = 41, mean age 79.7 years). Olfactory mediators deregulated during the progression of AD such as Visinin-like protein 1, RUFY3 protein, and Copine 6 were also differentially modulated in the OB in LBD, FTLD, and mixed dementia. Only Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6 showed a specific down-regulation in AD. However, no differences were observed in the olfactory expression of this protein panel in PSP subjects. This study demonstrates an olfactory progressive proteome modulation in AD, unveiling cross-disease similarities and differences especially for specific proteins involved in dendritic and axonic distributions that occur in the OB during the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26517091

  16. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A as a marker of respiratory distress in forensic pathology: assessment of the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaki Q; Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishida, Kaori; Quan, Li; Oritani, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Mari

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings with reference to the causes of death in routine casework (total, n=492). In the immunohistochemistry (n=283), an increase in intra-alveolar granular SP-A (SP-A score) was often observed in asphyxiation (n=21/34, 61.8%) and freshwater drowning (n=15/24, 62.5%), and also in fire and methamphetamine (MA) fatalities (n=22/76, 28.9% and n=5/16, 31.3%). Serum SP-A level (n=134) was elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some cases of drowning, fire and MA fatalities, hyperthermia and chest traumas. A quantitative analysis of SP-A subclass-gene expression (SP-A1/A2 mRNA) in the lung tissue specimens (n=126) revealed an increase in the SP-A1/A2 mRNA ratio in asphyxiation (n=17/21, 80.9%), freshwater drowning (n=7/9, 77.7%), fire and MA fatalities (n=20/35, 57.1% and n=8/10, 80.0%). These findings suggested the usefulness of SP-A as a marker of asphyxiation, respiratory distress and alveolar injury. PMID:12935621

  17. Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677

  18. Diagnosis of ligamentous and meniscal pathologies in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic findings

    PubMed Central

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Koh, Thean-Howe Bryan; Tan, Hwee-Chye Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used to diagnose or support clinical diagnoses for meniscal or ligamentous injuries prior to offering patients arthroscopic treatment. However, the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of meniscal injury is not yet 100%. Sportsmen have occasionally returned to play with undiagnosed meniscal lesions on the basis of a normal MRI examination. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic parameters of MRI in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods MRI and arthroscopic findings of 320 patients with acute ACL injury were included in this retrospective review. Patients belonged to a single surgeon from a high volume tertiary healthcare institution. All patients had either a MRI or an arthroscopic diagnosis of an acute ACL injury of one knee or both. All patients underwent therapeutic arthroscopy by the senior author routinely as part of arthroscopy-aided ACL reconstruction. Arthroscopic findings were the diagnostic reference based on which the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity and concordance strength of association of MRI were calculated for ACL, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) injuries. Results MRI was most accurate in diagnosing cruciate ligament injuries with a PPV approaching 100%. The PPV of MRI in diagnosing meniscal injuries was approximately 60%. MRI was almost 100% sensitive and specific in diagnosing ACL injuries and 82% sensitive and 100% specific in diagnosing PCL injuries. Conversely, MRI was 77% sensitive and 90% specific in diagnosing MM injuries; and 57% sensitive and 95% specific in diagnosing LM injuries. Conclusions MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosing soft tissue injuries of the knee. However, there is a false positive rate ranging from 6% to 11% for meniscal tears. PMID:26605289

  19. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Wnschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Anbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:25085868

  20. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Segal, Y; Segal, L; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T; Sasson, E; Poliansky, V; Loeb, E; Levy, A; Alter, A; Bregman, N

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  1. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Y.; Segal, L.; Blumenfeld-Katzir, T.; Sasson, E.; Poliansky, V.; Loeb, E.; Levy, A.; Alter, A.; Bregman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts' imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment. PMID:26949561

  2. Pathology of radiation myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images PMID:4647860

  3. CRISPR MultiTargeter: A Web Tool to Find Common and Unique CRISPR Single Guide RNA Targets in a Set of Similar Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V.; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  4. CRISPR multitargeter: a web tool to find common and unique CRISPR single guide RNA targets in a set of similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology. PMID:25742428

  5. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  6. Pulmonary pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, D.H.; Hammar, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 34 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiographic correlation; Pleural neoplasms; Cytologic correlations; Hypertension and low-flow states; Common neoplasms; Lymphoproliferative diseases; and Uncommon tumors.

  7. Tumor biology correlates with rates of breast-conserving surgery and pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: findings from the ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance) prospective multicenter clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; McCall, Linda M.; Ballman, Karla V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Flippo-Morton, Teresa; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of tumor biology on rates of breast-conserving surgery and pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Summary Background Data The impact of tumor biology on the rate of breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not been well studied. Methods We used data from ACOSOG Z1071, a prospective, multicenter study assessing sentinel node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients presenting with node-positive breast cancer from 2009 through 2011, to determine rates of breast-conserving surgery and pCR after chemotherapy by approximated biologic subtype. Results Of the 756 patients enrolled on Z1071, 694 had findings available from pathologic review of breast and axillary specimens from surgery after chemotherapy. Approximated subtype was triple-negative in 170 (24.5%) patients, HER2-positive in 207 (29.8%), and hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative in 317 (45.7%). Patient age and clinical tumor and nodal stage at presentation did not differ across subtypes. Rates of breast-conserving surgery were significantly higher in patients with triple-negative (46.8%) and HER2-positive tumors (43.0%) than in those with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumors (34.5%) (P = 0.019). Rates of pCR in both the breast and axilla were 38.2% in triple-negative, 45.4% in HER2-positive, and 11.4% in hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative disease (P < 0.0001). Rates of pCR in the breast only and the axilla only exhibited similar differences across tumor subtypes. Conclusions Patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers have the highest rates of breast-conserving surgery and pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with these subtypes are most likely to be candidates for less invasive surgical approaches after chemotherapy. PMID:25203877

  8. Behavioral activation for pathological grief.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anthony; Rummel, Clair; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Sewell, M Todd

    2013-01-01

    The death of a significant other often entails far-reaching changes in individuals' life that can contribute to pathological grief responses. This article reviews 3 prominent theories of grief resolution, highlights common factors proposed to be associated with pathological grief responses, and suggests that behavioral activation (Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001) may address the factors contributing to pathological grieving. Behavioral activation applied to pathological grief may address loss related disruption by engaging bereaved individuals in their social environment and increasing contact with positive reinforcers that maintain sense of self. Two case studies are provided to demonstrate how behavioral activation can be adapted to remediate environmental disengagement, avoidance, and rumination typical of pathological grief responses. PMID:24517521

  9. Lone atrial fibrillation: Pathologic or not?

    PubMed

    Chambers, Patrick William

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation risk has been strongly associated with increasing age and visceral obesity. These characteristics are strongly associated with diabetes, decreased heart rate variability, and chronic inflammation. Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) on the other hand exhibits a predilection for the physically fit and the middle aged, especially males. Given these opposing features it is postulated that pathologic AF is due to cardiac fibrosis and other age related changes while LAF is due to physiologic neurohormonal changes related to autonomic tone, insulin sensitivity, and electrolyte imbalance and that pathologic AF and LAF can be reliably differentiated via an anthropometric approach using weight, height, hip, and waist measurements. An anthropometric study is undertaken from an LAF database to test this hypothesis. Such individuals in addition to being younger and predominantly male appear to be taller with less central adiposity vs. those with pathologic AF. The ramifications of these findings with respect to insulin resistance, sympathetic tone, inflammation and hypertension, often associated with pathologic atrial fibrillation, are discussed. Speculation is drawn about possible etiologic link with mitral valve prolapse, which is commonly encountered in the tall and thin and which shares multiple clinical features with LAF. PMID:17005327

  10. An echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and common ECG findings in teenage professional soccer players: reference ranges for use in screening

    PubMed Central

    Somauroo, J; Pyatt, J; Jackson, M; Perry, R; Ramsdale, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess physiological cardiac adaptation in adolescent professional soccer players.?SUBJECTS AND DESIGNOver a 32month period 172teenage soccer players were screened by echocardiography and ECG at a tertiary referral cardiothoracic centre. They were from six professional soccer teams in the north west of England, competing in the English Football League. One was excluded because of an atrial septal defect. The median age of the 171players assessed was 16.7years (5th to 95th centile range: 14-19) and median body surface area 1.68m2 (1.39-2.06m2).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESStandard echocardiographic measurements were compared with predicted mean, lower, and upper limits in a cohort of normal controls after matching for age and surface area. Univariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between echocardiographic variables and the age and surface area of the soccer player cohort. ECG findings were also assessed.?RESULTSAll mean echocardiographic variables were greater than predicted for age and surface area matched controls (p<0.001). All variables except left ventricular septal and posterior wall thickness showed a modest linear correlation with surface area (r=0.2 to 0.4,p<0.001); however, left ventricular mass was the only variable that was significantly correlated with age (r=0.2, p<0.01). Only six players (3.5%) had structural anomalies, none of which required further evaluation. All had normal left ventricular systolic function. Sinus bradycardia was found in 65(39%). The Solokow-Lyon voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were present in 85(50%) and the Romhilt-Estes points score (five or more) in 29(17%). Repolarisation changes were present in 19(11%), mainly in the inferior leads.?CONCLUSIONSChamber dimensions, left ventricular wall thickness and mass, and aortic root size were all greater than predicted for controls after matching for age and surface area. Sinus bradycardia and the ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were common but there was poor correlation with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. The type of hypertrophy found reflected the combined endurance and strength based training undertaken.???Keywords: cardiac morphology; professional soccer players; echocardiography; ECG findings PMID:11359746

  11. Clinical and neuroanatomical signatures of tissue pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warren, Jane E.; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Beck, Jonathan; Hardy, John; de Silva, Rohan; Warrington, Elizabeth; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Borroni, Barbara; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Holton, Janice L.; Fox, Nick C.; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N.

    2011-01-01

    Relating clinical symptoms to neuroanatomical profiles of brain damage and ultimately to tissue pathology is a key challenge in the field of neurodegenerative disease and particularly relevant to the heterogeneous disorders that comprise the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Here we present a retrospective analysis of clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging (volumetric and voxel-based morphometric) features in a pathologically ascertained cohort of 95 cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration classified according to contemporary neuropathological criteria. Forty-eight cases (51%) had TDP-43 pathology, 42 (44%) had tau pathology and five (5%) had fused-in-sarcoma pathology. Certain relatively specific clinicopathological associations were identified. Semantic dementia was predominantly associated with TDP-43 type C pathology; frontotemporal dementia and motoneuron disease with TDP-43 type B pathology; young-onset behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with FUS pathology; and the progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome with progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. Progressive non-fluent aphasia was most commonly associated with tau pathology. However, the most common clinical syndrome (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) was pathologically heterogeneous; while pathologically proven Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration were clinically heterogeneous, and TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with similar clinical features in cases with and without progranulin mutations. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, voxel-based morphometry and cluster analyses of the pathological groups here suggested a neuroanatomical framework underpinning this clinical and pathological diversity. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated pathologies segregated based on their cerebral atrophy profiles, according to the following scheme: asymmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (TDP-43 type C); relatively symmetric, relatively localized (predominantly temporal lobe) atrophy (microtubule-associated protein tau mutations); strongly asymmetric, distributed atrophy (Pick's disease); relatively symmetric, predominantly extratemporal atrophy (corticobasal degeneration, fused-in-sarcoma pathology). TDP-43 type A pathology was associated with substantial individual variation; however, within this group progranulin mutations were associated with strongly asymmetric, distributed hemispheric atrophy. We interpret the findings in terms of emerging network models of neurodegenerative disease: the neuroanatomical specificity of particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration pathologies may depend on an interaction of disease-specific and network-specific factors. PMID:21908872

  12. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  13. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these…

  14. Finding Inspiration in the Common Core: An Uncommon Opportunity to Refine the Role of the School Library and Technology Planning Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts affords school librarians and their planning committees an opportunity to reinvigorate their roles in the school as curators of the school library collection, innovators in the use of instructional technology, and leaders in instructional planning. By focusing on these

  15. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Common Mental Disorders Among Workers: Findings From the EMPIRIC Study of Ethnic Minority Groups in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen; McKenzie, Kwame; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James; Weich, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We measured perceived discrimination and its association with common mental disorders among workers in the United Kingdom. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of a national sample of 6 ethnic groups (n=2054). Discrimination was measured as reports of insults; unfair treatment at work; or job denial stemming from race, religion, or language. The outcome assessed was presence of common mental disorders. Results. The risk of mental disorders was highest among ethnic minority individuals reporting unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 3.2) and racial insults (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.6). The overall greatest risks were observed among Black Caribbeans exposed to unfair treatment at work (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.2, 7.3) and Indian (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.4, 7.2), Bangladeshi (OR=32.9; 95% CI=2.5, 436.0), and Irish (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.1, 7.6) individuals reporting insults. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic discrimination shows strong associations with common mental disorders. PMID:15727983

  16. Talc pneumoconiosis: a pathologic and mineralogic study.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A E; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Mitha, R; Craighead, J E; Ruttner, J R

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen cases of "talc pneumoconiosis" were examined pathologically and mineralogically to ascertain whether a true talc pneumoconiosis existed and also to compare these results in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures. Mineralogic analyses were performed on wet tissue or tissue blocks by a variety of techniques, including analytical transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Overall, the pathologic appearance of the tissues was similar in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures, although ferruginous bodies and foreign body giant cells were not always present in cases caused by secondary exposures. Mixed dust fibrotic lesions were found in two cases in which there were substantial quantities of quartz present. There was great variation in the minerals found within the lung tissues. Several cases showed significant quantities of mica and kaolin in addition to talc. One case consisted predominantly of mica and in fact could be regarded as "mica pneumoconiosis"; this diagnosis was correctly attributed because of the mineralogic findings. Tremolite fibers were found in only two cases. Substantial quantities of crocidolite and amosite fibers were found in one case. This study shows that "talcosis" frequently represents disease associated with a variety of minerals and that talc is a common denominator. It shows also the usefulness of lung dust mineral analysis, particularly in secondary industries, for evaluating the cause of a pathologic reaction when exposures are especially complex. PMID:1468771

  17. Pathology of inhalational anthrax animal models.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A

    2010-09-01

    Anthrax is a lethal disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There are three principal forms of the disease in humans-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational-depending on the route of exposure. Of these, inhalational anthrax is the most dangerous; it is rapidly fatal; and it has been used as a deadly biological warfare agent in the last decade. Suitable animal models of inhalational anthrax have been utilized to study pathogenesis of disease, investigate bacterial characteristics such as virulence, and test effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics. To date, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates are the principal animal species used to study inhalational anthrax. Mice are valuable in studying early pathogenesis and bacterial characteristics. Few pathologic changes occur in the mouse models but may include marked bacteremia and lymphocyte destruction in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. Rabbits and guinea pigs rapidly develop fulminate systemic disease, and pathologic findings often include necrotizing lymphadenitis; splenitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. Nonhuman primates consistently develop the full range of classic lesions of human inhalational anthrax, including meningitis; lymphadenitis; splenitis; mediastinitis; pneumonia; vasculitis; and hemorrhage, congestion, and edema in multiple tissues. This review focuses on basic characteristics of the bacterium and its products, key aspects of pathogenesis, and the pathologic changes commonly observed in each animal model species. PMID:20656900

  18. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  19. CT features of jejunal pathology.

    PubMed

    Hyland, R; Chalmers, A

    2007-12-01

    The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography. PMID:17981162

  20. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems. PMID:23243553

  1. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  2. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  3. Astrocytic TDP-43 Pathology in Alexander Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Christine M. LaPash; Goldman, James E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of GfapR236H/+ knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in GfapR236H/+ mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  4. Neuroimaging findings in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C; Siddiqui, A

    2014-01-01

    At least 25% of individuals with sickle cell disease will have a neurological complication over their lifetime, often as early as in childhood. Neuroradiological findings in patients with sickle cell disease are common and include acute territorial infarction, silent ischaemia and intracranial haemorrhage. Imaging abnormalities are typically, but not always, manifestations of the underlying vasculopathy. Coexisting acute and chronic pathology may pose challenges to interpretation. PMID:24847772

  5. Expression stability of common housekeeping genes is differently affected by bowel inflammation and cancer: implications for finding suitable normalizers for inflammatory bowel disease studies.

    PubMed

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Diakowska, Dorota; Bania, Jacek; Gamian, Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Instability of housekeeping genes (HKG), supposedly unregulated and hence used as normalizers, may dramatically change conclusions of quantitative PCR experiments. The effect of bowel inflammation on HKG remains unknown. Expression stability of 15 HKG (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT1, IPO8, MRPL19, PGK1, PPIA, RPLP0, RPS23, SDHA, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ) in 166 bowel specimens (91 normal, 35 cancerous, and 40 inflamed) was ranked by coefficients of variation (CV%) or using dedicated software: geNorm and NormFinder. The RPS23, PPIA, and RPLP0 were top-ranked, whereas IPO8, UBC and TBP were the lowest-ranked HKG across inflamed/cancerous/normal colonic tissues. The pairs RPS23/RPLP0, PGK1/MRPL19, or PPIA/RPLP0 were optimal reference by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. Colon inflammation affected HKG more pronouncedly than cancer with ACTB significantly down- and B2M upregulated. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), different genes were top-ranked in a large and small bowel, whereas TBP, UBC, and IPO8 were lowest-ranked in both. For patients with IBD at large, RPS23/PPIA, PGK1/MRPL19, and PPIA/RPLP0 were found optimal by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. ACTB and B2M expression was related to CRC stage and positively correlated with clinical activity of IBD. Although GAPDH was upregulated neither in CRC nor IBD, it tended to positively correlate with tumor depth and Crohn's disease activity index. Normalizing against GAPDH affected experimental conclusions in a small but not large bowel. Bowel inflammation significantly affects several classic HKG. The pair PPIA/RPLP0 is a common optimal reference for studies encompassing tissues sampled from colorectal cancer and IBD patients. Using ACTB or B2M is not recommended. PMID:24859296

  6. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic. PMID:19760245

  7. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.

  8. Physician-assisted suicide. Finding common ground.

    PubMed Central

    McGough, P; Back, A L; Colley, J

    1997-01-01

    In Washington state, practicing physicians have been forced to confront the emotional, complex issue of physician-assisted suicide sooner than physicians elsewhere in the US. The Washington State Medical Association has struggled at length with the issue and ultimately delineated a policy on safeguards for physician-assisted suicide. The Washington experience may prove instructive to other professional physician organizations even before the US Supreme Court rules on the issue. PMID:9217451

  9. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for <2% of all bone tumors. The calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  10. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  11. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical

  12. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    ← Close All breastfeeding topics Breastfeeding benefits: Why breastfeeding is important Learning to breastfeed: Learning to breastfeed Making breastmilk Finding breastfeeding support and information Breastfeeding challenges: Common ...

  13. Spontaneous Gallbladder Pathology in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Slingluff, J.L.; Williams, J.T.; Blau, Lance; Blau, Adam; Dick, E.J.; Hubbard, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gallbladder pathology (GBP) is a relatively uncommon, naturally occurring morbidity in both baboons and humans. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 7,776 necropsy reports over a twenty year period to determine the prevalence of baboon GBP. Results Ninety-seven cases of GBP were identified, yielding a twenty year population prevalence of 1.25%. GBP is more common in adult female baboons, occurring with a female to male ratio of nearly 2:1. Among gallbladder pathologies, cholecystitis (35.1%) and cholelithiasis (29.9%) were the most prevalent abnormalities, followed by hyperplasia (16.5%), edema (15.5%), amyloidosis (5.2%), fibrosis (4.1%), necrosis (4.1%, and hemorrhage (1.0%). Conclusion Many epidemiologic similarities exist between GBP in baboons and humans suggesting that the baboon may serve as a reliable animal model system for investigating GBP in humans. PMID:19793177

  14. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  15. Second metatarsophalangeal joint pathology and freiberg disease.

    PubMed

    Shane, Amber; Reeves, Christopher; Wobst, Garrett; Thurston, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Pain in the second metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is a complaint frequently encountered by foot and ankle specialists. The pathology associated with this joint is often painful and debilitating for the patient. In the past, typical treatment protocols for second MTPJ pathology were aimed at relief of patient symptoms. Conservative treatment and offloading devices have historically dominated treatment options for the clinician. However, recent surgical techniques and procedures have been developed to correct the mechanical and structural defects that can affect this joint. The aim of this review was to outline recent developments and treatment options for common second MTPJ pathologies. PMID:23827490

  16. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  17. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  18. Description of Laryngeal Pathologies in Children Evaluated by Otolaryngologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobres, Rachel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected on 731 patients (age birth to 18) at a children's hospital otolaryngology clinic. Most frequent laryngeal pathologies were subglottic stenosis, vocal nodules, laryngomalacia, and vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal pathologies were more common to males than females, were most common in the youngest patients, and were distributed

  19. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  20. Pathologic diagnosis of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia on horizontal sections.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-11-01

    The pathologic findings in Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) have not been studied systematically in horizontal sections. Our objective was to establish the pathologic features, and their frequency in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies obtained from patients with clinically and histologically proven CCCA. Serial horizontal sections of 51 cases were evaluated retrospectively. All biopsies were assessed at 4 levels and at least on 24 horizontal sections. The most common pathologic findings were follicular miniaturization (81% of the cases); premature desquamation of the inner root sheath (96%), focal preservation of the sebaceous glands (94%), which in most of these cases appeared as surrounding "in a hug" an intact vellus follicle; compound follicular structures with perifollicular fibrosis and/or inflammation (89%), lamellar hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis in the hair canal (79%), absent or mild inflammation (77%), and naked hair shafts (68%). Horizontal sections are useful in CCCA to identify early or focal disease and to provide the clinician with better information on the presence of follicular miniaturization, inflammation, and scarring, which can be used to tailor the treatment to the individual patient. PMID:25222198

  1. TDP-43 pathology in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal dementia with pathologic Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Eileen H; Mishra, Manjari; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; White, Charles L; Johnson, Nancy; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Deng, Han-Xiang; Dubner, Steven D; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel

    2010-07-01

    The clinical syndrome of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can be associated with a variety of neuropathologic diagnoses at autopsy. Thirty percent of cases have Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, most often in the usual distribution, which defies principles of brain-behavior organization, in that aphasia is not symptomatic of limbic disease. The present study investigated whether concomitant TDP-43 pathology could resolve the lack of clinico-anatomic concordance. In this paper, 16 cases of clinical PPA and 10 cases of primarily non-aphasic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), all with AD pathology, were investigated to determine whether their atypical clinical phenotypes reflected the presence of additional TDP-43 pathology. A comparison group consisted of 27 cases of pathologic AD with the typical amnestic clinical phenotype of probable AD. Concomitant TDP-43 pathology was discovered in only three of the FTD and PPA but in more than half of the typical amnestic clinical phenotypes. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was closely associated with TDP-43 pathology when all groups were combined for analysis. Therefore, the clinical phenotypes of PPA and FTD in cases with pathologic AD are only rarely associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. Furthermore, medial temporal TDP-43 pathology is more tightly linked to HS than to clinical phenotype. These findings challenge the current notions about clinicopathologic correlation, especially about the role of multiple pathologies. PMID:20361198

  2. Treatment approaches for pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Lpez Viets, V C; Miller, W R

    1997-11-01

    Outcome literature on the treatment of pathological gambling is reviewed, encompassing psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, multimodal, pharmacotherapeutic, and 12-step approaches. No properly controlled research has been conducted with psychodynamic or 12-step methods, and pharmacotherapies require replications with larger samples to determine their efficacy. Multimodal approaches have been tested most often in inpatient settings, and given the range of methods combined it is difficult to infer specific efficacy for treatment components. The largest volume of outcome research has focused on behavioral, cognitive, and combined cognitive-behavioral treatment methods, and findings from controlled and uncontrolled trials provide support for efficacy of these approaches. As a whole, the literature indicates that pathological gambling can be treated with highly successful outcomes. Needs for further research are considered. PMID:9397332

  3. Pathological demand avoidance: exploring the behavioural profile.

    PubMed

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happ, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, are described as unhelpful. Outrageous acts and lack of concern for their effects draw parallels with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. However, reward-based techniques, effective with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, seem not to work in pathological demand avoidance. Despite increasing interest and controversy over the pathological demand avoidance label, there is only one published study to date. We present the first systematic comparison of the behavioural profile of children receiving the term pathological demand avoidance (N = 25) to children with autism spectrum disorders (N = 39) or conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits (N = 28), using parent-report indices of psychopathology. The pathological demand avoidance group displayed comparable levels of autistic traits and peer problems to the autism spectrum disorders group and anti-social traits approaching those seen in the conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits group. Emotional symptoms in pathological demand avoidance exceeded both comparison groups. Findings highlight the extreme behavioural impairment associated with pathological demand avoidance and the need to explore whether behavioural overlap reflects a similar neurocognitive basis to existing groups. PMID:24104509

  4. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. PMID:22325312

  5. Pathological fractures in children: Diagnosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Canavese, F; Samba, A; Rousset, M

    2016-02-01

    A fracture is defined as pathological when it arises in a bone tissue that has been modified and reshaped by a local or systemic pathological process. In children, pathological fractures can be secondary to several conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases to tumors, infections or neuromuscular pathologies. History, clinical examination and radiologic assessment are essential to making a diagnosis, to identifying the underlying cause and to planning the right treatment of a pathological fracture. Treatment must be tailored to both the fracture and the underlying cause. The objective of this work is to present the diagnostic approach and the course to follow when a child presents with a pathological fracture. The most common causes of pathological fractures, as well as their characteristics, will be described. Pathological fractures occurring in osteogenesis imperfecta and in abused children as well as stress fractures will not be discussed. PMID:26774903

  6. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91%). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22%) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23%) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23%) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15%) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08%) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  7. Vasoregression: A Shared Vascular Pathology Underlying Macrovascular And Microvascular Pathologies?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akanksha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2015-12-01

    Vasoregression is a common phenomenon underlying physiological vessel development as well as pathological microvascular diseases leading to peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vascular oculopathies. In this review, we describe the hallmarks and pathways of vasoregression. We argue here that there is a parallel between characteristic features of vasoregression in the ocular microvessels and atherosclerosis in the larger vessels. Shared molecular pathways and molecular effectors in the two conditions are outlined, thus highlighting the possible systemic causes of local vascular diseases. Our review gives us a system-wide insight into factors leading to multiple synchronous vascular diseases. Because shared molecular pathways might usefully address the diagnostic and therapeutic needs of multiple common complex diseases, the literature analysis presented here is of broad interest to readership in integrative biology, rational drug development and systems medicine. PMID:26669709

  8. Applied Molecular Pathology Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    The Applied Molecular Pathology Laboratory (AMPL) was dual division effort between the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). The effort was halted in 2014, however ongoing studies continue to utilize

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    PubMed Central

    Franz, D.; Esposito, I.; Kapp, A.-C.; Gaa, J.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement. PMID:26937427

  10. Clinical and pathological correlations in endometrial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bohl?ea, RE; Sajin, M; Furtunescu, F; Bohl?ea, LC; Mihart, A; Baros, A; Anca, AF

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of endometrial cancer has been registering an increasing trend both in Romania and in the whole world. The papers aim is to analyze the diagnostic approach of endometrial pathology in the University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, on a four years period. The medium age of the patients was of 50.51 10.924 years, and the median age was of 48 years. The youngest patient suffering from endometrial cancer was of 30 years. Dilation and uterine curettage represent the main method used in the performance of endometrial biopsy, based on which the certitude etiologic histopathologic diagnosis was established in 68.4% of the patients with endometrial pathology. Hyperplasias represented half of the pathology (54.9%), most of them being without atypias. Endometrial carcinoma was identified in 19% of the patients. The diagnosis of the disease in IA stage represents 5.5% of the total endometrial cases and the diagnosis of the disease in the stage of its limitation to the uterus (stage IA, IB and IC) was of 64.2%. The endometrioid adenocarcinoma represents the most encountered histopathological form and the degree of tumor differentiation established for 68,15% of the cases was predominantly 1 and 2 (88%). The main symptom, which determines the patients decision to go to the physician, is the abnormal uterine bleeding. 66% of the cases of endometrial cancer in the stage of the disease limited to the uterus are diagnosed in Romania based on the abnormal uterine bleeding. However, 34% of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, presenting a significantly low life expectancy. PMID:26664489

  11. Standardization Efforts of Digital Pathology in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Marcial Garca; Daniel, Christel; Schrader, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: EURO-TELEPATH is a European COST Action IC0604. It started in 2007 and will end in November 2011. Its main objectives are evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit, and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical specialties in a networked environment. Business Modelling: Working Group 1, Business Modelling in Pathology, has designed main pathology processes Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy using Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Informatics Standards in Pathology: Working Group 2 has been dedicated to promoting the application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Conclusion: Health terminology standardization research has become a topic of great interest. Future research work should focus on standardizing automatic image analysis and tissue microarrays imaging. PMID:21987588

  12. Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bamburg, James R.; Bloom, George S.

    2009-01-01

    The histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are the extracellular amyloid plaques, composed principally of the amyloid beta peptide, and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of paired helical filaments of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Other histopathological structures involving actin and the actin-binding protein, cofilin, have more recently been recognized. Here we review new findings about these cytoskeletal pathologies, and, emphasize how plaques, tangles, the actin-containing inclusions and their respective building blocks may contribute to Alzheimer pathogenesis and the primary behavioral symptoms of the disease. PMID:19479823

  13. Pathologic Classification of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, David S

    2016-02-01

    The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms has evolved over the past decades, as new understanding of the biological behavior, histologic characteristics, and genetic features have emerged. Nonetheless, many aspects of the classification systems remain confusing or controversial. Despite these difficulties, much progress has been made in determining the features predicting behavior. Genetic findings have helped establish relationships among different types of neuroendocrine neoplasms and revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the current approach to the diagnosis, classification, grading, and therapeutic stratification of neuroendocrine neoplasms, with a focus on those arising in the lung and thymus, pancreas, and intestines. PMID:26614366

  14. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  15. Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-β Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suqian; Burton, Mark A.; Ghosh, Joy G.; Ericsson, Maria; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Robb, Richard M.; Kuszak, Jer R.; Clark, John I.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Hunter, David G.; Goldstein, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Aβ pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Aβ aggregates (∼5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Aβ in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Aβ with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Aβ accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD. PMID:20502642

  16. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOEε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and 95 years for ε2ε3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOEgenotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia. PMID:25988462

  17. [Acute appendicitis: is this common pathology still of interest?].

    PubMed

    D'Abbicco, Dario; Amoruso, Michele; Notarnicola, Annarita; Casagranda, Biagio; Epifania, Barbara; Margari, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Despite the indisputable progress of technology (laboratory analyses, scintigraphy, ultrasonography, computed tomography), the diagnosis of acute appendicitis often remains uncertain, with a rate of useless appendectomies amounting to almost 20% of cases. The ideal diagnostic test has yet to be discovered and, in any case, clinical observation remains the cornerstone of any decision-making algorithm. Thus, acute appendicitis continues to offer food for thought in relation to the aetiology of the condition, which is still unknown, the primacy of the clinical diagnosis, and the learning of the surgical skills required. In the present study, the authors compare their personal experience with the relevant data in the international literature, emphasising a number of issues such as the problem of diagnosis, acute appendicitis in pregnancy, laparoscopic therapy, and the so-called "useless appendectomies" and presenting their own point of view. PMID:17500172

  18. Pathology of Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Montone, Kathleen T

    2016-03-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) comprises a spectrum of disease processes that vary in clinical presentation, histologic appearances, and biological significance. FRS can be acute or chronic and is most commonly classified as non-invasive or invasive based on whether fungi have invaded into tissue. This manuscript will review the pathologic classification of FRS. PMID:26830404

  19. [Professionally conditioned pathology].

    PubMed

    Silion, I; Gr?dinaru, R

    1982-01-01

    The existence of some differences between the indices of morbidity with temporary disablement in some working sectors in which do work persons having similar sex and age features determined the authors to adopt the term of professionally conditioned pathology for the affections in the etiology of which favouring factors of professional nature do interpose. In the modern society, as the manifest professional pathology is diminishing, the industrial medicine, as a scientific discipline, is changing its sphere and content, increasingly orienting itself towards the investigation of the professionally conditioned pathology and its implications in the medical practice. The prioritary orientation towards the prevalent diseases of the modern society is a main task for the present and future industrial medicine. PMID:25588251

  20. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate subcortical white matter have been assumed to be due to trauma but factors specific to this age group offer other explanations. Finally, examples of the most common causes of the triad encountered in clinical diagnostic and forensic practice are briefly annotated. PMID:21947257

  1. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  2. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2016-03-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26851665

  3. Retinal Anatomy and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinali Patel; Herzlich, Alexandra A; Sauer, Theodor; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Normal retina contains neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium. The neuroretina consists of outer and inner segments of photoreceptors (rods and cones), external limiting membrane, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, nerve fiber layer and internal limiting membrane. There is a broad spectrum of retinal pathology including congenital abnormalities, dystrophies, degenerations (notably age-related macular degeneration), retinal vascular diseases, toxicities, inflammatory diseases, neoplasms, retinal detachment, trauma and retinal involvement of systemic diseases. This chapter presents a few major pathological processes in retinal diseases, especially processes that are amenable to pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:26502225

  4. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  5. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  6. Quantitative analysis and clinico-pathological correlations of different dipeptide repeat protein pathologies in C9ORF72 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Frick, Petra; Grsser, Friedrich A; Gendron, Tania F; Petrucelli, Leonard; Cashman, Neil R; Edbauer, Dieter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Prudlo, Johannes; Troost, Dirk; Neumann, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease. One consequence of the mutation is the formation of different potentially toxic polypeptides composed of dipeptide repeats (DPR) (poly-GA, -GP, -GR, -PA, -PR) generated by repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. While previous studies focusing on poly-GA pathology have failed to detect any clinico-pathological correlations in C9ORF72 mutation cases, recent data from animal and cell culture models suggested that it may be only specific DPR species that are toxic and only when accumulated in certain intracellular compartments. Therefore, we performed a systematic clinico-pathological correlative analysis with counting of actual numbers of distinct types of inclusion (neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites) for each DPR protein in relevant brain regions (premotor cortex, lower motor neurons) in a cohort of 35 C9ORF72 mutation cases covering the clinical spectrum from those with pure MND, mixed FTD/MND and pure FTD. While each DPR protein pathology had a similar pattern of anatomical distribution, the total amount of inclusions for each DPR protein varied remarkably (poly-GA>GP>GR>PR/PA), indicating that RAN translation seems to be more effective from sense than from antisense transcripts. Importantly, with the exception of moderate associations for the amount of poly-GA-positive dystrophic neurites with degeneration in the frontal cortex and total burden of poly-GA pathology with disease onset, no relationship was identified for any other DPR protein pathology with degeneration or phenotype. Biochemical analysis revealed a close correlation between insoluble DPR protein species and numbers of visible inclusions, while we did not find any evidence for the presence of soluble DPR protein species. Thus, overall our findings strongly argue against a role of DPR protein aggregation as major and exclusive pathomechanism in C9ORF72 pathogenesis. However, this does not exclude that DPR protein formation might be essential in C9ORF72 pathogenesis in interplay with other consequences associated with the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. PMID:26374446

  7. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  8. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for

  9. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care. PMID:26677179

  10. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  11. Commons Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William E.; Tyler, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a commons area can serve both the school and community by becoming a cost-effective, space-saving asset to the school building. Examines the commons area as a place for interaction; discusses subdividing it into smaller functional units, locating it, and related lighting and heating issues. (GR)

  12. Common cold

    MedlinePLUS

    The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

  13. Pediatric Benign Soft Tissue Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Alexandra; Karlis, Vasiliki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the many types of oral pathologic lesions found in infants and children, the most commonly encountered are benign soft tissue lesions. The clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment algorithms of pathologies in the age group from birth to 18years of age are summarized based on their prevalence in each given age distribution. Treatment modalities include both medical and surgical management. PMID:26614696

  14. Pathologic correlates of dementia in individuals with Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Joshua A; Postupna, Nadia; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Rose, Shannon E; Montine, Kathleen S; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Thomas J

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia are more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than age-matched controls and appear to become more frequent as PD progresses. However, estimates of dementia in patients with PD have varied widely, likely due in part to differences in case definition, case ascertainment and methodology. First, we review investigations of usual pathologic correlates of dementia in patients with brainstem (b) Lewy Body Disease (LBD) and report our findings from the initial 266 brain autopsies from a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia. Our results showed that 2.6% of subjects were diagnosed with PD during life but that 20% had bLBD at autopsy. Seventy percent of individuals with bLBD had high level of one or more cerebral pathologic changes significantly associated with dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral (c) LBD or microvascular brain injury (microVBI); these were commonly co-morbid. Next we consider proposed contributors to cognitive impairment and dementia in the approximately 30% of patients with only bLBD, including regionally selective dendritic degeneration of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. Diseases contributing to cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with bLBD are heterogeneous, providing diagnostic challenges as well as multiple opportunities for successful intervention in patients with PD. PMID:20522091

  15. Second opinion in breast pathology: Policy, practice and perception

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Berta M; Nelson, Heidi D; Carney, Patricia A; Weaver, Donald L; Onega, Tracy; Allison, Kimberly H; Frederick, Paul; Tosteson, Anna N A; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the laboratory policies, pathologists clinical practice, and perceptions about the value of second opinions for breast pathology cases among pathologists practicing in the United States. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 252 pathologists who interpret breast specimens in eight states using a web-based survey. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize findings. Results Most participants had >10 years of experience interpreting breast specimens (64%), were not affiliated with academic centers (73%) and were not considered experts by their peers (79%). Laboratory policies mandating second opinions varied by diagnosis: invasive cancer 65%; DCIS 56%; atypical ductal hyperplasia 36%; and other benign cases 33%. 81% obtained second opinions in the absence of policies. Participants believed they improve diagnostic accuracy (96%) and protect from malpractice suits (83%), and were easy to obtain, did not take too much time, and did not make them look less adequate. The most common (60%) approach to resolving differences between the first and second opinion is to ask for a third opinion, followed by reaching a consensus. Conclusions Laboratory-based second opinion policies vary for breast pathology, but are most common for invasive cancer and DCIS cases. Pathologists have favorable attitudes towards second opinions, adhere to policies, and obtain them even when policies are absent. Those without a formal policy may benefit from supportive clinical practices and systems that help obtain second opinions. PMID:25053542

  16. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  17. Canine Gastric Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amorim, I; Taulescu, M A; Day, M J; Catoi, C; Reis, C A; Carneiro, F; Grtner, F

    2016-01-01

    Gastric disorders are common in dogs and are a major reason for veterinary consultation. In human medicine, the classification of gastric diseases based on histological features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps to better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and to improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Canine gastric lesions often show strong histological similarities to their human counterparts. However, such conditions in the canine stomach are poorly studied and their cellular and molecular features are largely unknown. This article reviews the histopathological classification of inflammatory and neoplastic lesions of the canine stomach and provides an update on the application of molecular techniques within the field of canine gastric pathology. The canine disorders are compared with current knowledge of the equivalent human diseases. PMID:26774560

  18. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  19. Urologic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Someren, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the kidneys, urinary passages, renal transplantation, male genitalia, and adrenal glands. Each chapter has the same format: congenital conditions are discussed then, inflammatory and nonneoplastic disorders; and, finally, neoplasms. For each disease process, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  20. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  1. Evidence that meningeal mast cells can worsen stroke pathology in mice.

    PubMed

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Nepomuceno, Andrew R B; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells inthe meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers formodulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  2. Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Nepomuceno, Andrew R.B.; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.; Bliss, Tonya M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells inthe meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers formodulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  3. Extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma of the larynx: a rare pathological finding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shachi J; Kreisel, Melanie; Kroll, Tobias; Gattenloehner, Stefan; Klussmann, Jens P; Wittekindt, Claus

    2013-02-01

    The extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma is extremely rare in the field of Otorhinolaryngology. The tumour usually arises from the soft tissue of the face or from mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx and the oral cavity but only sporadic endolaryngeal cases have been described in literature so far with predominance of young males. Here, we describe the very rare case of endolaryngeal extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma in a 42-year-old male. Clinical examination showed a mass of the right vocal cord, resembling a cystic lesion. Microlaryngoscopy revealed a non-encapsulated lesion and histopathology including immunohistochemistry which consecutively led to the correct diagnosis. This case suggests that the endolaryngeal extracardiac juvenile rhabdomyoma can be easily confused with a vocal cord cyst. Malignant transformations have not been reported but recurrences have been described. When total excision cannot be accomplished, reoperation or narrow follow-up is indicated to prevent advanced revision surgeries. PMID:23124718

  4. Portacaval shunt in a calf: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings

    PubMed Central

    Buczinski, Sbastien; Duval, Julie; dAnjou, Marc-Andr; Francoz, David; Fecteau, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extra-hepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant. PMID:17494368

  5. Pathological findings in equine herpesvirus 9-induced abortion in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Haridy, M; Nayel, M; Abdelaziz, A A; Fukushi, H; Kuroda, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant rats were infected experimentally with equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus serologically similar to EHV-1, during the first and third trimesters. The inoculated dams had mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead fetuses or undersized pups. Rats inoculated during the first and last trimesters had varying degrees of encephalitis as well as abnormalities of the placentas in the form of marked dilation of maternal blood sinusoids and varying degrees of atrophy and necrosis of the trophoblast cells of the labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and the giant cell layer. Virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the brain and the trophoblast cells of labyrinth, the spongiotrophoblasts and giant cell layer of the placenta in rats inoculated during the first trimester. Virus antigen was detected in fetuses from rats inoculated in the first and last trimesters. Virus DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the placenta and fetuses of inoculated rats. EHV-9 may induce fetal death and abortion in pregnant dams, possibly caused by direct EHV-9 infection of the placenta and/or fetus as well as the secondary effect of vascular injury. PMID:25304504

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  7. Update on prostate pathology.

    PubMed

    Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2012-08-01

    This update on prostate pathology is very timely, as we celebrate the 20 anniversary of our great society, the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP). Most of the key advances in this field over the past two decades have been made by several distinguished members of our society, as will be demonstrated herein. I am therefore indeed honored and privileged to be given the opportunity to present this paper. I will start with a brief historical perspective prior to delving into the update on prostate pathology over the past two decades and beyond. The topics discussed in this update will be somewhat limited, but will include The Gleason grading system; handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens; variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma; treatment effect on the prostate; other primary and secondary tumours involving the prostate, and biomarkers of prostate cancer. PMID:22772344

  8. A geographical analysis of speech-language pathology services to support multilingual children.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon

    2014-06-01

    The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak. PMID:24447163

  9. Eating pathology in East African women: the role of media exposure and globalization.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Hennessey, Moira; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2007-03-01

    Eating disorder (ED) pathology and its relation to media exposure and globalization were assessed in a sample of young Tanzanian females (N = 214; 19.4 years +/- 3.8 years). Participants completed Kiswahili versions of a DSM-IV ED symptom clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and a media exposure/globalization questionnaire. One third endorsed cognitive ED symptoms; bingeing (10%) and purging (5%) were less common. Four women (1.9%) met modified criteria for anorexia nervosa, one for bulimia nervosa, and 10 (4.7%) reported clinically significant ED pathology consistent with an ED not otherwise specified diagnosis. Media exposure and Western exposure (e.g., travel abroad) were positively associated with ED symptoms. The intended factor structure of the EDI was not supported. Eating pathology is present in this developing nation and is most common in subpopulations with increased exposure to Western culture. Future research should replicate these findings to clarify the role of Western media in the development of ED pathology. PMID:17468678

  10. Relapse in pathological gamblers: A pilot study on the predictive value of different impulsivity measures.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Bieke; Goudriaan, Anneke; Sabbe, Bernard; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dom, Geert

    2013-03-01

    Backgrounds and aims Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining the role of self-report and neurocognitive measures on relapse in substance dependent patients, the present pilot study was executed. Methods Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 31 healthy controls took part in this research. They filled in self-report questionnaires measuring impulsive personality (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires) and performed neurocognitive tasks measuring impulsivity, decision-making and attentional bias (Iowa Gambling Task, Delay Discounting Task, Stroop Gambling Task). Twelve months later gambling activity was re-examined. Results Analyses showed that PGs who relapsed (n = 13) did not differ on self-report and neurocognitive measures of impulsivity with PGs who did not relapse (n = 9). However, both groups did differ in age at onset. Finally, healthy controls and PGs differed in some (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Stroop Gambling Task), but not all impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting Task, Iowa Gambling Task, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires). Conclusions One-year relapse in pathological gamblers is not predicted by self-report and or neurocognitive measures of impulsivity and decision-making. The similarities in performances between pathological gamblers and healthy controls illustrate the relative health of the examined pathological gamblers. This last finding supports the idea that subtypes of pathological gamblers exist so that different treatment strategies might be necessary. PMID:26165768

  11. Computational Pathology: A Path Ahead.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B; Dighe, Anand S; Pfeifer, John D; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E; Gilbertson, John R; Sinard, John H; Gerber, Georg K; Galli, Stephen J; Golden, Jeffrey A; Becich, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Context .- We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective .- To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources .- A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions .- The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and nonpathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  12. Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy: A Proposal of the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Min, Hye Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jang Hee; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In recent years throughout Korea, the use of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has become common for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, there is no consensus on the pathology reporting system for thyroid CNB. The Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group held a conference on thyroid CNB pathology and developed guidelines through contributions from the participants. This article discusses the outcome of the discussions that led to a consensus on the pathology reporting of thyroid CNB. PMID:26081825

  13. Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

    2013-08-01

    Over the past 70years, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has emerged as one of the most common and important pathological features of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Axons in the white matter appear to be especially vulnerable to injury due to the mechanical loading of the brain during TBI. As such, DAI has been found in all severities of TBI and may represent a key pathologic substrate of mild TBI (concussion). Pathologically, DAI encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities from primary mechanical breaking of the axonal cytoskeleton, to transport interruption, swelling and proteolysis, through secondary physiological changes. Depending on the severity and extent of injury, these changes can manifest acutely as immediate loss of consciousness or confusion and persist as coma and/or cognitive dysfunction. In addition, recent evidence suggests that TBI may induce long-term neurodegenerative processes, such as insidiously progressive axonal pathology. Indeed, axonal degeneration has been found to continue even years after injury in humans, and appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes. Here we review the current understanding of DAI as a uniquely mechanical injury, its histopathological identification, and its acute and chronic pathogenesis following TBI. PMID:22285252

  14. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  15. Clinical and multimodal biomarker correlates of ADNI neuropathological findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autopsy series commonly report a high percentage of coincident pathologies in demented patients, including patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). However many clinical and biomarker studies report cases with a single neurodegenerative disease. We examined multimodal biomarker correlates of the consecutive series of the first 22 Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative autopsies. Clinical data, neuropsychological measures, cerebrospinal fluid Aβ, total and phosphorylated tau and α-synuclein and MRI and FDG-PET scans. Results Clinical diagnosis was either probable DAT or Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-type mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at last evaluation prior to death. All patients had a pathological diagnosis of AD, but only four had pure AD. A coincident pathological diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), medial temporal lobe pathology (TDP-43 proteinopathy, argyrophilic grain disease and hippocampal sclerosis), referred to collectively here as MTL, and vascular pathology were present in 45.5%, 40.0% and 22.7% of these patients, respectively. Hallucinations were a strong predictor of coincident DLB (100% specificity) and a more severe dysexecutive profile was also a useful predictor of coincident DLB (80.0% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). Occipital FDG-PET hypometabolism accurately classified coincident DLB (80% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Subjects with coincident MTL showed lower hippocampal volume. Conclusions Biomarkers can be used to independently predict coincident AD and DLB pathology, a common finding in amnestic MCI and DAT patients. Cohorts with comprehensive neuropathological assessments and multimodal biomarkers are needed to characterize independent predictors for the different neuropathological substrates of cognitive impairment. PMID:24252435

  16. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  17. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  18. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal

  19. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  20. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  1. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  2. [Pathology on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Ryska, A; D?dic, K

    1998-04-01

    Authors' experience gained during a one year usage of the Internet is presented. By now we have found many useful information resources related to the field of pathology. The MEDLINE database is available free of charge at several web sites as well as teaching diagnostic seminars, electronic color atlases, medical publishers homepages, etc. There is also a possibility to enter various topic-related groups in the framework of Internet discussion groups. The limiting factors for reaching medical information from the Internet is hardware and software equipment, the cost of Internet connection, and the data transmission capacity of phone lines. PMID:9624824

  3. Cancer: pathological nuclear reprogramming?

    PubMed

    Goding, Colin R; Pei, Duanqing; Lu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    The ability of stem cells to self-renew and generate different lineages during development and organogenesis is a fundamental, tightly controlled, and generally unidirectional process, whereas the 'immortality' of cancer cells could be regarded as pathological self-renewal. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are remarkably similar to those that are deregulated in cancer - so much so that aberrant reprogramming is tumorigenic. The similarities also suggest that mutations in genes implicated in DNA methylation dynamics might represent a hallmark of cancers with a stem cell origin, and they highlight an alternative view of cancer that may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25030952

  4. A survey of equine oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James; Waldner, Cheryl; Grier, Candace; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-01-01

    Dental abnormalities in horses can lead to weight-loss, poor performance, pain, behavioral abnormalities, and illness. Despite this impact, the occurrence and type of dental disease in horse populations is infrequently reported in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey of horses presented for slaughter at a processing plant in Western Canada was to measure the prevalence of equine oral abnormalities, examine associations between the most common abnormalities, and consider the relationship between the age of horse and types of abnormalities observed. The horses used in this research consisted of a variety of ages, breeds, body conditions, and origins. Horses ranged in age from 18-months to 30-years (median = 11-years). The most common oral pathologies included sharp edges, buccal abrasions, calculus, lingual ulcers, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, ramps, and waves. Several types of pathology were strongly associated with other dental disorders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets, gingival recession, and waves was highest in older horses. PMID:20469790

  5. Scrotal pathology in the outpatient setting in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Steve; Lewis, Paul C; Soderdahl, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and pathology of scrotal pain among military men deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. It is a retrospective review of patients seen by the urology service at a U.S. Army combat support hospital (CSH) in Iraq from March 29, 2007 to August 12, 2007. Of the 222 outpatient visits to the urology service 81 (36%) had 1 or more scrotal complaints for a total of 90 scrotal-related problems. The vast majority (86%) were found to have epididymitis. Scrotal sonograms on these patients found only 1 patient with a testicular neoplasm. Varicocele (6.2%), spermatocele (4.9%), and hydrocele (2.5%) accounted for the remaining scrotal findings. Urologic referrals for scrotal problems are common in the deployed environment. We feel the best treatment for chronic scrotal pain in theater is conservative with urologic referral in patients who fail their initial course of therapy. PMID:20731288

  6. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any

  7. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  8. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  9. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  10. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Aage R.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  11. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  12. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  13. Pathological aspects of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Esposito*, I.

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arises from the biliary epithelium and in most cases represents adenocarcinoma. Pathomorphological evaluation is of decisive impact for the prognosis and management of CC. Morphological subtyping (histotype; hilar vs peripheral type), TNM classification, lymphatic spread, and resection margin status are of prognostic relevance. Distinction from hepatic metastases may be aided by immunohistology and clinico-pathological correlation. There is convincing evidence of the development of CC via premalignant lesions, especially biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, although further knowledge about the biology and diagnostic definition of these lesions has to be accumulated. Currently, there are no established molecular markers of prognosis or therapeutic target structures to be evaluated at the tissue level. Future progress is needed and expected in novel differential diagnostic and predictive markers, in uniform definition of resection margin status and further understanding of molecular and morphological changes in the development of CC. PMID:18773061

  14. Alcohol's effects on video lottery terminal (VLT) play among probable pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H; Loba, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether alcohol increases behaviors associated with video lottery terminal (VLT) play, particularly among probable pathological gamblers. Forty-four regular VLT players were designated either probable pathological gamblers or non-pathological gamblers on the basis of scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS); [Lesieur & Blume (1997). American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188] Gamblers from each SOGS category were randomly assigned to either a moderately intoxicating alcohol dose or a control beverage condition (n = 11 per cell in the 2 x 2 between-subjects design). Following beverage consumption and absorption, participants played a video poker VLT game for up to 30 minutes. Four behaviors were measured: "power-bets" (doubling bet after viewing only two cards of the five-card poker hand); total money spent; mean bet magnitude; and number of minutes played. Alcohol increased time spent playing and rate of power-bets, particular among the probable pathological gamblers. Post hoc analyses revealed that alcohol also influenced the proportion of losing hands played--increasing them among the probable pathological gamblers while decreasing them among the non-pathological gamblers. Clinical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:16134010

  15. Clinical and imaging features of mixed Alzheimer and vascular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Chui, Helena C; Ramirez-Gomez, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The co-occurrence of both Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and vascular brain injury (VBI) is very common, especially amongst the oldest of old. In neuropathologic studies, the prevalence of AD, VBI, and mixed AD/VBI lesions ranks ahead of Lewy bodies and hippocampal sclerosis. In the modern era of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, this review examines 1) the prevalence of mixed AD and VBI pathology, 2) the significance of these pathologies for cognitive impairment (AD and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)), and 3) the diagnosis and treatment of mixed AD/VCI. Although epidemiologic studies report that vascular risk factors for arteriosclerosis increase the risk of incident AD, both autopsy and amyloid PET studies indicate that AD and VBI contribute additively, but independently, to the risk of dementia. The literature confirms the malignancy of AD and highlights the adverse effects of microinfarcts on cognitive function. For the clinical diagnosis of mixed AD/VCI, the presence of AD can be recognized by neuropsychological profile, structural imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and glucose PET and amyloid PET imaging. The diagnosis of VBI, however, still hinges predominantly on the structural MRI findings. Severe amnesia and atrophy of the hippocampus are characteristic of early AD, whereas the cognitive profile for VCI is highly variable and dependent on size and location of VBI. The cognitive profile of mixed AD/VBI is dominated by AD. With the notable exception of microinfarcts (which elude in vivo detection), infarcts, hemorrhages, and white matter hyperintensities on structural MRI currently represent the best markers for the presence VBI. Better markers that reflect the health and reactivity of intracerebral blood vessels are needed. For prevention and treatment, the type of underlying cerebrovascular disease (for example, arteriosclerosis or cerebral amyloid angiopathy) should be considered. It is likely that reduction of vascular risk factors for arteriosclerosis can significantly reduce vascular contributions to mixed dementia. PMID:25722748

  16. Impaired DNA damage repair as a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, H; Okazawa, H

    2015-01-01

    Impaired DNA damage repair is a common pathological endophenotype of some types of neurodegenerative diseases, intellectual disabilities, and psychiatric diseases. Dysfunctional DNA repair and DNA damage, including DNA double-stranded breaks, are linked to transcriptional dysfunction and abnormal DNA methylation. Impaired DNA repair in neural stem cells leads to microcephaly or cerebellar ataxia. Furthermore, DNA repair defects and DNA damage in mature neurons lead to progressive cognitive impairment, which might be a common feature of Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and other polyglutamine diseases. Oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA repair gene expression are observed in GABAergic neurons in schizophrenia. These findings indicate that impaired DNA repair is a common pathological endophenotype of neurological diseases, and that DNA damage might lead to diverse disease symptoms dependent on timing and the affected cell type. PMID:25732151

  17. Pathological and Molecular Evaluation of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Arvind; Goggins, Michael; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous and include wide variety of neoplasms ranging from benign to malignant with an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our understanding of these pancreatic neoplasms has improved significantly with recent advances in cancer sequencing. Awareness of molecular pathogenesis brings in new opportunities for early detection, improved prognostication, and personalized gene-specific therapies. Here we review the pathological classification of pancreatic neoplasms from their molecular and genetic perspective. All of the major tumor types that arise in the pancreas have been sequenced, and a new classification that incorporates molecular findings together with pathological findings is now possible (Table 1). This classification has significant implications for our understanding of why tumors aggregate in some families, for the development of early detection tests, and for the development of personalized therapies for patients with established cancers. Here we describe this new classification using the framework of the standard histological classification. PMID:25726050

  18. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia() hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology." PMID:24705882

  19. Continuum model of tendon pathology where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

  20. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  1. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  2. Transgenerational inheritance of stress pathology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen G; Phillips, David I

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that maternal exposure to adversity during pregnancy leads to life-long effects in offspring. While there appears to be some commonality in the effects of maternal stress on endocrine and behavioral outcomes in the first generation offspring, it is clear that effects are highly dependent on species, sex and age, as well as on the time in pregnancy when stress is experienced. Recent studies have identified that the effects of maternal stress are not confined to the first generation and that they can extend over multiple generations. These effects are also evident in humans. While our understanding of the potential mechanisms by which transgenerational programming of the stress response occurs remain largely undetermined, recent studies have begun to identify potential mechanisms of transfer. These include modified maternal adaptations to pregnancy, altered maternal behavior and transgenerational epigenetic programming. Such transgenerational programming of stress responses and pathologies has important societal consequences as it could provide a biological explanation for the generational persistence of human behaviors in populations exposed to adversity. PMID:21281632

  3. Put your back into it: pathologic conditions of the spine at chest CT.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cristopher A; Vagal, Achala S; Seaman, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    It is common to encounter pathologic processes of the lower cervical, thoracic, or upper lumbar spine in the course of routine computed tomography (CT) of the chest. Although magnetic resonance (MR) is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating known spinal disease, evaluation of the spine is an integral part of interpreting a chest CT study. Spinal diseases often have a characteristic CT appearance that allows the radiologist to make the diagnosis or provide a structured differential diagnosis. Pathologic conditions of the spine that can be identified at chest CT are categorized into benign or incidental findings, congenital anomalies, traumatic injuries, infectious spondylitis, primary or secondary neoplastic involvement, and associations with systemic disease. CT also provides information about bone mineralization and lesion calcification that complements the superior soft-tissue imaging capability of MR. In addition, chest CT data may be reformatted to create volumetric or multiplanar images of the spine to facilitate management decisions about spinal stabilization in symptomatic patients. PMID:21918053

  4. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al.(1) compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans.(2) In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  5. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  6. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Brge G.; Bentez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M. Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Mller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Drk, Thilo; Schrmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I.; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Hanafievich Gantcev, Shamil; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betl T.; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M.; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Colle, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r2= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.101.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.981.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 10?5]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 10?3) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  7. CT and US findings of pancreatoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Woo Sun

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to evaluate US and CT findings of pancreatoblastoma. Three US and four CT scans before surgery and one follow-up CT after surgery were reviewed in four patients (two female, two male) with pathologically proven pancreatoblastoma. The mean age of the patients was 4 years (range 2-5 years). The masses were analyzed for origin, US and CT architecture, presence of calcification, enhancement pattern, and metastatic spread. In two patients, the tumors arose from the pancreatic head and in one patient from the pancreatic tail. The mean largest diameter of the masses was 10 cm, ranging from 5 to 14 cm. Sonography obtained from three cases showed mixed echogenic solid mass. On the CT scan, all tumors were huge, lobulated masses with heterogeneous attenuation. One tumor contained numerous foci of calcification. On the enhanced CT scan, three tumors showed multiloculated appearance by enhancing internal septations. There was no evidence of metastasis to distant organ or abdominal lymph node in any case. We suggest that the most common US finding of pancreatoblastoma is a mixed echogenic, solid mass inseparable from the pancreas, and the most common CT finding is a relatively well defined, lobulated, huge mass with multiloculated appearance by enhancing septae in or near the lesser sac. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  10. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivel, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Mller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  11. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies. PMID:26210152

  12. Microchimerism in endocrine pathology.

    PubMed

    Rust, Daniel W; Bianchi, Diana W

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) materno-fetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801

  13. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,

  14. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  15. Pathology of drug-associated gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ashley B

    2003-01-01

    A large number of drugs have gastrointestinal side-effects of which diarrhoea or constipation, nausea and vomiting are amongst the commonest. In relatively few are there diagnostic pathological changes and this review draws attention to the most common. Incriminating a drug as a cause of specific pathological changes requires the drug to be associated with the changes, for the latter to resolve when the drug is withdrawn and for them to re-appear when a patient is rechallenged with the drug. Individual histological features such as apoptosis, tissue infiltration by eosinophils and increased intra-epithelial lymphocytes within the gut mucosa can be clues to an iatrogenic aetiology but these are by no means specific. Amongst the few pathognomonic patterns of drug reactions is pseudomembranous colitis and diaphragm disease. These, along with others such as reactive gastritis and the collagenous and lymphocytic forms of microscopic colitis, in which drugs have also been implicated, are described here. PMID:14651719

  16. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the

  17. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  18. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  19. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect

  20. Image processing in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W R

    1998-03-01

    Image processing applications in forensic pathology are becoming increasingly important. This article introduces basic concepts in image processing as applied to problems in forensic pathology in a non-mathematical context. Discussions of contrast enhancement, digital encoding, compression, deblurring, and other topics are presented. PMID:9523070

  1. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.22% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  2. Propagation of alpha-synuclein pathology: hypotheses, discoveries, and yet unresolved questions from experimental and human brain studies.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Toshiki; Giasson, Benoit I

    2016-01-01

    Progressive aggregation of alpha-synuclein (?S) through formation of amorphous pale bodies to mature Lewy bodies or in neuronal processes as Lewy neurites may be the consequence of conformational protein changes and accumulations, which structurally represents "molecular template". Focal initiation and subsequent spread along anatomically connected structures embody "structural template". To investigate the hypothesis that both processes might be closely associated and involved in the progression of ?S pathology, which can be observed in human brains, ?S amyloidogenic precursors termed "seeds" were experimentally injected into the brain or peripheral nervous system of animals. Although these studies showed that ?S amyloidogenic seeds can induce ?S pathology, which can spread in the nervous system, the findings are still not unequivocal in demonstrating predominant transsynaptic or intraneuronal spreads either in anterograde or retrograde directions. Interpretation of some of these studies is further complicated by other concurrent aberrant processes including neuroimmune activation, injury responses and/or general perturbation of proteostasis. In human brain, ?S deposition and neuronal degeneration are accentuated in distal axon/synapse. Hyperbranching of axons is an anatomical commonality of Lewy-prone systems, providing a structural basis for abundance in distal axons and synaptic terminals. This neuroanatomical feature also can contribute to such distal accentuation of vulnerability in neuronal demise and the formation of ?S inclusion pathology. Although retrograde progression of ?S aggregation in hyperbranching axons may be a consistent feature of Lewy pathology, the regional distribution and gradient of Lewy pathology are not necessarily compatible with a predictable pattern such as upward progression from lower brainstem to cerebral cortex. Furthermore, "focal Lewy body disease" with the specific isolated involvement of autonomic, olfactory or cardiac systems suggests that spread of ?S pathology is not always consistent. In many instances, the regional variability of Lewy pathology in human brain cannot be explained by a unified hypothesis such as transsynaptic spread. Thus, the distribution of Lewy pathology in human brain may be better explained by variable combinations of independent focal Lewy pathology to generate "multifocal Lewy body disease" that could be coupled with selective but variable neuroanatomical spread of ?S pathology. More flexible models are warranted to take into account the relative propensity to develop Lewy pathology in different Lewy-prone systems, even without interconnections, compatible with the expanding clinicopathological spectra of Lewy-related disorders. These revised models are useful to better understand the mechanisms underlying the variable progression of Lewy body diseases so that diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are improved. PMID:26446103

  3. Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aminu Z.; Edino, Steven T.; Samaila, Adamu A.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17534016

  4. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  5. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Context .- There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective .- To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design .- The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results .- Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions .- We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  6. Sex Dimorphism Profile of Alzheimer's Disease-Type Pathologies in an APP/PS1 Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Bu, Xian-Le; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhu, Chi; Wang, Qing-Hua; Shen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, characterized by parenchymal and vascular beta-amyloid (A?) burden, tau pathology, neuroinflammation, and loss of neurons and synapses. There is a clear sex difference in the prevalence of AD. However, sex differences in AD-type pathologies have not been systematically documented. Applying 12-month-old female and male APP/PS1 mice as a model, we investigated the sex dimorphism in these major pathological indices. Compared with male APP/PS1 mice, the females exhibited higher parenchymal A? burdens, with the sex difference in hippocampus being the most significant. Female APP/PS1 mice had more severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy and subsequent microhemorrhage. In addition, female APP/PS1 mice also showed higher levels of phosphorylated tau and proinflammatory cytokines, more severe astrocytosis and microgliosis, and greater neuronal and synaptic degenerations. The present study systematically described a sex dimorphism in AD-type pathologic indices, suggesting that gender should be taken into account in designing studies involving these pathological indices and when interpreting the relevant findings in those studies. PMID:26707129

  7. Pathology of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Colby, Thomas V

    2015-08-01

    Pathologists are frequently involved in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis on conventional biopsies or examining bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and assisting bronchoscopists when performing bronchial or transbronchial biopsies or transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)/endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided biopsies of enlarged lymph nodes. Histology generally does not pose difficult tasks in the correct clinical and imaging scenario, but atypical forms of sarcoidosis exist, and in these cases, the diagnosis may become difficult. When faced with granulomas in the lung, the evaluation of their qualitative features, anatomic distribution, and accompanying findings usually allows the pathologist to narrow considerably the differential diagnosis. The final diagnosis always requires the careful integration of the histology with the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. How robust is the histologic component of the diagnosis varies from case to case, and the pathologist should always clearly discuss this point with the clinician; in general, the weaker the histology is, the stronger should be the clinical-radiologic findings, and vice versa. The differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis includes granulomatous infections, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, several collagen vascular diseases (particularly Sjögren), drug reactions, chronic aspiration, and even diffuse fibrosing diseases. In this review, conventional and unusual histologic findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis are presented, highlighting the role of the pathologist and discussing the main differential diagnoses. PMID:25762348

  8. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  9. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration FTLD-tau: preclinical lesions, vascular, and Alzheimer-related co-pathologies.

    PubMed

    Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; von Arnim, Christine A F; Griffin, W Sue T; Mrak, Robert E; Walker, Lauren; Attems, Johannes; Arzberger, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ? pathology (FTLD-tau) is one of a group of neurodegenerative diseases that manifests with cognitive decline. Alzheimer (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions are commonly noted in the brains of most elderly individuals, begging the question as to whether (a) coexisting AD and vascular pathology or age contribute to the development of FTLD-tau disorders and vice versa and (b) FTLD-tau-like pathology can be found in non-diseased individuals. We studied brains of FTLD-tau cases exhibiting (a) argyrophilc grain disease (AGD), (b) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), (c) corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or (d) Pick's disease (PiD) for coexisting AD and vascular pathology for comparison with that of non-diseased individuals and AD patients. We confirmed that AGD lowered the threshold for AD pathology to cause dementia. Such an effect was not seen in PSP, CBD, or PiD. In PiD, white matter degeneration and demyelination was observed in the frontal and temporal lobes in association with small vessel disease (SVD)-related changes in white matter arteries. Age at death varied among the four types of FTLD-tau. PiD cases were youngest at death followed by CBD, PSP, and finally AGD. In 9.8% of non-diseased controls, we found grains, coiled bodies, and/or ?-positive astrocytes mimicking an AGD-like pattern. Moreover, the prevalence of FTLD-tau pathology in non-diseased individuals increased with age. In summary, this study demonstrates that age impacts of the diversity of neuropathological changes in FTLD-tau. The age-related coexistence of AD-related pathology is, thereby, associated with AGD but not with PSP, CBD, and PiD. Moreover, severe SVD and white matter demyelination is associated with PiD indicating a role of vascular copathology in this type of FTLD-tau. Finally, our finding that FTLD-tau-related pathological lesions occur in non-diseased individuals suggests that preclinical stages of FTLD-tau exist. As such, our results indicate that age, together with vascular and AD-related copathology, contributes to the morphological appearance of FTLD-tau. PMID:25556950

  10. Incidences and range of spontaneous findings in control cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Marxfeld, Heike A; Blanco, Ana I; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys E

    2010-06-01

    The authors performed a retrospective study to determine the incidences and range of spontaneous pathology findings in control cynomolgus monkeys. Data were collected from 570 monkeys (285 animals per sex), aged twelve to thirty-six months, from sixty regulatory studies evaluated at our laboratory between 2003 and 2009. The most common finding overall was lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates observed in the following incidence: liver (60.7%), kidneys (28.8%), heart (25.8%), salivary glands (21.2%), and stomach (12.1%). Inflammation also commonly occurred in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and stomach. The most common degenerative changes were localized fatty change in the liver, myocardial degeneration, and mineralization and pigment deposits in various tissues. Parathyroid, thyroid, and pituitary cysts; ectopic thymus in the parathyroid or thyroid gland; accessory spleen within the pancreas; and adrenohepatic fusion were among the most common congenital findings. Some incidental findings bearing similarities to drug-induced lesions were also encountered in various organs. It is hoped that the results presented here and elsewhere could form the groundwork for the creation of a reliable database of incidental pathology findings in laboratory nonhuman primates. PMID:20448082

  11. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  12. Pathology Dynamics Predict Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Secondary injury, the complex cascade of cellular events following spinal cord injury (SCI), is a major source of post-insult neuron death. Experimental work has focused on the details of individual factors or mechanisms that contribute to secondary injury, but little is known about the interactions among factors leading to the overall pathology dynamics that underlie its propagation. Prior hypotheses suggest that the pathology is dominated by interactions, with therapeutic success lying in combinations of neuroprotective treatments. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive, system-level characterization of the entire secondary injury process using a novel relational model methodology that aggregates the findings of ~250 experimental studies. Our quantitative examination of the overall pathology dynamics suggests that, while the pathology is initially dominated by “fire-like,” rate-dependent interactions, it quickly switches to a “flood-like,” accumulation-dependent process with contributing factors being largely independent. Our evaluation of ~20,000 potential single and combinatorial treatments indicates this flood-like pathology results in few highly influential factors at clinically realistic treatment time frames, with multi-factor treatments being merely additive rather than synergistic in reducing neuron death. Our findings give new fundamental insight into the understanding of the secondary injury pathology as a whole, provide direction for alternative therapeutic strategies, and suggest that ultimate success in treating SCI lies in the pursuit of pathology dynamics in addition to individually involved factors. PMID:19125684

  13. Nosology and Pathology of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Picarsic, Jennifer; Jaffe, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    The classification of the histiocytoses has evolved based on new understanding of the cell of origin as a bone marrow precursor. Although the pathologic features of the histiocytoses have not changed per se, molecular genetic information now needs to be integrated into the diagnosis. The basic lesions of the most common histiocytoses, their patterns in different sites, and ancillary diagnostics are now just one part of the classification. As more is understood about the cell of origin and molecular biology of the histiocytoses, future classifications will be refined. PMID:26461144

  14. Ankle pain and peroneal tendon pathology.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Judith F; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; DiGiovanni, Benedict F; Flemister, A Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Chronic ankle pain can be due to multiple causes. A thorough review of the patient's history with a physical examination concentrating on anatomic structures surrounding the ankle is imperative. The most common of causes have been presented. The addition of provocative testing and radiographic examinations can aid in elucidating the pathology. After treatment of the injury, attention to training technique, shoe and insert usage as well as individual gait abnormalities are integrated into global patient education to decrease the incidence of injury recurrence. PMID:15062582

  15. Pathological alterations due to motile Aeromonas infection in red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri).

    PubMed

    Bunnajirakul, S; Pavasutthipaisit, S; Steinhagen, D

    2015-01-01

    A herd of red swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) was reared in outdoor concrete ponds and suffered from occasional mortality. Moribund fishes showing abdominal dropsy and fin rots were sent for diagnosis. Gross necropsy findings showed enlargement of liver, spleen, and kidney in concurrence with congestion, and a severe accumulation of peritoneal fluid. Histopathological findings revealed an alteration of hepatocytes, with a severe diffuse accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the trunk kidney, severe accumulation of mononuclear cells together with cloudy swelling of the renal tubular epithelium was observed. From internal organs of the fish motile Aeromonas spp. were identified. The pathological findings might be associated with a long-term infection of affected fish fostered by common stressors such as improper feeding and poor pond environment condition (water temperature). Effective therapeutic measures comprised an advancement of keeping conditions and appropriate feeding to improve the health status in combination with the application of antibiotic substances. PMID:26527040

  16. DSM-5 pathological personality traits and the personality assessment inventory.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F; Schade, Nick; Markon, Kristian E; Morey, Leslie C

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the DSM-5 will include a pathological personality trait system rooted in the quantitative epistemology of personality and clinical psychology. This system has the potential to enhance the clinical utility of the diagnostic nosology by providing a means for the dimensional assessment of individuals with psychopathology. However, there is limited research on the associations of DSM-5 traits with common mental disorders and related clinical phenomena as measured by currently popular assessment instruments. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the convergence of the DSM-5 trait system with a well-validated broadband clinical instrument, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Bivariate correlations were examined and factor analytic methods were used to examine the degree to which the DSM-5 traits and PAI capture common variance in personality and mental health. In a student sample (N = 1,001), we found broad convergence between the DSM-5 traits and PAI, which could be organized effectively using five factors. The implications of these findings for using traits to address issues related to diagnostic co-occurrence and heterogeneity in routine clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:23610235

  17. Comparative pathology of microsporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Shadduck, J A; Orenstein, J M

    1993-12-01

    The obligate intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora are ubiquitous. They parasitize insects and all five classes of vertebrates. Only one genus infects mammals and birds but at least four genera affect humans. Two genera have been isolated from human specimens and both infect experimental animals. Some genera (eg, Enterocytozoon and Pleistophora) seem to be limited to a very few tissues but others (Encephalitozoon and the Encephalitozoon-like genus Septata) can infect multiple organs. Lesions range from classic microgranulomas to foci of infected cells unaccompanied by any inflammatory response. The most commonly occurring microsporidia infection of man (Enterocytozoon bieneusi) is characterized by infection of enterocytes of the villus tips of the small intestine, accompanied by villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, sloughing of infected villus tip cells, and increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. PMID:8250691

  18. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Protsenko, Ekaterina; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Loggia, Marco L.; Coppola, Gianluca; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache. PMID:26366304

  19. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  20. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual inquiry method helped reveal similarities and key differences with civilian pathologists. Such an analysis helped identify specific instances that would benefit from implementing digital pathology in a military environment. Employing digital pathology to facilitate workload distribution, secondary consultations, and quality assurance (over-reads) could help the AFMS deliver more accurate, efficient, and timely AP services at a global level. PMID:24392246

  1. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka; Mller, Arne; Doudet, Doris Jeanne; Gjedde, Albert

    2012-10-30

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopaminergic sensitivity toward uncertainty, and suggest that dopaminergic sensitivity to uncertainty is pronounced in pathological gambling, but not among non-gambling healthy controls. The findings have implications for understanding dopamine dysfunctions in pathological gambling and addictive behaviors. PMID:22889563

  2. Histopathological findings in chronic tendon disorders.

    PubMed

    Jrvinen, M; Jzsa, L; Kannus, P; Jrvinen, T L; Kvist, M; Leadbetter, W

    1997-04-01

    Tendon injuries and other tendon disorders represent a common diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine, resulting in chronic and long-lasting problems. Tissue degeneration is a common finding in many sports-related tendon complaints. In the great majority of spontaneous tendon ruptures, chronic degenerative changes are seen at the rupture site of the tendon (1). Systemic diseases and diseases specifically deteriorating the normal structure of the tendon (i.e. foreign bodies, and metabolic, inherited and infectious tendon diseases) are only rarely the cause of tendon pathology. Inherited diseases, such as various hereditary diseases with disturbed collagen metabolism and characteristic pathological structural alterations (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfani syndrome, homocystinuria (ochronosis)), represent approximately 1% of the causes of chronic tendon complaints (2), whereas foreign bodies are somewhat more common and are found in less than 10% of all chronic tendon problems (1). Rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis are typical systemic diseases that cause chronic inflammation in tendon and peritendinous tissues. Altogether, these 'specific' disorders represented less than 2% of the pathological alterations found in the histological analysis of more than 1000 spontaneously ruptured tendons (1, 3, 4). In this material, degenerative changes were seen in a great majority of the tendons, indicating that a spontaneous tendon rupture is a typical clinical end-state manifestation of a degenerative process in the tendon tissue. The role of overuse in the pathogenesis of chronic tendon injuries and disorders is not completely understood. It has been speculated that when tendon is overused it becomes fatigued and loses its basal reparative ability, the repetitive microtraumatic processes thus overwhelming the ability of the tendon cells to repair the fiber damage. The intensive repetitive activity, which often is eccentric by nature, may lead to cumulative microtrauma which further weakens the collagen cross-linking, non-collagenous matrix, and vascular elements of the tendon. Overuse has also been speculated to cause chronic tendon problems, by disturbing the micro- and macrovasculature of the tendon and resulting in insufficiency in the local blood circulation. Decreased blood flow simultaneous with an increased activity may result in local tissue hypoxia, impaired nutrition and energy metabolism, and together these factors are likely to play an important role in the sequence of events leading to tendon degeneration (4). A sedentary lifestyle has been proposed as a main reason for poor basal circulation of the tendon, and presumably is at least partly responsible for the high number of tendon problems in people with a sedentary lifestyle who occasionally take part in high physical activity sports events. PMID:9211609

  3. Cause and effect considerations in diagnostic pathology and pathology phenotyping of genetically engineered mice (GEM).

    PubMed

    McKerlie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Over the next several decades, biology is embarking on its most ambitious project yet: to annotate the human genome functionally, prioritizing and focusing on those genes relevant to development and disease. Model systems are fundamental prerequisites for this task, and genetically engineered mice (GEM) are by far the most accessible mammalian system because of their anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans. The scientific utility of GEM has become commonplace since the technology to produce them was established in the early 1980s. Conceptually, however, an efficiently coordinated high-throughput approach that permits correlation between newly discovered genes, functional properties of their protein products, and biological relevance of these products as drug targets has yet to be established. The discipline of veterinary anatomical pathology (hereafter referred to as pathology) is not immune to this requirement for evolution and adaptation, and to address relationships and tissue consequences between tens of thousands of genes and their cognate proteins, novel interdisciplinary technologies and approaches must emerge. Although many of the techniques of pathology are well established, in the context of pathology's contribution to functional annotation of the genome, several conceptually important and unresolved issues remain to be addressed. While an ever-increasing arsenal of genetic and molecular tool-sets are available to evaluate and understand the function of genes and their pathophysiological mechanisms, pathology will continue to play an essential role in confirming cause and effect relationships of gene function in development and disease. This role will continue to be dependent on keen observation, a systematic but disciplined approach, expert knowledge of strain-dependent anatomical differences and incidental lesions, and relevant tissue-based evidence. Miniaturization and high-throughput adaptation of these methods must also continue so that they can complement parallel phenotyping efforts, provide pathology-based data in pace with concurrent phenotyping efforts, and continue to find new utility in the collective effort of functional annotation. PMID:16547372

  4. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jgi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  5. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    PubMed Central

    Jgi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD IIV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying emphysema. V/P SPECT visualizes comorbidities to COPD not seen with LDCT, such as pulmonary embolism and left ventricular HF. PMID:25565797

  6. The American Society for Clinical Pathology resident in-service examination: does resident performance provide insight into the effectiveness of clinical pathology education?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    The resident in-service examination in pathology is an in-training exercise that is taken by virtually all pathology residents in the United States as well as by some participants in Canada, Ireland, and Lebanon. Although all of the anatomic pathology topics in the examination, with only one exception-forensic pathology, show significant improvement in scores over the 4 years of residency training, three areas of clinical pathology training (laboratory administration, clinical chemistry, and microbiology) show significantly lower improvement in performance over the years of residency training. By contrast, transfusion medicine, hematopathology and the special topics section of the examination all demonstrate improved performance by residents over time. While the reason behind these differences must remain speculative at this time, these findings suggest that measures to improve effectiveness in clinical pathology training might be suggested by examining the differences between residency training practices between higher and lower performing areas of clinical pathology. PMID:17556086

  7. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ? 2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT. PMID:21358931

  8. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day. PMID:24590540

  9. Molecular pathology in sarcomas.

    PubMed

    de Alava, E

    2007-03-01

    Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are an infrequent group of tumours. Their prevalence is 4 in 100,000 people/year, making the disease quite rare. Some of these tumours, such as synovial sarcoma, Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma, are more usual in adolescents or in young adults; there are, though, some neoplasias such as leiomyosarcoma or liposarcoma that are more frequent in patients over 55 years. There are more than a hundred different types of sarcomas from the histological point of view. This is the main limitation at the time of finding major clinic essays on patients with specific types of sarcomas. From the molecular point of view, these neoplasias are grouped into two main types: (a) sarcomas showing specific genetic alterations and relatively simple karyotypes, and translocations which originate gene fusions (e.g., EWS-FLI1 in Ewing tumour); or specific genetic mutations (e.g., c-kit in the gastrointestinal stromal tumour), and (b) sarcomas showing unspecific gene alterations and very complex karyotypes, and very numerous gains and losses. This review describes diverse types of molecular alterations as well, their utility in the clinical domain, as well as implications for the pathologist in translational research in sarcomas. PMID:17403624

  10. The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimers disease. PMID:22072659

  11. [Thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by pathology during surgery].

    PubMed

    Koshiishi, Haruya; Nakata, Takuya; Imaizumi, Ken; Kakimoto, Masaki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Atsumi; Tsutsui, Hidemitsu; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-11-01

    We describe the pathological diagnosis of 4 resected cases of thyroid carcinoma made during surgery in comparison to that for 6 benign thyroid tumors. Preoperative computed tomography scanning and ultrasonography revealed 1 case of simple nodules, 3 cases of multiple nodules, 3 cases of solid cystic nodules, and 3 cases of calcification. Cytological examination of fine needle aspirates revealed 1 case to be Class II and 3 cases to be Class III. The diagnosis, which was made during the operation procedure on the basis of the frozen section and final operative methods, was papillary adenocarcinoma in 2 cases (total thyroidectomy + D1 and subtotal thyroidectomy+D1) and suspected papillary adenocarcinoma in 2 cases (hemithyroidectomy+ D1 and lobectomy of the thyroid+D1). The final pathological diagnosis of the 4 cases was papillary adenocarcinoma (pStage I: 3 cases, pStage II: 1 case). In the 6 cases of benign thyroid tumor, preoperative examinations revealed variegated tumor findings, and cytological examination of fine needle aspirates revealed 1 case to be ClassII and 5 cases to be ClassIII. Pathological diagnosis of the frozen sections of the 6 benign samples indicated 1 case of suspected malignancy and 5 cases of benign tumor. In all 10 cases, the pathological diagnosis based on frozen sections (with a sensitivity of 4/4 and specificity of 5/6) was more accurate than that established with preoperative imaging and cytological examination, and is therefore effective for the decision-making process when selecting the operative method. PMID:25731573

  12. Purkinje Cell Pathology and Loss in Multiple Sclerosis Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juliana; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2015-11-01

    Cerebellar ataxia commonly occurs in multiple sclerosis, particularly in chronic progressive disease. Previous reports have highlighted both white matter and grey matter pathological changes within the cerebellum; and demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltrates appear commonly. As Purkinje cell axons are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, understanding pathologic processes within these cells is crucial to develop strategies to prevent their loss and thus reduce ataxia. We studied pathologic changes occurring within Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Using immunohistochemic techniques, we found changes in neurofilament phosphorylation states within Purkinje cells, including loss of dephosphorylated neurofilament and increased phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated neurofilament. We also found Purkinje axonal spheroids and Purkinje cell loss, both of which occurred predominantly within areas of leucocortical demyelination within the cerebellar cortex. These changes have important implications for the study of cerebellar involvement in multiple sclerosis and may help design therapies to reduce the burden of ataxia in the condition. PMID:25411024

  13. Relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis insights from pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ranjan; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW The predominant clinical disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS) starts with reversible episodes of neurological disability, which transforms into progressive neurological decline. This review provides insight into the pathological differences during relapsing and progressive phases of MS. RECENT FINDINGS The clinical course of MS is variable and the disease can be classified into relapsing and progressive phases. Pathological studies have been successful in distinguishing between these two forms of the disease and correlate with the clinical findings in terms of cellular responses, the inflammatory environment, and the location of lesions. SUMMARY Available therapies for MS patients, while effective during the relapsing phase, have little benefit for progressive MS patients. Development of therapies to benefit progressive MS patients will require a better understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive MS. This review discusses and compares the pathological findings in relapsing and progressive MS patients. PMID:24722325

  14. T-wave inversions and the role of de-training in the differentiation of athletes heart from pathology: is 6 months too long?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Gregory; Somauroo, John; Wilson, Mathew; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Electrocardiographic changes are common in athletes. Differentiation of a physiological from a pathological substrate is important as ECG changes may indicate underlying cardiac disease placing the athlete at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Deep T-wave inversions are uncommon in Caucasian athletes however; appear more prevalent in black athletes. Irrespective of the ethnic origin of the athlete, deep T-wave inversions require thorough follow-up. At present, 6 months de-training is recommended to assist in the differentiation of physiologic and pathologic changes where a definitive diagnosis is elusive through standard diagnostic techniques. This case study examines findings from a black and a Caucasian athlete presenting with deep T-wave inversions following a brief (ca.3 week) period of de-training resulting in normalisation of T-wave. These cases suggest that a shorter period of time may be sufficient in differentiating physiological from pathological mechanisms for deep T-wave inversions. PMID:23035157

  15. Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Michael; Schmitz, Susanne; Hansson, Oskar; Walsh, Cathal; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Bennett, David; Minthon, Lennart; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Blennow, Kaj; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J; Weiner, Michael; Hampel, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects. PMID:21684041

  16. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  17. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  18. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay. PMID:12240693

  20. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  1. [Calpain plays a crucial role in TDP-43 pathology].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takenari; Kwak, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease affecting healthy middle-aged individuals. Mislocalization of TAR DNA binding protein of 43?kDa (TDP-43) or TDP-43 pathology observed in the spinal motor neurons is the pathological hallmark of ALS. The mechanism generating TDP-43 pathology remained uncertain. Several reports suggested that cleavage of TDP-43 into aggregation-prone fragments might be the earliest event. Therefore, elucidation of the protease(s) that is responsible for TDP-43 cleavage in the motor neurons is awaited. ALS-specific molecular abnormalities other than TDP-43 pathology in the motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients include inefficient RNA editing at the GluA2 glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site, which is specifically catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). We have developed the conditional ADAR2 knockout (AR2) mice, in which the ADAR2 gene is targeted in motor neurons. We found that Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease calpain cleaved TDP-43 into aggregation-prone fragments, which initiated TDP-43 mislocalization in the motor neurons expressing abnormally abundant Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors. Here we summarized the molecular cascade leading to TDP-43 pathology observed in the motor neurons of AR2 mice and discussed possible roles of dysregulation of calpain-dependent cleavage of TDP-43 in TDP-43 pathology observed in neurological diseases in general. PMID:25672733

  2. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V; Aller, Raymond D; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B; Friedman, Bruce A; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  3. Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: Assisted Reproductive Technology Genes and Gene Therapy Miscarriage Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Genes and Gene Therapy Miscarriage About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  4. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

  5. 3-D Constraint-Based Modeling: Finding Common Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric N.

    1999-01-01

    Uses Shneiderman's Object-Action Interface model along with the engineering design process as a framework for understanding software interface elements. Provides an educational framework from which instructional materials can be developed. (Author/CCM)

  6. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new

  7. Quality in Industry and Education: Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickie, Desmond; Sawkins, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes a postgraduate total quality leadership program developed for Rover, a British auto manufacturer, and accredited by Liverpool John Moores University. Identifies managerial and educational quality issues. (SK)

  8. Finding Common Language around Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, New Orleans has proved fertile ground for the most extensive education reform movement in the United States. As such, the educational landscape in New Orleans is a highly contested space. Yet stakeholders across the pro/anti-charter divide lack a fully developed language that accommodates the multi-vocality of participants contributing

  9. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  10. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose strategies for moderating harmful effects of restoration while meeting the needs of both endangered species and the imperiled native marsh ecosystem.

  11. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in

  12. Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

  13. Finding Common Ground: How Faith Communities Support Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Saundra

    Noting that faith communities play a vital role in connecting to families and children and often become involved in and supportive of education issues important in their local community, this document discusses the development of partnerships involving public schools and faith-based communities. The document compiles a series of talking points for…

  14. Can Native and Western Wildlife Managers Find Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1996-01-01

    Examines different approaches to environmental activism taken by Native Americans and Westerners as a result of their differing views of nature. Describes historical Western-Indian conflicts related to the preservation of bison in Yellowstone Park. Suggests that there is a growing acknowledgment in the scientific community of traditional

  15. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  16. Influence of APOE genotype and the presence of Alzheimer's pathology on synaptic membrane lipids of human brains.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Naoto; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-01

    The APOE genotype is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it remains unclarified how the ε4 allele accelerates whereas the ε2 allele suppresses AD development, compared with the more common ε3 allele. On the basis of the previous finding that the assembly of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) into fibrils in the brain, an early and invariable pathological feature of AD, depends on the lipid environment, we determined the levels of synaptic membrane lipids in aged individuals of different APOE genotypes. In the comparison between amyloid-free ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 brains, the presence of the ε2 allele significantly decreased the level of cholesterol. Alternatively, in the comparison among ε3/ε3 brains, the presence of AD pathology substantially decreased the levels of cholesterol. This study suggests that the ε2 allele suppresses the initiation of AD development by lowering the cholesterol levels in synaptic membranes. PMID:24446209

  17. MR Imaging Findings of Extraovarian Endocervical Mucinous Borderline Tumors Arising from Pelvic Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2013-01-01

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

  18. MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2013-01-01

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

  19. Cardiac pathology in fatal electrocution.

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas

    2014-11-01

    Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995

  20. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  1. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL

  2. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  3. Clinical image and pathology of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Shi, C H; Niu, S T; Zhang, Z Q

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features, and treatment experiments of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). The clinical findings, MRI, and pathological appearances of 9 patients with HCP were analyzed retrospectively. The thickened dura mater was markedly enhanced after contrast media injection. The lesion near the brain hemisphere presented long regions of T1- and T2-weighted abnormal signal intensities. The abnormal signal intensities of the brain tissue were decreased significantly. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation changes, with cerebral dura mater fibrous tissue showing obvious hyperplasia, and the periphery of the blood vessel showing a great quantity of infiltrating phlegmonosis cells. HCP mainly presents headache and paralysis of multiple cranial nerves. The distinctive signs on brain MRIs involve strengthening the signal in the cerebral dura. PMID:25511033

  4. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments

  5. Pattern of T2 hypointensity associated with ring-enhancing brain lesions can help to differentiate pathology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, K M; Erickson, B J; Lucchinetti, C

    2006-03-01

    Ring-enhancing lesions seen on MR images can occur with a variety of etiologies. Some ring-enhancing lesions have hypointense rims peripherally on T2-weighted MR images. In this study, we examined whether T2 hypointense rims were associated with specific pathologies. A search for ring-enhancing lesions on MR images obtained from 1996 to 2004 was performed, and revealed 221 patients with MRI findings of ring enhancement. The pattern of T2 hypointensity (arc or rim) corresponding with ring enhancement was recorded. In addition, we analyzed other imaging characteristics, including signal on diffusion-weighted images, central homogeneity on T2 and multiplicity of lesions. We then reviewed clinical data on the patients to ascertain the diagnosis for each examination. The most common associated pathologies in our study were gliomas (40%), metastases (30%), abscesses (8%) and multiple sclerosis (MS; 6%). Hypointense borders on T2-weighted images were present in 67% of lesions in the form of a rim in 40% and an arc in 60%. Abscesses had the highest percentage of hypointense rims. Metastases and gliomas more commonly had arcs, and MS lesions were divided between rims and arcs. Abscesses and MS lesions were more commonly homogeneous centrally, compared to gliomas and metastases. Additionally, abscesses were more often bright on diffusion imaging than the other pathologies. As expected, abscesses and MS lesions were usually multiple, whereas metastases were typically multiple in approximately 50% of the patients; gliomas were generally solitary. Trends in T2 hypointensity may aid in distinguishing among etiologies of ring-enhancing lesions, although there is overlap between the MR appearance of these various pathologies. PMID:16447037

  6. Mandibular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    More, Chandramani B; Das, Sunanda; Gupta, Swati; Bhavsar, Khushbu

    2013-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor of epithelial origin comprising 3% of all the odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, painless, noninvasive, and slow-growing lesion, with a relative frequency of 2.2-13% and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst on clinical examination. AOT affects young individuals with a female predominance, occurs mainly in the second decade, and usually surrounds the crown of unerupted teeth. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and rarely in the mandible. It is usually associated with an impacted canine. AOT frequently resembles lesions like dentigerous cyst or ameloblastoma. AOT has three variants, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. The intraoral periapical radiograph is the best radiograph to show radiopacities in AOT as discrete foci having a flocculent pattern within radiolucency even with minimal calcified deposits. These calcified deposits are seen in approximately 78% of the lesions. Herewith, we present the report of four unusual cases of AOT located in the mandible, with an emphasis on radiographic findings and on pathologic correlation, and on reviewing the existing literature on this tumor. PMID:24082751

  7. Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:25211036

  8. Clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, pathological and therapeutic observations among 18 patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Sinha, S; Mahadevan, A; Saini, J; Arivazhagan, A; Bharath, R D; Bindu, P S; Jamuna, R; Rao, M B; Govekar, S; Ravikumar, B V; Chandramouli, B A; Satishchandra, P

    2016-03-01

    We studied the clinical, electrophysiological, imaging and pathological features of 18 patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). This descriptive study included 18 patients (six males, 12 females) with RE who were evaluated for demographic and phenotypic details, electroencephalogram (EEG) results, MRI results, pathological features, virological markers and outcome. Radiological staging as per Bien et al. and pathological staging in accordance with Robitaille et al. were performed. Simple partial seizures were the most common initial manifestation. During the disease course, epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) developed in 15/18 (83.3%) and hemiparesis in 17/18 (94.4%) patients. EEG revealed hemispheric slowing (100%), interictal epileptiform discharges (100%) and ictal pattern (44.4%). Brain MRI revealed unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy (100%), white matter changes (88.2%), basal ganglia-ipsilateral caudate and putamen involvement (50.0%) and progression of atrophy on serial MRI (100%). Unusual presentations in this series included late onset (n=1), and isolated lingual EPC (n=1). Diagnostic biopsies in two patients revealed Robitaille stage 3 disease. The six hemispherotomy specimens showed stage 2 disease in one, stage 3 in three and stage 4 in two cases. Heterogeneity in disease stage in the different neuroanatomical regions and within the same cortical segment reflected progression of immune-mediated damage. Immunomodulation provided only temporary benefit. Patients who underwent functional hemispherotomy had reduction in seizure frequency and improved quality of life. The clinical, EEG and MRI findings are in accordance with the established literature. MRI staging was concordant with Robitaille pathological staging. Immunomodulation did result in transient reduction in seizure frequency while surgery in six produced reasonable benefit. PMID:26675623

  9. Selected topics in peritoneal pathology.

    PubMed

    Baker, Patricia M; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    This essay considers selected peritoneal lesions many of which were the subject of studies coauthored by Dr Robert E. Scully. His article on multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts has largely led to these lesions being considered non-neoplastic, eschewing the term cystic mesothelioma. These cysts are often associated with reactive mural mesothelial proliferations that can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis of mesothelioma. Clinical findings, such as a common association with endometriosis or prior operations, can prompt consideration of a reactive lesion. Mesothelial hyperplasia may be difficult to distinguish, when florid, from mesothelioma but a variety of gross and microscopic features will aid their recognition. Nodular peritoneal aggregates of histiocytes (sometimes admixed with mesothelial cells) may occasionally be a striking finding that can be misdiagnosed as a metastasis if the patient has a known neoplasm. Appreciation of their bland nuclear features and histiocytic nature, confirmed by immunohistochemical markers, facilitate the diagnosis. Various forms of peritonitis are briefly considered including sclerosing peritonitis, a process sometimes associated with luteinized thecomas (thecomatosis) of the ovaries, an entity first appreciated by Dr Scully. Mesotheliomas are briefly reviewed emphasizing the caution that should be used in applying the designation "well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma." Many interpret the latter as benign, but multifocal lesions must be thoroughly examined histologically because of potential overlapping features with malignant mesothelioma. The morphologic spectrum of malignant mesothelioma and its usually straightforward distinction from mllerian neoplasms is considered, as is its occasional presentation as a dominant ovarian mass. The spectrum of low-grade serous peritoneal neoplasms including the "psammocarcinoma" is reviewed. Finally, various benign mllerian lesions, particularly endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, may be conspicuous in peritoneal specimens and sometimes are grossly striking. The usual presence of benign endometrioid epithelium and stroma should facilitate the correct diagnosis of endometriosis, but in cases in which the stroma is atrophic or the sole component (stromal endometriosis), diagnostic problems may arise. PMID:24901399

  10. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the α-β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent shrinkage greatly compared to the standard antioxidant vitamin E, %shrinkage at 11.6 ±1.3 for hydroquinone and 27.8 ±2.2 for vitamin E, P = .001. Conclusion Free radicals crosslinked unsaturated lipid fatty acids into thermoset polymers through Fenton reactions when combined with acrolein. Further, hydroquinone was a superior antioxidant to vitamin E. PMID:25909053

  11. Modulation of tau pathology in tau transgenic models.

    PubMed

    Brion, Jean-Pierre; Ando, Kunie; Heraud, Cline; Leroy, Karelle

    2010-08-01

    NFTs (neurofibrillary tangles) in Alzheimer's disease and in tauopathies are hallmark neuropathological lesions whose relationship with neuronal dysfunction, neuronal death and with other lesions [such as Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide) pathology] are still imperfectly understood. Many transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type or mutant tau proteins have been generated to investigate the physiopathology of tauopathies. Most of the mice overexpressing wild-type tau do not develop NFTs, but can develop a severe axonopathy, whereas overexpression of mutant tau leads to NFT formation, synaptic loss and neuronal death in several models. The association between neuronal death and NFTs has, however, been challenged in some models showing a dissociation between tau aggregation and tau toxicity. Cross-breeding of mice developing NFTs with mice developing Abeta deposits increases NFT pathology, highlighting the relationship between tau and amyloid pathology. On the other hand, tau expression seems to be necessary for expression of a pathological phenotype associated with amyloid pathology. These findings suggest that there is a bilateral cross-talk between Abeta and tau pathology. These observations are discussed by the presentation of some relevant models developed recently. PMID:20658992

  12. Clinical and Pathological Continuum of Multisystem TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Geser, Felix; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, John; Uryu, Kunihiro; Neumann, Manuela; Brandmeir, Nicholas J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Kwong, Linda K.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Clark, Chris M.; Malunda, Joe; Miller, Bruce L.; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Qian, Jiang; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Grossman, Murray; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of transactivation response DNA-binding protein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology in the central nervous system of patients with clinically and autopsy-confirmed diagnoses of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with and without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without cognitive impairment. Design Performance of immunohistochemical whole–central nervous system scans for evidence of pathological TDP-43 and retrospective clinical medical record review. Setting An academic medical center. Participants We included 64 patients with clinically and pathologically confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions with or without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without cognitive impairment. Main Outcome Measure Neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology. Results We found evidence of neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology in all disease groups throughout the neuraxis, albeit with variations in the frequency, morphology, and distribution of TDP-43 lesions. Moreover, the major clinical manifestations (eg, cognitive impairments, motor neuron signs, extrapyramidal symptoms, neuropsychiatric features) were reflected by the predominant distribution and burden of TDP-43 pathology. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions are different manifestations of a multiple-system TDP-43 proteinopathy linked to similar mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:19204154

  13. [Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users. PMID:22242254

  14. Spectrum of Histomorphologic Findings in Liver in Patients with SLE: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shrruti; Rastogi, Archana; Singh, Jyotsna; Rajbongshi, Apurba; Bihari, Chhagan

    2014-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome (SS), and scleroderma are immunologically mediated disorders that typically have multisystem involvement. Although clinically significant liver involvement is rare, liver enzyme abnormalities are common in these patients. The reported prevalence of hepatic involvement in SLE, histopathologic findings, and its significance is very variable in the existing literature. It is important to be familiar with the causes of hepatic involvement in SLE along with histomorphological features which aid in distinguishing hepatitis of SLE from other hepatic causes as they would alter the patient management and disease course. Histopathology of liver in SLE shows a wide morphological spectrum commonly due to a coexisting pathology. Drug induced hepatitis, viral etiology, and autoimmune overlap should be excluded before attributing the changes to SLE itself. Common histopathologic findings in SLE include fatty liver, portal inflammation, and vascular changes like hemangioma, congestion, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, arteritis, and abnormal vessels in portal tracts. PMID:25136456

  15. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  16. Impaired self-awareness in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Nol, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n=30), and in a comparison group (n=35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes. PMID:22273773

  17. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  18. PDZ-containing proteins as targets in human pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gardiol, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    PDZ domains are very abundant protein interaction domains widespread in nature. A large amount of evidence has underscored the importance of the PDZ interactions in the control of intracellular pathways whose abnormal regulation may lead to the development of several pathologies. This series of minireviews covers different aspects of human PDZ-containing proteins, underlining and discussing new concepts and findings. PMID:22748103

  19. Abnormal Paraplegin Expression in Swollen Neurites, ?- and ?-Synuclein Pathology in a Case of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia SPG7 with an Ala510Val Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Thal, Dietmar R.; Zchner, Stephan; Gierer, Stephan; Schulte, Claudia; Schls, Ludger; Schle, Rebecca; Synofzik, Matthis

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the SPG7 gene are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias and spastic ataxias. Ala510Val is the most common SPG7 mutation, with a frequency of up to 1% in the general population. Here we report the clinical, genetic, and neuropathological findings in a homozygous Ala510Val SPG7 case with spastic ataxia. Neuron loss with associated gliosis was found in the inferior olivary nucleus, the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the substantia nigra and the basal nucleus of Meynert. Neurofilament and/or paraplegin accumulation was observed in swollen neurites in the cerebellar and cerebral cortex. This case also showed subcortical ?-pathology in an unique distribution pattern largely restricted to the brainstem. ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies (LBs) were observed in the brainstem and the cortex, compatible with a limbic pattern of Braak LB-Disease stage 4. Taken together, this case shows that the spectrum of pathologies in SPG7 can include neuron loss of the dentate nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus as well as neuritic pathology. The progressive supranuclear palsy-like brainstem predominant pattern of ? pathology and ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies in our SPG7 cases may be either coincidental or related to SPG7 in addition to neuron loss and neuritic pathology. PMID:26506339

  20. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies. PMID:12237052

  1. Jealousy: the pathology of passion.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P E

    1991-05-01

    Emotions may be rooted in biology but the process of cultural construction gives those emotions form and a language for their expression. The changing construction of jealousy in Western societies has transformed a socially sanctioned response to infidelity into a form of personal pathology which is the mere outward expression of immaturity, possessiveness and insecurity. This is a history of the stripping away of social, ethical and finally interpersonal meanings from an experience, to leave it as a piece of individual psychopathology. Fidelity and jealousy are constructed as they are because of the nature of the social and economic realities which drive our culture. The erosion of the area of human experience which could be identified with normal jealousy leaves the boundary between the pathological jealousy of psychiatry and normal experience increasingly problematic. PMID:1801774

  2. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. PMID:26021584

  3. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  4. Clinical Correlations With Lewy Body Pathology in LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lang, Anthony E.; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ross, Owen A.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Marder, Karen S.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Ruiz-Martnez, Javier; Marti-Masso, Jose F.; Ferrer, Isidre; de Munain, Adolfo Lpez; Goldman, Samuel M.; Schle, Birgitt; Langston, J. William; Aasly, Jan O.; Giordana, Maria T.; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Puschmann, Andreas; Canesi, Margherita; Pezzoli, Gianni; De Paula, Andre Maues; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Stoessl, A. Jon; Marras, Connie

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD. OBSERVATIONS We describe genetic, clinical, and neuropathological findings of 37 cases of LRRK2-related PD including 33 published and 4 unpublished cases through October 2013. Among the different mutations, the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation was most frequently associated with LB pathology. Nonmotor features of cognitive impairment/dementia, anxiety, and orthostatic hypotension were correlated with the presence of LBs. In contrast, a primarily motor phenotype was associated with a lack of LBs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinicopathological correlations in a series of LRRK2-related PD cases. Findings from this selected group of patients with PD demonstrated that parkinsonian motor features can occur in the absence of LBs. However, LB pathology in LRRK2-related PD may be a marker for a broader parkinsonian symptom complex including cognitive impairment. PMID:25401511

  5. Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features of Primary Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Review of 51 Cases

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Shinya; HOSHI, Katsuichiro; HIRAKAWA, Atsushi; CHIMURA, Syuuichi; KOBAYASHI, Masayuki; MACHIDA, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the study presented here, we aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of 51 canine cases with histologically-verified diagnoses of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The medical data for each dog, including signalment, presenting complaints, physical examination findings, results of various diagnostic testing performed and method of treatment, were checked. In addition, all 51 cases were re-examined pathologically. The tumor occurred most frequently in older Golden Retrievers, followed by Maltese dogs and Miniature Dachshunds. Mass lesions of HSA were found more commonly in the right auricle (RAu) (25/51) and right atrium (RA) (21/51), and the RA masses were significantly (P<0.001) larger than the RAu masses. The echocardiographic detection rate of masses in the RAu group (60%; 15/25) was significantly lower than that in the RA group (95%; 20/21). Survival time was significantly (P<0.05) longer for 5 dogs that received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection than for 12 dogs that did not. In this series, the Maltese (9/51) and Miniature Dachshund (7/51), as well as the Golden Retriever, were represented more frequently than other breeds. The lower echocardiographic detection rate of RAu masses compared with RA masses may be related to tumor size and/or location. The significantly longer survival time for dogs receiving adjuvant chemotherapy indicates that postoperative chemotherapy could be useful for dogs with cardiac HSA. PMID:23811814

  6. Tympanometry revealing middle ear pathology.

    PubMed

    Renvall, U; Holmquist, J

    1976-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of impedance audiometry as a screening method for school children, two different pilot studies were performed. The results indicated that impedance audiometry (tympanometry and stapedius reflex test) was more efficient than otoscopy and pure tone screening in the detection of ears with secretory otitis media (SOM). In order to gain some more experience, an extended study of 800 7-year-olds was performed. The results from this investigation showed 6.5% pathological values with pure tone screening, 13.5% pathological values with tympanometry and 32% elevated or nonelicitable stapedius reflexes. Analysis of our observations indicates that the stapedius reflex may be too sensitive a test to be used as a screening method. Tympanometry, however, is recommended as a complement to pure tone screening in screening of children. A 6-12 months follow-up was also performed on 357 ears in which an initial study had shown a middle ear pressure of less than or equal to -100 mm H2O. At the repeated test 20% had pathological pure tone screening, 40% had a middle ear pressure of less than or equal to -100 mm H2O, 57% had elevated or nonelicitable stapedius reflexes, and 14% had middle ear effusion. The high frequency of persisting abnormal middle ear pressure and effusion in these 357 ears suggests that a middle ear pressure of less than or equal to -100 mm H2O can be a predisposing factor for SOM. In an experimental study on human temporal bones it was demonstrated that the tympanogram preserves its original appearance when the water level is low in the middle ear, while a higher level gives rise to a pathological tympanogram. It is also demonstrated that there is a discrepancy between the tympanometrically, indirectly recorded middle ear pressure and the middle ear pressure as measured manometrically, directly from the middle ear. PMID:1267350

  7. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  8. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome With Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of personality pathology on time to remission of patients randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment strategies for depression and to determine whether personality pathology moderated the effect of treatment assignment on outcome. Method Individuals undergoing an episode of unipolar major depression (n = 275) received interpersonal psychotherapy (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression. Depressive symptoms were measured with the HRSD-17. Remission was a mean HRSD-17 score of 7 or below over a period of 3 weeks. Personality disorders were measured according to SCID-II diagnoses, and personality pathology was measured dimensionally by summing the positive probes on the SCID-II. Results The presence of at least 1 personality disorder was not a significant predictor of time to remission, but a higher level of dimensionally measured personality pathology and the presence of borderline personality disorder were associated with a longer time to remission. Personality pathology did not moderate the effect of treatment assignment on time to remission. Conclusions The findings suggest that depressed individuals with comorbid personality pathology generally fare worse in treatment for depression, although in this report, the effect of personality pathology did not differ by the type of treatment received. PMID:22823857

  9. Evolution of concepts in forest pathology.

    PubMed

    Manion, Paul D

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Foundation concepts in forest pathology are based on experiences evolving over time. Three examples will be addressed. (i) The primary concept behind education and research in forest pathology is the widely accepted attitude that disease-causing agents limit full utilization of forest resources. Therefore, we study diseases to find a weak link and then utilize this information to enhance our portion of the shared resource. The sustainable environmental issues of today have changed this concept, in my mind, to one of addressing what is the appropriate "healthy amount of disease" in a sustainable forest ecosystem. (ii) The initial concept that weakened understory trees and poorly managed forests deteriorate and decline over time because of numerous insults from biotic and abiotic agents has evolved into a decline disease stabilizing selection concept whereby healthy dominant trees in the forest (the survivors) are selectively killed by a combination of specifically ordered factors. (iii) The concept that heart-rot decay is initiated by infection through wounds that expose heartwood has evolved into the concept of infection in the sapwood that is compartmentalized over time in the center of the tree. PMID:18943876

  10. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment. PMID:24224584

  11. Renal pathology and HIV infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Praditpornsilpa, K; Napathorn, S; Yenrudi, S; Wankrairot, P; Tungsaga, K; Sitprija, V

    1999-02-01

    The existence of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) as a distinct disease entity characterized by glomerulosclerosis is well established in North America and Western Europe. Although the large number of HIV-infected cases overwhelm the Asian countries, no cases of HIVAN are documented in the literature. We studied 26 cases of HIV-infected Thai patients with proteinuria greater than 1.5 g/d of protein during 1995 and 1996. None of the patients were treated with antiretroviral drugs at the time of renal biopsy. Intravenous drug addiction and sexual transmission were risk factors in 11 and 15 patients, respectively. Pathological examinations were performed by light microscopic and immunoperoxidase study. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 17 cases, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in 2 cases, and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis secondary to cryptococcal infection in 2 cases each. One case each had membranous glomerulopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis secondary to tuberculosis. The renal pathological findings of HIVAN with the unique features described in previous literature were not evident in these patients. Although the data in this study are limited to 26 HIV-infected Thai patients, we believe that HIVAN is uncommon in the Asian HIV-infected population. PMID:10023639

  12. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  13. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rck, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-01-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion. PMID:24840709

  14. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Nol, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification. PMID:20167701

  15. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

  16. A core curriculum for clinical fellowship training in pathology informatics

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Levy, Bruce P.; Lane, William J.; Lee, Roy E.; Baron, Jason M.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Dighe, Anand S.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Kuo, Frank; Black-Schaffer, Stephen; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program. Materials and Methods: The Core Curriculum for Pathology Informatics was developed, and is maintained, through the combined efforts of our Pathology Informatics Fellows and Faculty. The curriculum was created with a three-tiered structure, consisting of divisions, topics, and subtopics. Primary (required) and suggested readings were selected for each subtopic in the curriculum and incorporated into a curated reading list, which is reviewed and maintained on a regular basis. Results: Our Core Curriculum is composed of four major divisions, 22 topics, and 92 subtopics that cover the wide breadth of Pathology Informatics. The four major divisions include: (1) Information Fundamentals, (2) Information Systems, (3) Workflow and Process, and (4) Governance and Management. A detailed, comprehensive reading list for the curriculum is presented in the Appendix to the manuscript and contains 570 total readings (current as of March 2012). Discussion: The adoption of a formal, core curriculum in a Pathology Informatics fellowship has significant impacts on both fellowship training and the general field of Pathology Informatics itself. For a fellowship, a core curriculum defines a basic, common scope of knowledge that the fellowship expects all of its graduates will know, while at the same time enhancing and broadening the traditional fellowship experience of research and operational rotations. For the field of Pathology Informatics itself, a core curriculum defines to the outside world, including departments, companies, and health systems considering hiring a pathology informatician, the core knowledge set expected of a person trained in the field and, more fundamentally, it helps to define the scope of the field within Pathology and healthcare in general. PMID:23024890

  17. PGC-1? Regulates Normal and Pathological Angiogenesis in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Geniez, Magali; Jiang, Aihua; Abend, Stephanie; Liu, Laura; Sweigard, Harry; Connor, Kip M.; Arany, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Neovascular diseases of the eye are the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The mechanisms underlying pathological neovascularization in the retina remain incompletely understood. PGC-1? is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular metabolism. In skeletal muscle, PGC-1? induces VEGFA expression and powerfully promotes angiogenesis, suggesting a similar role in other tissues. This study investigates the role of PGC-1? during normal and pathological vascularization in the retina. We show that PGC-1? induces the expression of VEGFA in numerous retinal cells, and that PGC-1? expression is strongly induced during postnatal retinal development, coincident with VEGFA expression and angiogenesis. PGC-1??/? mice have a significant reduction of early retinal vascular outgrowth, and reduced density of capillaries and number of mainarteries and veins as adults. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model of retinopathy of prematurity, PGC-1? expression is dramatically induced in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, suggesting thatPGC-1? drives pathological neovascularization. In support of this, PGC-1??/? mice subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy had decreased expression of VEGFA and were protected against pathological neovascularization. These results demonstrate that PGC-1? regulates VEGFA in the retina and isrequired for normal vessel development and for pathological neovascularization. The data highlight PGC-1? as a novel target in the treatment of neovascular diseases of the eye. PMID:23141926

  18. Antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Mekala R.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murphy, Matthew C.; Murray, Melissa E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine antemortem MRI findings associated with microinfarcts at autopsy. Methods: Patients with microinfarcts (n = 22) and patients without microinfarcts (n = 44) who underwent antemortem MRI were identified from a dementia clinic–based, population–based, and community clinic–based autopsy cohort. The microinfarct and no-microinfarct groups were matched on age at MRI, age at death, sex, APOE status, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Brain infarcts were assessed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. White matter hyperintensities on FLAIR MRI and hippocampal volumes on T1-weighted MRI were quantified using automated methods. A subset of subjects with microinfarcts (n = 15) and a matched group of subjects without microinfarcts (n = 15) had serial T1-weighted MRIs and were included in an analysis of global and regional brain atrophy rates using automated methods. Results: The presence of cortical (p = 0.03) and subcortical (p = 0.02) infarcts on antemortem MRI was associated with presence of microinfarcts at autopsy. Higher numbers of cortical (p = 0.05) and subcortical (p = 0.03) infarcts on antemortem MRI were also associated with presence of microinfarcts. Presence of microinfarcts was not associated with white matter hyperintensities and cross-sectional hippocampal volume on antemortem MRI. Whole-brain and regional precuneus, motor, and somatosensory atrophy rates were higher in subjects with microinfarcts compared to subjects without microinfarcts. Conclusions: Microinfarcts increase brain atrophy rates independent of Alzheimer disease pathology. Association between microinfarct pathology and macroinfarcts on MRI suggests either common risk factors or a shared pathophysiology and potentially common preventive targets. PMID:24793188

  19. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical

  20. The pathological evolution of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, W I; Miller, D H; Barnes, D

    1992-08-01

    The new technique of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) has been found to have particular value in the study of the evolution of the plaque of multiple sclerosis. Particularly when combined with gadolinium enhancement, the method not only shows very dramatically the waxing and waning of the plaque with time, it also demonstrates with remarkable clarity the important role of changes in vascular permeability in the pathological process. In this Annotation the ability of this technique to throw new light on the process of plaque formation and evaluation is critically assessed. In addition, the role of changing fluid content of the extracellular spaces of the CNS in influencing interpretation of the more conventional clinical and electrophysiological findings is discussed. While the method of NMR analysis does not yet show us how the plaque is initiated, it is suggested that future studies with these new techniques in the living subject may well lead us to rational therapeutic approaches based on pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:1528388

  1. [Cardiology in the Morgagni's anatomo pathological work].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde, Pedro; Aranda Fraustro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In the XVIII century, under the influence of the "systematic spirit", characteristic of the Enlightenment age, pathological anatomy was systematized in the Morgagni's fundamental treatise De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published as letters in 1761. Certain biographical data of the author are reported here as well as some his more important contributions to cardiology such as the Morgagni's, Adams', Stokes' syndrome. His points of view on sudden death and his observations on post-infarct myocardial rupture, are related also. In his global evaluation of these facts, the speculative approach always predominates. Indeed, in these anatomist's works, we find a good example of the application of epistemologic principles to the medical field. PMID:25862292

  2. Common Curriculum, Core Curriculum or Common Curriculum Standards--Finding a Solution for Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabback, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of possible curriculum models in post-conflict countries, taking as an example the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1996 and 2004. Following the Dayton agreement, the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided between 13 ministries administering different Bosnian, Serb and Croat cantons. Despite…

  3. Meningeal and cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although historically considered a disease primarily affecting the white matter of the central nervous system, recent pathological and imaging studies have established that cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis and more extensive than previously appreciated. Subpial, intracortical and leukocortical lesions are the three cortical lesion types described in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical demyelination may be the pathological substrate of progression, and an important pathologic correlate of irreversible disability, epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Cortical lesions of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients are characterized by a dominant effector cell population of microglia, by the absence of macrophagic and leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates, and may be driven in part by organized meningeal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical demyelination is also present and common in early MS, is topographically associated with prominent meningeal inflammation and may even precede the appearance of classic white matter plaques in some MS patients. However, the pathology of early cortical lesions is different than that of chronic MS in the sense that early cortical lesions are highly inflammatory, suggesting that neurodegeneration in MS occurs on an inflammatory background and raising interesting questions regarding the role of cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation in initiating and perpetuating the disease process in early MS. PMID:22397318

  4. Lupus Nephritis: Animal Modeling of a Complex Disease Syndrome Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tracy L; Madaio, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Nephritis as a result of autoimmunity is a common morbidity associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). There is substantial clinical and industry interest in medicinal intervention in the SLE nephritic process; however, clinical trials to specifically treat lupus nephritis have not resulted in complete and sustained remission in all patients. Multiple mouse models have been used to investigate the pathologic interactions between autoimmune reactivity and SLE pathology. While several models bear a remarkable similarity to SLE-driven nephritis, there are limitations for each that can make the task of choosing the appropriate model for a particular aspect of SLE pathology challenging. This is not surprising given the variable and diverse nature of human disease. In many respects, features among murine strains mimic some (but never all) of the autoimmune and pathologic features of lupus patients. Although the diversity often limits universal conclusions relevant to pathogenesis, they provide insights into the complex process that result in phenotypic manifestations of nephritis. Thus nephritis represents a microcosm of systemic disease, with variable lesions and clinical features. In this review, we discuss some of the most commonly used models of lupus nephritis (LN) and immune-mediated glomerular damage examining their relative strengths and weaknesses, which may provide insight in the human condition. PMID:25722732

  5. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

    PubMed

    Arbelo, M; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herrez, P; Surez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Rivero, M; Grau-Bassas, E R; Fernndez, A

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a primary T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans. PMID:24650893

  6. ["Common variable immunodeficiency"--first diagnosis of a rare pneumological disease].

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, C; Berg, K; Galetke, W; Randerath, W J

    2011-10-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is generally used synonymously with "late onset hypogammaglobulinaemia", which is already indicative of the central pathological finding. Patients with CVID produce specifically less immunoglobulins, thus reducing their immunological competence. Our patient showed the typical medical history of undetected CVID. After excluding differential pneumological diseases, the suspected diagnosis was confirmed. This case report examines the complex of CVID as a cause for recurrent pneumological infections. It is the most prevalent form of severe antibody deficiency in children and adults and occurs with a probability of 1:25,000 in the population. PMID:21866490

  7. Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

  8. A prospective study of shoulder pain in primary care: Prevalence of imaged pathology and response to guided diagnostic blocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of imaged pathology in primary care has received little attention and the relevance of identified pathology to symptoms remains unclear. This paper reports the prevalence of imaged pathology and the association between pathology and response to diagnostic blocks into the subacromial bursa (SAB), acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and glenohumeral joint (GHJ). Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain recruited from primary care underwent standardised x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound scan and diagnostic injections of local anaesthetic into the SAB and ACJ. Subjects who reported less than 80% reduction in pain following either of these injections were referred for a magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and GHJ diagnostic block. Differences in proportions of positive and negative imaging findings in the anaesthetic response groups were assessed using Fishers test and odds ratios were calculated a for positive anaesthetic response (PAR) to diagnostic blocks. Results In the 208 subjects recruited, the rotator cuff and SAB displayed the highest prevalence of pathology on both ultrasound (50% and 31% respectively) and MRA (65% and 76% respectively). The prevalence of PAR following SAB injection was 34% and ACJ injection 14%. Of the 59% reporting a negative anaesthetic response (NAR) for both of these injections, 16% demonstrated a PAR to GHJ injection. A full thickness tear of supraspinatus on ultrasound was associated with PAR to SAB injection (OR 5.02; p < 0.05). Ultrasound evidence of a biceps tendon sheath effusion (OR 8.0; p < 0.01) and an intact rotator cuff (OR 1.3; p < 0.05) were associated with PAR to GHJ injection. No imaging findings were strongly associated with PAR to ACJ injection (p ? 0.05). Conclusions Rotator cuff and SAB pathology were the most common findings on ultrasound and MRA. Evidence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear was associated with symptoms arising from the subacromial region, and a biceps tendon sheath effusion and an intact rotator cuff were associated with an intra-articular GHJ pain source. When combined with clinical information, these results may help guide diagnostic decision making in primary care. PMID:21619663

  9. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  10. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  11. Expanding the spectrum of neuronal pathology in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Coon, Elizabeth A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Jenkins, Sarah M; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Low, Phillip A; Schmeichel, Ann M; Parisi, Joseph E

    2015-08-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy that typically affects patients in their sixth decade of life and beyond. The defining clinical features of the disease include progressive autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia leading to significant disability. Pathologically, multiple system atrophy is characterized by glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing filamentous alpha-synuclein. Neuronal inclusions also have been reported but remain less well defined. This study aimed to further define the spectrum of neuronal pathology in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (20 male, 15 female; mean age at death 64.7 years; median disease duration 6.5 years, range 2.2 to 15.6 years). The morphologic type, topography, and frequencies of neuronal inclusions, including globular cytoplasmic (Lewy body-like) neuronal inclusions, were determined across a wide spectrum of brain regions. A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated between distinct anatomic regions of involvement (striatum, substantia nigra, olivary and pontine nuclei, hippocampus, forebrain and thalamus, anterior cingulate and neocortex, and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). The major finding was the identification of widespread neuronal inclusions in the majority of patients, not only in typical disease-associated regions (striatum, substantia nigra), but also within anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain and hypothalamus. Neuronal inclusion pathology appeared to follow a hierarchy of region-specific susceptibility, independent of the clinical phenotype, and the severity of pathology was duration-dependent. Neuronal inclusions also were identified in regions not previously implicated in the disease, such as within cerebellar roof nuclei. Lewy body-like inclusions in multiple system atrophy followed the stepwise anatomic progression of Lewy body-spectrum disease inclusion pathology in 25.7% of patients with multiple system atrophy, including a patient with visual hallucinations. Further, the presence of Lewy body-like inclusions in neocortex, but not hippocampal alpha-synuclein pathology, was associated with cognitive impairment (P = 0.002). However, several cases had the presence of isolated Lewy body-like inclusions at atypical sites (e.g. thalamus, deep cerebellar nuclei) that are not typical for Lewy body-spectrum disease. Finally, interregional correlations (rho ? 0.6) in pathologic glial and neuronal lesion burden suggest shared mechanisms of disease progression between both discrete anatomic regions (e.g. basal forebrain and hippocampus) and cell types (neuronal and glial inclusions in frontal cortex and white matter, respectively). These findings suggest that in addition to glial inclusions, neuronal pathology plays an important role in the developmental and progression of multiple system atrophy. PMID:25981961

  12. Computed tomography appearance of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the abdomen: CT features and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Xu, Junlong; Wang, Jiaxin; Fan, Hongguang; Ang, Xuan; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT findings of abdominal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) and the relationship with morphological character. Materials and Methods: CT examinations and pathological findings of ten intra-abdominal IMTs were retrospectively analyzed. The histopathological characteristics of the IMTs were confirmed by two pathologists and two radiologists evaluated CT findings of the lesion, with emphasis on the imaging features compared with the corresponding histopathology. Results: The most common imaging characteristics were presence of heterogeneity, all tumors showed varying degrees of contrast enhancement. Two major different CT patterns were individualized. In type one, the tumor had a distinct boundary without a lobular appearance and displayed hypo-enhanced enhancement after administration of contrast in correlated with the mainly histopathologic findings of spindle cells myxoid and hypocellular fibrous (6/10; 60%). In type two, the lesions exhibited indistinct boundaries or complete capsule, ill-defined growth patterns or low intralesional attenuation with marked heterogeneous or circumferential enhancement, which correlated well with the presence of abundance of micromodule and inflammatory cell infiltration (4/10; 40%). Conclusions: Two major different contrast enhancement CT patterns were individualized can help to determine the relationships with histopathologic findings, while cannot be reliably differentiated from other solid lesions based solely on the CT appearance, combined with diagnostic biopsy may facilitate to achieve a correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26629216

  13. Latest advances in the pathological understanding of cholangiocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Miyata, Takashi; Uchida, Tsuneyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are anatomically classified into intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal types. The gross pathological classification of intrahepatic CCAs divides them into mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal-growth types; and perihilar/distal CCAs into flat- and nodular-infiltrating and papillary types. Unique preinvasive lesions appear to precede individual gross types of CCA. Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, a flat lesion, precedes periductal-, flat-, and nodular-infiltrating CCAs, whereas intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) precedes the intraductal-growth and papillary type of CCAs. IPNBs are heterogeneous in their histological and pathological profiles along the biliary tree. Hepatobiliary cystadenomas/adenocarcinomas are reclassified as cystic IPNBs and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasms. Peribiliary glands may participate in the development of CCAs. These latest findings present a new challenge for understanding the pathology of CCAs. PMID:26492529

  14. Pathologic features the urologist should expect on a prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Che, Mingxin; Sakr, Wael; Grignon, David

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the pathological evaluation of prostate biopsy specimens has made great improvements in diagnostic accuracy and comprehensiveness. In this article, we review major pathological findings on prostate biopsy, their interpretation and reporting, as well as their clinical significance and utility. We discuss especially the clinically relevant histological features in either a positive or negative biopsy. We emphasize that both Gleason score and extent of cancer involvement in a needle core biopsy are important predictors of clinical outcome after either radical prostatectomy or radiation. Special issues regarding diagnosis and grading of minimal cancer on needle core biopsies are discussed. We also highlight the current standards on high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation on needle core biopsies. In summary, the pathology reports on needle biopsies are far beyond the simple presence or absence of cancer; they contain invaluable information to clinicians on patient management and counseling. PMID:12856645

  15. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand.

    PubMed

    D?bek, Anna; Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Pawe?

    2014-03-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination. PMID:26675521

  16. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis.

    PubMed

    Guinebretire, J M; Menet, E; Tardivon, A; Cherel, P; Vanel, D

    2005-04-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities, (adenosis, fibrosis, cysts and hyperplasia) but vary in intensity and extension. Thus, their clinical and radiographic presentation is extremely different from one patient to another. Adenofibroma is the most frequent tumour. It also undergoes modifications according to hormonal conditions. About 90% of malignant tumours are primary carcinoma. The incidence of intra-ductal carcinoma has risen dramatically since the development of screening because of its ability to induce calcification. Two mechanisms could be involved in the formation of calcification: one active (tumour cell secretion of vesicles), the other passive (necrotic cell fragments are released). Invasive carcinoma comprises numerous histological types. Stromal reactions essentially determines their shape: a fibrous reaction commonly found in ductal carcinoma creates a stellate lesion while other stroma, inflammatory (medullary carcinoma), vascular (papillary carcinoma) or mucinous determine nodular lesions whose borders push the surrounding tissue. The histological features which give rise to the radiographic pattern will be emphasised. PMID:15797289

  17. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand

    PubMed Central

    Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination.

  18. Tau in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that has a role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules and thus in promoting axonal outgrowth. Structurally, tau is a natively unfolded protein, is highly soluble and shows little tendency for aggregation. However, tau aggregation is characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. The mechanisms underlying tau pathology and tau-mediated neurodegeneration are debated, but considerable progress has been made in the field of tau research in recent years, including the identification of new physiological roles for tau in the brain. Here, we review the expression, post-translational modifications and functions of tau in physiology and in pathophysiology. PMID:26631930

  19. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  20. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  1. Cumulative traumatization associated with pathological dissociation in acute psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chui-De; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-12-15

    Clinical studies of patients with dissociative disorders and prospective studies of childhood trauma survivors show inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between childhood trauma and dissociation. This study aims to resolve this inconsistency by investigating how dissociation is related to parental dysfunctions, general psychopathology, childhood trauma, and adulthood trauma. Specifically, we focus on the role of cumulative traumatization in pathological and non-taxon dissociation. Eighty acute psychiatric inpatients were administrated standardized measures on dissociation, perceived parental dysfunctions, traumatizing events, and general psychopathology. Parental dysfunctions and trauma correlated with both types of dissociation and general psychopathology. When general psychopathology and parental dysfunctions were controlled, a unique link between trauma and dissociation remained significant. Moreover, the pattern of relationships differed for non-taxon and pathological dissociations. The effect of childhood but not adulthood trauma was significant on non-taxon dissociation. In contrast, an interactive model incorporating both childhood and adulthood trauma was the best model for explaining pathological dissociation. Childhood trauma is important for developing non-taxon dissociation, and adulthood trauma exacerbates its effects on the emergence of pathological dissociation. Cumulative traumatization from childhood to adulthood should be incorporated into the trauma hypothesis of pathological dissociation. PMID:26454403

  2. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality InventoryRevised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  3. Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh.; Pirko, Istvan; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article summarizes the pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases and discusses neuropathologic studies that have yielded novel insights into potential mechanisms of demyelination. Recent Findings The pathologic hallmark of MS consists of focal demyelinated plaques within the CNS, with variable degrees of inflammation, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Active MS lesions show a profound pathologic heterogeneity with four major patterns of immunopathology, suggesting that the targets of injury and mechanisms of demyelination in MS may be different in different disease subgroups. Recent pathologic studies have suggested that the subarachnoid space and cortex may be initial sites and targets of the MS disease process, that inflammatory cortical demyelination is present early in MS, and that meningeal inflammation may drive cortical and white matter injury in some MS patients. Summary MS is heterogeneous with respect to clinical, genetic, radiographic, and pathologic features; surrogate MRI, clinical, genetic, serologic, and/or CSF markers for each of the four immunopatterns need to be developed in order to recognize them in the general nonbiopsied MS population. Inflammatory cortical demyelination is an important early event in the pathogenesis of MS and may be driven by meningeal inflammation. These observations stress the importance of developing imaging techniques able to capture early inflammatory cortical demyelination in order to better understand the disease pathogenesis and to determine the impact of potential disease-modifying therapies on the cortex. PMID:23917093

  4. The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Tabr, L.; Dean, P. B.; Lindhe, N.; Ingvarsson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

  5. The ongoing revolution in breast imaging calls for a similar revolution in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Tabár, L; Dean, P B; Lindhe, N; Ingvarsson, M

    2012-01-01

    COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PATHOLOGISTS AND RADIOLOGISTS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF COMMON GROUND: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

  6. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  7. Signaling pathways in melanosome biogenesis and pathology.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-07-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over 100 genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  8. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  9. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Meningioma: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    SHIBUYA, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. Although the spectrum of clinical and molecular genetic issues regarding meningiomas remains undefined, novel genetic alterations that are associated with tumor morphology, malignancy, or location have recently been discovered. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the heterogenous pathology of meningiomas, particularly on associations between the clinical, histological, etiological, epidemiological, and molecular genetical aspects of the neoplasm. PMID:25744347

  10. From the radiologic pathology archives imaging of osteonecrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Foreman, Kristopher L; Klassen-Fischer, Mary K; Fox, Michael G; Chung, Ellen M; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is common and represents loss of blood supply to a region of bone. Common sites affected include the femoral head, humeral head, knee, femoral/tibial metadiaphysis, scaphoid, lunate, and talus. Symptomatic femoral head osteonecrosis accounts for 10,000-20,000 new cases annually in the United States. In contradistinction, metadiaphyseal osteonecrosis is often occult and asymptomatic. There are numerous causes of osteonecrosis most commonly related to trauma, corticosteroids, and idiopathic. Imaging of osteonecrosis is frequently diagnostic with a serpentine rim of sclerosis on radiographs, photopenia in early disease at bone scintigraphy, and maintained yellow marrow at MR imaging with a serpentine rim of high signal intensity (double-line sign) on images obtained with long repetition time sequences. These radiologic features correspond to the underlying pathology of osseous response to wall off the osteonecrotic process and attempts at repair with vascularized granulation tissue at the reactive interface. The long-term clinical importance of epiphyseal osteonecrosis is almost exclusively based on the likelihood of overlying articular collapse. MR imaging is generally considered the most sensitive and specific imaging modality both for early diagnosis and identifying features that increase the possibility of this complication. Treatment subsequent to articular collapse and development of secondary osteoarthritis typically requires reconstructive surgery. Malignant transformation of osteonecrosis is rare and almost exclusively associated with metadiaphyseal lesions. Imaging features of this dire sequela include aggressive bone destruction about the lesion margin, cortical involvement, and an associated soft-tissue mass. Recognizing the appearance of osteonecrosis, which reflects the underlying pathology, improves radiologic assessment and is important to guide optimal patient management. PMID:25019438

  11. 100 years of Lewy pathology.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

  12. [Informed consent for aortic pathology].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients and their families before surgery, particularly for aortic pathology, is a necessary, and very important, step. This is because, although the risk of death from asymptomatic disease is underestimated in many cases, surgery for aortic pathology is generally associated with higher risks of mortality and morbidity than that in other fields. The importance of informed consent is the same in principle even in emergency cases. The surgeon must faithfully provide accurate medical information to the patient and family members, including a summary of the patient's condition, the purposes and necessity of treatment, alternatives, details of the procedure, risks, and possible postoperative complications. Extra consideration should be given to offering explanations at a level appropriate for the individual patient, according to factors such as age-group, philosophy, and comprehension ability, to ensure that patients fully understand and are in a position to make a decision of their own volition. The process of giving information and obtaining informed consent offers a prime opportunity to build a strong surgeon-patient relationship. PMID:25549434

  13. [Pathological fractures of the knee].

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Jacek; Warda, Edward; Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the methods and results of treatment of 20 epiphyseal and low-metaphysis pathological knee fractures treated at the Department of Orthopedics of the Lublin University of Medical Sciences between 1962-1999. The average age was 39 years. Malignant tumours (2 lymphomas, 1 plasmocytoma, 1 hemangiopericitoma, 2 adenocarcinoma metastases) and benign lesions (10 giant cell tumours, 3 solitary bone cysts, 1 intraosseous extension of pigmented villonodular synovitis) causes 18 femur fractures and 2 tibia fractures. The fractures caused by lymphomas in 2 patients and plasmocytoma in 1 patients were treated with either a plaster cast or skeletal traction and healed within 16 weeks. Tumour resection and reconstruction with Rush rods, Kuntscher nail, plate and methylmetacrylate were performed in 2 cases. In 1 case with hemangiopericytoma hip exarticulation was performed. In 5 cases pain relief and weight bearing capacity of the limb was not achieved because of neoplasm recurrences; 5 deaths occurred within 6 months to 7 years after femur fracture because of pulmonary metastases. Benign bone lesions were treated by curettage of pathological tissues, burring bony walls of the lesions and filling the cavities with bone grafts or methylmetacrylate (1 case). Displaced fragments were reduced whenever possible. Limbs were immobilised in plaster casts. The follow-up period for patients with benign lesions was 8 years. All fractures healed. Arthritis with persistent pain and knee contracture was noted in 1 patient who underwent surgery 3 times for giant cell tumour recurrences, complicated by infection and varus deformity. PMID:12148188

  14. Training pathologists in mouse pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Ward, J M; HogenEsch, H; Nikitin, A Yu; Treuting, P M; Macauley, J B; Schofield, P N

    2012-03-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology) primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today's research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through apprenticeships in formal programs, these are often heavily service related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short-term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889

  15. The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parham, D M; Coleman, D; Kodikara, S; Moss, S; Ellis, I O; Al-sam, S; Anderson, N; Bobrow, L; Buley, I; Connolly, C E; Dallimore, N S; Hales, S; Hanby, A; Humphreys, S; Knox, F; Lowe, J; Macartney, J; Nash, R; Patnick, J; Pinder, S E; Quinn, C M; Robertson, A J; Shrimankar, J; Walker, R A; Wells, C; Winder, R; Patel, N

    2006-01-01

    Background The original role of the National Health Service breast screening programme (pathology) external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was educational; it aimed to raise standards, reinforce use of common terminology, and assess the consistency of pathology reporting of breast disease in the UK. Aims/Methods To examine the performance (scores) of pathologists participating in the scheme in recent years. The scheme has evolved to help identify poor performers, reliant upon setting an acceptable cutpoint. Therefore, the effects of different cutpoint strategies were evaluated and implications discussed. Results/Conclusions Pathologists who joined the scheme improved over time, particularly those who did less well initially. There was no obvious association between performance and the number of breast cancer cases reported each year. This is not unexpected because the EQA does not measure expertise, but was established to demonstrate a common level of performance (conformity to consensus) for routine cases, rather than the ability to diagnose unusual/difficult cases. A new method of establishing cutpoints using interquartile ranges is proposed. The findings also suggest that EQA can alter a pathologist's practice: those who leave the scheme (for whatever reason) have, on average, marginally lower scores. Consequently, with the cutpoint methodology currently used (which is common to several EQA schemes) there is the potential for the cutpoint to drift upwards. In future, individuals previously deemed competent could subsequently be erroneously labelled as poor performers. Due consideration should be given to this issue with future development of schemes. PMID:16443726

  16. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  17. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  18. [A case of cytomegalovirus colitis with endoscopic finding resembling Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Youn, Young Hoon; Jung, Da Hyun; Kim, Do Whan; Kho, Bo Gun; Kim, Jie Hyun; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Sang In

    2012-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is common among immunocompromised patients, and often diagnosed by pathologic confirmation because it is associated with a diverse spectrum of clinical and endoscopic features. However, Crohn's disease has no definitive diagnostic criteria, but longitudinal ulcers and cobble stone appearance are accepted as typical endoscopic features of Crohn's disease. An 83 year-old male with a history of radiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer visited our hospital with a complaint of melena for 1 week. His colonoscopic exam showed multiple longitudinal ulcers along the entire colon. Most of the ulcers were longer than 4 cm, these endoscopic findings were suspected as typical endoscopic features of Crohn's disease. Pathologic reports revealed multiple inclusion bodies with CMV on immunohistochemistry. He was finally diagnosed as having CMV colitis, and received a 3 week-course of intravenous ganciclovir. A colonoscopic follow-up showed complete healing of the multiple longitudinal ulcers, and he is doing well now without further treatment. PMID:22544028

  19. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,

  20. Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C. W.; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ≥85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-β and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and α-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28–5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-β accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88–7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12–12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14–19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or α-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged ≥85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. PMID:23983028

  1. Nutritional characteristics, eating pathology, and hormonal status in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Gorenflo, D W; Drewnowski, A; Demitrack, M A

    1996-10-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is common in patients with eating disorders. However, many women engage in pathologic dieting behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathologic eating attitudes and behaviors that are present in many young women. Specific food choices and nutrient intakes may be associated with altered gonadal hormone status of these dieters. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the nutritional characteristics of college-aged women defined by their eating attitudes and behaviors with a previously described questionnaire. We evaluated dietary intake, body composition, and selected biochemical indicators in 76 undergraduate women. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, lipids, and carotenoids were measured on days 6, 21, and 28 of one menstrual cycle. Dietary assessment was based on food records at two 3-d intervals during the cycle. Ovulatory status was definitively determined on the basis of biochemical data for 46 of the women. Increased degree of pathologic dieting was associated with a significantly lower intake of dietary fat (P < 0.02), despite similar mean body mass index and body composition across the eating pathology groups. Serum concentration of alpha-carotene was significantly greater (P < 0.005) in association with a greater degree of eating pathology. With ovulation as a between-group factor, serum lutein concentration and dietary intake of energy and fat differed significantly between groups (P < 0.003). Nutritional characteristics associated with pathologic dieting behavior may also be associated with menstrual irregularities in young women. PMID:8839501

  2. Common Dermatologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shelley; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Dermatologists perform a wide variety of procedures on a daily basis. The skin biopsy is a fundamental technique that can be performed by all physicians who manage cutaneous conditions. Specimens should always be sent for pathologic evaluation, regardless of whether the sampled lesion appears benign. Postoperative care and education are critical for minimizing complications. PMID:26476254

  3. Ultrasound elastographic findings of mammary fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Cui, Li-Gang; Lei, Yu-Tao; Liu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Jin-Rui

    2015-01-01

    Mammary fibromatosis is an uncommon, benign tumor of the breast. It is locally aggressive and has a high rate of recurrence. Its clinical presentation and imaging results always call for suspicion of malignancy. Here we describe a case of mammary fibromatosis with clinical manifestation, radiographic and pathologic results, and imaging findings from ultrasound elastography. PMID:25722911

  4. Heart pathology determination from electrocardiogram signals by application of deterministic chaos mathematics. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, N.E.; Hively, L.M.; Stickney, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    It is well known that the electrical signals generated by the heart exhibit nonlinear, chaotic dynamics. A number of heart pathologies alter heartbeat dynamics and/or the electrical properties of the heart, which, in turn, alter electrocardiogram signals. Electrocardiogram techniques in common use for diagnosing pathologies have limited sensitivity and specificity. This leads to a relatively high misdiagnosis rate for ventricular fibrillation. It is also known that the linear analysis tools utilized (such as fast Fourier transforms and linear statistics) are limited in their ability to find subtle changes or characteristic signatures in nonlinear chaotic electrocardiogram signals. In contrast, the authors` research indicates that chaotic time-series analysis tools that they have developed allow quantification of the nonlinear nature of dynamic systems in the form of nonlinear statistics, and also enable characteristic signatures to be identified. The goal of this project is to modify these tools to increase and enhance the medically useful information obtained from electrocardiogram signals through the application of chaotic time series analysis tools. In the one year of the project, the tools have been extended to enhance the capabilities for detecting ventricular fibrillation. Chaotic time-series analysis provides a means to increase sensitivity in detecting general heart dynamics. Oak Ridge National Laboratory specialists have worked with Physio-Control and their medical collaborators to extend the capabilities of state-of-the-art electrocardiogram systems and interpretation of results.

  5. Interleukin-10 Promotes Pathological Angiogenesis by Regulating Macrophage Response to Hypoxia during Development

    PubMed Central

    Dace, Dru S.; Khan, Aslam A.; Kelly, Jennifer; Apte, Rajendra S.

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis in the eye is the most common cause of blindness. The current study examined the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ischemia-induced pathological angiogenesis called neovascularization during postnatal development. IL-10 deficiency resulted in significantly reduced pathological retinal angiogenesis. In contrast to the choroicapillaris where IL-10 interferes with macrophage influx, IL-10 did not prevent anti-angiogenic macrophages from migrating to the retina in response to hypoxia. Instead, IL-10 promoted retinal angiogenesis by altering macrophage angiogenic function, as macrophages from wild-type mice demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) compared to IL-10 deficient macrophages. IL-10 appears to directly affect macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia, as macrophages responded to hypoxia with increased levels of IL-10 and STAT3 phosphorylation as opposed to IL-10 deficient macrophages. Also, IL-10 deficient macrophages inhibited the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in response to hypoxia while wild-type macrophages failed to do so. These findings suggest that hypoxia guides macrophage behavior to a pro-angiogenic phenotype via IL-10 activated pathways. PMID:18852882

  6. Clinical and Pathological Heterogeneity of Korean Patients with CAPN3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Jun; Jang, Hoon; Lee, Jung Hwan; Shin, Ha Young; Cho, Sung-Rae; Park, Kee Duk; Bang, Duhee; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the characteristics of Korean patients with calpainopathy. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients from ten unrelated families were diagnosed with calpainopathy via direct or targeted sequencing of the CAPN3 gene. Clinical, mutational, and pathological spectra were then analyzed. Results Nine different mutations, including four novel mutations (NM_000070: c.1524+1G>T, c.1789_1790inA, c.2184+1G>T, and c.2384C>T) were identified. The median age at symptom onset was 22 (interquartile range: 15-28). Common clinical findings were joint contracture in nine patients, winged scapula in four, and lordosis in one. However, we also found highly variable clinical features including early onset joint contractures, asymptomatic hyperCKemia, and heterogeneous clinical severity in three members of the same family. Four of nine muscle specimens revealed lobulated fibers, but three showed normal skeletal muscle histology. Conclusion We identified four novel CAPN3 mutations and demonstrated clinical and pathological heterogeneity in Korean patients with calpainopathy. PMID:26632398

  7. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  8. Staging TDP-43 pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Keith A; Murray, Melissa E; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Parisi, Joseph E; Petrucelli, Leonard; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2014-03-01

    TDP-43 immunoreactivity occurs in 19-57 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. Two patterns of TDP-43 deposition in AD have been described involving hippocampus (limbic) or hippocampus and neocortex (diffuse), although focal amygdala involvement has been observed. In 195 AD cases with TDP-43, we investigated regional TDP-43 immunoreactivity with the aim of developing a TDP-43 in AD staging scheme. TDP-43 immunoreactivity was assessed in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, hippocampal dentate gyrus, occipitotemporal, inferior temporal and frontal cortices, and basal ganglia. Clinical, neuroimaging, genetic and pathological characteristics were assessed across stages. Five stages were identified: stage I showed scant-sparse TDP-43 in the amygdala only (17 %); stage II showed moderate-frequent amygdala TDP-43 with spread into entorhinal and subiculum (25 %); stage III showed further spread into dentate gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex (31 %); stage IV showed further spread into inferior temporal cortex (20 %); and stage V showed involvement of frontal cortex and basal ganglia (7 %). Cognition and medial temporal volumes differed across all stages and progression across stages correlated with worsening cognition and medial temporal volume loss. Compared to 147 AD patients without TDP-43, only the Boston Naming Test showed abnormalities in stage I. The findings demonstrate that TDP-43 deposition in AD progresses in a stereotypic manner that can be divided into five distinct topographic stages which are supported by correlations with clinical and neuroimaging features. Given these findings, we recommend sequential regional TDP-43 screening in AD beginning with the amygdala. PMID:24240737

  9. Gastrohepatic ligament: normal and pathologic CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Balfe, D.M.; Mauro, M.A.; Koehler, R.E.; Lee, J.K.T.; Weyman, P.J.; Picus, D.; Peterson, R.R.

    1984-02-01

    In a review of 200 consecutive CT scans of the upper abdomen, the structures within the gastrohepatic ligament (GHL) were well seen in 182 (91%). In 85% of these 182 patients, the largest structure visible within the GHL was 6mm or smaller. A total of 27 patients had a structure larger than 6 mm within the GHL;this finding could be explained in 13 by the presence of a normal anatomic variant. Of the 14 others, 12 had known tumor arising in or known to have spread to the upper abdomen. Two patients had no obvious explanation. Fourteen patients with cancers of the stomach (9 patients), pancreas (3 patients), and esophagus (2 patients) had 57 intact nodes that were evaluated pathologically. Of these 40/40 benign nodes and 10/17 malignant nodes were less than or equal to 8 mm in size. When anatomic variants are excluded, the finding of rounded structures greater than 8 mm in the GHL is a reliable indicator of left gastric node involvement by carcinoma or lymphoma or of coronary venous dilatation.

  10. The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.22% in the general population. PG can significantly impact ones ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG, it is important that researchers examine pharmacological and behavioral treatments for their safety and efficacy and that clinicians use empirically validated therapies. Multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and opioids, and related neurocircuitry, particularly ventral cortico-striatal pathways, have been implicated in PG. The neurobiological rationale for therapies, particularly pharmacological ones, is reviewed with a perspective on the generation of improved prevention and treatment strategies for PG. PMID:24288522

  11. [Recent advances in prostate pathology].

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Maeda, Nagako; Murase, Yota

    2016-01-01

    Gleason score was revised in 2005 by International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). This revision has great impacts on prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, some issues were not reached to consensus. In addition, some modifications are needed to adapt recent advanced prostate cancer therapies, especially for patients with active surveillance and very high risk prostate cancer. The authors review recently updated Gleason grading system by ISUP, which will fit to recent prostate cancer treatment. There are few prognostic factors to predict cancer specific survival and overall survival. The authors show the concept and diagnostic criteria of IDC-P. The authors also discuss clinical usefulness and problems of IDC-P in practice. PMID:26793897

  12. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Phillip J.; Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin; Shipley, William U.; Fedewa, Stacey A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kamat, Ashish M.; Virgo, Katherine S.; Blute, Michael L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  13. Accuracy of Clinical Suspicion and Pathologic Diagnosis of Kaposi Sarcoma in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Carina Martin; Forrestel, Amy; Wenger, Megan; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Maurer, Toby; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Muyindike, Winnie; Bwana, Mwebesa; Buziba, Nathan; Busakhala, Naftali; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. The diagnosis is often based on clinical suspicion, without histopathologic confirmation. When biopsies are performed, the accuracy of interpretation by local pathologists is poorly understood. We assessed the accuracy of clinical suspicion and pathologic diagnosis of KS in 2 East African countries. Methods: At 2 large HIV care sites in Uganda and Kenya, we evaluated consecutive biopsies performed from October 2008 to January 2013 on HIV-infected adults with clinically suspected KS. Biopsies were interpreted by both local African pathologists and a group of US-based dermatopathologists from a high volume medical center. For the purpose of this analysis, the US-based dermatopathologist interpretation was used as the gold standard. Positive predictive value was used to characterize accuracy of local African clinical suspicion of KS, and concordance, sensitivity, and specificity were used to characterize accuracy of local pathologic diagnosis. Results: Among 1106 biopsies, the positive predictive value of clinical suspicion of KS was 77% (95% confidence interval: 74% to 79%). When KS was not histopathologically diagnosed, clinically banal conditions were found in 35%, medically significant disorders which required different therapy in 59% and life-threatening diseases in 6%. Concordance between African pathologists and US-based dermatopathologists was 69% (95% confidence interval: 66% to 72%). Sensitivity and specificity of African pathologic diagnoses were 68% and 89%, respectively. Conclusions: Among East African HIV-infected patients, we found suboptimal positive predictive value of clinical suspicion of KS and specific, but not sensitive, histopathologic interpretation. The findings call for abandonment of isolated clinical diagnosis of KS in the region and augmentation of local dermatopathologic services. PMID:26452066

  14. The role of septated concha bullosa on sinonasal pathologies.

    PubMed

    San, Turhan; San, Selma; Grkan, Emre; Erdo?an, Bar??

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the possible role of septated concha bullosa on sinonasal pathologies. Paranasal sinus computerized tomography scans of patients with symptoms of headache, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction and smell disorders were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-eight subjects with unilateral septated concha bullosa and 13 subjects with unilateral concha bullosa without septation were selected as the study and control groups, respectively. Both groups were compared according to the presence of septal deviation and sinus pathology. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics (age and gender) between the groups. Sinus involvement was found in 20 patients (71.4 %) in the study group and in 10 patients (76.9 %) in the control group. The most common pathology accompanying septated concha bullosa was maxillary sinusitis (65 %), and ethmoid sinus was the second most involved sinus (25 %). Similar results in terms of sinus involvement were also seen in the control group. Septal deviation was seen in 18 patients in the study group (64.2 %) and in 12 patients in the control group (92.3 %). Eventually, there was no statistically significant difference between septated and non-septated concha bullosa groups according to the accompanying sinonasal pathologies. PMID:25091322

  15. A Suggested Molecular Pathology Curriculum for Residents: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Aisner, Dara L; Berry, Anna; Dawson, D Brian; Hayden, Randall T; Joseph, Loren; Hill, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Molecular pathology is an essential element of pathology training. As more molecular tests have become available, there is an increasing need for pathology trainees to receive a strong foundation in molecular pathology. Appointed by the Training and Education Committee of the Association for Molecular Pathology, the Molecular Curriculum Task Force has developed a suggested curriculum in molecular pathology for residents. The foundations of molecular pathology are presented as a series of goals and objectives that residency programs can use to develop their educational programs. As pathologists continue to expand their roles to include regular clinical consultations in the realm of molecular testing, a strong foundation in molecular pathology and genomic medicine has become essential to the practice of pathology. PMID:26857063

  16. Correlation of Computed Tomography with Pathological Features in Angiomatous Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li-Bo; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Ruan, Ling-Xiang; Zheng, Zhou-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiomatous nasal polyps (ANPs), also known as angiectatic polyps, have rarely been reported in the literature. ANPs are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. ANPs can grow rapidly and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior that could simulate malignancy preoperatively, and they are easily confused with other diseases. In the present study, we analyzed the correlation between the computed tomography (CT) findings of nasal angiomatous polyps and their pathological features. Methods We evaluated CT findings and pathological features of 31 surgically proven ANPs. Results The study population included 16 males and 15 females aged between 27 and 81 years (mean age, 53.5 years). On CT, the masses were heterogeneous; they had a soft tissue density and filled the maxillary and/or nasal cavities. Calcifications were found in 2 of the 31 cases. The lesions showed a clear boundary (15/31). The low-density shading on CT was related to the inflammatory, necrotic, and cystic changes, and the high-density shading on CT was related to hemorrhagic areas of the mass. On contrast-enhanced CT, the center of the lesions was non-enhanced with peripheral intensification due to occlusion or compression of feeder vessels of the polyp center, and the inflammatory cells and neovascularization around the edge of the mass. The most common site of maxillary wall erosion was the medial wall (21/31), followed by the posterior lateral wall (3/31), upper wall (2/31), and septum (3/31). Of these, the nasal cavity and/or maxillary sinus were enlarged in 28 cases. These findings were associated with the chronic progress of nasal angiomatous changes. Conclusions CT of ANPs may demonstrate benign bone changes associated with the lesions and may also reflect the fact that ANPs do not invade peripheral soft tissue. CT demonstrated these lesions consistently and provided information useful for surgical planning. PMID:23300910

  17. Altered neural correlates of reward and loss processing during simulated slot-machine fMRI in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Malison, Robert T.; Rogers, Robert D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with gambling or substance-use disorders exhibit similar functional alterations in reward circuitry suggestive of a shared underlying vulnerability in addictive disorders. Additional research into common and unique alterations in reward-processing in substance-related and non-substance-related addictions may identify neural factors that could be targeted in treatment development for these disorders. Methods To investigate contextual reward-processing in pathological gambling, a slot-machine fMRI task was performed by three groups (with pathological gambling, cocaine dependence and neither disorder; N=24 each) to determine the extent to which two groups with addictions (non-substance-related and substance-related) showed similarities and differences with respect to each other and a non-addicted group during anticipatory periods and following the delivery of winning, losing and near-miss outcomes. Results Individuals with pathological gambling or cocaine dependence compared to those with neither disorder exhibited exaggerated anticipatory activity in mesolimbic and ventrocortical regions, with pathological-gambling participants displaying greater positive possible-reward anticipation and cocaine-dependent participants displaying more negative certain-loss anticipation. Neither clinical sample exhibited medial frontal or striatal responses that were observed following near-miss outcomes in healthy comparison participants. Conclusions Alterations in anticipatory processing may be sensitive to the valence of rewards and content-disorder-specific. Common and unique findings in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence with respect to anticipatory reward and near-miss loss processing suggest shared and unique elements that might be targeted through behavioral or pharmacological interventions in the treatment of addictions. PMID:25448081

  18. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

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  19. [Oral pathology of pscyhosomatic origin. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Preda, E G; Pasetti, P; Caggiula, S; Nidoli, G; Boggio, E; Azzi, R

    1990-01-31

    Emotional stress is one of the etiologic or anyway predisposing factors involved in a lot of oral pathologies. In fact, relations between stress effects and frequent diseases such as gastric ulcer or ulcerous colitis are today wellknown by everyone. Theories about a relation between this kind of etiology and tumours are only reported by some Authors and are at the level of hypotheses. Mouth is very weak in these situations, owing to its great interest as primary erogenous zone, and for this reason we find frequently oral pathologies in relation with psychosomatic medicine. In this report we tried to give a good help to the study of these diseases and to find an easy classification to use (really it is an hard work to do due to the variety of this numerous illnesses). PMID:2203652

  20. Complete duodenogastric reflux: A scintigraphic sign of significant duodenal pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Hanner, J.S. )

    1989-09-01

    Complete reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach with persistent retention on hepatobiliary scintigraphy or radionuclide gastrointestinal bleeding studies is a relatively rare occurrence. Two cases of complete duodenogastric reflux are reported: one case in a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum and the other in a patient with an inflamed, bleeding duodenal ulcer. The finding of complete duodenogastric reflux and persistent retention in the stomach should instigate a thorough evaluation for significant duodenal pathology.