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Sample records for common polymorphisms influencing

  1. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David J.; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Freeman, Christine M.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hersh, Craig P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kaner, Robert J.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p < 8 X 10−10) pQTLs in 38 (43%) of blood proteins tested. Most pQTL SNPs were novel with low overlap to eQTL SNPs. The pQTL SNPs explained >10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10−392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In

  2. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Kechris, Katerina; Jacobson, Sean; Drummond, M Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-Huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R Graham; Basta, Patricia V; Bleecker, Eugene R; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A; Couper, David J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Freeman, Christine M; Gouskova, Natalia A; Han, MeiLan K; Hanania, Nicola A; Hansel, Nadia N; Hersh, Craig P; Hoffman, Eric A; Kaner, Robert J; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric C; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J; Meyers, Deborah A; Peters, Stephen P; Regan, Elizabeth A; Rennard, Stephen I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K; Woodruff, Prescott G; O'Neal, Wanda K; Bowler, Russell P

    2016-08-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p < 8 X 10-10) pQTLs in 38 (43%) of blood proteins tested. Most pQTL SNPs were novel with low overlap to eQTL SNPs. The pQTL SNPs explained >10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In

  3. [Genetic polymorphisms commonly influencing efficacy of diverse addictive substances].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2014-04-01

    Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. The authors have focused on G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunits, GIRK2 and GIRK3, that are important molecules in opioid transmission, and found that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GIRK2 and GIRK3 gene regions were significantly associated with postoperative requirements of analgesics including opioids in patients who underwent abdominal surgery and mRNA expression of these genes in postmortem specimens, one of which was also associated with vulnerability to methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Further, by conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, the authors found that genetic polymorphisms within a linkage disequilibrium block that spans 2q33.3-2q34 were strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery. The C allele of the best candidate SNP, rs2952768, was associated with more analgesic requirements, and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, carriers of the C allele in this SNP exhibited less vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with methamphetamine dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower 'Reward Dependence score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the C/C genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with the elevated expression of a neighboring gene, CREB1. The results show that SNPs in this locus are the most potent genetic factors associated with human opioid sensitivity known to date, affecting both the efficacy of opioid analgesics and liability to severe substance dependence. These outcomes provide valuable information for the

  4. Common Polymorphism in Interleukin 6 Influences Survival of Women with Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ruchi; Wollan, Melissa; Galic, Vijaya; Garcia, Rochelle; Goff, Barbara A.; Gray, Heidi J.; Swisher, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The IL6 -174 promoter polymorphism impacts serum cytokine levels through transcriptional regulation. The objective of our study was to determine if -174 IL6 genotype influences survival in ovarian cancer. Methods The IL6 -174 polymorphism was assessed by direct DNA sequencing in lymphocyte DNA from 160 women with invasive ovarian, or peritoneal cancer patients. IL6 levels were measured in ascites and plasma in a subset of cases using colorimetric sandwich ELISA procedure. Overall survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the significance of individual variables in multivariate analysis. Chi-square or Fishers Exact was used to assess the significance of contingency tables. Results The IL6 -174 genotype frequencies of CC (19%), CG (50%), and GG (31%) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were similar to published frequencies in Caucasian controls. There were no associations with IL6 -174 genotype and age, stage or optimal cytoreduction. Stage had a significant impact on survival (p=0.003). The IL6 -174 GG genotype was significantly associated with longer overall survival (median 131 months) compared to CC or CG (median 28 months, p=0.0007). In cox regression analysis using the covariates genotype (p=0.006) and stage (p=0.02), both were independently significant. Furthermore, there was no association found between IL6 levels in ascites or plasma, and genotype, stage, or overall survival. Conclusions The IL6 -174 GG genotype has a strong, independent, and favorable impact on survival for women with ovarian, and peritoneal carcinoma. PMID:17023036

  5. Common polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes influence quality of aging and longevity in humans.

    PubMed

    Montesanto, Alberto; Crocco, Paolina; Tallaro, Federica; Pisani, Francesca; Mazzei, Bruno; Mari, Vincenzo; Corsonello, Andrea; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) triggers multiple signal transduction pathways and contributes to the control of numerous cellular functions. Previous studies have shown in model organisms that the alteration of NO production has important effects on aging and lifespan. We studied in a large sample (763 subjects, age range 19-107 years) the variability of the three human genes (NOS1, -2, -3) coding for the three isoforms of the NADPH-dependent enzymes named NO synthases (NOS) which are responsible of NO synthesis. We have then verified if the variability of these genes is associated with longevity, and with a number of geriatric parameters. We found that gene variation of NOS1 and NOS2 was associated with longevity. In addition NOS1 rs1879417 was also found to be associated with a lower cognitive performance, while NOS2 rs2297518 polymorphism showed to be associated with physical performance. Moreover, SNPs in the NOS1 and NOS3 genes were respectively associated with the presence of depression symptoms and disability, two of the main factors affecting quality of life in older individuals. On the whole, our study shows that genetic variability of NOS genes has an effect on common age related phenotypes and longevity in humans as well as previously reported for model organisms. PMID:23572278

  6. Commonly-occurring polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes influence different aspects of motor sequence learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Baetu, Irina; Burns, Nicholas R; Urry, Kristi; Barbante, Girolamo Giovanni; Pitcher, Julia B

    2015-11-01

    Performing sequences of movements is a ubiquitous skill that involves dopamine transmission. However, it is unclear which components of the dopamine system contribute to which aspects of motor sequence learning. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the relationship between different components of the dopamine system and specific aspects of sequence learning in humans. In particular, we investigated variations in genes that code for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (DRD1 and DRD2). COMT and the DAT regulate dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum, respectively, two key regions recruited during learning, whereas dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are thought to be involved in long-term potentiation and depression, respectively. We show that polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes differentially affect behavioral performance on a sequence learning task in 161 Caucasian participants. The DRD1 polymorphism predicted the ability to learn new sequences, the DRD2 polymorphism predicted the ability to perform a previously learnt sequence after performing interfering random movements, whereas the COMT polymorphism predicted the ability to switch flexibly between two sequences. We used computer simulations to explore potential mechanisms underlying these effects, which revealed that the DRD1 and DRD2 effects are possibly related to neuroplasticity. Our prediction-error algorithm estimated faster rates of connection strengthening in genotype groups with presumably higher D1 receptor densities, and faster rates of connection weakening in genotype groups with presumably higher D2 receptor densities. Consistent with current dopamine theories, these simulations suggest that D1-mediated neuroplasticity contributes to learning to select appropriate actions, whereas D2-mediated neuroplasticity is involved in learning to inhibit incorrect action plans. However, the

  7. Habitat-based polymorphism is common in stream fishes.

    PubMed

    Senay, Caroline; Boisclair, Daniel; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological differences (size and shape) across habitats are common in lake fish where differences relate to two dominant contrasting habitats: the pelagic and littoral habitat. Repeated occurrence of littoral and pelagic morphs across multiple populations of several lake fish species has been considered as important evidence that polymorphism is adaptive in these systems. It has been suggested that these habitat-based polymorphic differences are due to the temporal stability of the differences between littoral and pelagic habitats. Although streams are spatially heterogeneous, they are also more temporally dynamic than lakes and it is still an open question whether streams provide the environmental conditions that promote habitat-based polymorphism. We tested whether fish from riffle, run and pool habitats, respectively, differed consistently in their morphology. Our test compared patterns of morphological variation (size and shape) in 10 fish species from the three stream habitat types in 36 separate streams distributed across three watersheds. For most species, body size and shape (after controlling for body size) differed across riffle, run and pool habitats. Unlike many lake species, the nature of these differences was not consistent across species, possibly because these species use these habitat types in different ways. Our results suggest that habitat-based polymorphism is an important feature also in stream fishes despite the fact that streams are temporally variable in contrast to lake systems. Future research is required to assess whether the patterns of habitat-based polymorphism encountered in streams have a genetic basis or they are simply the result of within generation phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25041645

  8. [The β-amylase polymorphism of winter common wheat grains].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Akinshina, O V; Bondarenko, L S; Motorina, I P

    2012-02-01

    The polymorphism of winter common wheat with respect to β-amylase isoenzymes has been analyzed using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) buffered with a Tris-glycine system (pH 8.3). Seven β-amylase isoenzymes have been found in wheat cultivars and the breeding stock. Isoenzymes A, B, and C are the most frequent in Russian and Ukrainian cultivars (51.7 4.7, 30.7 3.8, and 11.9 2.5%, respectively). Two alleles of the β-Amy-D1 locus of the long arm of chromosome 4D have been identified. The substrate-enzyme affine effect can be used to locate the zones of activity of this enzyme by means of staining for proteins. It has been determined that β-amylase zymotypes may play a role in the aggregating capacity of the grain protein complex via the formation of S-S bonds. PMID:22567995

  9. A synonymous polymorphism in a common MDR1 (ABCB1) haplotype shapes protein function

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encodes a membrane-bound transporter that actively effluxes a wide range of compounds from cells. The overexpression of MDR1 by multidrug-resistant cancer cells is a serious impediment to chemotherapy. MDR1 is expressed in various tissues to protect them from the adverse effect of toxins. The pharmacokinetics of drugs that are also MDR1 substrates also influence disease outcome and treatment efficacy. Although MDR1 is a well conserved gene, there is increasing evidence that its polymorphisms affect substrate specificity. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur frequently and have strong linkage, creating a common haplotype at positions 1236C>T (G412G), 2677G>T (A893S) and 3435C>T (I1145I). The frequency of the synonymous 3435C>T polymorphism has been shown to vary significantly according to ethnicity. Existing literature suggests that the haplotype plays a role in response to drugs and disease susceptibility. This review summarizes recent findings on the 3435C>T polymorphism of MDR1 and the haplotype to which it belongs. A possible molecular mechanism of action by ribosome stalling that can change protein structure and function by altering protein folding is discussed. PMID:19285158

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in common bean: their discovery and genotyping using a multiplex detection system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single-nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are by far the most common form of DNA polymorphism in a genome. The objectives of this study were to discover SNPs in common bean comparing sequences from coding and non-coding regions obtained from Genbank and genomic DNA and to compare sequencing resu...

  11. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Song, Jiannan; Galanko, Joseph A.; Fischer, Leslie M.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Humans eating diets deficient in the essential nutrient choline can develop organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in choline metabolism influence the dietary requirement of this nutrient. Fifty-seven humans were fed a low choline diet until they developed organ dysfunction or for up to 42 days. We tested DNA SNPs for allelic association with susceptibility to developing organ dysfunction associated with choline deficiency. We identified an SNP in the promoter region of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene (PEMT; −744 G→C; rs12325817) for which 18 of 23 carriers of the C allele (78%) developed organ dysfunction when fed a low choline diet (odds ratio 25, P=0.002). The first of two SNPs in the coding region of the choline dehydrogenase gene (CHDH; +318 A→C; rs9001) had a protective effect on susceptibility to choline deficiency, while a second CHDH variant (+432 G→T; rs12676) was associated with increased susceptibility to choline deficiency. A SNP in the PEMT coding region (+5465 G→A; rs7946) and a betaine:homocysteine methyl-transferase (BHMT) SNP (+742 G→A; rs3733890) were not associated with susceptibility to choline deficiency. Identification of common polymorphisms that affect dietary requirements for choline could enable us to identify individuals for whom we need to assure adequate dietary choline intake.—da Costa, K.-A., Kozyreva, O. G., Song, J., Galanko, J. A., Fischer, L. M., Zeisel, S. H. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. PMID:16816108

  12. The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B; Beghin, Laurent; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Benito, Pedro J; Diaz, Ligia E; Ferrari, Marika; Moschonis, George; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Dallongeville, Jean; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents' FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples. PMID:21512510

  13. [Genetic polymorphisms commonly associated with sensitivity to various addictive substances].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-11-01

    Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. The authors have focused on G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunits, GIRK2 and GIRK3, which are important molecules in opioid transmission, and found that the SNPs within the GIRK2 and GIRK3 gene region were significantly associated with postoperative analgesic requirements, one of which was also associated with vulnerability to methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Further, by conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, the authors found that the rs2952768 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, the SNP also showed significant association with vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with METH dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower 'Reward Dependence' score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. These outcomes provide valuable information for the personalized treatment of pain and drug dependence. PMID:25069259

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Cognition in Patients Undergoing Carotid Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Elizabeth; Morrison, Doug; Liao, Phoebe; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2016-09-01

    While carotid interventions help decrease the risk of stroke, nearly 40% of patients experience cognitive deterioration. Genetic polymorphism in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear whether they may influence cognitive changes in patients undergoing carotid intervention. In this study, we seek to assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in carotid intervention-related cognitive change. Polymorphisms related to cognitive function were chosen for this preliminary analysis. Over 2 years, patients undergoing carotid interventions were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent neuropsychological testing 2 weeks prior to and at 1 month following their procedure. Saliva samples were collected for genetic analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify associations between polymorphisms and cognitive measures. A total of 91 patients were included; all were male with an average age of 70 years. The majority of patients exhibited hypertension (95%) and a history of smoking (81%). Presence of ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.047). After correcting for age and genetic polymorphisms in BDNF and serotonin transporter (5-HTT), ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.044) and showed a trend with baseline cognitive impairment (p= 0.10). Age ≥ 70 years was associated with baseline cognitive impairment after adjusting for the three genetic polymorphisms (p= 0.03). Patients with ApoE 4 and BDNF A polymorphisms performed less well on the visual and verbal memory measures, respectively. Polymorphisms in ApoE and BDNF may provide insight on cognition in patients undergoing carotid interventions; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. PMID:27574384

  15. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David H.; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F.; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N.; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7–60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range −0.6 to −1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans. PMID:24367110

  16. Copy number polymorphisms are not a common feature of innate immune genes.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Rose M; Ganz, Tomas

    2006-07-01

    Extensive copy number polymorphism was recently reported for innate immunity-related alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3 and beta-defensin genes DEFB4, DEFB103, and DEFB104. To establish whether such polymorphisms are a common feature of innate immune genes we used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the copy numbers of seven genes whose products have important innate immune functions. The genes encoding lysozyme, lactoferrin, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18/LL-37), cathepsin G, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, azurocidin (CAP37/heparin-binding protein), and neutrophil elastase were each found to be single copy per haploid genome. These findings, along with the recent observation that defensin genes DEFA4, DEFA5, DEFA6, and DEFB1 are single copy, suggest that copy number polymorphisms are not a common feature of the innate immune genome but are restricted to a small subset of innate immunity-related genes. PMID:16617005

  17. Common MIR146A Polymorphisms in Chinese Ankylosing Spondylitis Subjects and Controls.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenmin; Wang, Jiucun; Zou, Hejian; Yang, Chengde; Huang, Wei; Jin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of microRNA gene MIR146A were reported as associated with different autoimmune diseases, include systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, asthma and ankylosing spondylitis. In this study we investigated MIR146A SNPs in Chinese people with ankylosing spondylitis. Three common SNPs: rs2910164, rs2431697 and rs57095329 were selected and genotyped in 611 patients and 617 controls. We found no association between these SNPs and ankylosing spondylitis in our samples. PMID:26366721

  18. Common MIR146A Polymorphisms in Chinese Ankylosing Spondylitis Subjects and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhenmin; Wang, Jiucun; Zou, Hejian; Yang, Chengde; Huang, Wei; Jin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of microRNA gene MIR146A were reported as associated with different autoimmune diseases, include systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, asthma and ankylosing spondylitis. In this study we investigated MIR146A SNPs in Chinese people with ankylosing spondylitis. Three common SNPs: rs2910164, rs2431697 and rs57095329 were selected and genotyped in 611 patients and 617 controls. We found no association between these SNPs and ankylosing spondylitis in our samples. PMID:26366721

  19. The relationship between RAGE gene four common polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in northeastern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongming; He, Lan; Wang, Bin; Niu, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of four common polymorphisms (rs1800625, rs1800624, rs2070600, and rs184003) in receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene to evaluate their epistatic influence on breast cancer risk in northeastern Han Chinese. This is a hospital-based case-control study involving 509 histologically-proven breast cancer patients and 504 cancer-free controls. The genotype and allele distributions of rs184003 differed significantly between patients and controls, even after the Bonferroni correction. Individuals carrying the rs184003 T allele exhibited 1.62-fold increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.26-2.08; P < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders. The frequency of haplotype T-T-G-T (alleles in order of rs1800625, rs1800624, rs2070600, and rs184003) was remarkably higher in patients than in controls (Simulated P = 0.001), and this haplotype was significantly associated with a 1.43-fold (95% CI: 1.01-2.01; P = 0.041) increase in adjusted risk of breast cancer. Further analysis indicated that there was synergistic interaction between rs184003 and rs2070600, whereas their joint information gain value was relatively small (0.27%). Taken together, although there was no suggestive evidence for the presence of epistasis in RAGE gene, our findings clearly demonstrate that rs184003 might play a predominant role in the development of breast cancer. PMID:24619131

  20. Candidate genes and late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Susceptibility genes or common polymorphisms?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars

    2003-11-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the aetio-pathogenesis of the common form of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its intrinsically related features of impaired insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance) includes a strong genetic component. At present, however, little is known about the nature of this genetic component although familial clustering of the disease has been described for decades. Major break-throughs in the genetic sciences of type 2 diabetes have been identifications of insulin receptor gene mutations in syndromes of severe insulin resistance and mutations in pancreatic beta-cell genes in the monogenic sub-group of type 2 diabetes: maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young, MODY. Pathophysiological models of insulin resistance in skeletal muscles and impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion in the beta-cells have formed a basis for selecting candidate genes with potential influence on the development of type 2 diabetes ("diabetogenes"). This process of selecting and analyzing genes for mutations that potentially associate with either type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion is often described as the "candidate gene approach". The studies reported in this thesis are excerpts from an extensive strategy of genetically dissecting (mutation analysis) in: 1) patients with the common form of late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus the pathways that transduce the insulin signals from the plasma membrane to the activation of glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, and in 2) patients with either late-onset type diabetes or MODY the pathways involved in normal beta-cell development and beta-cell function (insulin secretion). Twelve of the genes that encode proteins in the insulin-signalling pathway from the insulin receptor through the phosphatidylinositide-regulated kinases down to the complex of phosphatases that regulate glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle were analyzed. We could not confirm that a Val

  1. Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism influences onset of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Brune, N; Andrich, J; Gencik, M; Saft, C; Müller, Th; Valentin, S; Przuntek, H; Epplen, J T

    2004-01-01

    Onset of Huntington's disease (HD) negatively correlates with CAG repeat length of the HD gene, which encodes the protein huntingtin. This protein interacts with the homocysteine metabolizing enzyme cystathionine betasynthase (CBS). Objective of this study was to analyze the impact of CAG repeats, polymorphisms of various homocysteine metabolizing enzymes, like CBS, Methyltetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHTR), Methionine Synthase Reductase (MSR) and methionine synthase (MS) on HD onset in 171 patients. The significant impact of CAG repeats on HD onset (chi2= 25.54, FG = 4, p<0.0001) with a significant correlation between both (R= -0.521, p=0.01) was obvious. HD patients with the homozygous MTHFR-1298-CC significantly (p = 0.024) earlier experienced HD symptoms. There was no influence demonstrable of CBS, MSR and MS. Determination of MTHFR polymorphisms and CAG repeats enables screening for subjects with putative early HD onset in order to study neuroprotective compounds in their efficacy to delay HD symptoms. PMID:15354395

  2. Association between seven common OPG genetic polymorphisms and osteoporosis risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Tang, Ke; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymorphisms of the osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene are known to be involved in bone mineral density and the development of osteoporosis; however, some conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the relationship between seven common OPG genetic polymorphisms (T149C, A163G, G209A, T245G, T950C, G1181C, and C1217T) and osteoporosis risk. A literature search for eligible studies published before August 1st, 2013 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases. Pooled odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the strength of the association under fixed- or random-effect models according to a heterogeneity test. All analyses were performed using the STATA software, version 12.0. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2383 osteoporosis cases and 2280 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. Among the seven polymorphisms, A163G and G1181C revealed significant associations with osteoporosis risk. For A163G (rs3102735), the combined results showed that the G allele of the A163G polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. Stratified analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was similar in Caucasian and postmenopausal woman subgroups. For G1181C (rs2073618), however, we found that individuals with the C allele of the G1181C polymorphism had a decreased risk of osteoporosis, especially in Asian and postmenopausal woman subgroups. In summary, this meta-analysis indicated that the G allele of the OPG A163G polymorphism might increase osteoporosis risk in Caucasians, whereas individuals with the C allele of the G1181C polymorphism had a decreased risk of osteoporosis, especially in Asians. Both of these effects were observed in postmenopausal women. These polymorphisms could probably be used with other genetic markers

  3. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; Damrauer, Niels H.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on themore » SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.« less

  4. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; Damrauer, Niels H.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on the SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.

  5. Gene-Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic and Association Mapping in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. Results In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. Conclusions In short, this study illustrates the power of intron

  6. Combining Information from Common Type 2 Diabetes Risk Polymorphisms Improves Disease Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Weedon, Michael N; McCarthy, Mark I; Hitman, Graham; Walker, Mark; Groves, Christopher J; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Rayner, N. William; Shields, Beverley; Owen, Katharine R; Hattersley, Andrew T; Frayling, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Background A limited number of studies have assessed the risk of common diseases when combining information from several predisposing polymorphisms. In most cases, individual polymorphisms only moderately increase risk (~20%), and they are thought to be unhelpful in assessing individuals' risk clinically. The value of analyzing multiple alleles simultaneously is not well studied. This is often because, for any given disease, very few common risk alleles have been confirmed. Methods and Findings Three common variants (Lys23 of KCNJ11, Pro12 of PPARG, and the T allele at rs7903146 of TCF7L2) have been shown to predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus across many large studies. Risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.30 to 0.88 in controls. To assess the combined effect of multiple susceptibility alleles, we genotyped these variants in a large case-control study (3,668 controls versus 2,409 cases). Individual allele odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.23) to 1.48 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.60). We found no evidence of gene-gene interaction, and the risks of multiple alleles were consistent with a multiplicative model. Each additional risk allele increased the odds of type 2 diabetes by 1.28 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.35) times. Participants with all six risk alleles had an OR of 5.71 (95% CI, 1.15 to 28.3) compared to those with no risk alleles. The 8.1% of participants that were double-homozygous for the risk alleles at TCF7L2 and Pro12Ala had an OR of 3.16 (95% CI, 2.22 to 4.50), compared to 4.3% with no TCF7L2 risk alleles and either no or one Glu23Lys or Pro12Ala risk alleles. Conclusions Combining information from several known common risk polymorphisms allows the identification of population subgroups with markedly differing risks of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those obtained using single polymorphisms. This approach may have a role in future preventative measures for common, polygenic diseases. PMID:17020404

  7. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences. PMID:25720829

  8. The Influence of Genotype Polymorphism on Morphine Analgesic Effect for Postoperative Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children. PMID:26839669

  9. Traditional and Contemporary Influences upon British House of Commons Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, J. Jeffery

    1982-01-01

    An American observer's report on contemporary House of Commons debating and debaters. Discusses (1) traditional influences that come from the adversarial nature of parliamentary debate and its implications for communication style; and (2) contemporary influences, including education, that come from the changing characteristics of members of…

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  11. Neanderthal and Denisova genetic affinities with contemporary humans: introgression versus common ancestral polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Robert K; Uribe, Gabriel; Jimenez, Eric B; Weiss, Mark A; Herrera, Kristian J; Regueiro, Maria; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-11-01

    Analyses of the genetic relationships among modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans have suggested that 1-4% of the non-Sub-Saharan African gene pool may be Neanderthal derived, while 6-8% of the Melanesian gene pool may be the product of admixture between the Denisovans and the direct ancestors of Melanesians. In the present study, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among a worldwide collection of contemporary human populations with respect to the genetic constitution of these two archaic hominins and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee). We partitioned SNPs into subsets, including those that are derived in both archaic lineages, those that are ancestral in both archaic lineages and those that are only derived in one archaic lineage. By doing this, we have conducted separate examinations of subsets of mutations with higher probabilities of divergent phylogenetic origins. While previous investigations have excluded SNPs from common ancestors in principal component analyses, we included common ancestral SNPs in our analyses to visualize the relative placement of the Neanderthal and Denisova among human populations. To assess the genetic similarities among the various hominin lineages, we performed genetic structure analyses to provide a comparison of genetic patterns found within contemporary human genomes that may have archaic or common ancestral roots. Our results indicate that 3.6% of the Neanderthal genome is shared with roughly 65.4% of the average European gene pool, which clinally diminishes with distance from Europe. Our results suggest that Neanderthal genetic associations with contemporary non-Sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the genetic affinities observed between Denisovans and Melanesians most likely result from the retention of ancient mutations in these populations. PMID:23872234

  12. Association of common C-protein (CRP) gene polymorphism with baseline plasma CRP levels and fenofibrate response: The GOLDN Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE-C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that contributes to the prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We investigated the influence of CRP polymorphisms on baseline CRP levels and fenofibrate-induced CRP changes in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DES...

  13. Identification of common, unique and polymorphic microsatellites among 73 cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Ritika; Kapil, Aditi; Attarwala, Kherunnisa; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellites also known as Simple Sequence Repeats are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are found in coding as well as non-coding regions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and play a significant role in the study of gene regulation, genetic mapping, DNA fingerprinting and evolutionary studies. The availability of 73 complete genome sequences of cyanobacteria enabled us to mine and statistically analyze microsatellites in these genomes. The cyanobacterial microsatellites identified through bioinformatics analysis were stored in a user-friendly database named CyanoSat, which is an efficient data representation and query system designed using ASP.net. The information in CyanoSat comprises of perfect, imperfect and compound microsatellites found in coding, non-coding and coding-non-coding regions. Moreover, it contains PCR primers with 200 nucleotides long flanking region. The mined cyanobacterial microsatellites can be freely accessed at www.compubio.in/CyanoSat/home.aspx. In addition to this 82 polymorphic, 13,866 unique and 2390 common microsatellites were also detected. These microsatellites will be useful in strain identification and genetic diversity studies of cyanobacteria. PMID:27030027

  14. A Common Phenotype Polymorphism in Mammalian Brains Defined by Concomitant Production of Prolactin and Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Daude, Nathalie; Lee, Inyoul; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Janus, Christopher; Glaves, John Paul; Gapeshina, Hristina; Yang, Jing; Sykes, Brian D.; Carlson, George A.; Hood, Leroy E.; Westaway, David

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary Prolactin (PRL) and Growth Hormone (GH) are separately controlled and sub-serve different purposes. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that extra-pituitary expression in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is coordinated at mRNA and protein levels. However this was not a uniform effect within populations, such that wide inter-individual variation was superimposed on coordinate PRL/GH expression. Up to 44% of individuals in healthy cohorts of mice and rats showed protein levels above the norm and coordinated expression of PRL and GH transcripts above baseline occurred in the amygdala, frontal lobe and hippocampus of 10% of human subjects. High levels of PRL and GH present in post mortem tissue were often presaged by altered responses in fear conditioning and stress induced hyperthermia behavioral tests. Our data define a common phenotype polymorphism in healthy mammalian brains, and, given the pleiotropic effects known for circulating PRL and GH, further consequences of coordinated CNS over-expression may await discovery. PMID:26894278

  15. A Common Phenotype Polymorphism in Mammalian Brains Defined by Concomitant Production of Prolactin and Growth Hormone.

    PubMed

    Daude, Nathalie; Lee, Inyoul; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Janus, Christopher; Glaves, John Paul; Gapeshina, Hristina; Yang, Jing; Sykes, Brian D; Carlson, George A; Hood, Leroy E; Westaway, David

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary Prolactin (PRL) and Growth Hormone (GH) are separately controlled and sub-serve different purposes. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that extra-pituitary expression in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is coordinated at mRNA and protein levels. However this was not a uniform effect within populations, such that wide inter-individual variation was superimposed on coordinate PRL/GH expression. Up to 44% of individuals in healthy cohorts of mice and rats showed protein levels above the norm and coordinated expression of PRL and GH transcripts above baseline occurred in the amygdala, frontal lobe and hippocampus of 10% of human subjects. High levels of PRL and GH present in post mortem tissue were often presaged by altered responses in fear conditioning and stress induced hyperthermia behavioral tests. Our data define a common phenotype polymorphism in healthy mammalian brains, and, given the pleiotropic effects known for circulating PRL and GH, further consequences of coordinated CNS over-expression may await discovery. PMID:26894278

  16. Molecular analysis of common polymorphisms within the human Tyrosinase locus and genetic association with pigmentation traits

    PubMed Central

    Jagirdar, Kasturee; Smit, Darren J.; Ainger, Stephen A.; Lee, Katie J.; Brown, Darren L.; Chapman, Brett; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stow, Jennifer L.; Duffy, David L.; Sturm, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have compared the melanogenic activities of cultured melanocytes carrying two common TYR alleles as homozygous 192S-402R wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous variant. This includes assays of TYR protein, DOPAoxidase activity, glycosylation and temperature sensitivity of protein and DOPAoxidase levels. Homozygous wildtype strains on average had higher levels of TYR protein and enzyme activity than other genotypes. Homozygous 402Q/Q melanocytes produced significantly less TYR protein, displayed altered trafficking and glycosylation, with reduced DOPAoxidase. However, near wildtype TYR activity levels could be recovered at lower growth temperature. In a sample population from Southeast Queensland these two polymorphisms were present on four TYR haplotypes, designated as WT 192S-402R, 192Y-402R, 192S-402Q with a double variant 192Y-402Q of low frequency at 1.9%. Based on cell culture findings and haplotype associations, we have used an additive model to assess the penetrance of the ten possible TYR genotypes derived from the combination of these haplotypes. PMID:24739399

  17. Development of polymorphic expressed sequence tag-single sequence repeat markers in the common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella maindroni.

    PubMed

    Li, R H; Lu, S K; Zhang, C L; Song, W W; Mu, C K; Wang, C L

    2014-01-01

    The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni) is one of the popular edible cephalopod consumed across Asia. To facilitate the population genetic investigation of this species, we developed fourteen polymorphic microsatellite makers from expressed sequence tags of S. maindroni. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from 6 to 10 with an average of 7.9 alleles per locus. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were from 0.615 to 0.962 and 0.685 to 0.888, respectively. Four loci were found deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.638 to 0.833. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be helpful for the population genetic, genetic linkage map, and other genetic studies of S. maindroni. PMID:25117305

  18. Development and characterization of new single nucleotide polymorphism markers from expressed sequence tags in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Cheng, Lei; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu

    2012-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide but only limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are characterized from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in this species. In this study, 1487 putative SNPs were bioinformatically mined from 14,066 online ESTs mainly from the European common carp, with the occurrence rate of about one SNP every 173 bp. One hundred and twenty-one of these SNPs were selected for validation using PCR fragment sequencing, and 48 out of 81 primers could amplify the expected fragments in the Chinese common carp genome. Only 26 (21.5%) putative SNPs were validated, however, 508 new SNPs and 68 indels were identified. The ratios of transitions to transversions were 1.77 for exon SNPs and 1.05 for intron SNPs. All the 23 SNPs selected for population tests were polymorphic, with the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranging from 0.053 to 0.526 (mean 0.262), polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.095 to 0.357 (mean 0.246), and 21 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that different common carp populations with geographic isolation have significant genetic variation at the SNP level, and these new EST-SNP markers are readily available for genetics and breeding studies in common carp. PMID:22837697

  19. Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Werner, Tonia; Carnes, Stefanie; Carnes, Patrick; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. PMID:22641964

  20. Sex, Drugs, and Rock ‘N’ Roll: Hypothesizing Common Mesolimbic Activation as a Function of Reward Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Werner, Tonia; Carnes, Stefanie; Carnes, Patrick; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Marlene-Oscar-Berman; Gold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. PMID:22641964

  1. TERT promoter mutations and rs2853669 polymorphism: prognostic impact and interactions with common alterations in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Nencha, Umberto; Rahimian, Amithys; Giry, Marine; Sechi, Andrea; Mokhtari, Karima; Polivka, Marc; Schmitt, Yohann; Di Stefano, Anna-Luisa; Alentorn, Agusti; Labussière, Marianne; Sanson, Marc

    2016-02-01

    TERT promoter (TERTp) mutation is the most common mutation in glioblastomas. It creates a putative binding site for Ets/TCF transcription factors, enhancing telomerase expression and activity, whereas the rs2853669 variant disrupts another Ets/TCF binding. We explore here the interaction between these two alterations, tumor genomic profile and the impact on prognosis. The TERTp and rs2853669 statuses were determined and confronted with the outcome and molecular profile, i.e., loss of chromosome 10q, CDKN2A deletion, IDH mutation, EGFR amplification, MGMT promoter methylation. 651 glioblastomas were selected (sex ratio = 1.35, median age 60.4 years, median survival 13.5 months). The TERTp mutation found in 481 patients (74 %) was independent from rs2853669 genotypes. TERTp mutation, but not rs2853669 status, was associated with older age (61.4 vs. 52.8 years). rs2853669 status had no impact on overall survival (OS) either in mutated TERTp or wild-type TERTp. Neither rs2736100 (TERT, 5q15.33) nor rs192011116 (TERC, 3q26.2) status had any impact on survival or showed any association with a TERTp mutation. The TERTp mutation was associated with EGFR amplification chromosome 10q loss, CDKN2A deletion and IDH wt. EGFR amplification was associated with a better outcome in TERTp mutated GBM, and a worse outcome in TERTp WT. This study-the largest analyzing the TERTp mutation and the rs2853669 polymorphism-fails to find any prognostic impact of rs2853669. It confirms the dual prognostic impact of EGFR amplification depending on TERTp status. PMID:26608520

  2. Common Genetic Polymorphisms within NFκB-Related Genes and the Risk of Developing Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lupiañez, Carmen B.; Villaescusa, María T.; Carvalho, Agostinho; Springer, Jan; Lackner, Michaela; Sánchez-Maldonado, José M.; Canet, Luz M.; Cunha, Cristina; Segura-Catena, Juana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Solano, Carlos; Fianchi, Luana; Pagano, Livio; Potenza, Leonardo; Aguado, José M.; Luppi, Mario; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Einsele, Hermann; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ríos-Tamayo, Rafael; Loeffler, Jurgen; Jurado, Manuel; Sainz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is an opportunistic infection caused by Aspergillus, a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold. A growing number of studies suggest a major host genetic component in disease susceptibility. Here, we evaluated whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within NFκB1, NFκB2, RelA, RelB, Rel, and IRF4 genes influence the risk of IA in a population of 834 high-risk patients (157 IA and 677 non-IA) recruited through a collaborative effort involving the aspBIOmics consortium and four European clinical institutions. No significant overall associations between selected SNPs and the risk of IA were found in this large cohort. Although a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-stratified analysis revealed that carriers of the IRF4rs12203592T/T genotype had a six-fold increased risk of developing the infection when compared with those carrying the C allele (ORREC = 6.24, 95%CI 1.25–31.2, P = 0.026), the association of this variant with IA risk did not reach significance at experiment-wide significant threshold. In addition, we found an association of the IRF4AATC and IRF4GGTC haplotypes (not including the IRF4rs12203592T risk allele) with a decreased risk of IA but the magnitude of the association was similar to the one observed in the single-SNP analysis, which indicated that the haplotypic effect on IA risk was likely due to the IRF4rs12203592 SNP. Finally, no evidence of significant interactions among the genetic markers tested and the risk of IA was found. These results suggest that the SNPs on the studied genes do not have a clinically relevant impact on the risk of developing IA. PMID:27570521

  3. Common Polymorphisms in the Solute Carrier SLC30A10 are Associated With Blood Manganese and Neurological Function

    PubMed Central

    Kippler, Maria; Alhamdow, Ayman; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Smith, Donald R.; Vahter, Marie; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient in humans, but excessive exposure to Mn may cause neurotoxicity. Despite homeostatic regulation, Mn concentrations in blood vary considerably among individuals. We evaluated if common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A10, which likely encodes an Mn transporter, influence blood Mn concentrations and neurological function. We measured blood Mn concentrations by ICP-MS or atomic absorption spectroscopy and genotyped 2 SLC30A10 non-coding SNPs (rs2275707 and rs12064812) by TaqMan PCR in cohorts from Bangladesh (N = 406), the Argentinean Andes (N = 198), and Italy (N = 238). We also measured SLC30A10 expression in whole blood by TaqMan PCR in a sub-group (N = 101) from the Andean cohort, and neurological parameters (sway velocity and finger-tapping speed) in the Italian cohort. The rs2275707 variant allele was associated with increased Mn concentrations in the Andes (8%, P = .027) and Italy (10.6%, P = .012), but not as clear in Bangladesh (3.4%, P = .21; linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and plasma ferritin). This allele was also associated with increased sway velocity (15%, P = .033; adjusted for age and sex) and reduced SLC30A10 expression (−24.6%, P = .029). In contrast, the rs12064812 variant homozygous genotype was associated with reduced Mn concentrations, particularly in the Italian cohort (−18.4%, P = .04), and increased finger-tapping speed (8.7%, P = .025). We show that common SNPs in SLC30A10 are associated with blood Mn concentrations in 3 unrelated cohorts and that their influence may be mediated by altered SLC30A10 expression. Moreover, the SNPs appeared to influence neurological functions independent of blood Mn concentrations, suggesting that SLC30A10 could regulate brain Mn levels. PMID:26628504

  4. A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability Through Effects on Prefrontal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Scult, Matthew A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Zheng, Fengyu; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n=531) demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or “g.” Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher “g” independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n=236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes inter-individual variation in “g.” PMID:25961639

  5. Influence of amorphous structure on polymorphism in vanadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Kevin H.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Garten, Lauren M.; Shyam, Badri; Mehta, Apurva; Ndione, Paul F.; Ginley, David S.; Toney, Michael F.

    2016-07-01

    Normally we think of the glassy state as a single phase and therefore crystallization from chemically identical amorphous precursors should be identical. Here we show that the local structure of an amorphous precursor is distinct depending on the initial deposition conditions, resulting in significant differences in the final state material. Using grazing incidence total x-ray scattering, we have determined the local structure in amorphous thin films of vanadium oxide grown under different conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Here we show that the subsequent crystallization of films deposited using different initial PLD conditions result in the formation of different polymorphs of VO2. This suggests the possibility of controlling the formation of metastable polymorphs by tuning the initial amorphous structure to different formation pathways.

  6. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition.

    PubMed

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Antunes, Andressa M; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Moreira, Bárbara C; Vianna, Gabrielle S; Wood, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R S; Haase, Vitor G

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations. PMID:23966969

  7. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Antunes, Andressa M.; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moreira, Bárbara C.; Vianna, Gabrielle S.; Wood, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R. S.; Haase, Vitor G.

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations. PMID:23966969

  8. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  10. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  11. Common VDR polymorphisms and idiopathic short stature in children from northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidou, E; Galli-Tsinopoulou, A; Kyrgios, I; Gbandi, E; Goulas, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Vitamin D Receptor gene (VDR) polymorphism, rs10735810 (Fok1), has been associated in the past with idiopathic short stature (ISS) in a linkage study. We have investigated the association of the same, as well as a different polymorphism in the same gene [rs731236 (Taq1)] with ISS, in an independent study in Greek children. Methods: The VDR rs10735810 (Fok1) and rs731236 (Taq1) polymorphisms were genotyped in a group of ISS children (n= 47) and an age and sex-matched group of normal height children (n= 60) from northern Greece. Genotyping was accomplished through established PCR-RFLP methods. Results: An association trend of rs10735810 with ISS was observed, with the TT (ff) genotype being apparently underrepresented among ISS children compared to controls (p= 0.076; OR= 0.165, 95% CI= 0.025-1.094). Conclusions: The above results, together with recent evidence related to the functionality of the rs10735810 polymorphism, cannot exclude an involvement of VDR in the pathogenesis of ISS. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 25-29. PMID:26435642

  12. Prevalence of common vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in HIV-infected and uninfected South Africans

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Lynne; Takuva, Simbarashe; Chirwa, Tobias; MacPhail, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Host genetic factors may a play role in susceptibility to infection. Vitamin-D is an immunomodulator that may play a role in HIV infection. Vitamin-D action is mediated by the vitamin-D receptor. We establish prevalence of ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (VDRPs) amongst a black southern African HIV+ve population and investigate polymorphic differences between HIV+ve and -ve people. Methods: Seventy-nine sex and age-group matched HIV+ve patients of African origin initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 79 HIV-ve participants, also of African origin, were recruited from a public sector HIV testing and treatment clinic and investigated for the 4 polymorphisms. The genotype frequencies were compared, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association of HIV status and each genotype were calculated. Both dominant, co-dominant, recessive and allele models were tested. Results: We found no evidence of difference in distribution and association between HIV infection and the genotypes of the BsmI, FokI and TaqI VDR polymorphisms. The genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these genotypes. The ApaI genotype showed differences in distribution by HIV status in the dominant and co-dominant models. However this finding is cautiously stated as the ApaI genotype violated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and frequency of the minor variant was unexpectedly low in this population. Conclusion: We do not show convincing differences in distribution of the VDR genotypes among HIV+ve and HIV-ve black southern African persons. Future studies need to be replicated in larger study populations as understanding polymorphic differences and similarities may offer insights into the different susceptibility and progression of HIV in southern African populations. PMID:27186331

  13. No Evidence of Association between Common Autoimmunity STAT4 and IL23R Risk Polymorphisms and Non-Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina Begoña; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Adán, Alfredo; Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Díaz Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; García Serrano, José Luis; de Ramón, Enrique; del Rio, María José; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Molins, Blanca; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective STAT4 and IL23R loci represent common susceptibility genetic factors in autoimmunity. We decided to investigate for the first time the possible role of different STAT4/IL23R autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop non-anterior uveitis and its main clinical phenotypes. Methods Four functional polymorphisms (rs3821236, rs7574865, rs7574070, and rs897200) located within STAT4 gene as well as three independent polymorphisms (rs7517847, rs11209026, and rs1495965) located within IL23R were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination in a total of 206 patients with non-anterior uveitis and 1553 healthy controls from Spain. Results No statistically significant differences were found when allele and genotype distributions were compared between non-anterior uveitis patients and controls for any STAT4 (rs3821236: P=0.39, OR=1.12, CI 95%=0.87-1.43; rs7574865: P=0.59 OR=1.07, CI 95%=0.84-1.37; rs7574070: P=0.26, OR=0.89, CI 95%=0.72-1.10; rs897200: P=0.22, OR=0.88, CI 95%=0.71-1.08;) or IL23R polymorphisms (rs7517847: P=0.49, OR=1.08, CI 95%=0.87-1.33; rs11209026: P=0.26, OR=0.78, CI 95%=0.51-1.21; rs1495965: P=0.51, OR=0.93, CI 95%=0.76-1.15). Conclusion Our results do not support a relevant role, similar to that described for other autoimmune diseases, of IL23R and STAT4 polymorphisms in the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Further studies are needed to discard a possible weak effect of the studied variant. PMID:24312163

  14. Common chimpanzees have greater diversity than humans at two of the three highly polymorphic MHC class I genes.

    PubMed

    Adams, E J; Cooper, S; Thomson, G; Parham, P

    2000-05-01

    MHC class I polymorphism improves the defense of vertebrate species against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. To see how polymorphism at the same class I genes can evolve in different species we compared the MHC-A, MHC-B, and MHC-C loci of common chimpanzees and humans. Diversity in 23 Patr-A, 32 Patr-B, and 18 Patr-C alleles obtained from study of 48 chimpanzees was compared to diversity in 66 HLA-A, 149 HLA-B, and 41 HLA-C alleles obtained from a study of over 1 million humans. At each locus, alleles group hierarchically into families and then lineages. No alleles or families are shared by the two species, commonality being seen only at the lineage level. The overall nucleotide sequence diversity of MHC class I is estimated to be greater for modern chimpanzees than humans. Considering the numbers of lineages, families, and alleles, Patr-B and Patr-C have greater diversity than the HLA-B and HLA-C, respectively. In contrast, Patr-A has less polymorphism than HLA-A, due to the absence of A2 lineage alleles. The results are consistent with ancestral humans having passed through a narrower population bottleneck than chimpanzees, and with pathogen-mediated selection having favored either preservation of A2 lineage alleles on the human line and/or their extinction on the chimpanzee line. PMID:10866107

  15. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene influence embryo viability and the incidence of aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Enciso, María; Sarasa, Jonás; Xanthopoulou, Leoni; Bristow, Sara; Bowles, Megan; Fragouli, Elpida; Delhanty, Joy; Wells, Dagan

    2016-05-01

    MTHFR is an important enzyme in the metabolism of folic acid and is crucial for reproductive function. Variation in the sequence of MTHFR has been implicated in subfertility, but definitive data are lacking. In the present study, a detailed analysis of two common MTHFR polymorphisms (c.677C>T and c.1298A>C) was performed. Additionally, for the first time, the frequencies of different MTHFR alleles were assessed in preimplantation embryos. Several striking discoveries were made. Firstly, results demonstrated that maternal MTHFR c.1298A>C genotype strongly influences the likelihood of a pregnancy occurring, with the 1298C allele being significantly overrepresented amongst women who have undergone several unsuccessful assisted reproductive treatments. Secondly, parental MTHFR genotypes were shown to affect the production of aneuploid embryos, indicating that MTHFR is one of the few known human genes with the capacity to modulate rates of chromosome abnormality. Thirdly, an unusual deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was noted for the c.677C>T polymorphism in subfertile patients, especially those who had experienced recurrent failure of embryo implantation or miscarriage, potentially explained by a rare case of heterozygote disadvantage. Finally, a dramatic impact of the MTHFR 677T allele on the capacity of chromosomally normal embryos to implant is described. Not only do these findings raise a series of interesting biological questions, but they also argue that testing of MTHFR could be of great clinical value, identifying patients at high risk of implantation failure and revealing the most viable embryos during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. PMID:27068821

  16. Liver fat reduction with niacin is influenced by DGAT-2 polymorphisms in hypertriglyceridemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Miao; Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yeung, David Ka Wai; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Masuda, Daisaku; Yang, Yaling; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Niacin reduces plasma triglycerides, but it may increase free fatty acids and insulin resistance during long-term treatment. We examined the effect of extended-release niacin on liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and whether the common diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) polymorphisms influenced this effect. The 39 patients (baseline liver fat content: 12.8 ± 7.6%, triglycerides: 3.30 ± 1.67 mmol/l) were treated with niacin, gradually increasing the dose to 2 g/day for a total of 23 weeks. The liver fat content and visceral/subcutaneous fat was measured before and after treatment. Subjects were genotyped for the DGAT2 rs3060 and rs101899116 polymorphisms. There were significant (P < 0.001) reductions in plasma triglycerides (−34.9 ± 37.6%), liver fat content (−47.2 ± 32.8%), and visceral fat (−6.3 ± 15.8%, P < 0.05) after niacin treatment. Mean body weight decreased by 1.46 ± 2.7% (1.17 ± 2.44 kg, P < 0.001) during the study, but liver fat changes remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, and body weight changes [mean absolute change (95% CI): −6.1% (−8.0, −4.3), P < 0.001]. The DGAT2 variant alleles were associated with a smaller reduction in liver fat content in response to niacin after adjustment for other covariates (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that niacin treatment may reduce liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and that the mechanism may involve inhibition of DGAT2. However, the findings might have been confounded by the small but significant reductions in body weight during the study. Future large randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these findings. PMID:22315393

  17. [POLYMORPHISM OF ALFA-AMYLASE AND CONJUGATION IN COMMON WHEAT ENZYME TYPES WITH QUANTITATIVE TRAITS OF PLANTS].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Bondarenko, L S; Motorina, I P

    2015-01-01

    Using polymorphism of alpha-amylase in the winter common wheat studied inheritance isoenzymes and its conjugation enzyme types with germinating grain on the "vine", grain productivity, plant height and time of ear formation. It is shown that the polymorphism isoenzyme of alpha-amylase wheat is limited by the presence of different loci whose products are similar in electrophoretic parameters. In this regard, one component of the enzyme can be controlling at one or two or three genes. Identification of a locus controlling alpha-amylase isoenzyme in the fast moving part of the electrophoretogram, designated as α-Amy-B7. Determine the distance of the locus to factor α-Amy-B6. PMID:26841490

  18. MTHFR polymorphisms' influence on outcome and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, Patrizia; Reddiconto, Giovanni; Farina, Giuliana; Mannocci, Alice; Fiorini, Alessia; Palladino, Mariangela; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fianchi, Luana; Sorà, Federica; Laurenti, Luca; Leone, Giuseppe; Sica, Simona

    2007-12-01

    Recently the influence of polymorphisms of different genes involved in metabolism of chemoterapic agents have been studied especially in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated the influence of C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on time to relapse and survival and on methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in 82 ALL adult patients. Relapse free survival and event free survival between homozygous wild-type and variant patients in both polymorphisms were not significantly different. However, we observed an association between 677TT variant and survival in a subset of ALL patients homogenously treated with MTX-based maintenance (p=0.02). In the same subgroup we confirmed the role of 677TT variant on toxicity during MTX treatment (p=0.003). PMID:17512587

  19. Influence of CAG Repeat Polymorphism on the Targets of Testosterone Action

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; delli Muti, Nicola; Furlani, Giorgio; Gallo, Mariagrazia; Pallotti, Francesco; Paoli, Donatella; Giorgino, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Gandini, Loredana; Lenzi, Andrea; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, ample evidence has demonstrated the growing importance of androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism in andrology. This genetic parameter is able to condition the peripheral effects of testosterone and therefore to influence male sexual function and fertility, cardiovascular risk, body composition, bone metabolism, the risk of prostate and testicular cancer, the psychiatric status, and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we extensively discuss the literature data and identify a role for AR CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning the systemic testosterone effects. In particular, our main purpose was to provide an updated text able to shed light on the many and often contradictory findings reporting an influence of CAG repeat polymorphism on the targets of testosterone action. PMID:26421011

  20. TERT promoter mutations in bladder cancer affect patient survival and disease recurrence through modification by a common polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; de Verdier, Petra J; Fallah, Mahdi; Heidenreich, Barbara; Ryk, Charlotta; Wiklund, N Peter; Steineck, Gunnar; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-10-22

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, an important element of telomerase expression, has emerged as a target of cancer-specific mutations. Originally described in melanoma, the mutations in TERT promoter have been shown to be common in certain other tumor types that include glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder cancer. To fully define the occurrence and effect of the TERT promoter mutations, we investigated tumors from a well-characterized series of 327 patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder. The somatic mutations, mainly at positions -124 and -146 bp from ATG start site that create binding motifs for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), affected 65.4% of the tumors, with even distribution across different stages and grades. Our data showed that a common polymorphism rs2853669, within a preexisting Ets2 binding site in the TERT promoter, acts as a modifier of the effect of the mutations on survival and tumor recurrence. The patients with the mutations showed poor survival in the absence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-4.70] but not in the presence (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-1.01) of the variant allele of the polymorphism. The mutations in the absence of the variant allele were highly associated with the disease recurrence in patients with Tis, Ta, and T1 tumors (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.11-3.08). The TERT promoter mutations are the most common somatic lesions in bladder cancer with clinical implications. The association of the mutations with patient survival and disease recurrence, subject to modification by a common polymorphism, can be a unique putative marker with individualized prognostic potential. PMID:24101484

  1. Coeliac disease-associated polymorphisms influence thymic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, S S; Viken, M K; Sollid, L M; Lie, B A

    2014-09-01

    Significant associations between coeliac disease (CD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed over 40 genetic regions have been established. The majority of these SNPs are non-coding and 20 SNPs were, by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis, found to harbour cis regulatory potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Almost all regions contain genes with an immunological relevant function, of which many act in the same biological pathways. One such pathway is T-cell development in the thymus, a pathway previously not explored in CD pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to explore the regulatory potential of the CD-associated SNPs (n=50) by eQTL analysis in thymic tissue from 42 subjects. In total, 43 nominal significant (P<0.05) eQTLs were found within 24 CD-associated chromosomal regions, corresponding to 27 expression-altering SNPs (eSNPs) and 40 probes (eProbes) that represents 39 unique genes (eGenes). Nine significant probe-SNP pairs (corresponding to 8 eSNPs and 7 eGenes) overlapped with previous findings in PBMC (rs12727642-PARK7, rs296547-DDX59, rs917997-IL18RAP, rs842647-AHSA2, rs13003464-AHSA2, rs6974491-ELMO1, rs2074404-NSF (two independent probes) and rs2298428-UBE2L3). When compared across more tissues, we found that 14 eQTLs could represent potentially novel thymus-specific eQTLs. This implies that CD risk polymorphisms could affect gene regulation in thymus. PMID:24871462

  2. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C Polymorphisms Influence the Risk of Developing Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Han Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Wang, Fei-Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Guo, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Qian, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Hai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4) have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T) polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group) and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA. PMID:25781893

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Goricar, Katja; Erculj, Nina; Zadel, Maja; Dolzan, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Background Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay. Materials and methods In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage. Results We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage. Conclusions XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population. PMID:22933979

  4. A common polymorphism in the 5' UTR of ERCC5 creates an upstream ORF that confers resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Somers, Joanna; Wilson, Lindsay A; Kilday, John-Paul; Horvilleur, Emilie; Cannell, Ian G; Pöyry, Tuija A A; Cobbold, Laura C; Kondrashov, Alexander; Knight, John R P; Puget, Stéphanie; Grill, Jacques; Grundy, Richard G; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E

    2015-09-15

    We show that a common polymorphic variant in the ERCC5 5' untranslated region (UTR) generates an upstream ORF (uORF) that affects both the background expression of this protein and its ability to be synthesized following exposure to agents that cause bulky adduct DNA damage. Individuals that harbor uORF1 have a marked resistance to platinum-based agents, illustrated by the significantly reduced progression-free survival of pediatric ependymoma patients treated with such compounds. Importantly, inhibition of DNA-PKcs restores sensitivity to platinum-based compounds by preventing uORF1-dependent ERCC5 expression. Our data support a model in which a heritable 5' noncoding mRNA element influences individuals' responses to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:26338418

  5. A common polymorphism in the 5′ UTR of ERCC5 creates an upstream ORF that confers resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Joanna; Wilson, Lindsay A.; Kilday, John-Paul; Horvilleur, Emilie; Cannell, Ian G.; Pöyry, Tuija A.A.; Cobbold, Laura C.; Kondrashov, Alexander; Knight, John R.P.; Puget, Stéphanie; Grill, Jacques; Grundy, Richard G.; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    We show that a common polymorphic variant in the ERCC5 5′ untranslated region (UTR) generates an upstream ORF (uORF) that affects both the background expression of this protein and its ability to be synthesized following exposure to agents that cause bulky adduct DNA damage. Individuals that harbor uORF1 have a marked resistance to platinum-based agents, illustrated by the significantly reduced progression-free survival of pediatric ependymoma patients treated with such compounds. Importantly, inhibition of DNA-PKcs restores sensitivity to platinum-based compounds by preventing uORF1-dependent ERCC5 expression. Our data support a model in which a heritable 5′ noncoding mRNA element influences individuals’ responses to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:26338418

  6. Common Genetic Influences Underlie Comorbidity of Migraine and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Nyholt, Dale R.; Gillespie, Nathan G.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Treloar, Susan A.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of migraine and endometriosis within the largest known collection of families containing multiple women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and in an independent sample of 815 monozygotic and 457 dizygotic female twin pairs. Within the endometriosis families, a significantly increased risk of migrainous headache was observed in women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.21, P = 0.009). Bivariate heritability analyses indicated no evidence for common environmental factors influencing either migraine or endometriosis but significant genetic components for both traits, with heritability estimates of 69 and 49%, respectively. Importantly, a significant additive genetic correlation (rG = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.06–0.47) and bivariate heritability (h2 = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.08–0.27) was observed between migraine and endometriosis. Controlling for the personality trait neuroticism made little impact on this association. These results confirm the previously reported comorbidity between migraine and endometriosis and indicate common genetic influences completely explain their co-occurrence within individuals. Given pharmacological treatments for endometriosis typically target hormonal pathways and a number of findings provide support for a relationship between hormonal variations and migraine, hormone-related genes and pathways are highly plausible candidates for both migraine and endometriosis. Therefore, taking into account the status of both migraine and endometriosis may provide a novel opportunity to identify the genes underlying them. Finally, we propose that the analysis of such genetically correlated comorbid traits can increase power to detect genetic risk loci through the use of more specific, homogenous and heritable phenotypes. PMID:18636479

  7. Molecular-level origins of biomass recalcitrance: decrystallization free energies for four common cellulose polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Gregg T; Matthews, James F; Peters, Baron; Bomble, Yannick J; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael F

    2011-04-14

    Cellulose is a crystalline polymer of β1,4-D-glucose that is difficult to deconstruct to sugars by enzymes. The recalcitrance of cellulose microfibrils is a function of both the shape of cellulose microfibrils and the intrinsic work required to decrystallize individual chains, the latter of which is calculated here from the surfaces of four crystalline cellulose polymorphs: cellulose Iβ, cellulose Iα, cellulose II, and cellulose III(I). For edge chains, the order of decrystallization work is as follows (from highest to lowest): Iβ, Iα, ΙΙΙ(Ι), and II. For cellulose Iβ, we compare chains from three different locations on the surface and find that an increasing number of intralayer hydrogen bonds (from 0 to 2) increases the intrinsic decrystallization work. From these results, we propose a microkinetic model for the deconstruction of cellulose (and chitin) by processive enzymes, which when taken with a previous study [Horn et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006, 103, 18089] identifies the thermodynamic and kinetic attributes of enzyme and substrate engineering for enhanced cellulose (or chitin) conversion. Overall, this study provides new insights into the molecular interactions that form the structural basis of cellulose, which is the primary building block of plant cell walls, and highlights the need for experimentally determining microfibril shape at the nanometer length scale when comparing conversion rates of cellulose polymorphs by enzymes. PMID:21425804

  8. Blood pressure in patients with primary aldosteronism is influenced by bradykinin B(2) receptor and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Mulatero, Paolo; Williams, Tracy A; Milan, Alberto; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-07-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. PA is most frequently presented as moderate to severe hypertension, but the clinical and biochemical features vary widely. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants that influence the phenotype of patients with PA. We hypothesized that genetic variants potentially affecting aldosterone production (aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2), renal proximal tubule reabsorption (alpha-adducin), or the mechanisms of counterbalance leading to vasodilatation and sodium excretion (bradykinin B(2)-receptor, B(2)R) could influence the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with PA. We studied three polymorphisms of these genes (C-344T of CYP11B2, G460W of alpha-adducin, and C-58T of B(2)R) in 167 primary aldosteronism patients (56 with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 111 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism). B(2)R and alpha-adducin genotypes were strong independent predictors of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels; plasma renin activity and aldosterone also play a marginal role on BP levels. Body mass index, age, sex, and CYP11B2 genotype displayed no significant effect on the clinical parameters of our population. In particular, alpha-adducin and B(2)R polymorphisms accounted for 13.2% and 11.0% of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure variance, respectively. These data suggest that genetic variants of alpha-adducin and the bradykinin B(2)-R influence the blood pressure levels in patients with primary aldosteronism. PMID:12107246

  9. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883

  10. Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    The latent prevalence of a long-lived and common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, explains a statistically significant portion of the variance in aggregate neuroticism among populations, as well as in the ‘neurotic’ cultural dimensions of sex roles and uncertainty avoidance. Spurious or non-causal correlations between aggregate personality and aspects of climate and culture that influence T. gondii transmission could also drive these patterns. A link between culture and T. gondii hypothetically results from a behavioural manipulation that the parasite uses to increase its transmission to the next host in the life cycle: a cat. While latent toxoplasmosis is usually benign, the parasite's subtle effect on individual personality appears to alter the aggregate personality at the population level. Drivers of the geographical variation in the prevalence of this parasite include the effects of climate on the persistence of infectious stages in soil, the cultural practices of food preparation and cats as pets. Some variation in culture, therefore, may ultimately be related to how climate affects the distribution of T. gondii, though the results only explain a fraction of the variation in two of the four cultural dimensions, suggesting that if T. gondii does influence human culture, it is only one among many factors. PMID:17015323

  11. Common polymorphism in a highly variable region upstream of the human lactase gene affects DNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hollox, E J; Poulter, M; Wang, Y; Krause, A; Swallow, D M

    1999-01-01

    In most mammals lactase activity declines after weaning when lactose is no longer part of the diet, but in many humans lactase activity persists into adult life. The difference responsible for this phenotypic polymorphism has been shown to be cis-acting to the lactase gene. The causal sequence difference has not been found so far, but a number of polymorphic sites have been found within and near to the lactase gene. We have shown previously that in Europeans there are two polymorphic sites in a small region between 974 bp and 852 bp upstream from the start of transcription, which are detectable by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In this study, analysis of individuals from five other population groups by the same DGGE method reveals four new alleles resulting from three additional nucleotide changes within this very small region. Analysis of sequence in four primate species and comparison with the published pig sequence shows that the overall sequence of this highly variable human region is conserved in pigs as well as primates, and that it lies within a 1kb region which has been shown to control lactase downregulation in pigs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies were carried out to determine whether common variation affected protein-DNA binding and several binding activities were found using this technique. A novel two base-pair deletion that is common in most populations tested, but is not present in Europeans, caused no change in binding activity. However, a previously published C to T transition at -958bp dramatically reduced binding activity, although the functional significance of this is not clear. PMID:10573012

  12. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms influence chemotherapy response and treatment outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, T; Yin, G-Y; Yang, L; Wang, Z-G; Bu, X-B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GSTM1 null/present, GSTT1 null/present, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms in the clinical response to chemotherapy and treatment outcome of patients with breast cancer. A total of 262 subjects were randomly selected from among patients with a histologically confirmed breast cancer. The genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study found that the null genotype of GSTM1 was associated with a better response to chemo-therapy, and the odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 1.78 (1.03-3.08). In the Cox proportional hazard model, the hazard ratio (95%CI) for overall survival (OS) in patients carrying the null genotype of GSTM1 was 0.57 (0.32-0.98) using the non-null genotype as the reference variable. However, we observed no significant association between the GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and response to chemotherapy and OS in patients with breast cancer. In conclusion, our study found that the GSTM1 polymorphism plays an important role in influencing the chemotherapy response and OS in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26400343

  13. Common polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptor and increased risk for acute coronary syndrome in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, Wojciech; Sanak, Marek; Rostoff, Pawel; Piwowarska, Wieslawa; Jakiela, Bogdan; Szczeklik, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    The arachidonic acid metabolites participate in development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the plaque's instability. We assessed two common genetic polymorphisms: of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (COX2.8473, rs5275) and prostaglandin EP2 receptor gene (uS5, rs708494) in patients with CAD. Out of 1,368 patients screened by coronary arteriography, two groups fulfilled the entry criteria and were studied: stable coronary disease (sCAD, n = 125) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS, n = 63). They did not differ in the main characteristics. All patients were on aspirin at least seven days prior to the study. In 70 control subjects, the same genotypes were ascertained, expression of cyclooxygenases in peripheral blood monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry, and in-vitro biosynthesis of PGE(2) was measured by mass spectrometry. COX-2 CC homozygotes (variant allele), were more common, while EP2 GG homozygotes (wild-type) were less common in ACS (p = 0.03 and p = 0.017) than in the sCAD group. A combined genotype characterized by the presence of the wild-type COX2.8743T allele and the wild type homozygous EP2uS5 genotype (TT or CT | GG) decreased risk ratio of ACS in CAD patients (relative risk 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.81). COX-2 polymorphism in control subjects did not affect the enzyme expression or PGE(2) production by peripheral blood monocytes, but production of PGE(2) increased by 40.1% in the subjects homozygous for EP2 receptor allele uS5A following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In conclusion, the combined COX-2 (COX2.8473) and the EP2 receptor (uS5) genotypes seem to influence CAD stability, but in peripheral blood monocytes only EP2 receptor modulates PGE(2) production. PMID:18989535

  14. Intravarietal polymorphisms reveal possible common ancestor of native Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J V C; Crispim, B A; Vasconcelos, A A; Geelen, D; Grisolia, A B; Vieira, M C

    2016-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a perennial native from Atlantic forest. It is of high ecological plasticity and is used in traditional medicine. Based on promising reports concerning its bioactivity, it was included as a species of great interest for distribution through the National Health System. A number of agronomic studies to guide its crop production are therefore underway. This study examined diversity and phylogenetic relationships among native S. terebinthifolius populations from different Brazilian ecosystems: Cerrado; sandbanks; dense rainforest; and deciduous forest. The intergenic regions rpl20-5'rps12, trnH-psbA, and trnS-trnG were sequenced from cpDNA and aligned using BLASTn. There were few fragments for comparison in GenBank and so only region trnS-trnG was informative. There were variations among and within populations with intravarietal polymorphisms and three distinct haplotypes (HpSM, HpDDO, HpNE), once populations from NE (sandbanks and rainforest) clustered together. Sequences from HpSM, HpNE, and HpDDO returned greater similarity to haplotypes A (AY928398.1), B (AY928399.1), and C (AY928400.1), respectively. A network, built by median-joining among native haplotypes and 10 available on GenBank, revealed HpSM as the origin of all other haplogroups. HpDDO showed the most mutations and was closely related to haplogroups from Argentina. While this could indicate hybridization, we believe that the polymorphisms resulted from adaptation to events such as deforestation, fire, rising temperature, and seasonal drought during the transition from Atlantic forest to Cerrado. While more detailed phylogeographical studies are needed, these results indicate eligible groups for distinct climates as an important step for pre-breeding programs before field propagation. PMID:26909905

  15. Evaluation of cytokine genetic polymorphisms in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency: A single-center study.

    PubMed

    Perovic, Dijana; Perovic, Vladimir; Pravica, Vera; Bonaci-Nikolic, Branka; Mijanovic, Radovan; Bunjevacki, Vera

    2016-08-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by impaired B-cell differentiation and maturation accompanied with the defective antibody production. Several investigators addressed the possibility that disturbed cytokine production of TNF, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10, among a variety of others, may be implicated in CVID. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms involving TNF (-308G/A), IFNG (+874 T/A), IL10 (-1082G/A, -819T/C and -592A/C), and IL6 (-174G/C) cytokine genes might contribute to susceptibility to CVID. Thirty five patients with CVID and 250 healthy controls were genotyped for indicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TNF, IL6, IFNG and IL10 using Taqman-based assays. CVID patients had significantly higher frequency of TNF A allele and AA genotype than in healthy subjects (p=0.006; OR=2.27; 95%CI=1.24-4.17 and p=0.038, OR=15.64; 95%CI=1.38-177.20, respectively). In addition, the frequency of GG genotype was significantly higher in healthy controls than in patient group (p=0.019, OR=0.43, 95%CI=0.21-0.89). Genetic analysis of IL6 SNP showed that allele G confers increased risk for CVID (p=0.037, OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.03-3.08) while IFNG allele T was associated with splenomegaly in CVID (p=0.032; OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.08-7.56). We observed no association between genotypes, alleles and haplotypes of IL-10 gene and CVID or its clinical complications. In conclusion, our results indicated association between CVID and cytokine gene polymorphisms -308G/A TNF and -174G/C IL6. In addition, we demonstrated that splenomegaly, one of the most common complications in this disease, is associated with +874T/A IFNG polymorphism. These findings add further support to the notion that cytokines may play significant role in pathogenesis of this primary antibody deficiency. However, further investigation that would involve a larger study group of CVID patients is warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27288995

  16. A common variant in MTHFR influences response to chemoradiotherapy and recurrence of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nikas, Jason B; Lee, Janet T; Maring, Elizabeth D; Washechek-Aletto, Jill; Felmlee-Devine, Donna; Johnson, Ruth A; Smyrk, Thomas C; Tawadros, Patrick S; Boardman, Lisa A; Steer, Clifford J

    2015-01-01

    An important determinant of the pathogenesis and prognosis of various diseases is inherited genetic variation. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variations at a single base position, have been identified in both protein-coding and noncoding DNA sequences, but the vast majority of millions of those variants are far from being functionally understood. Here we show that a common variant in the gene MTHFR [rs1801133 (C>T)] not only influences response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer, but it also influences recurrence of the disease itself. More specifically, patients with the homozygous ancestral (wild type) genotype (C/C) were 2.91 times more likely (291% increased benefit) to respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy {95% CI: [1.23, 6.89]; P=0.0150} and 3.25 times more likely (325% increased benefit) not to experience recurrence of the disease {95% CI: [1.37, 7.72]; P=0.0079} than patients with either the heterozygous (C/T) or the homozygous mutation (T/T) genotype. These results identify MTHFR as an important genetic marker and open up new, pharmacogenomic strategies in the treatment and management of rectal cancer. PMID:26693073

  17. Influence of Co2+ in CaCO3 polymorphism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a trace element in the Earth crust but also a toxic metal. Furthermore, Co2+can accumulate in some specific areas due to both natural and anthropogenic factors and hence soils and groundwater can be contaminated. Numerous studies have demonstrated that toxic elements can be removed from aqueous solution by its incorporation in mineral structures. In particular, the uptake of divalent metallic cations in the crystal structure of calcium carbonates has been postulated as a valuable solution to resolve and / or reduce some environmental problems. Here, we have investigated the cobalt uptake during calcium carbonate precipitation at ambient conditions. It is well known that certain anions such as sulphate, chromate and selenite favour the precipitation of vaterite while other cations as Sr2+ or Mg2+, avoid the calcite crystallization favouring the aragonite precipitation. Similar scenery can be depicted for Co2+ behaviour since the precipitation of both aragonite and a low crystallinity phase from aqueous solution have been described. However, the evolution of the polymorphic transformations after the precipitation of the phases remains unknown. In the present work we have precipitated calcium carbonate at room temperature in the presence of a certain amount of Co2+. Then, the precipitated solid has been aged in the remaining aqueous solution for two months. The experiment was carried out by mixing two different aqueous solutions: a) 50 mL of CoCl2 (0.02M) and CaCl2(0.05M) and b) 50 mL of Na2CO3 (0.05M). The aging process was monitored after 5 minutes, 1, 5, 24, and 48 hours and 4, 7, 30 and 60 days by analysing both the aqueous solution and the aged solids. The evolution of the different crystalline phases in the solid was followed by X-ray Powder Diffraction, their morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and their chemical composition was analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the aqueous solution has also been

  18. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele–specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. Results: A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: −7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: −8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. Conclusions: APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype–specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:27433544

  19. A Common Polymorphism in EC-SOD Affects Cardiopulmonary Disease Risk by Altering Protein Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, John M.; Stidham, Timothy; Goldstrohm, David A.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Weaver, Michael R.; Valnickova-Hansen, Zuzana; Scavenius, Carsten; Benninger, Richard K.P.; Leahy, Katelyn F.; Johnson, Richard; Gally, Fabienne; Kosmider, Beata; Zimmermann, Angela K.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Bowler, Russell P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; SOD3) is a major antioxidant defense in lung and vasculature. A nonsynonomous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EC-SOD (rs1799895) leads to an arginine to glycine (Arg->Gly) amino acid substitution at position 213 (R213G) in the heparin-binding domain (HBD). In recent human genetic association studies, this SNP attenuates the risk of lung disease, yet paradoxically increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Capitalizing on the complete sequence homology between human and mouse in the HBD, we created an analogous R213G SNP knockin mouse. The R213G SNP did not change enzyme activity, but shifted the distribution of EC-SOD from lung and vascular tissue to extracellular fluid (e.g. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma). This shift reduces susceptibility to lung disease (lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury) and increases susceptibility to cardiopulmonary disease (chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension). Conclusions We conclude that EC-SOD provides optimal protection when localized to the compartment subjected to extracellular oxidative stress: thus, the redistribution of EC-SOD from the lung and pulmonary circulation to the extracellular fluids is beneficial in alveolar lung disease but detrimental in pulmonary vascular disease. These findings account for the discrepant risk associated with R213G in humans with lung diseases compared with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25085920

  20. Common Polymorphisms at the CYP17A1 Locus Associate With Steroid Phenotype: Support for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Study Signals at This Locus.

    PubMed

    Diver, Louise A; MacKenzie, Scott M; Fraser, Robert; McManus, Frances; Freel, E Marie; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; McClure, John D; Friel, Elaine C; Hanley, Neil A; Dominiczak, Anna F; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Connell, John M; Davies, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the CYP17A1 gene in human blood pressure regulation although the causative polymorphisms are as yet unknown. We sought to identify common polymorphisms likely to explain this association. We sequenced the CYP17A1 locus in 60 normotensive individuals and observed 24 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms with minor allele frequency >0.05. From these, we selected, for further studies, 7 polymorphisms located ≤ 2 kb upstream of the CYP17A1 transcription start site. In vitro reporter gene assays identified 3 of these (rs138009835, rs2150927, and rs2486758) as having significant functional effects. We then analyzed the association between the 7 polymorphisms and the urinary steroid metabolites in a hypertensive cohort (n=232). Significant associations included that of rs138009835 with aldosterone metabolite excretion; rs2150927 associated with the ratio of tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone to tetrahydrodeoxycortisol, which we used as an index of 17α-hydroxylation. Linkage analysis showed rs138009835 to be the only 1 of the 7 polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with the blood pressure-associated polymorphisms identified in the previous studies. In conclusion, we have identified, characterized, and investigated common polymorphisms at the CYP17A1 locus that have functional effects on gene transcription in vitro and associate with corticosteroid phenotype in vivo. Of these, rs138009835--which we associate with changes in aldosterone level--is in strong linkage disequilibrium with polymorphisms linked by genome-wide association studies to blood pressure regulation. This finding clearly has implications for the development of high blood pressure in a large proportion of the population and justifies further investigation of rs138009835 and its effects. PMID:26902494

  1. The influence of BMX gene polymorphisms on clinical symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jia; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Che-Mai; Wu, Chung-Che; Ou, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yan-Rou; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Kai-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders. Most patients diagnosed with mTBI could fully recover, but 15% of patients suffer from persistent symptoms. In recent studies, genetic factors were found to be associated with recovery and clinical outcomes after TBI. In addition, results from our previous research have demonstrated that the bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (BMX), a member of the Tec family of kinases, is highly expressed in rats with TBI. Therefore, our aim in this study was to identify the association between genetic polymorphisms of BMX and clinical symptoms following mTBI. Four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of BMX with minimum allele frequency (MAF) >1% were selected from the HapMap Han Chinese database. Among these polymorphisms, rs16979956 was found to be associated with the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) scores within the first week after head injury. Additionally, another SNP, rs35697037, showed a significant correlation with dizziness symptoms. These findings suggested that polymorphisms of the BMX gene could be a potential predictor of clinical symptoms following mTBI. PMID:24860816

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify seven microsatellite DNA loci isolated from the Common Loon (Gavia immer). The PCR primers were tested on 83 individuals from ten locations in North America, including breeding, migration stopover, and...

  3. The functional significance of common polymorphisms in zinc finger transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Sarah H; Guan, Anna; Yu, Abigail S; Zhang, Chi; Zykovich, Artem; Korf, Ian; Rannala, Bruce; Segal, David J

    2014-09-01

    Variants that alter the DNA-binding specificity of transcription factors could affect the specificity for and expression of potentially many target genes, as has been observed in several tumor-derived mutations. Here we examined if such trans expression quantitative trait loci (trans-eQTLs) could similarly result from common genetic variants. We chose to focus on the Cys2-His2 class of zinc finger transcription factors because they are the most abundant superfamily of transcription factors in human and have well-characterized DNA binding interactions. We identified 430 SNPs that cause missense substitutions in the DNA-contacting residues. Fewer common missense SNPs were found at DNA-contacting residues compared with non-DNA-contacting residues (P = 0.00006), consistent with possible functional selection against SNPs at DNA-contacting positions. Functional predictions based on zinc finger transcription factor (ZNF) DNA binding preferences also suggested that many common substitutions could potentially alter binding specificity. However, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium analysis and examination of seven orthologs within the primate lineage failed to find evidence of trans-eQTLs associated with the DNA-contacting positions or evidence of a different selection pressure on a contemporary and evolutionary timescales. The overall conclusion was that common SNPs that alter the DNA-contacting residues of these factors are unlikely to produce strong trans-eQTLs, consistent with the observations by others that trans-eQTLs in humans tend to be few and weak. Some rare SNPs might alter specificity and remained rare due to purifying selection. The study also underscores the need for large-scale eQTLs mapping efforts that might provide experimental evidence for SNPs that alter the choice of transcription factor binding sites. PMID:24970883

  4. The Functional Significance of Common Polymorphisms in Zinc Finger Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Sarah H.; Guan, Anna; Yu, Abigail S.; Zhang, Chi; Zykovich, Artem; Korf, Ian; Rannala, Bruce; Segal, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Variants that alter the DNA-binding specificity of transcription factors could affect the specificity for and expression of potentially many target genes, as has been observed in several tumor-derived mutations. Here we examined if such trans expression quantitative trait loci (trans-eQTLs) could similarly result from common genetic variants. We chose to focus on the Cys2-His2 class of zinc finger transcription factors because they are the most abundant superfamily of transcription factors in human and have well-characterized DNA binding interactions. We identified 430 SNPs that cause missense substitutions in the DNA-contacting residues. Fewer common missense SNPs were found at DNA-contacting residues compared with non-DNA-contacting residues (P = 0.00006), consistent with possible functional selection against SNPs at DNA-contacting positions. Functional predictions based on zinc finger transcription factor (ZNF) DNA binding preferences also suggested that many common substitutions could potentially alter binding specificity. However, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium analysis and examination of seven orthologs within the primate lineage failed to find evidence of trans-eQTLs associated with the DNA-contacting positions or evidence of a different selection pressure on a contemporary and evolutionary timescales. The overall conclusion was that common SNPs that alter the DNA-contacting residues of these factors are unlikely to produce strong trans-eQTLs, consistent with the observations by others that trans-eQTLs in humans tend to be few and weak. Some rare SNPs might alter specificity and remained rare due to purifying selection. The study also underscores the need for large-scale eQTLs mapping efforts that might provide experimental evidence for SNPs that alter the choice of transcription factor binding sites. PMID:24970883

  5. Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interacts with pain and life stress influencing depression phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, David; Eszlari, Nora; Petschner, Peter; Pap, Dorottya; Vas, Szilvia; Kovacs, Peter; Gonda, Xenia; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as a potent biomarker for depression as its elevated plasma levels in patients with clinical depression have been confirmed by meta-analyses. Increased plasma IL-6 concentration was associated with various psychological stress factors and physical disorders accompanied by pain. Another modulator of the IL-6 level is rs1800795, a promoter polymorphism in the IL-6 gene which is able to influence its expression rate. Therefore, we examined in a Hungarian population sample of 1053 volunteers with European origins if rs1800795 polymorphism can affect depression symptoms measured by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). We also investigated the interactions of the polymorphism with reported painful physical conditions and Recent Negative Life Events (RLE) measured by the List of Life Threatening Experiences. Rs1800795 significantly interacted with both RLE and painful condition on depressive symptoms measured by ZSDS and BSI using different heritability models, while no main effects of the polymorphism were identified. After correction for multiple testing only the rs1800795 × RLE interaction effect (recessive model) remained significant on the BSI score, while both RLE and painful conditions significantly interacted on the ZSDS. In conclusion, the functional IL-6 rs1800795 polymorphism in interaction with various stress factors increases the risk of depression and has a greater impact on symptoms measured by the ZSDS. Thus, IL-6 and other cytokines may be more relevant in the development of somatic symptoms compared to affective signs of depression, delineating a specific genotype-phenotype relationship in this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:26821321

  6. Microsatellite polymorphism among Chrysanthemum sp. polyploids: the influence of whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Gao, Ri; Wang, Jingjing; Dong, Bin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy is common among flowering plants, including the Asteraceae, a relatively recent angiosperm group. EST-SSRs were used to characterize polymorphism among 29 Chrysanthemum and Ajania spp. accessions of various ploidy levels. Most EST-SSR loci were readily transferable between the species, 29 accessions were separated into three groups in terms of the number of fragments. It inferred that the formation from tetraploid to hexaploid and from octoploid to decaploid may be a recent event, while from the diploid to the tetraploid may be an ancient one in the Chrysanthemum lineage. EST-SSR polymorphism was found and some transcripts containing an SSR were transcribed differently in the de novo autotetraploid C. nankingense and C. lavandulifolium than in their progenitor diploid. EST-SSR could provide a potential molecular basis of adaptation during evolution, while whole genome duplication has a major effect on the mutational dynamics of EST-SSR loci, which could also affect gene regulation. PMID:25339092

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  9. Do human leukocyte antigen E polymorphisms influence graft-versus-leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Schwarer, Anthony P; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2015-03-01

    Hematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is complicated by histocompatibility-dependent immune responses such as graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and graft rejection. The severity of these common adverse effects is directly related to the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility. In addition to the key role of classic HLA matching in influencing HSCT outcome, several lines of evidence suggest an important role for nonclassic major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, HLA-E. The interaction of HLA-E with NKG2A, its main receptor on natural killer cells, modulates cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production, an important role in innate immune responses. In addition, the HLA-E molecule can present peptides to different subtypes of T cells that may either support graft-versus-leukemia effects or be involved in bridging innate and acquired immunity. To date, the role of HLA-E and its polymorphisms in HSCT outcomes such as graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and improved survival has been published by a number of groups. In addition, these data suggest an association between HLA-E polymorphisms and relapse. Whether the engagement of the HLA-E molecule in the modulation of donor T cells is involved in the graft-versus-leukemia effect, or whether a different mechanism of HLA-E dependent reduction of relapse is involved, requires further investigation. PMID:25434712

  10. Association of Common Genetic Polymorphisms with Melanoma Patient IL-12p40 Blood Levels, Risk, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shenying; Wang, Yuling; Chun, Yun S; Liu, Huey; Ross, Merrick I; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Cormier, Janice N; Royal, Richard E; Lucci, Anthony; Schacherer, Christopher W; Reveille, John D; Chen, Wei; Sui, Dawen; Bassett, Roland L; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Christopher I; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigation has identified association of IL-12p40 blood levels with melanoma recurrence and patient survival. No studies have investigated associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with melanoma patient IL-12p40 blood levels or their potential contributions to melanoma susceptibility or patient outcome. In the current study, 818,237 SNPs were available for 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls. IL-12p40 blood levels were assessed among 573 cases (discovery), 249 cases (case validation), and 299 controls (control validation). SNPs were evaluated for association with log[IL-12p40] levels in the discovery data set and replicated in two validation data sets, and significant SNPs were assessed for association with melanoma susceptibility and patient outcomes. The most significant SNP associated with log[IL-12p40] was in the IL-12B gene region (rs6897260, combined P=9.26 × 10−38); this single variant explained 13.1% of variability in log[IL-12p40]. The most significant SNP in EBF1 was rs6895454 (combined P=2.24 × 10−9). A marker in IL12B was associated with melanoma susceptibility (rs3213119, multivariate P=0.0499; OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.00–2.24), whereas a marker in EBF1 was associated with melanoma-specific survival in advanced-stage patients (rs10515789, multivariate P=0.02; HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.11–3.35). Both EBF1 and IL12B strongly regulate IL-12p40 blood levels, and IL-12p40 polymorphisms may contribute to melanoma susceptibility and influence patient outcome. PMID:25848976

  11. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Jose D.; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Post, Wendy S.; Polak, Joseph F.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Bluemke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  12. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  13. Common genetic variants in NEFL influence gene expression and neuroblastoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Mario; Diskin, Sharon; Cimmino, Flora; Acierno, Giovanni; Totaro, Francesca; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Pezone, Lucia; Diamond, Maura; McDaniel, Lee; Hakonarson, Hakon; Iolascon, Achille; Devoto, Marcella; Maris, John M

    2014-01-01

    The genetic etiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is still largely obscure. In a genome-wide association study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with neuroblastoma at the LINC00340, BARD1, LMO1, DUSP12, HSD17B12, HACE1 and LIN28B gene loci, but these explain only a small fraction of neuroblastoma heritability. Other neuroblastoma susceptibility genes are likely hidden among signals discarded by the multiple testing corrections. In this study, we evaluated 8 additional genes selected as candidates for further study based on proven involvement in neuroblastoma differentiation. SNP at these candidate genes were tested for association with disease susceptibility in 2101 cases and 4202 controls, with the associations found replicated in an independent cohort of 459 cases and 809 controls. Replicated associations were further studied for cis-effect using gene expression, transient overexpression, silencing and cellular differentiation assays. The neurofilament gene NEFL harbored three SNP associated with neuroblastoma (rs11994014; Pcombined=0.0050; OR=0.88, rs2979704; Pcombined=0.0072; OR=0.87, rs105911; Pcombined=0.0049; OR=0.86). The protective allele of rs1059111 correlated with increased NEFL expression. Biological investigations showed that ectopic overexpression of NEFL inhibited cell growth specifically in neuroblastoma cells carrying the protective allele. NEFL overexpression also enhanced differentiation and impaired the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of cells with protective allele and basal NEFL expression, while impairing invasiveness and proliferation of cells homozygous for the risk genotype. Clinically, high levels of NEFL expression in primary neuroblastoma specimens was associated with better overall survival (P=0.03; HR=0.68). Our results show that common variants of NEFL influence neuroblastoma susceptibility and they establish that NEFL expression influences disease initiation and progression. PMID:25312269

  14. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  15. A COMMON POLYMORPHISM IN THE METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE (MTHFR) GENE IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND IN THOSE WITH LOW PLASMA FOLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of a polymorphism in the MTHFR gene, plasma folate, and bone phenotypes in 1632 individuals revealed that the genotype effect on BMD and quantitative ultrasound was dependent on the level of folate. Our findings support the hypothesis that the association between an MTHFR polymorphism and bo...

  16. Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Xi; Wang, Youdan; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cagle, Lee M; Paul, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The common angiotensinogen (AGT) M268T polymorphism (rs699; historically referred to as M235T) has been identified as a significant risk factor for cerebrovascular pathologies, yet it is unclear if healthy older adults carrying the threonine amino acid variant have a greater risk for white matter damage in specific fiber tracts. Further, the impact of the threonine variant on cognitive function remains unknown. The present study utilized multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment to examine the integrity of specific white matter tracts and cognition between individuals with homozygous genotypes of M268T (MetMet n=27, ThrThr n=27). Differences in subcortical hyperintensity (SH) volume were also examined between groups. Results indicated that the threonine variant was associated with significantly reduced integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the cingulate gyrus segment of the cingulum bundle (cingulum CG) compared to those with the methionine variant, and poorer cognitive performance on tests of attention/processing speed and language. Despite these associations, integrity of these tracts did not significantly mediate relationships between cognition and genetic status, and SH did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively our results suggest that the threonine variant of M268T is a significant risk factor for abnormalities in specific white matter tracts and cognitive domains in healthy older adults, independent of SH burden. PMID:26318936

  17. Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Ulatowski, Lynn; Dreussi, Cara; Noy, Noa; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Klein, Eric; Manor, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is the major lipid soluble antioxidant in most animal species. By controlling the secretion of vitamin E from the liver, the α-tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP) regulates whole-body distribution and levels of this vital nutrient. However, the mechanism(s) that regulate the expression of this protein are poorly understood. Here we report that transcription of the TTPA gene in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) is induced by oxidative stress and by hypoxia, by agonists of the nuclear receptors PPARα and RXR, and by increased cAMP levels. The data show further that induction of TTPA transcription by oxidative stress is mediated by an already-present transcription factor, and does not require de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) transcription factor attenuated transcriptional responses of the TTPA gene to added peroxide, suggesting that CREB mediates responses of this gene to oxidative stress. Using a 1.9 Kb proximal segment of the human TTPA promoter together with site-directed mutagenesis approach, we found that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are commonly found in healthy humans dramatically affect promoter activity. These observations suggest that oxidative stress and individual genetic makeup contribute to vitamin E homeostasis in humans. These findings may explain the variable responses to vitamin E supplementation observed in human clinical trials. PMID:23079030

  18. Expression of the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene is regulated by oxidative stress and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ulatowski, Lynn; Dreussi, Cara; Noy, Noa; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Klein, Eric; Manor, Danny

    2012-12-15

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in most animal species. By controlling the secretion of vitamin E from the liver, the α-tocopherol transfer protein regulates whole-body distribution and levels of this vital nutrient. However, the mechanism(s) that regulates the expression of this protein is poorly understood. Here we report that transcription of the TTPA gene in immortalized human hepatocytes is induced by oxidative stress and by hypoxia, by agonists of the nuclear receptors PPARα and RXR, and by increased cAMP levels. The data show further that induction of TTPA transcription by oxidative stress is mediated by an already-present transcription factor and does not require de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor attenuated transcriptional responses of the TTPA gene to added peroxide, suggesting that CREB mediates responses of this gene to oxidative stress. Using a 1.9-kb proximal segment of the human TTPA promoter together with a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we found that single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are commonly found in healthy humans dramatically affect promoter activity. These observations suggest that oxidative stress and individual genetic makeup contribute to vitamin E homeostasis in humans. These findings may explain the variable responses to vitamin E supplementation observed in human clinical trials. PMID:23079030

  19. A common polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene is associated with side effects of PGP-dependent antidepressants in a large naturalistic Dutch cohort.

    PubMed

    Bet, P M; Verbeek, E C; Milaneschi, Y; Straver, D B M; Uithuisje, T; Bevova, M R; Hugtenburg, J G; Heutink, P; Penninx, B W J H; Hoogendijk, W J G

    2016-04-01

    The drug efflux transporter permeability glycoprotein (PGP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 are important for eliminating antidepressants from the brain and body. The ABCB1 gene, encoding for PGP, and CYP2C19 gene have several variants that could influence enzyme function and thereby the effect of PGP- and 2C19-dependent antidepressants. We investigated the association of antidepressant side effect and common genetic variation in 789 antidepressant users. In PGP-dependent antidepressant users, the A-allele of the rs2032588 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with a lower number of side effects after adjusting for gender, age, dosage and duration of use, (B=-0.44, q=4.6 × 10(-3)). This association was different from and absent in non-PGP-dependent antidepressant users. Other SNP associations as well as an interaction analysis between the rs2032588 SNP and the CYP2C19 SNPs were not statistically significant after adjusting for covariates and multiple comparisons. The association of rs2032588 with antidepressant side effects suggests the involvement of the ABCB1 genotype in the clinical pharmacology of PGP-dependent antidepressants. PMID:25987242

  20. A Comprehensive Analysis of Influence ERCC Polymorphisms Confer on the Development of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peiliang; Ou, Juanjuan; Li, Jianjun; Liao, Yunmei; Wang, Ning; Xie, Ganfeng; Sa, Rina; Liu, Chen; Xiang, Lisha; Liang, Houjie

    2016-05-01

    Within DNA repair genes, there lie a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that may impair protein function and attenuate DNA repair capability, resulting in genomic instability and individual predisposition to malignancies. The purpose of this study was to assess the previously reported inconsistent association of polymorphisms in ERCC1 (rs11615, rs3212986), ERCC2 (rs13181, rs1799793, rs238406), and ERCC5 (rs17655) with the development of brain tumors. In the present work, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis of results from all published data (5 data sets for rs11615, 7 for rs3212986, 11 for rs13181, 5 for rs1799793, 3 for rs238406, and 4 for rs17655) to evaluate risk of brain tumors contributed by the polymorphisms being investigated. Either the analytic method described by Mantel and Haenszel or that proposed by DerSimonian and Laird was properly used to summarize the risk estimates (OR and 95 % CI). Data analyses were done with Stata version 12.0. Meta-analyses were performed for all polymorphisms, and only rs3212986 in the ERCC1 gene showed a significant association with glioma incidence. In the homozygote comparison, we found 1.26-fold elevated risk of glioma in relation to presence of the AA genotype (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.52, P OR = 0.013, P heterogeneity = 0.849, I (2) = 0.0 %). We also noted that individuals with the rs3212986-AA as compared to those with rs3212986-CC/CA had a 28 % higher risk to develop glioma (OR = 1.28, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.53, P OR = 0.008, P heterogeneity = 0.808, I (2) = 0.0 %). No major effects were observed for Caucasians or Asians in subgroup analysis by ethnicity. ERCC1 rs3212986 is a common single nucleotide polymorphism and may contribute toward individual susceptibility for glioma. Further research in this filed is required to verify the association obtained based on a relatively small number. PMID:26264164

  1. Thermoregulatory influences on common carotid blood flow in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, M A; Hawkins, M J; Rader, R D

    1982-05-01

    Common carotid blood flow (CCBF) and respiratory water loss (RWL) were measured in dogs resting at ambient temperatures between 25 and 50 degrees C, during hypothalamic heating, and during light and heavy exercise at ambient temperatures of 25 and 35 degrees C. In resting dogs, CCBF varied with the level of RWL. Elevations in CCBF and RWL occurred within seconds of each other during bursts of panting. Mean unilateral CCBF increased from 6.2 ml . min-1 . kg-1 at 25 degrees C to 16.8 ml . min-1 . kg-1 at 45 degrees C, in parallel with increasing RWL. Hypothalamic heating elicited simultaneous elevations in CCBF and RWL, and the level of CCBF was strongly correlated with the hypothalamic temperature. Both CCBF and RWL increased rapidly at the onset of exercise and continued to rise during a 15-min run. Highest rates of blood flow and evaporation occurred during heavy exercise at 35 degrees C. It is concluded that the rate of blood flow through the common carotid arteries in the dog is related to the thermoregulatory needs of the animal, and most of the increased flow occurring during heat stress is destined for evaporative surfaces of the nose, mouth, and tongue. PMID:7096136

  2. The association between 2D:4D ratio and cognitive empathy is contingent on a common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576).

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Lu, Yunfeng; Chong, Anne; Chen, Ying; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Both testosterone and oxytocin influence an individual's accuracy in inferring another's feelings and emotions. Fetal testosterone, and the second-to-forth digit ratio (2D:4D) as its proxy, plays a role in social cognitive development, often by attenuating socio-affective skill. Conversely, oxytocin generally facilitates socio-affiliative and empathic cognition and behavior. A common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR rs53576, has been repeatedly linked with psychosocial competence, including empathy, with individuals homozygous for the G allele typically characterized by enhanced socio-cognitive skills compared to A allele carriers. We examined the role of oxytocin and testosterone in collectively contributing to individual differences in cognitive empathy as measured by Baron-Cohen's "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" task (RMET). Findings are based on a large cohort of male and female students (N=1463) of Han Chinese ethnicity. In line with existing literature, women outperformed men in the RMET. Men showed significantly lower 2D:4D ratio compared to women, indicating higher exposure to testosterone during the prenatal period. Interestingly, variation in the OXTR gene was found to interact with 2D:4D to predict men's (but not women's) RMET performance. Among men with GG allelic variation, those with low fetal testosterone performed better on the RMET, compared to men with GG and high fetal testosterone, suggesting greater identification of another's emotional state. Taken together, our data lend unique support to the mutual influence of the oxytocin and testosterone systems in shaping core aspect of human social cognition early in development, further suggesting that this effect is gender-specific. PMID:25935637

  3. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  4. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  5. Common Variants on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Polymorphisms Contributes to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility: Evidence Based on 58 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junhua; Sun, Fei; Zhao, Zefei; Gu, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of case–control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the CTLA4 polymorphism and T1D. In total, 58 association studies on two CTLA4 polymorphisms (G49A and C60T) and risk of T1D, including a total of 30,723 T1D cases and 45,254 controls were included. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio (OR) for T1D of the G49A and C60T polymorphism was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.53, P<10−5] and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18–1.29, P<10−5), respectively. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic model. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and sample size, significantly increased risks were also found for these polymorphisms. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the G49A and C60T polymorphism of CTLA4 is a risk factor associated with increased T1D susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations. PMID:24465825

  6. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  7. Laryngeal cancer risk and common single nucleotide polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5 and XPA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baocai; Li, Jing; Gao, Qingzu; Yu, Wenfa; Yang, Qinghui; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-05-25

    Because the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of laryngeal cancer are not well understood, we conducted a case-control study to determine the association between eight common SNPs in NER pathway genes and risk of laryngeal cancer, and the association between genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors. A 1:1 matched case-control study of 176 cases and 176 controls was conducted. Laryngeal cancer cases were more likely to smoke and drink (all P values<0.05). Subjects with the ERCC1 rs11615 CC genotype and C allele had an increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Similarly, individuals with the ERCC5 rs17655 GG genotype and G allele had an increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Gene-gene interaction analysis showed that subjects carrying ERCC1 rs11615 C allele and XPG/ERCC5 rs17655 G allele had a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Stratified analysis revealed that the interaction between polymorphisms of ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC5 rs17655 and smoking on cancer risk was statistically significant, and ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphisms also had a significant interaction with drinking habit. In conclusion, our study suggests that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of laryngeal cancer, and that they confer more risk among smokers and drinkers. PMID:24582975

  8. Association of a Common Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Self-Reported ‘Empathic Concern’ in a Large Population of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Anette; Siffert, Doris; Stelmach, Patrick; Knop, Dietmar; Horn, Peter Alexander; Siffert, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has linked genomic variations of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene with individual differences in empathy. The impact of these variations on specific cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy, however, remains to be clarified. Methods We analysed associations of a common OXTR polymorphism (rs53576) with trait empathy in a sample of 421 blood donors (231 M, 190 F; age 18–74) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) as an established multidimensional self-report measure of empathy. Results Female sex was significantly associated with higher empathy scores in all IRI scales (p<0.001) with the exception of the cognitive perspective taking scale (p = 0.09). The overall trait empathy score was significantly associated with rs53576 (p = 0.01), with mean scores increasing from AA to GG genotypes. An analysis of the IRI subscores revealed that the polymorphism was especially associated with the emotional empathic concern scale (p = 0.02). Separate analysis of the male and female subgroup revealed a significant association of the polymorphism with female (p = 0.04), but not with male (p = 0.20) empathic concern. A comparison of effect sizes between the groups showed greater effects for women compared to men although effect size differences did not become significant in our sample. Conclusions Our findings suggest a significant association of the rs53576 OXTR gene polymorphism with trait empathy and especially with emotional aspects of empathy. This association is possibly weaker or absent in men compared to women. PMID:27467763

  9. A Common Polymorphism in HIBCH Influences Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Blood Independently of Cobalamin.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Anne M; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L; Shane, Barry; O'Neill, Mary B; McGaughey, David M; Velkova, Aneliya; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Ueland, Per M; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Cunningham, Conal; Casey, Miriam; Cropp, Cheryl D; Kim, Yoonhee; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Wilson, Alexander F; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-05-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a by-product of propionic acid metabolism through the vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Elevated MMA concentrations are a hallmark of several inborn errors of metabolism and indicators of cobalamin deficiency in older persons. In a genome-wide analysis of 2,210 healthy young Irish adults (median age 22 years) we identified a strong association of plasma MMA with SNPs in 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH, p = 8.42 × 10(-89)) and acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3, p = 3.48 × 10(-19)). These loci accounted for 12% of the variance in MMA concentration. The most strongly associated SNP (HIBCH rs291466; c:2T>C) causes a missense change of the initiator methionine codon (minor-allele frequency = 0.43) to threonine. Surprisingly, the resulting variant, p.Met1?, is associated with increased expression of HIBCH mRNA and encoded protein. These homozygotes had, on average, 46% higher MMA concentrations than methionine-encoding homozygotes in young adults with generally low MMA concentrations (0.17 [0.14-0.21] μmol/L; median [25(th)-75(th) quartile]). The association between MMA levels and HIBCH rs291466 was highly significant in a replication cohort of 1,481 older individuals (median age 79 years) with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (0.34 [0.24-0.51] μmol/L; p = 4.0 × 10(-26)). In a longitudinal study of 185 pregnant women and their newborns, the association of this SNP remained significant across the gestational trimesters and in newborns. HIBCH is unique to valine catabolism. Studies evaluating flux through the valine catabolic pathway in humans should account for these variants. Furthermore, this SNP could help resolve equivocal clinical tests where plasma MMA values have been used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. PMID:27132595

  10. Novel Polymorphism in the FMR1 Gene Resulting in a “Pseudodeletion” of FMR1 in a Commonly Used Fragile X Assay

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Thomas M.; Rafii, Arash; Martin, Rick A.; Zehnbauer, Barbara A.

    2000-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of mental retardation. Genetic diagnosis of this disease relies on the detection of triplet repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome. Although the majority of disease in fragile X patients is due to mutations involving triplet repeat expansion, deletion of various portions of FMR1 has also been described in association with the fragile X syndrome. Here we describe a rare polymorphism in the noncoding region of FMR1 that mimics detection of a deletion in a commonly used assay for fragile X syndrome, which can result in misdiagnosis of the disease. PMID:11229516

  11. A Common Polymorphism in the Caspase Recruitment Domain of RIG-I Modifies the Innate Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianzhong; Nistal-Villán, Estanislao; Voho, Anu; Ganee, Arnold; Kumar, Madhu; Ding, Yaomei; Garciá-Sastre, Adolfo; Wetmur, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) by negative-strand RNA viruses, such as Newcastle disease virus, leads to the induction of the IFNβ gene, IFNB1, through the activation of the RNA helicase RIG-I, which is encoded by DDX58. Expression levels of IFNB1 and DDX58 in infected DCs showed positive correlations at the population and the single-cell levels. DDX58 has a common and potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphism, rs10813831 (A/G), encoding an Arg7Cys amino acid change in the RIG-I protein caspase recruitment domain (CARD). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis on Newcastle disease virus-infected primary DCs from 130 individuals revealed a significant association of the Arg7Cys single nucleotide polymorphism with increased IFNB1 and DDX58 transcription. Allelic imbalance analysis ruled out allele-specific DDX58 message levels and suggested that the observed association between Arg7Cys and IFNB1 and DDX58 transcription originated from a functional change in RIG-I due to the amino acid substitution in the CARD. DDX58 transfection experiments in 293T cells confirmed a biological functional difference between RIG-I 7Cys and the more common RIG-I 7Arg. Taken together, these data indicate that the innate immune response to viral infection of human cells is modified by a functional polymorphism in the RIG-I CARD. PMID:20511549

  12. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Katherine A; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Attia, John; Bowden, Nikola A

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case–control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively), but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013). This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012). Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported. PMID:27090263

  13. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Katherine A; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Attia, John; Bowden, Nikola A; Scott, Rodney J

    2016-05-01

    Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case-control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively), but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013). This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012). Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported. PMID:27090263

  14. Bim polymorphisms: influence on function and response to treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Vincent; Rousseau, Julie; Labuda, Malgorzata; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Brukner, Ivan; Laverdière, Caroline; Ceppi, Francesco; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids (CS) induce apoptosis in the malignant lymphoid cells and are critical component of combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Several genome-wide microarray studies demonstrated major implication of proapoptotic Bim in mediating CS-related resistance in leukemia cells. Experimental design We investigated Bim gene polymorphisms and their association with childhood ALL outcome, and the mechanism underlying the observed finding. Results Lower overall survival (OS) was associated with Bim C29201T located in BH3 domain (p=0.01). An association remained significant in multivariate model (p=0.007), was more apparent in high risk (HR) patients (p=0.004) and patients treated with dexamethasone (p=0.009), and was subsequently confirmed in the replication patient cohort (p=0.03). RNA analysis revealed that C29201T affects generation of gamma isoforms (gamma1) that lack pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. The phenotypic effect was minor suggesting the influence of additional factors that may act in conjunction with Bim genotype. Combined analysis with Mcl gene polymorphism (G -486T) revealed profound reduction in OS in individuals with both risk genotypes (p<0.0005 in discovery and p=0.002 in replication cohort) and particularly in HR patients (p≤0.008). Conclusions Increased expression of pro-survival Mcl1 and presence of Bim isoforms lacking pro-apoptotic function might explain marked reduction of OS in a disease and dose dependent manner in ALL patients carrying Bim and Mcl1 risk genotypes. PMID:23908358

  15. A laboratory investigation of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) in influencing CaCO 3 polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Decho, A. W.

    2002-04-01

    Bahamian stromatolites are well-laminated structures, consisting of lithified layers alternating between unlithified layers containing fine-grained carbonate ooids. The lithified layers consist of abundant aragonite needles embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) by cyanobacteria, Schizothrix sp. Laboratory investigations were conducted using EPS extracted from natural stromatolites and laboratory isolates of Schizothrix sp., to chemically characterize EPS, and determine in vitro how EPS may influence CaCO 3 polymorphism. EPS mainly consisted of acidic polysaccharides and proteins. Biochemical analyses indicated that contents of uronic acids and carbohydrates in EPS from lithified layers decreased when compared with unlithified layer EPS, while the protein content remained relatively constant. CaCO 3 nucleation experiments demonstrated that EPS from the lithified layer, induced aragonite crystal formation in vitro, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In contrast, EPS from the unlithified layer or laboratory-cultured Schizothrix sp. induced calcite crystal formation. These laboratory results suggest the possibility that the biochemical composition, specifically small proteins, of EPS influences the resulting mineralogy of CaCO 3.

  16. Effects of Common Polymorphism rs11614913 in Hsa-miR-196a2 on Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weilu; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA-coding genes may participate in the pathogenesis of lung cancer by altering the expression of tumor-related microRNAs. Several studies were investigated in recent years to evaluate the association between hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism and increased/decreased lung cancer risk. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the possible association. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies that included 2219 lung-cancer cases and 2232 cancer-free controls. We evaluated the strength of the association using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the overall analysis, it was found that the rs11614913 polymorphism significantly elevated the risk of lung cancer (CC versus (vs.) TT OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.07–1.49, P = 0.007; CC/CT vs. TT: OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.98–1.29, P = 0.007; C vs. T: OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22, P = 0.008). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, statistically significantly increased cancer risk was found among Asians (CC vs. TT: OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.10–1.54, P = 0.003; CT vs. TT: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.01–1.34, P = 0.039; CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.04–1.41, P = 0.012; C vs. T: OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.05–1.25, P = 0.002). For Europeans, a significant association with lung cancer risk was found in recessive model (CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.98, P = 0.040). No publication bias was found in this study. Conclusions/Significance Our meta-analysis suggests that the rs11614913 polymorphism is significant associated with the increased risk of lung cancer, especially in Asians. Besides, the C allele of rs11614913 polymorphism may contribute to increased lung cancer risk. PMID:23593385

  17. Differential influence of 5-HTTLPR - polymorphism and COMT Val158Met - polymorphism on emotion perception and regulation in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants' reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual's own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. PMID:24685226

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence the Ovarian Response to rFSH Stimulation in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Programs with ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Boudjenah, Radia; Molina-Gomes, Denise; Torre, Antoine; Bergere, Marianne; Bailly, Marc; Boitrelle, Florence; Taieb, Stéphane; Wainer, Robert; Benahmed, Mohamed; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Selva, Jacqueline; Vialard, François

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining an adequate number of high-quality oocytes is a major challenge in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). To date, a range of hormonal and clinical parameters have been used to optimize COH but none have significant predictive value. This variability could be due to the genetic predispositions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we assessed the individual and combined impacts of thirteen SNPs that reportedly influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on the ovarian response to rFSH stimulation for patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection program (ICSI). Results Univariate analysis revealed that only FSHR, ESR2 and p53 SNPs influenced the number of mature oocytes. The association was statistically significant for FSHR (p=0.0047) and ESR2 (0.0017) in the overall study population and for FSHR (p=0.0009) and p53 (p=0.0048) in subgroup that was more homogeneous in terms of clinical variables. After Bonferroni correction and a multivariate analysis, only the differences for FSHR and ESR2 polymorphisms were still statistically significant. In a multilocus analysis, only the FSHR and AMH SNP combination significantly influenced oocyte numbers in both population (p<0.01). Discussion We confirmed the impact of FSHR and ESR2 polymorphisms on the IVF outcome. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that a p53 polymorphism (which is already known to impact embryo implantation) could influence the ovarian response. However, given that this result lost its statistical significance after multivariate analysis, more data are needed to draw firm conclusions. Only the FSHR and AMH polymorphism combination appears to influence mature oocyte numbers but this finding also needs to be confirmed. Materials and Methods A 13 gene polymorphisms: FSHR(Asn680Ser), p53(Arg72Pro), AMH(Ile49Ser), ESR2(+1730G>A), ESR1(−397T>C), BMP15(−9C>G), MTHFR1(677C>T), MTHFR2(1298A>C), HLA-G(−725C>G), VEGF(+405G>C), TNFα(−308A>G), AMHR

  19. Quadruplex-single nucleotide polymorphisms (Quad-SNP) influence gene expression difference among individuals

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, Pankaj; Halder, Rashi; Mani, Prithvi; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Ankita; Das, Swapan K.; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    Non-canonical guanine quadruplex structures are not only predominant but also conserved among bacterial and mammalian promoters. Moreover recent findings directly implicate quadruplex structures in transcription. These argue for an intrinsic role of the structural motif and thereby posit that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that compromise the quadruplex architecture could influence function. To test this, we analysed SNPs within quadruplex motifs (Quad-SNP) and gene expression in 270 individuals across four populations (HapMap) representing more than 14 500 genotypes. Findings reveal significant association between quadruplex-SNPs and expression of the corresponding gene in individuals (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, analysis of Quad-SNPs obtained from population-scale sequencing of 1000 human genomes showed relative selection bias against alteration of the structural motif. To directly test the quadruplex-SNP-transcription connection, we constructed a reporter system using the RPS3 promoter—remarkable difference in promoter activity in the ‘quadruplex-destabilized’ versus ‘quadruplex-intact’ promoter was noticed. As a further test, we incorporated a quadruplex motif or its disrupted counterpart within a synthetic promoter reporter construct. The quadruplex motif, and not the disrupted-motif, enhanced transcription in human cell lines of different origin. Together, these findings build direct support for quadruplex-mediated transcription and suggest quadruplex-SNPs may play significant role in mechanistically understanding variations in gene expression among individuals. PMID:22238381

  20. Influence of Intron II microsatellite polymorphism in human toll-like receptor 2 gene in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Naveen Chandra; Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Jain, Suman; SivaSai, Krovvidi S R; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Jonnalagada, Subbanna; Anandaraj, M P J S

    2013-08-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. TLR2 plays a key role when activated by M. leprae lipoproteins initiating protective responses which induce bacterial killing and therefore control of disease spread. Microsatellite polymorphisms in intron2 of TLR2 gene have been reported to be associated with development of clinical features of several infectious diseases. The study aims to evaluate the influence of GT microsatellite on the expression of TLR2 which could make humans prone to M. leprae infections. A total of 279 individuals were enrolled in the study, 88 were leprosy patients, 95 were house hold contacts (HHC) and 96 were healthy controls (HC). Genotyping was done using PCR-Sequencing method. TLR2 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured using ELISA in MLSA stimulated cell culture supernatants. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square (χ(2)) test and t-tests. Allele/genotype of TLR2 microsatellite which includes longer GT repeats was associated with low TLR2 mRNA expression and high IL-10 production while that including shorter GT repeats was associated with high TLR2 mRNA expression and low IL-10 production. High IL10 producing allele of TLR2 microsatellite might predispose house hold contacts to leprosy. PMID:23619473

  1. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an “aha” moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving. PMID:26528222

  2. The influence of genetic drift on the formation and stability of polymorphisms arising from negative frequency-dependent selection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Waxman, David

    2016-02-21

    We consider the simplest form of negative frequency-dependent selection in a biallelic haploid population, where the selection coefficient of a mutant allele is a linear function of the allele's frequency, and changes from positive to negative as the frequency is increased. In an effectively infinite population this behaviour leads to a stable polymorphism. We present a theoretical investigation of what occurs in a finite population, where a long-lived polymorphism may be formed, but which fluctuates and ultimately disappears due to random genetic drift. We model the dynamics as a branching process and explicitly take into account differences between the census population size and the effective population size, which play different roles in the dynamics. We characterise the behaviour of the population in terms of three distinct timescales associated with: (i) early loss of mutant alleles, (ii) achievement of the long-lived polymorphism, (iii) disappearance of the polymorphism. Timescales (i) and (iii) depend on the effective population size and are, as a consequence, affected by random genetic drift, while timescale (ii) depends primarily on the census size and is relatively insensitive to genetic drift. Analysis and simulations of the branching process clarify the different influences of the census and effective population sizes. One substantial quantitative difference, between populations where the effective and census population sizes coincide and where they differ, lies in the number of mutant alleles in the long-lived polymorphism. This number is approximately proportional to the census size. Thus assuming the census size equals a much smaller effective population size predicts a much smaller number of mutants in the long-lived polymorphism. PMID:26656188

  3. A PER3 Polymorphism Interacts with Sleep Duration to Influence Transient Mood States in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gobin, Christina M.; Fins, Ana I.; Craddock, Travis J.A.; Tartar, Aurélien; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Expression of the clock family of genes in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) regulates the molecular control of circadian timing. Increasing evidence also implicates clock gene activity in the development of mood disorders. In particular, variation in the PER3 clock gene has been shown to influence diurnal preference and sleep homeostasis. However, there is not currently a clear association between PER3 polymorphisms and mood. This is possibly because the PER3 gene has been shown to influence homeostatic sleep drive, rather than circadian timing, and the PER3 gene may be behaviorally relevant only under chronic sleep loss conditions. Methods: To test the association between PER3 allele status and impaired mood, a total of 205 healthy women were genotyped for PER3 allele status and responded to previously-validated psychological questionnaires surveying self-reported sleep habits (MEQ, PSQI) and mood. Our mood measures included two measures of short-term, transient mood (state anxiety and mood disturbance) and two measures of longer term, ongoing mood (trait anxiety and depressive symptomology). Results: The PER3 genotype distribution was 88 (42.9%) for PER3(4/4), 98 (47.8%) for PER3(4/5), and 19 (9.3%) for PER3(5/5). Our sleep duration x genotype interaction analyses showed that, relative to longer allele carriers, PER3(4/4) genotypes were at greater risk for transient psychological effects (mood and state anxiety) when they reported reduced sleep durations. Conclusion: Sleep duration plays a critical role in understanding the extent to which PER3 allele status relates to mood states. PMID:27103936

  4. Evidence for Common Etiological Influences on Early Literacy Skills in Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the etiology of print awareness and phonological awareness are related to the etiology of decoding can provide insights into the development of word reading. To address this issue, we examined the degree of overlap among etiological influences of pre-reading skills in 1,252 twin pairs in kindergarten. Genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental factors were significant for all three literacy phenotypes. The majority of genetic and shared environmental influence on decoding was due to common factors that included print awareness and phonological awareness. Notably, only a single genetic factor contributed to all three literacy phenotypes but there was additional shared environmental influence common to phonological awareness and decoding. Findings suggest commonalities in the etiology of pre-reading literacy skills that could inform work on the development of reading skill. PMID:23204828

  5. Several genetic polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    B (MTHFR); HDL-C and ApoA1 (MYLIP) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (ABCA-1); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (LIPG); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); TC, TG and ApoB (MYLIP); TG (PCSK9); TG, ApoA1 and ApoB (PPARD); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (SCARB1) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); LIPC (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB); LIPG (ApoB); MTHFR (TC, TG and LDL-C); MYLIP (TC and TG); PCSK9 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB); PPARD (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and SCARB1 (TG, ApoA1 and ApoB) interacted with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions The differences in serum lipid levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different genetic polymorphisms and the interactions between several SNPs and overweight/obesity. PMID:23039238

  6. Polymorphic Protein Crystal Growth: Influence of Hydration and Ions in Glucose Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, C M; Asthagiri, D; Lenhoff, A M

    2014-01-01

    Crystal polymorphs of glucose isomerase were examined to characterize the properties and to quantify the energetics of protein crystal growth. Transitions of polymorph stability were measured in poly(ethylene glycol)/NaCl solutions, and one transition point was singled out for more detailed quantitative analysis. Single crystal x-ray diffraction was used to confirm space groups and identify complementary crystal structures. Crystal polymorph stability was found to depend on the NaCl concentration, with stability transitions requiring > 1 M NaCl combined with a low concentration of PEG. Both salting-in and salting-out behavior was observed and was found to differ for the two polymorphs. For NaCl concentrations above the observed polymorph transition, the increase in solubility of the less stable polymorph together with an increase in the osmotic second virial coefficient suggests that changes in protein hydration upon addition of salt may explain the experimental trends. A combination of atomistic and continuum models was employed to dissect this behavior. Molecular dynamics simulations of the solvent environment were interpreted using quasi-chemical theory to understand changes in protein hydration as a function of NaCl concentration. The results suggest that protein surface hydration and Na(+) binding may introduce steric barriers to contact formation, resulting in polymorph selection. PMID:24955067

  7. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  8. Influence of polymorphic N-acetyltransferases on non-malignant spontaneous disorders and on response to drugs.

    PubMed

    Ladero, J M

    2008-07-01

    Polymorphic N-acetyl transferases (NAT) 1 and 2 are involved in detoxification of xenobiotic arylamines and hydralazines. These common environmental chemicals may be related to the pathogenesis of many spontaneous disorders, mainly malignancies, but also disimmune or degenerative diseases, for which a polygenic predisposition has been suggested. Hence, polymorphic NAT genes (NAT2 has been the most studied one) may be low-penetrance risk genes for some of these disorders. Although a relation of risk may be definitely discarded for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease and endometriosis, more research is needed for rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Behçet's and periodontal diseases , as current results are inconclusive but suggest a possible relation with NAT2 polymorphism. In diabetes mellitus the possible relation with the rapid phenotype may be due to acquired metabolic changes and more genotyping studies are needed. NAT2 slow metabolizers are more prone to the side effects of polymorphically acetylated drugs, as is the SLE-like syndrome induced by hydralazine and procainamide, the side effects due to sulphasalazine and the skin rash secondary to many sulphonamides. Future research should be based on well-designed studies, with adequate sample sizes and homogeneous recruitment criteria, to obviate the proliferation of small studies that are time- and resource-consuming without offering definite answers. PMID:18680473

  9. The Strong Influence of Structure Polymorphism on the Conductivity of Peptide Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ivnitski, Denis; Amit, Moran; Silberbush, Ohad; Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Nanda, Jayanta; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Miller, Yifat; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2016-08-16

    Peptide fibril nanostructures have been advocated as components of future biotechnology and nanotechnology devices. However, the ability to exploit the fibril functionality for applications, such as catalysis or electron transfer, depends on the formation of well-defined architectures. Fibrils made of peptides substituted with aromatic groups are described presenting efficient electron delocalization. Peptide self-assembly under various conditions produced polymorphic fibril products presenting distinctly different conductivities. This process is driven by a collective set of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, and π-stacking interactions, and as a result it can be directed towards formation of a distinct polymorph by using the medium to enhance specific interactions rather than the others. This method facilitates the detailed characterization of different polymorphs, and allows specific conditions to be established that lead to the polymorph with the highest conductivity. PMID:27392288

  10. Influence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene polymorphism on cognitive function in schizophrenia✰,✰✰

    PubMed Central

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; McMahon, Robert P.; Krishna, Nithin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Liu, Judy; Glassman, Matthew; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits compromise quality of life and productivity for individuals with schizophrenia and have no effective treatments. Preclinical data point to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism as a potential target for pro-cognitive drug development. We have previously demonstrated association of a kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene variant with reduced KMO gene expression in postmortem schizophrenia cortex, and neurocognitive endophenotypic deficits in a clinical sample. KMO encodes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the rate-limiting microglial enzyme of cortical kynurenine metabolism. Aberration of the KMO gene might be the proximal cause of impaired cortical kynurenine metabolism observed in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between KMO variation and cognitive function in schizophrenia is unknown. This study examined the effects of the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods We examined the association of KMO polymorphisms with general neuropsychological performance and P50 gating in a sample of 150 schizophrenia and 95 healthy controls. Results Consistent with our original report, the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele was associated with deficits in general neuropsychological performance, and this effect was more marked in schizophrenia compared with controls. Additionally, the C (Arg452) allele of the missense rs1053230C>T variant (KMO Arg452Cys) showed a trend effect on cognitive function. Neither variant affected P50 gating. Conclusions These data suggest that KMO variation influences a range of cognitive domains known to predict functional outcome. Extensive molecular characterization of this gene would elucidate its role in cognitive function with implications for vertical integration with basic discovery. PMID:25464917

  11. NTM and NR3C2 polymorphisms influencing intelligence: family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Aragam, Nagesh

    2011-01-15

    Family, twin, and adoption studies have indicated that human intelligence quotient (IQ) has significant genetic components. We performed a low-density genome-wide association analysis with a family-based association test to identify genetic variants influencing IQ, as measured by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale full-score IQ (FSIQ). We examined 11,120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Affymetrix GeneChips 10K mapping array genotyped in 292 nuclear families from Genetic Analysis Workshop 14, a subset from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). A replication analysis was performed using part of International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics Project (IMAGE) dataset. Twenty-two SNPs were identified as having suggestive associations with IQ (p<10(-3)) in the COGA sample and eleven of the SNPs were located within known genes. In particular, NTM at 11q25 (rs411280, p = 0.000764) and NR3C2 at 4q31.1 (rs3846329, p = 0.000675) were two novel genes which have not been associated with IQ in other studies. It has been reported that NTM might play a role in late-onset Alzheimer disease while NR3C2 may be associated with cognitive function and major depression. The associations of these two genes were well-replicated by single-marker and haplotype analyses in the IMAGE sample. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that chromosome regions of 11q25 and 4q31.1 contain genes affecting IQ. This study will serve as a resource for replication in other populations. PMID:21036197

  12. Does the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism Influence Swimming Performance in Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Grenda, Agata; Sawczuk, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Umiastowska, Danuta; Łubkowska, Wioletta; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism C825T located within the GNB3 gene has been proposed in the literature as the performance enhancing polymorphism in highly trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis assuming an association between the C825T polymorphic site and performance of competitive swimmers. The frequencies of C/T alleles and distribution of CC, CT and TT genotypes of the C825T GNB3 polymorphism were compared between athletes and nonathletic controls as well as between sprint and endurance swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 competitive swimmers (50 long distance swimmers (LDS) and 147 short distance swimmers (SDS)) and 379 sedentary volunteers. The allele frequencies and genotype distribution of the C825T polymorphic site were not significantly different when LDS and SDS were compared to sedentary controls. Gender-specific analysis did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distribution, neither between female controls and female swimmers nor between male controls and male swimmers. No significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution were observed when LDS and SDS as well as groups of swimmers stratified by gender were compared. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is associated with swimming performance in competitive swimmers. PMID:26557194

  13. Common Genetic and Environmental Influences on Major Depressive Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbarao, Anjali; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence for common genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder (CD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents was examined. A sample of 570 monozygotic twin pairs, 592 dizygotic twin pairs, and 426 non-twin siblings, aged 12-18 years, was recruited from the Colorado Twin Registry. For the past year data, there was a…

  14. Polymorphisms in the TOLLIP Gene Influence Susceptibility to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania guyanensis in the Amazonas State of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Felipe Jules; da Silva, Luan Diego Oliveira; Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Vital, Wonei de Seixas; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Talhari, Sinésio; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The clinical outcome to Leishmania-infection is determined by the individual adaptive immune T helper cell responses and their interactions with parasitized host cells. An early development of a proinflammatory immune response (Th1 response) is necessary for Leishmania-infection resolution. The Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) regulates human Toll-like receptors signaling pathways by down regulating the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducing the ant-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Polymorphisms in the TOLLIP gene are associated with infectious diseases. Material and Methods The polymorphisms rs5743899 and rs3750920 in the TOLLIP gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 631 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. guyanensis and 530 individuals with no history of leishmaniasis. Results The G and T alleles of the rs5743899 and rs3750920 were more common in patients with CL than in healthy individuals (P = 2.6 x10-8 ; odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [ 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.0] and P = 1.9 x10-8 ; OR, 1.6 [95% CI 1.4–1.9] respectively). The r2 and D’ linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms are 0.05 and 0.473 with a confidence bounds of 0.37 to 0.57 respectively. Conclusion The two polymorphisms are independently associated with an increased risk of developing CL. PMID:26107286

  15. Vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Yanagawa, Tatsuo; Yamada, Satoru; Maruyama, Taro; Kasuga, Akira; Ban, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been shown to exert manifold immunomodulatory effects. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is regarded to be immune-mediated and vitamin D prevents the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse. We studied the association between T1DM and the initiation codon polymorphism in exon 2 of the vitamin D receptor gene in a Japanese population. We also investigated associations between the vitamin D receptor polymorphism and GAD65-antibody (Ab) positivity. We carried out polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 110 Japanese T1DM patients and 250 control subjects. GAD65 antibodies were assessed in 78 patients with T1DM. Results We found a significantly higher prevalence of the F allele / the FF genotype in the patients compared to the controls (P = 0.0069 and P = 0.014, respectively). Genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly between GAD65-Ab-positive patients and controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, respectively), but neither between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls (P = 0.68 and P = 0.66, respectively) nor between GAD65-Ab-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.19 and P = 0.16, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to T1DM among the Japanese. This polymorphism is also associated with GAD65-Ab-positive T1DM, although the absence of a significant difference between GAD65-Ab-negative patients and controls might be simply due to the small sample size of patients tested for GAD65 antibodies. PMID:11445000

  16. Influence of four polymorphisms in ABCA1 and PTGS2 genes on risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qicong; Liang, Biyu; Wang, Ziyou; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yifeng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Zunnan

    2016-08-01

    We preformed this meta-analysis to investigate the influence of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1) rs2422493 (C-477T), rs1800977 (C-14T), rs2066718 (V771M), and PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) rs20417 (G-765C) polymorphisms on the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventeen eligible case-control studies were acquired from PubMed, Embase, Alzgene, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated to evaluate the association under five genetic models. Combined data indicated that ABCA1 rs2422493 polymorphism was statistically significant associated with increasing AD risk in three genetic models (allelic T vs C: OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.24; homozygous TT vs CC: OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.55; and recessive TT vs TC + CC: OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.58) while no association was found between two other ABCA1 polymorphisms and AD susceptibility. Nevertheless, a further risk-stratification analysis showed that ApoE-ε4 carriers with any ABCA1 polymorphism suffered a much higher probability to be AD patients. Meanwhile, PTGS2 rs20417 polymorphism was linked to decreasing AD risk with a P < 0.0001 in five genetic models (e.g., allelic C vs G: OR = 0.59, 95 % CI: 0.50-0.70; homozygous CC vs GG: OR = 0.31, 95 % CI: 0.18-0.52; and heterozygous CG vs GG: OR = 0.64, 95 % CI: 0.52-0.78). In summary, our meta-analysis results showed that ABCA1 rs2422493 polymorphism was a risk factor for AD while PTGS2 rs20417 variant showed a protective effect on AD risk. In addition, ABCA1 rs2066718 and rs1800977 polymorphisms might not contribute to AD susceptibility in general population, but they should play a role on AD development when interacted with ApoE-ε4. PMID:27215623

  17. A Single-Amino-Acid Polymorphism in Chikungunya Virus E2 Glycoprotein Influences Glycosaminoglycan Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection. PMID:24371059

  18. Influences of COMT and 5-HTTLPR Polymorphisms on Cognitive Flexibility in Healthy Women: Inhibition of Prepotent Responses and Memory Updating

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M.; Mittenecker, Erich; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic factors that affect monoamine neurotransmitters flux in prefrontal cortex may help to further specify the complex neurobiological processes that underlie cognitive function and dysfunction in health and illness. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of dopaminergic (COMT Met158Val) and serotoninergic (5-HTTLPR) genes and the sequential pattern of responses in a motor random generation task providing well-established indexes for executive functioning in a large sample of 255 healthy women. Participants homozygous for the Met allele of the COMT polymorphism showed impaired inhibition of prepotent responses, whereas individuals homozygous for the s-allele of the 5-HTTLPR showed a restricted ability to update information in working memory. Taken together the results indicate differentiated influences of dopaminergic and serotonergic genes on important and definite executive sub-processes related to cognitive flexibility. PMID:24465579

  19. [The influence of selected cytokine gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of acute and chronic rejection and on kidney graft survival].

    PubMed

    Kocierz, Magdalena; Kujawa-Szewieczek, Agata; Kolonko, Aureliusz; Chudek, Jerzy; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Genetically determined interindividual differences in the production of mediators of immune response may influence the outcomes of kidney transplantation. Of the cytokine gene polymorphisms that determine the level of gene expression, TNF-a -08G/A, IFN-g +874T/A and microsatellite (CA)n, TGF-b1 +869T/C and +915G/C, IL-6 -174G/C, and IL-10 -592C/A, -819C/T, and -1082G/A seem to have the strongest impact on graft survival. Increased risk of acute rejection (AR) was demonstrated for high-producing genotypes of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a and IFN-g, while the association with polymorphisms of TGF-b1 and IL-10 remains unclear. A high production of profibrotic TGF-b1 is associated with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). In contrast, high genetically determined IL-6 gene expression played a protective role in the development of chronic rejection (CR). The risk of graft loss was greater among high TNF-a and low TGF-b1 or IL-6 producers. The results of kidney transplantation are also influenced by the donor's cytokine expression profile. Low IL-6 production donor genotype was associated with a higher prevalence of AR, CR, and IF/TA. Low donor transcriptional TGF-b1 gene activity predisposed the recipient to AR episodes and high IFN-g expression to IF/TA development. To date, study results are highly inconsistent, so the applicability of cytokine polymorphism genotyping remains questionable. In summary, it is difficult to conclude whether or not cytokine polymorphism genotyping is useful in the risk assessment of rejection and kidney graft survival and in applying optimal immunosuppressive medication. PMID:20097948

  20. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bounamous, Azzedine; Lehrter, Véronique; Hadj-Henni, Leila; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b), t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:24936911

  1. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bounamous, Azzedine; Lehrter, Véronique; Hadj-Henni, Leila; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2014-07-01

    A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b), t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:24936911

  2. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunliang; Lori, Adriana; Waldman, Irwin D.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment. PMID:26178189

  3. A common IL-13 Arg130Gln single nucleotide polymorphism among Chinese atopy patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Xing, Zhi-Min; Lu, Chao; Ma, You-Xiang; Yu, De-Lin; Yan, Zheng; Wang, Shen-Wu; Yu, Li-Sheng

    2003-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major public health problem and has seen its prevalence increase during the past few decades. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis and in the regulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found in both the coding sequence and the promoter region of IL-13, and such SNPs have been associated with allergic asthma. We have investigated whether IL-13 SNPs are associated with allergic rhinitis. Among 188 Chinese adult patients with allergic rhinitis and 87 normal controls, no significant difference was found in either allele or haplotype frequency of the SNPs between the two groups. Within patients, there was a significant association of the IL-13 Arg130Gln SNP, but not of the IL-13 promoter -1112(C/T) SNP, with serum total IgE levels. Patients with a Gln/Gln genotype showed much higher serum total IgE than those with an Arg/Arg genotype. When tested for serum-specific IgE, patients allergic to Derp 1, but not those allergic to Artemisia pollen, showed a significant association with the IL-13 promoter SNP. Thus, our results suggest a possible involvement of IL-13 SNPs in the regulation of IgE production in response to allergens in this Chinese population. PMID:12928861

  4. Influence of climate on the presence of colour polymorphism in two montane reptile species.

    PubMed

    Broennimann, Olivier; Ursenbacher, Sylvain; Meyer, Andreas; Golay, Philippe; Monney, Jean-Claude; Schmocker, Hans; Guisan, Antoine; Dubey, Sylvain

    2014-11-01

    The coloration of ectotherms plays an important role in thermoregulation processes. Dark individuals should heat up faster and be able to reach a higher body temperature than light individuals and should therefore have benefits in cool areas. In central Europe, montane local populations of adder (Vipera berus) and asp viper (Vipera aspis) exhibit a varying proportion of melanistic individuals. We tested whether the presence of melanistic V. aspis and V. berus could be explained by climatic conditions. We measured the climatic niche position and breadth of monomorphic (including strictly patterned individuals) and polymorphic local populations, calculated their niche overlap and tested for niche equivalency and similarity. In accordance with expectations, niche overlap between polymorphic local populations of both species is high, and even higher than that of polymorphic versus monomorphic montane local populations of V. aspis, suggesting a predominant role of melanism in determining the niche of ectothermic vertebrates. However, unexpectedly, the niche of polymorphic local populations of both species is narrower than that of monomorphic ones, indicating that colour polymorphism does not always enable the exploitation of a greater variability of resources, at least at the intraspecific level. Overall, our results suggest that melanism might be present only when the thermoregulatory benefit is higher than the cost of predation. PMID:25392313

  5. Whole genome association scan for genetic polymorphisms influencing information processing speed

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Michelle; Hansell, Narelle K.; Lahti, Jari; Davies, Gail; Medland, Sarah E.; Räikkönen, Katri; Tenesa, Albert; Widen, Elisabeth; McGhee, Kevin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Liewald, David; Porteous, David J.; Starr, John M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed is an important cognitive function that is compromised in psychiatric illness (e.g., schizophrenia, depression) and old age; it shares genetic background with complex cognition (e.g., working memory, reasoning). To find genes influencing speed we performed a genome-wide association scan in up to three cohorts: Brisbane (mean age 16 years; N = 1659); LBC1936 (mean age 70 years, N = 992); LBC1921 (mean age 82 years, N = 307), and; HBCS (mean age 64 years, N = 1080). Meta-analysis of the common measures highlighted various suggestively significant (p < 1.21 × 10−5) SNPs and plausible candidate genes (e.g., TRIB3). A biological pathways analysis of the speed factor identified two common pathways from the KEGG database (cell junction, focal adhesion) in two cohorts, while a pathway analysis linked to the GO database revealed common pathways across pairs of speed measures (e.g., receptor binding, cellular metabolic process). These highlighted genes and pathways will be able to inform future research, including results for psychiatric disease. PMID:21130836

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATES FROM COMMON BEAN AND SUGAR BEET USIG PATHOGENICITY ASSAYS AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract. Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common bean and Fusarium yellows of sugar beet in the Central High Plains (CHP) region of the United States with yield losses approaching 30% under appropriate environmental conditions. The objective of this study was ...

  7. Influence of cobalt uptake by Vicia faba seeds on chlorophyll morphosis induction, SOD polymorphism, and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Rancelis, Vytautas; Cesniene, Tatjana; Kleizaite, Violeta; Zvingila, Donatas; Balciuniene, Laimute

    2012-01-01

    Vicia faba plants show polymorphism to cobalt (Co) excess, expressed by a different degree of chlorophyll morphosis (CM)-from normally green (N) to yellow (Y) seedlings. For superoxide dismutase (SOD), the high V. faba polymorphism was revealed and increased by Co stress. Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in both phenomena. For such reasons, we investigated the effect of 5-azacytosine (AzaC) and Na butyrate (NaBut) on CM induction, SOD polymorphism, and DNA methylation-demethylation events in Co(NO(3) )(2) affected plants, without or with AzaC or NaBut. CMs were induced after treatment of seeds for 8 h with 7.5 mM Co(NO(3) )(2) plus 12 h with H(2) O or 8 h with H(2) O plus 12 h with Co(NO(3) )(2) . In the same order AzaC and NaBut were applied in concentrations equimolar to Co(NO(3) )(2) . SOD isoforms were investigated electrophoretically, and for DNA methylation-demethylation events the Aina [Aina et al. (2004) Physiol Plant 121:472-480] system was applied upon using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method employing restrictases MspI and HpaII. The effect of AzaC and NaBut on CM induction in combination with Co was unclear. Posttreatment with Co was more effective than Co-pretreatment. SOD polymorphism was significantly strengthened by NaBut. Detection of DNA methylation-demethylation events depended on the primers used for RAPD analysis. With AP5 and MP4 primers, DNA demethylation was observed in N-seedlings after exposure to Co, AzaC or NaBut applied separately. With primer A6, only DNA methylation events were determined in N-seedlings from seeds exposed to Co or Co-AzaC, and in Y-seedlings after Co-AzaC or Co-NaBut treatment. UPGMA grouping of the results showed that all N-seedlings comprised one common cluster after Co exposure, independently of treatment combinations (Co alone, Co with AzaC, Co with NaBut). On the contrary, no significant differences were determined in SOD polymorphism among the most resistant N-seedlings and the most severely

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 and acyl-CoA synthetase 5 polymorphisms influence diet response.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Kristi B; Dent, Robert; Langefeld, Carl D; Cox, Miranda; Williams, Kathryn; Carrick, Kevin M; Stuart, Joan S; Sundseth, Scott S; Harper, Mary-Ellen; McPherson, Ruth; Tesson, Frédérique

    2007-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its response gene, Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5), which has an important role in fatty acid metabolism, may affect weight loss in response to caloric restriction. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether these genes were involved in the interindividual response to dietary treatment. Genotypic/phenotypic comparisons were made between selected obese women from the quintiles losing the most (diet responsive, n = 74) and the quintiles losing the least (diet-resistant, n = 67) weight in the first 6 weeks of a 900-kcal formula diet. Two common PPARgamma single nucleotide polymorphisms, Pro(12)Ala and C1431T, and eight polymorphisms across the ACSL5 gene were selected for single locus and haplotypic association analyses. The PPARgamma Pro(12)Ala single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with diet resistance (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.41 to 8.56, p = 0.03), and the rs2419621, located in the 5'untranslated region of the ACSL5 gene, displayed the strongest association with diet response (odds ratio = 3.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.61 to 7.69, p = 0.001). Skeletal muscle ACSL5 mRNA expression was significantly lower in carriers of the wildtype compared with the variant rs2419621 allele (p = 0.03). Our results suggest a link between PPARgamma2 and ACSL5 genotype and diet responsiveness. PMID:17495181

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair pathways influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Liu, Zhi-yue; Li, Cun-bao; Gao, Shang; Ding, Li-hong; Wu, Xin-lin; Wang, Zhao-yang

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy and treatment outcome of gastric cancer patients in the present of ERCC1, ERCC2, NBN, RAD51, and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms. A number of 415 patients of gastric cancer that received platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled in the present study. The presence of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181, NBN rs1805794, rs709816, and RAD51 rs1801321 and XRCC3 rs1799794 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Conditional regression analysis identified that CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793 was associated with a better response to chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients, and the odds ratio (ORs)(95% confidence interval (CI)) were 2.70(1.33-5.70) and 3.12(1.52-6.84), respectively. By the Cox analysis, the CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615, AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793, and CC genotype of NBN rs1805794 were significantly associated with a longer overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer. In conclusion, our results suggest that ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs1799793, and NBN rs1805794 polymorphisms in the DNA repair pathways may influence the response to chemotherapy and OS of gastric cancer. PMID:25542228

  10. Influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor on the presence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in adolescents✰

    PubMed Central

    Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; Furtado-Alle, Lupe; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Milano, Gerusa Einsfeld; Lazarotto, Leilane; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Leite, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents. PMID:26684442

  11. Influence of cytokine and cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms on the degree of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sara Tatiana; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Moraes, Camila Fernanda Verdichio; Grotto, Rejane Maria Tomasini; de Moura Campos Pardini, Maria Inês; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic fibrosis may be the result of repetitive injury to hepatocytes caused by HCV infection and the immune response to it. Cytokines regulate the inflammatory response to injury and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in cytokine genes may influence the cytokine expression and secretion that may contribute to hepatic fibrogenesis in HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype of 22 SNPs found in the genes of 13 cytokines/cytokine receptors to assess the influence of polymorphic variants on the stage of liver damage in Brazilian patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 only. 141 unrelated patients were grouped according to their stage of fibrosis: absence of fibrosis or patients in the initial stages of fibrosis (F0-F2, n = 84), patients with advanced stages of fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3-F4, n = 57), without cirrhosis (F0-F3, n = 103), and with cirrhosis (F4, n = 38). The comparison of frequencies in each sub-sample was performed by 2 × 2 contingency tables using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression was also used to assess independent associations between cirrhosis or fibrosis with polymorphic variants. The TNFA-308G:A genotype conferred increased risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The TNFA-238G:G genotype was associated with protection from cirrhosis. The IL10-819C:T genotype conferred protection from fibrosis and the IL1B-511C:T genotype conferred increased risk of cirrhosis. Some of these genotypes showed results on the borderline of statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. We conclude that gene variants of cytokines/receptors may influence liver damage in patients chronically infected by HCV genotype 1. PMID:27200267

  12. Influence of cytokine and cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms on the degree of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Sara Tatiana; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Moraes, Camila Fernanda Verdichio; Grotto, Rejane Maria Tomasini; de Moura Campos Pardini, Maria Inês; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis may be the result of repetitive injury to hepatocytes caused by HCV infection and the immune response to it. Cytokines regulate the inflammatory response to injury and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in cytokine genes may influence the cytokine expression and secretion that may contribute to hepatic fibrogenesis in HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype of 22 SNPs found in the genes of 13 cytokines/cytokine receptors to assess the influence of polymorphic variants on the stage of liver damage in Brazilian patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 only. 141 unrelated patients were grouped according to their stage of fibrosis: absence of fibrosis or patients in the initial stages of fibrosis (F0-F2, n = 84), patients with advanced stages of fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3-F4, n = 57), without cirrhosis (F0-F3, n = 103), and with cirrhosis (F4, n = 38). The comparison of frequencies in each sub-sample was performed by 2 × 2 contingency tables using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression was also used to assess independent associations between cirrhosis or fibrosis with polymorphic variants. The TNFA-308G:A genotype conferred increased risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The TNFA-238G:G genotype was associated with protection from cirrhosis. The IL10-819C:T genotype conferred protection from fibrosis and the IL1B-511C:T genotype conferred increased risk of cirrhosis. Some of these genotypes showed results on the borderline of statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. We conclude that gene variants of cytokines/receptors may influence liver damage in patients chronically infected by HCV genotype 1. PMID:27200267

  13. Influence of genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway on toxicity after high-dose methotrexate treatment in pediatric osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong A

    2016-01-01

    Background Methotrexate (MTX), one of the main drugs used to treat osteosarcoma, is a representative folic acid antagonist. Polymorphisms of various enzymes involved in the metabolism of MTX could contribute to differences in response to MTX in pediatric osteosarcoma patients. Methods Blood and tissue samples were obtained from 37 pediatric osteosarcoma patients who were treated with high-dose MTX therapy. The following 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: ATIC 347C>G, MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and SLC19A1 80G>A. Serial plasma MTX concentrations after high-dose MTX therapy and MTX-induced toxicities were evaluated. Correlations among polymorphisms, MTX concentrations and treatment-induced toxicities were assessed. Results Plasma MTX levels at 48 hours after high-dose MTX infusion were significantly associated with SLC19A1 80G>A (P=0.031). Higher plasma levels of MTX at 48 and 72 hours were significantly associated with MTX-induced mucositis (P=0.007 and P=0.046) and renal toxicity (P=0.002), respectively. SNP of SLC19A1 gene was associated with development of severe mucositis (P=0.026). Conclusion This study suggests that plasma levels of MTX are associated with GI and renal toxicities after high-dose MTX therapy, and genetic polymorphisms that affect the metabolism of MTX may influence drug concentrations and development of significant side effects in pediatric patients treated with high-dose MTX. PMID:27104192

  14. Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhui; Liu, Zhongchun; Dai, Hong; Zhu, Zhixian; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Yonglan; Wang, Gaohua

    2014-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory. PMID:23844928

  15. Influence of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Lu-Shun; Li, Hong-Yu; Liao, Miao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes are associated with risk in a wide range of cancers. The objective of this study was to examine whether two DNA polymorphisms at the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and the variable number of tandem repeats in NOS intron 4 (4a/4b) were linked to the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms at ACE I/D and eNOS 4a/4b were genotyped in 293 HCC patients and 384 healthy control subjects using polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of the D allele (p=0.003, OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58–0.90) in the ACE gene of HCC patients were significantly different from the healthy controls, and a significantly decreased HCC risk was associated with the DD genotype in both the recessive (p<0.001, OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.11–0.34) and codominant models (p<0.001, OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.14–0.48). This study provided evidence that the ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with HCC, indicating that the ACE I/D polymorphism contributes to HCC progression in the Chinese population. PMID:23570557

  16. Polymorphisms in the hemagglutinin gene influenced the viral shedding of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of influenza virus quasi-species for transmission efficiency and replication is poorly understood. In the present study we show that naturally occurring polymorphisms present in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of two 2009 pandemic H1N1 isolates, A/California/04/2009 (Ca/09) and A/Mexico...

  17. Gene--gene interaction among cytokine polymorphisms influence susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Mamolini, E; Carrieri, A; Guarnelli, M E; Annunziata, M; Guida, L; Romano, F; Aimetti, M; Trombelli, L

    2011-09-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a multifactorial disease. The distinctive aspect of periodontitis is that this disease must deal with a large number of genes interacting with one another and forming complex networks. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that gene-gene interaction may have a crucial role. Therefore, we carried out a pilot case-control study to identify the association of candidate epistatic interactions between genetic risk factors and susceptibility to AgP, by using both conventional parametric analyses and a higher order interactions model, based on the nonparametric Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction algorithm. We analyzed 122 AgP patients and 246 appropriate periodontally healthy individuals, and genotyped 28 polymorphisms, located within 14 candidate genes, chosen among the principal genetic variants pointed out from literature and having a role in inflammation and immunity. Our analyses provided significant evidence for gene--gene interactions in the development of AgP, in particular, present results: (a) indicate a possible role of two new polymorphisms, within SEPS1 and TNFRSF1B genes, in determining host individual susceptibility to AgP; (b) confirm the potential association between of IL-6 and Fc γ- receptor polymorphisms and the disease; (c) exclude an essential contribution of IL-1 cluster gene polymorphisms to AgP in our Caucasian-Italian population. PMID:21593780

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway influences response to chemotherapy and overall survival in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongjian; Wu, Yi; Li, Weicheng; Kong, Zhen; Zou, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the role of genetic polymorphisms of six important NER pathway genes in response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. A prospective study including 172 osteosarcoma patients was conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793, ERCC4 rs1800067, ERCC5 rs1047768, XPA 1800975, and XPC rs2228000 and rs2228001 gene polymorphisms. By logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 genetic polymorphism was significant correlated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with wide-type genotype (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.10-0.71). AC and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 were significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with AA genotype (For AC genotype, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.21-0.97; for CC genotype, OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.06-0.58). By Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 suffered a 3.16 and 3.57-fold increased hazards of death (For ERCC1 rs11615, HR=3.16, 95% CI=1.19-9.16; for ERCC1 rs2298881, HR=3.57, 95% CI=1.10-11.35). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC1 rs2298881 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy and unfavourable survival of osteosarcoma. PMID:26339355

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway influences response to chemotherapy and overall survival in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjian; Wu, Yi; Li, Weicheng; Kong, Zhen; Zou, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the role of genetic polymorphisms of six important NER pathway genes in response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. A prospective study including 172 osteosarcoma patients was conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793, ERCC4 rs1800067, ERCC5 rs1047768, XPA 1800975, and XPC rs2228000 and rs2228001 gene polymorphisms. By logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 genetic polymorphism was significant correlated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with wide-type genotype (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.10-0.71). AC and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 were significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy when compared with AA genotype (For AC genotype, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.21-0.97; for CC genotype, OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.06-0.58). By Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and CC genotype of ERCC1 rs2298881 suffered a 3.16 and 3.57-fold increased hazards of death (For ERCC1 rs11615, HR=3.16, 95% CI=1.19-9.16; for ERCC1 rs2298881, HR=3.57, 95% CI=1.10-11.35). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC1 rs2298881 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy and unfavourable survival of osteosarcoma. PMID:26339355

  20. Acute Normal Tissue Reactions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With IMRT: Influence of Dose and Association With Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA DSB Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Werbrouck, Joke Ruyck, Kim de; Duprez, Frederic; Veldeman, Liv; Claes, Kathleen; Eijkeren, Marc van; Boterberg, Tom; Willems, Petra; Vral, Anne; Neve, Wilfried de; Thierens, Hubert

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the association between dose-related parameters and polymorphisms in DNA DSB repair genes XRCC3 (c.-1843A>G, c.562-14A>G, c.722C>T), Rad51 (c.-3429G>C, c.-3392G>T), Lig4 (c.26C>T, c.1704T>C), Ku70 (c.-1310C>G), and Ku80 (c.2110-2408G>A) and the occurrence of acute reactions after radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 88 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-treated head-and-neck cancer patients. Mucositis, dermatitis, and dysphagia were scored using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events v.3.0 scale. The population was divided into a CTC0-2 and CTC3+ group for the analysis of each acute effect. The influence of the dose on critical structures was analyzed using dose-volume histograms. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single base extension assays. Results: The mean dose (D{sub mean}) to the oral cavity and constrictor pharyngeus (PC) muscles was significantly associated with the development of mucositis and dysphagia, respectively. These parameters were considered confounding factors in the radiogenomics analyses. The XRCC3c.722CT/TT and Ku70c.-1310CG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with the development of severe dysphagia (CTC3+). No association was found between the investigated polymorphisms and the development of mucositis or dermatitis. A risk analysis model for severe dysphagia, which was developed based on the XRCC3c.722CT/TT and Ku70c.-1310CG/GG genotypes and the PC dose, showed a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 77.6%. Conclusions: The XRCC3c.722C>T and Ku70c.-1310C>G polymorphisms as well as the D{sub mean} to the PC muscles were highly associated with the development of severe dysphagia after IMRT. The prediction model developed using these parameters showed a high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phylostomidae).

    PubMed

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Johnston, John J; Perkins, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is one of three haematophagous species of bats and the only species in this genus. These New World bats prey on mammals and create significant economic impacts through transmission of rabies in areas where livestock are prevalent. Furthermore, in some portions of their range, it is not uncommon for them to prey upon humans. It is critical to the management of this species and for understanding the spread of bat rabies that detailed studies of D. rotundus population structure be conducted. To further such studies, we have characterized 12 microsatellite loci for this species. PMID:21585815

  2. The -308 bp TNF gene polymorphism influences tumor necrosis factor expression in leprosy patients in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joyce Moura; Rêgo, Jamile Leão; de Lima Santana, Nadja; Braz, Marcos; Jamieson, Sarra E; Vieira, Thaillamar Silva; Magalhães, Thaís Lamêgo; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Castellucci, Léa C

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a debilitating chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. The -308 bp G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800629) in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene promoter is a proposed risk factor for leprosy. In Brazil, Northern India, Egypt and Nepal, the common G allele was associated with leprosy. In Eastern India, Thailand and Malawi the minor A allele was the risk factor. Allele A was previously associated with high TNF. We genotyped rs1800629 in 326 leprosy cases from Bahia State, Brazil, including 72 paucibacillary (PB) and 47 multibacillary (MB) without reactions, and 69 reversal reaction (RR) and 78 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with reactions. Logistic regression was used to compare patient groups with 331 healthy controls. Relative TNF mRNA was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes by QRTPCR, and serum TNF levels measured by ELISA. We found that TNF mRNA expression was higher (P=0.03) in leprosy patients compared to endemic controls, but did not differ significantly between clinical subgroups. Carriage of the minor A allele was associated (P=0.003) with low TNF mRNA across leprosy patients. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for either allele at this SNP as a risk factor for leprosy per se (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.60, P=0.52), PB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81, P=0.97), MB (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.40-1.83, P=0.70), RR (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.38, P=0.27) or ENL (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.45, P=0.42) when compared to endemic controls. Further studies are required to determine whether the influence of the minor A allele on TNF mRNA levels determines response to treatment, particularly in the context of ENL reaction treatment with anti-TNF therapies and RR reactions where treatment with prednisolone is known to reduce TNF levels. Our findings contribute to understanding TNF as an important determinant of leprosy immunopathology in Brazil. PMID:26829382

  3. Common polymorphisms in MIR146a, MIR128a and MIR27a genes contribute to neuropathy susceptibility in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Morganti, Roberto; Di Fusco, Davide; D'Amato, Cinzia; Cacciotti, Laura; Greco, Carla; Rufini, Sara; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica; Marfia, Girolama A; Borgiani, Paola; Spallone, Vincenza

    2014-08-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) are common type 2 diabetes complications with a large inter-individual variability in terms of clinical manifestations and severity. Our aim was to evaluate a possible involvement of genetic polymorphisms in miRNA regions in the susceptibility to DPN and CAN. Nine polymorphisms in miRNA genes were studied in a sample of 132 type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) analysed for DPN and 128 T2D patients analysed for CAN. A genotype-phenotype correlation analysis was performed. The T allele of rs11888095 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIR128a was significantly associated with a higher risk (ORadj = 4.89, P adj = 0.02), whereas the C allele of rs2910164 SNP in MIR146a was associated with a lower risk to develop DPN (ORadj = 0.49, P adj = 0.09), respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that both SNPs contribute to DPN (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01 for MIR128a and MIR146a, respectively). MIR128a SNP significantly contributed also to DPN score (p = 0.026). Rs895819 SNP in MIR27a was significantly associated with a higher risk to develop early CAN (P adj = 0.023 and ORadj = 3.43). The rs2910164 SNP in MIR146a showed a protective effect respect to early CAN (P adj = 0.052, ORadj = 0.32) and to confirmed CAN (P adj = 0.041, ORadj = 0.13). The same SNP resulted significantly associated with a lower CAN score and a higher E/I (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, we described associations of MIR128a and MIR146a SNPs with DPN susceptibility and of MIR146a and MIR27a SNPs with CAN susceptibility. This is the first study showing that genetic variability in miRNA genes could be involved in diabetic neuropathies susceptibility. PMID:24682535

  4. The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J

    2014-05-01

    There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

  5. The Serotonin-Related FEV Gene Variant in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is a Common Polymorphism in the African–American Population

    PubMed Central

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Barger, Melissa A.; Paterson, David S.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Krous, Henry F.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Markianos, Kyriacos; Beggs, Alan H.

    2009-01-01

    An important subset of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is associated with multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in regions of the medulla oblongata. The mouse ortholog of the fifth Ewing variant gene (FEV) is critical for 5-HT neuronal development. A putatively rare intronic variant [IVS2-191_190insA, here referred to as c.128-(191_192)dupA] has been reported as a SIDS-associated mutation in an African-American population. We tested this association in an independent dataset: 137 autopsied cases (78 SIDS, 59 controls) and an additional 296 control DNA samples from Coriell Cell Repositories. In addition to the c.128-(191_192)dupA variant, we observed an associated single base deletion [c.128-(301–306)delG] in a subset of the samples. Neither of the two FEV variants showed significant association with SIDS in either the African-American subgroup or the overall cohort. Although we found a significant association of c.128-(191_192)dupA with SIDS when San Diego Hispanic SIDS cases were compared with San Diego Hispanic controls plus Mexican controls (p=0.04); this became non-significant after multiple testing correction. Among Coriell controls, 33/99 (33%) African-American and 0/197 (0%) of the remaining controls carry the polymorphism (c.128-(191_192)dupA). The polymorphism appears to be a common, likely non-pathogenic, variant in the African-American population. PMID:19707175

  6. Association of two Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (+45T/G and +276G/T) of ADIPOQ Gene with Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali; Heibar, Habib; Bazyar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone, is known to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. In the present study, the association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (+45T/G and +276G/T) of ADIOPQ gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in the subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: Genotypes of two SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 200 subjects with T2DM (100 subjects with CAD and 100 without CAD). Results: The frequency of TT genotype of +276G/T was significantly elevated in CAD compared to controls (χ2=7.967, P=0.019). A similar difference was found in the allele frequency of +276G/T between two groups (χ2=3.895, P=0.048). The increased risk of CAD was associated with +276 TT genotype when compared to reference GG genotype (OR=5.158; 95% CI=1.016-26.182, P=0.048). However, no similar difference was found in genotype and allele frequencies of SNP +45T/G between two groups. There was a CAD protective haplotype combination of +276 wild-type and +45 mutant-type allele (276G-45G) (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.16-0.86, P=0.022) in the subject population. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that T allele of SNP +276G/T is more associated with the increased risk of CAD in subjects with T2DM. Also, a haplotype combination of +45G/+276G of these two SNPs has a protective effect on the risk of CAD. PMID:26781170

  7. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding beta-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Leung, W C; Hessel, S; Méplan, C; Flint, J; Oberhauser, V; Tourniaire, F; Hesketh, J E; von Lintig, J; Lietz, G

    2009-04-01

    The key enzyme responsible for beta-carotene conversion into retinal is beta-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase (BCMO1). Since it has been reported that the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A is highly variable in up to 45% of healthy individuals, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in the BCMO1 gene could contribute to the occurrence of the poor converter phenotype. Here we describe the screening of the total open reading frame of the BCMO1 coding region that led to the identification of two common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (R267S: rs12934922; A379V: rs7501331) with variant allele frequencies of 42 and 24%, respectively. In vitro biochemical characterization of the recombinant 267S + 379V double mutant revealed a reduced catalytic activity of BCMO1 by 57% (P<0.001). Assessment of the responsiveness to a pharmacological dose of beta-carotene in female volunteers confirmed that carriers of both the 379V and 267S + 379V variant alleles had a reduced ability to convert beta-carotene, as indicated through reduced retinyl palmitate:beta-carotene ratios in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction [-32% (P=0.005) and -69% (P=0.001), respectively] and increased fasting beta-carotene concentrations [+160% (P=0.025) and +240% (P=0.041), respectively]. Our data show that there is genetic variability in beta-carotene metabolism and may provide an explanation for the molecular basis of the poor converter phenotype within the population. PMID:19103647

  8. Efficiency of immunoglobulin G replacement therapy in common variable immunodeficiency: correlations with clinical phenotype and polymorphism of the neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Chapel, H; Chevret, S; Lucas, M; Malphettes, M; Fieschi, C; Patel, S; Boutboul, D; Marson, M-N; Gérard, L; Lee, M; Watier, H; Oksenhendler, E

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) is based on replacement therapy using intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Interindividual variation of IgG dose is common. A total of 380 CVID patients on stable IgG replacement from two prospective cohorts were analysed. An 'efficiency' index was defined as the ratio of serum IgG trough level minus IgG residual to the average weekly dose of IgG infusion. A reduced efficiency of IgG was associated independently with the i.v. route (P < 0·001) and with the presence of at least one CVID disease-related phenotype (lymphoproliferation, autoimmune cytopenia or enteropathy) (P < 0·001). High IgG efficiency was noted in patients homozygotes for the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) 3/3 polymorphism of the neonatal Fc receptor gene [IgG Fc fragment receptor transporter alpha chain (FCGRT)] promoter, and this was particularly significant in patients treated with IVIG (P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, FCGRT VNTR 3/3 genotype (P = 0·008) and high serum albumin (P < 0·001) were associated independently with increased efficiency of i.v. Ig. PMID:23286945

  9. Effects of Two Common Polymorphisms rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 on Gastric Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing; Yin, Junfeng; Wang, Xiangjun; Liu, Xinnong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding microRNAs may play important role in the development of gastric cancer. It has been reported that common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. The published results remain inconclusive or even controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess potential association between the two common SNPs and gastric cancer risk. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in multiple internet-based electronic databases. Data from 12 eligible studies were extracted to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results. C allele of rs2910164 is associated with reduced gastric cancer risk in heterozygote model and dominant model whereas rs11614913 indicates no significant association. Subgroup analysis demonstrates that C allele of rs2910164 and rs11614913 may decrease susceptibility to diffuse type gastric cancer in dominant model and recessive model, respectively, while rs11614913 increased intestinal type gastric cancer in dominant model. Conclusion. SNPs rs2910164 and rs11614913 might have effect on gastric cancer risk in certain genetic models and specific types of cancer. Further well-designed studies should be considered to validate the potential effect. PMID:25983750

  10. A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Brent; Yao, Xiaopan; Deng, Yanhong; Waner, Milton; Spock, Christopher; Tom, Laura; Persing, John; Narayan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional) IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions) prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF), placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states. PMID:26496499

  11. Efficiency of immunoglobulin G replacement therapy in common variable immunodeficiency: correlations with clinical phenotype and polymorphism of the neonatal Fc receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Chapel, H; Chevret, S; Lucas, M; Malphettes, M; Fieschi, C; Patel, S; Boutboul, D; Marson, M-N; Gérard, L; Lee, M; Watier, H; Oksenhendler, E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) is based on replacement therapy using intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Interindividual variation of IgG dose is common. A total of 380 CVID patients on stable IgG replacement from two prospective cohorts were analysed. An ‘efficiency’ index was defined as the ratio of serum IgG trough level minus IgG residual to the average weekly dose of IgG infusion. A reduced efficiency of IgG was associated independently with the i.v. route (P < 0·001) and with the presence of at least one CVID disease-related phenotype (lymphoproliferation, autoimmune cytopenia or enteropathy) (P < 0·001). High IgG efficiency was noted in patients homozygotes for the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) 3/3 polymorphism of the neonatal Fc receptor gene [IgG Fc fragment receptor transporter alpha chain (FCGRT)] promoter, and this was particularly significant in patients treated with IVIG (P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, FCGRT VNTR 3/3 genotype (P = 0·008) and high serum albumin (P < 0·001) were associated independently with increased efficiency of i.v. Ig. PMID:23286945

  12. A preliminary examination of how serotonergic polymorphisms influence brain response following an adolescent cannabis intervention.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Mead, Hilary K; Yezhuvath, Uma; Dewitt, Sam; Hutchison, Kent E; Filbey, Francesca M

    2012-11-30

    Given the link between depression, anxiety, and cannabis abuse, a serotonin receptor (rs6311) and transporter polymorphism (rs2020936) were examined as moderators of neural response as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging following a psychosocial treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). While the proposed hypotheses were unsupported, we found that the rs6311 C allele was significantly related to brain activation (medial frontal gyrus, precuneus), indicating the role of this serotonin receptor in adolescent treatment response. PMID:23217578

  13. Superantigen influence in conjunction with cytokine polymorphism potentiates autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Janahi, Essam Mohammed Ahmed; Haque, Shafiul; Akhter, Naseem; Jawed, Arshad; Wahid, Mohd; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai Ganapathysubramanian; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Das, Shukla

    2016-08-01

    Risk posed by microbial superantigens in triggering or exacerbating SLE in genetically predisposed individuals, thereby altering the response to its treatment strategies, has not been studied. Using streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin B as prototype superantigens, we have demonstrated that they profoundly affect the magnitude of polyclonal T cell response, particularly CD4(+) T cells and expression of CD45RA and CD45RO, and cytokine secretion in vitro in SLE patient PBMCs. Also, reduced proportions of FoxP3 expressing CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells were detected in SLE as compared to healthy control PBMCs. Furthermore, polymorphism in IL-10 and TGF-β showed significant association with SLE in our study population. These results indicate that accumulation of superantigen-reactive T cells and cytokine polymorphism may cause disease exacerbation, relapse, or therapeutic resistance in SLE patients. Attempts to contain colonizing and/or superantigen-producing microbial agents in SLE patients in addition to careful monitoring of their therapy may be worthwhile in decreasing disease severity or preventing frequent relapses. The study suggests that superantigen interference in conjunction with cytokine polymorphism may play a role in immune dysregulation, thereby contributing to autoimmunity in SLE. Therefore, changes in T cell phenotypes and cytokine secretion might be good indicators of therapeutic efficacy in these patients. PMID:26676360

  14. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT. PMID:24386152

  15. In Black South Africans from Rural and Urban Communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 Polymorphism Influences PAI-1 Activity, but Not Plasma Clot Lysis Time

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R.; Jerling, Johann C.; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT. PMID:24386152

  16. GDF15(MIC1) H6D Polymorphism Does Not Influence Cardiovascular Disease in a Latin American Population with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Montoya-Sánchez, Laura; Nath, Swapan K.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune arthropathy worldwide. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA is not fully explained by classic risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rs1058587 SNP within GDF15(MIC1) gene on the risk of CVD in a Colombian RA population. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 310 consecutive Colombian patients with RA and 228 age- and sex-matched controls were included and assessed for variables associated with CVD. The mixed cluster methodology based on multivariate descriptive methods such as principal components analysis and multiple correspondence analyses and regression tree (CART) predictive model were performed. Results. Of the 310 patients, 87.4% were women and CVD was reported in 69.5%. Significant differences concerning GDF15 polymorphism were not observed between patients and controls. Mean arterial pressure, current smoking, and some clusters were significantly associated with CVD. Conclusion. GDF15 (rs1058587) does not influence the development of CVD in the population studied. PMID:26090487

  17. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Cytochrome P450 1A2 Gene Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rewuti, Abudouaini; Ma, Yu-Shui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xia, Qing; Fu, Da; Han, Yu-Song

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The CYP1A2*C (rs2069514) and CYP1A2*F (rs762551) polymorphism are two of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of CRC, but the results are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between CYP1A2 and genetic risk of CRC, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis which included 7088 cases and 7568 controls from 12 published case-control studies. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio for CRC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83–1.00, P = 0.04), and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.68–1.22, P = 0.53), for CYP1A2 *F and *C allele, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Asians for CYP1A2*F and CYP1A2*C, while no significant associations were detected among Caucasian populations. Similar results were also observed using dominant genetic model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. No significant heterogeneity was detected in most of comparisons. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1A2 *F and *C polymorphism is a protective factor against CRC among Asians. PMID:23951174

  18. Influence of common genetic variation on blood lipid levels, cardiovascular risk, and coronary events in two British prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Casas, Juan P.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Cooper, Jackie; Drenos, Fotios; Zabaneh, Delilah; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Shah, Tina; Sofat, Reecha; Palmen, Jutta; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Day, Ian N.M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to quantify the collective effect of common lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on blood lipid levels, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medication, and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and results Analysis was performed in two prospective cohorts: Whitehall II (WHII; N = 5059) and the British Women’s Heart and Health Study (BWHHS; N = 3414). For each participant, scores were calculated based on the cumulative effect of multiple genetic variants influencing total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Compared with the bottom quintile, individuals in the top quintile of the LDL-C genetic score distribution had higher LDL-C {mean difference of 0.85 [95% confidence interval, (CI) = 0.76–0.94] and 0.63 [95% CI = 0.50–0.76] mmol/l in WHII and BWHHS, respectively}. They also tended to have greater odds of having ‘high-risk’ status (Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk >20%) [WHII: odds ratio (OR) = 1.36 (0.93–1.98), BWHHS: OR = 1.49 (1.14–1.94)]; receiving lipid-lowering treatment [WHII: OR = 2.38 (1.57–3.59), BWHHS: OR = 2.24 (1.52–3.29)]; and CHD events [WHII: OR = 1.43 (1.02–2.00), BWHHS: OR = 1.31 (0.99–1.72)]. Similar associations were observed for the TC score in both studies. The TG score was associated with high-risk status and medication use in both studies. Neither HDL nor TG scores were associated with the risk of coronary events. The genetic scores did not improve discrimination over the Framingham risk score. Conclusion At the population level, common SNPs associated with LDL-C and TC contribute to blood lipid variation, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medications and coronary events. However, their effects are too small to discriminate future lipid-lowering medication requirements or coronary events. PMID:22977227

  19. The Influence of OLR1 and PCSK9 Gene Polymorphisms on Ischemic Stroke: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Wee Kooi, Cheah; Irene, Looi; Keat Wei, Loo

    2015-01-01

    Both OLR1 and PCSK9 genes are associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. The overall prevalence of PCSK9 rs505151 and OLR1 rs11053646 variants in ischemic stroke were 0.005 and 0.116, respectively. However, to date, association between these polymorphisms and ischemic stroke remains inconclusive. Therefore, this first meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the presumed influence of these polymorphisms on ischemic stroke. All eligible case-control and cohort studies that met the search terms were retrieved in multiple databases. Demographic and genotyping data were extracted from each study, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Metafor R 3.2.1. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using both fixed- and random-effect models. Seven case-control studies encompassing 1897 cases and 2119 controls were critically evaluated. Pooled results from the genetic models indicated that OLR1 rs11053646 dominant (OR = 1.33, 95%  CI:1.11–1.58) and co-dominant models (OR = 1.24, 95%  CI:1.02–1.51) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. For the PCSK9 rs505151 polymorphism, the OR of co-dominant model (OR = 1.36, 95%  CI:1.01–1.58) was found to be higher among ischemic stroke patients. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis highlighted that variant allele of OLR1 rs11053646 G > C and PCSK9 rs505151 A > G may contribute to the susceptibility risk of ischemic stroke. PMID:26666837

  20. The influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing gastric cancer in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Stubljar, David; Jeverica, Samo; Jukic, Tomislav; Skvarc, Miha; Pintar, Tadeja; Tepes, Bojan; Kavalar, Rajko; Stabuc, Borut; Peterlin, Borut; Ihan, Alojz

    2015-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastric cancer. The disease progression is influenced by the host inflammatory responses, and cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may have a role in the course of the disease. The aim of our study was to investigate proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms, previously associated with the development of gastric cancer, in a Slovenian population. Patients and methods. In total 318 patients and controls were selected for the study and divided into three groups: (i) patients with gastric cancer (n = 58), (ii) patients with chronic gastritis (n = 60) and (iii) healthy control group (n = 200). H. pylori infection in patient groups was determined by serology, histology and culture. Four proinflammatory gene polymorphisms were determined (IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNF-α, TLR-4) in all subjects. Results We found a statistically significant difference between males and females for the groups (p = 0.025). Odds ratio (OR) for gastric cancer risk for females was 0.557 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.233–1.329) and for chronic gastritis 2.073 (95% CI: 1.005–4.277). IL-1B-511*T/T homozygous allele for cancer group had OR = 2.349 (95% CI: 0.583–9.462), heterozygous IL-1B-511*T had OR = 1.470 (95% CI: 0.583–3.709) and heterozygotes in TNF-A-308 genotype for chronic gastritis had OR = 1.402 (95% CI: 0.626–3.139). Other alleles had OR less than 1. Conclusions We could not prove association between gastric cancer and chronic gastritis due to H. pylori in any cytokine SNPs studied in Slovenian population. Other SNPs might be responsible besides infection with H. pylori for the progression from atrophy to neoplastic transformation. PMID:26401131

  1. Interactions between rs5498 polymorphism in the ICAM1 gene and traditional risk factors influence susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Zak, Iwona; Krauze, Jolanta

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Adhesion molecules are markers of endothelium dysfunction. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) interacts with leukocyte integrins and promotes atherosclerotic process at the surface of endothelial cells. The aim of the study was to assess the association between ICAM1 rs5498 polymorphism and CAD and to establish whether there are any interactions between this polymorphism and traditional risk factors in determining the risk of CAD. We studied 191 cases with angiographically documented CAD and 203 controls with no signs of cardiovascular diseases. The ICAM1 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed with the STATISTICA 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares. We did not observe significant differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs5498 between cases and controls. We only found a tendency to a higher prevalence of G allele carriers (AG + GG) in patients compared to controls (68 vs. 64%, P = 0.399). A synergistic effect of G allele carrier-state and smoking that had influenced the risk of CAD [synergy index multiplicative (SIM = 2.09)] was observed. Smoking carriers of G allele compared to non-smoking AA were more prevalent in CAD group (39.8%) than among controls (13.3%, P < 0.0001, OR 4.81). Moreover, there was also a synergistic effect between G allele carrier-state and an elevated level of triacylglycerols (TG) (SIM = 1.28) increasing the risk of CAD. There is a synergistic interaction between rs5498 genotype and smoking that increases the risk of CAD. PMID:19048183

  2. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans. PMID:25481818

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream from the β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase gene influence provitamin A conversion efficiency in female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Leung, Wing; Hesketh, John

    2012-01-01

    β-Carotene, the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in the diet, is converted to retinal by β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase (BCMO1). However, β-carotene absorption and conversion into retinal is extremely variable among individuals, with proportions of low responders to dietary β-carotene as high as 45%. Recently, 2 common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the BCMO1 coding region (R267S; rs12934922 and A379V; rs7501331) revealed reduced catalytic activity, confirming that genetic variations contribute to the low responder phenotype. Because 4 SNPs 5' upstream from the BCMO1 gene were recently shown to affect circulating carotenoid concentrations, the current study aimed to investigate the effects of these SNPs on β-carotene conversion efficiency. Three of the 4 polymorphisms (rs6420424, rs11645428, and rs6564851) reduced the catalytic activity of BCMO1 in female volunteers by 59, 51, and 48%, respectively. The TG-rich lipoprotein fraction retinyl palmitate:β-carotene ratio was negatively correlated with the G allele of rs11645428 (r = -0.44; P = 0.018), whereas it was positively correlated with the G allele of rs6420424 (r = 0.53; P = 0.004) and the T allele of rs6564851 (r = 0.41; P = 0.028). Furthermore, large inter-ethnic variations in frequency of affected alleles were detected, with frequencies varying from 43 to 84% (rs6420424), 52 to 100% (rs11645428), and 19 to 67% (rs6564851). In summary, a range of SNPs can influence the effectiveness of using plant-based provitamin A carotenoids to increase vitamin A status in at-risk population groups and this effect may vary depending on ethnic origin. PMID:22113863

  5. S49G and R389G polymorphisms of the β1-adrenergic receptor influence signaling via the cAMP-PKA and ERK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Two functionally important β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) polymorphisms have been identified. The R389G polymorphism influences coupling to the Gs-cAMP pathway. R389-β1ARs display enhanced activation of cAMP/PKA; they provide short-term inotropic support but also cause a predisposition to cardiomyopathic decompensation. A second S49G polymorphism is implicated in the evolution of heart failure, but the mechanism remains uncertain. This study shows that position 49 and 389 polymorphisms function in a coordinate manner to influence agonist-dependent cAMP/PKA and ERK responses. cAMP/PKA and ERK responses are more robust in HEK293 cells that heterologously overexpress G49-β1ARs, compared with S49-β1ARs. However, this phenotype is most obvious on a G389-β1AR background; the more robust agonist-dependent cAMP/PKA and ERK responses in R389-β1AR cells effectively obscure the effect of the S49G polymorphism. We also show that isoproterenol (Iso) and carvedilol activate ERK via a similar EGFR-independent mechanism in cells expressing various β1AR haplotypes. However, Iso activates ERK via an Src-independent pathway, but carvedilol-dependent ERK activation requires Src. Since the S49G polymorphism has been linked to changes in β1AR trafficking, we examined whether β1AR polymorphisms influence partitioning to lipid raft membranes. Biochemical fractionation studies show that all four β1AR variants are recovered in buoyant flotillin-enriched membranes; the distinct signaling phenotypes of the different β1AR variants could not be attributed to any gross differences in basal compartmentalization to lipid raft membranes. The allele-specific differences in β1AR signaling phenotypes identified in this study could underlie interindividual differences in responsiveness to β-blocker therapy and clinical outcome in heart failure. PMID:24151242

  6. Interferon-gamma gene polymorphism influences the frequency of a Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Eleutério, José; Teles, Rosiane A; Linhares, Iara M; Normand, Neil; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Cervicitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis is frequent worldwide, but the factors determining susceptibility to infection remain incompletely determined. We evaluated whether a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma (rs2430561) influenced the likelihood of having a cervical C. trachomatis infection. This was a cross-sectional study of 142 sexually-active women attending a general gynaecology service on the outskirts of the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil between August 2011 and August 2012. Endocervical swabs were evaluated for C. trachomatis DNA using hybrid capture. DNA from buccal swabs was utilised for detection of the interferon gamma 874 T/A single nucleotide polymorphism by gene amplification, endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis. Nineteen women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis in their cervix. Positivity was 21.7% in women with the A,A genotype versus 7.0% in women with one or two T alleles (p = 0.0227). The variant T allele frequency, associated with elevated interferon gamma production, was 36.2% in women who were negative for C. trachomatis as opposed to 18.4% in women who were positive for a cervical infection with this organism (p = 0.0415). Possession of the T allele at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma is associated with a reduced likelihood of a C. trachomatis cervical infection. PMID:25505046

  7. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Ho, C. K.; Huang, S. L.; Yeh, Y. F.; Liu, C. L.; Mao, I. F.; Christiani, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideoven workers. Liver function profiles including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (BIL) were examined in the morning after personal exposure measurements. The MspI polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). RESULTS: Five of 23 (22%) topside oven workers and seven of 65 (11%) sideoven workers had the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant genotype. With sideoven workers with the combined wild type and heterozygous variant as the reference group in multiple regression models, it was found that topside oven workers with the combined traits had mean AST and ALT activities that were 21% and 46% higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4% to 42% and 12% to 91%, respectively) than the reference group after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Also, topside oven workers with the homozygous variant trait had mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities that were 59%, 68%, and 157% higher (95% CI 21% to 109%, 6% to 168%, and 39% to 374%, respectively) than the reference group. The prevalence of an abnormal hepatocellular pattern (AST > 37 IU/l or ALT > 39 IU/l) was more common in the topside oven workers with the homozygous variant than in the sideoven workers with the other combined genotypes (adjusted odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 82.3) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism

  8. Systematic assessment of the influence of complement gene polymorphisms on kidney transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Ermini, Luca; Weale, Michael E; Brown, Katherine M; Mesa, Irene Rebollo; Howell, W Martin; Vaughan, Robert; Chowdhury, Paramit; Sacks, Steven H; Sheerin, Neil S

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the innate immune system, including complement, in causing transplant injury and augmenting adaptive immune responses is increasingly recognized. Therefore variability in graft outcome may in part be due to genetic polymorphism in genes encoding proteins of the immune system. This study assessed the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in complement genes and outcome after transplantation. Analysis was performed on two patient cohorts of 650 and 520 transplant recipients. 505 tagged SNPs in 47 genes were typed in both donor and recipient. The relationships between SNPs and graft survival, serum creatinine, delayed graft function and acute rejection were analyzed. One recipient SNP in the gene encoding mannose binding lectin was associated with graft outcome after correction for analysis of multiple SNPs (p=6.41 × 10(-5)). When further correction was applied to account for analysis of the effect of SNPs in both donor and recipient this lost significance. Despite association p values of <0.001 no SNP was significantly associated with clinical phenotypes after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, the variability seen in transplant outcome in this patient cohort cannot be explained by variation in complement genes. If causal genetic effects exist in these genes, they are too small to be detected by this study. PMID:26797657

  9. Influence of functional polymorphisms in DNA repair genes of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Howard Lopes; Soares Maia, Allan Rodrigo; Costa, Marília Braga; Farias, Izabelle Rocha; de Paula Borges, Daniela; de Oliveira, Roberta Taiane Germano; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Magalhães, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2016-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) malignances characterized by peripheral cytopenias and predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Several studies show that the MDS pathogenesis is a complex and heterogeneous process that involves multiple steps through a sequence of genetic lesions in the DNA which lead to functional changes in the cell and the emergence and subsequent evolution of pre-malignant clone. Double strand breaks (DSB) lesions are the most severe type of DNA damage in HSCs, which, if not properly repaired, might contribute to the development of chromosomal abnormalities, which in turn may lead to leukemia development. We assessed the mRNA expression levels of ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, XRCC5, XRCC6 and LIG4 genes in bone marrow samples of 47 MDS patients in order to evaluate the association with functional polymorphisms rs228593, rs4793191, rs9567623, rs1801320, rs3835, rs2267437 and rs1805388, respectively, and try to detect clinical associations. We found that the rs228593, rs2267437 and rs1805388 functional polymorphisms probably alter the level of expression of the ATM, XRCC6 and LIG4 genes, respectively, being important in the maintenance of genomic instability in MDS. PMID:27497341

  10. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.

  11. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails. PMID:26172763

  12. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E.; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history. PMID:26332919

  13. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history. PMID:26332919

  14. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA polymorphism P479L is common in Greenland Inuit and is associated with elevated plasma apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Rajakumar, Chandheeb; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Young, T. Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Hegele, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA, encoded by CPT1A, is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation, namely, c.1436 C→T (p.P479L), was reported in CPT1A in the homozygous state in Canadian aboriginal male with presumed CPT1A deficiency. To determine the population frequency of this variant, we determined CPT1A p.P479L genotypes in 1111 Greenland Inuit. Associations between genotype and variation in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) B, and apoA-I was also investigated. We found the L479 allele occurs at a high frequency in this sample (0.73), while it was completely absent in 285 nonaboriginal samples. This suggests that the original proband's symptoms were not likely due to the CPT1A p.P479L mutation because it is very common in Inuit and because symptoms suggesting CPT1A deficiency have not been reported in any carrier subsequently studied. However, CPT1A p.P479L was associated with elevated plasma HDL and apoA-I levels. The association with increased levels of HDL and apoA-I suggest that the polymorphism might protect against atherosclerosis. PMID:19181627

  15. Influence of SLC22A1 rs622342 genetic polymorphism on metformin response in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Praveen, Ramakrishnan Geethakumari; Damodaran, Solai Elango; Das, Ashok Kumar; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug, commonly used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. It is transported into the hepatocytes by polyspecific organic cation transporter 1, which is encoded by the gene SLC22A1. It has been hypothesized that genetic variations of SLC22A1 gene will influence inter-individual variation in glucose lowering efficacy of metformin. Previous studies have demonstrated this in other populations with conflicting results, but it remains to be elucidated in Indian population. Henceforth, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of SLC22A1 rs622342 gene polymorphism on the clinical efficacy of metformin in South Indian T2DM patients. A total of 122 newly detected, treatment naive T2DM patients of either sex were included in this study. The patients were started on metformin monotherapy and followed up for 12 weeks. Genotype was determined using qRT-PCR. Before and after treatment with metformin, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose level, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. The study cohort mean age was 49.57 ± 9.88 years. Of the 122 T2DM patients, 93 were classified as responders and 29 as non-responders based on fall in HbA1c levels. Interestingly, carriers of one variant allele 'C' (AC) of rs622342 polymorphism were less among the responders than those who did not (44.8 vs. 22.6 %). The response was even lesser (13.8 vs. 4.3 %) in carriers of two copies of "C" allele (CC). On the contrary, patients with two copies of allele 'A' (AA) had 5.6 times greater chance of responding to metformin treatment. A similar trend was observed when the proportion was analyzed under different genetic models (OR 3.85, 95 % CI 1.61-9.19 for dominant; OR 3.56, 95 % CI 0.83-15.26 for recessive; OR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.86 for over-dominant; and OR 4.10, 95 % CI 1.78-9.43 for additive). Further, metformin showed significant beneficial effects on BMI, HbA1c, FPG

  16. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Adverse Life Events on Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Annalisa; Monti, Maria Cristina; Polito, Letizia; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Gnesi, Marco; Villani, Simona; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common in the elderly. The role of genetic and environmental factors in modulating depressive symptoms is not clear. Methods We evaluated the influence of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and recent adverse life events on depressive symptoms in an elderly Italian population. We used data from “InveCe.Ab”, a population-based study of 1321 subjects aged 70–74 years. We used the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to assess depressive symptoms–a GDS score ≥5 points (GDS≥5) indicated the presence of clinically relevant symptoms–and performed 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping to obtain the triallelic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter. We used the Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale to measure adverse life events, and logistic regression models to evaluate the role of genotype and recent adverse life events in depressive symptoms, controlling for potential confounders and independent predictors. Results Two hundred subjects (15.76%) had a GDS≥5. The 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was significantly associated with GDS≥5. Only S′S′ carriers showed an increased risk of depressive symptoms (ORadj = 1.81, p = .022); one extra adverse life event increased this risk by 14% (p = .061) independently of genotype. Other factors significantly related to GDS≥5 were: female gender (ORadj = 2.49, p < .001), age (ORadj = 1.19, p = .007), a history of depression (ORadj = 4.73, p < .001), and comorbidity (ORadj = 1.23, p = .001). One extra adverse life event increased the risk of depressive symptoms by 57% (p = .005) only in the L′L′ carriers, while antidepressant intake was directly related to GDS≥5 in the L′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.46, p = .036) and borderline significant in the S′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.41, p = .081). Discussion The S′S′ genotype and recent exposure to adverse life events were independently associated with depressive symptoms. The S′S′ genotype, compared with the environment

  17. Mapping of BnMs4 and BnRf to a common microsyntenic region of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 3 using intron polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shengqian; Cheng, Ling; Zu, Feng; Dun, Xiaoling; Zhou, Zhengfu; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-05-01

    A recessive epistatic genic male sterile two-type line, 7365AB (Bnms3ms3ms4msRrfRf/BnMs3ms3ms4ms4RfRf), combined with the fertile interim-maintainer 7365C (Bnms3ms3ms4ms4rfrf) is an effective pollination control system in hybrid rapeseed production. We report an effective strategy used to fine map BnMs4 and BnRf. The two genes were both defined to a common microsyntenic region with Arabidopsis chromosome 3 using intron polymorphism (IP) markers developed according to Arabidopsis genome information and published genome organization of the A genome. The near-isogenic lines 7365AC (Bnms3ms3ms4ms4Rfrf/Bnms3ms3ms4ms4rfrf) of BnRf and 736512AB (Bnms3ms3Ms4ms4RfRf/Bnms3ms3ms4ms4RfRf) of BnMs4 were constructed to screen developed markers and create genetic linkage maps. Nine polymorphic IP markers (P1-P9) were identified. Of these, P2, P3, P4, and P6 were linked to both BnMs4 and BnRf with genetic distances <0.6 cM. Three simple sequence repeat markers, SR2, SR3, and SR5, were also identified by using public information. Subsequently, all markers linked to the two genes were used to compare the micro-collinearity of the regions flanking the two genes with Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis. The flanking regions showed rearrangements and inversion with fragments of different Arabidopsis chromosomes, but a high collinearity with B. rapa. This collinearity provided extremely valuable reference for map-based cloning in polyploid Brassica species. These IP markers could be exploited for comparative genomic studies within and between Brassica species, providing an economically feasible approach for molecular marker-assisted selection breeding, accelerating the process of gene cloning, and providing more direct evidence for the presence of multiple alleles between BnMs4 and BnRf. PMID:22246313

  18. Effects of common polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 on lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yan-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in organ development, cell differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, cell growth regulation and act as tumor suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs are considered to be genetic factors to influence the susceptibility to lung cancer (LC). Rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are shown to be associated with increased/decreased LC risk. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically summarize the possible association. Methods The relevant articles were retrieved from several important databases. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of association between miRNA polymorphism and susceptibility to LC. All analyses were performed using the Stata software. Results Seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were 3,225 cases and 3,268 controls for SNP rs2910164 and 2,794 cases and 2,840 controls for SNP rs11614913. The significant associations between SNP rs2910164 and LC risk were observed (CC vs. GG: OR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.13–1.50; CC + GC vs. GG: OR =1.15, 95% CI: 1.02–1.29; CC vs. GC + GG: OR =1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.42; C vs. G: OR =1.15, 95% CI: 1.08–1.24). SNP rs11614913 was found to be associated with LC risk in most genetic models (TC vs. TT: OR =1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32; CC vs. TT: OR =1.24, 95% CI: 1.06–1.44; CC + TC vs. TT: OR =1.19, 95% CI: 1.06–1.34; C vs. T: OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.20). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, genotyping method and control characteristics, significantly affected LC risks were also suggested. Conclusions The rs2910164 in miR-146a and the rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are likely to be associated with LC risks. PMID:27293850

  19. The influence of serotonin transporter polymorphisms on cortical activity: A resting EEG study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonergic neurotransmission and has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. Among the genetic variants, polymorphisms in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and variable-number-of-tandem-repeat in the second intron (5-HTTVNTR) have functional consequences. However, their genetic impact on cortical oscillation remains unclear. This study examined the modulatory effects of 5-HTTLPR (L-allele carriers vs. non-carriers) and 5-HTTVNTR (10-repeat allele carriers vs. non-carriers) polymorphism on regional neural activity in a young female population. Methods Blood samples and resting state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) signals were collected from 195 healthy women and stratified into 2 sets of comparisons of 2 groups each: L-allele carriers (N = 91) vs. non-carriers for 5-HTTLPR and 10-repeat allele carriers (N = 25) vs. non-carriers for 5-HTTVNTR. The mean power of 18 electrodes across theta, alpha, beta, gamma, gamma1, and gamma2 frequencies was analyzed. Between-group statistics were performed by an independent t-test, and global trends of regional power were quantified by non-parametric analyses. Results Among 5-HTTVNTR genotypes, 10-repeat allele carriers showed significantly low regional power at gamma frequencies across the brain. We noticed a consistent global trend that carriers with low transcription efficiency of 5-HTT possessed low regional powers, regardless of frequency bands. The non-parametric analyses confirmed this observation, with P values of 3.071 × 10-8 and 1.459 × 10-12 for 5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR, respectively. Conclusions and Limitations Our analyses showed that genotypes with low 5-HTT activity are associated with less local neural synchronization during relaxation. The implication with respect to genetic vulnerability of 5-HTT across a broad range of psychiatric disorders is discussed. Given the low frequency of 10-repeat allele of 5

  20. Influence of dopamine polymorphisms on the risk for anorexia nervosa and associated psychopathological features.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Guillermo; Gordillo, Inmaculada; García-Herráiz, Angustias; Flores, Isalud; Jiménez, Mercedes; Monge, Melchora; Carrillo, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine neuronal functions make polymorphisms in dopaminergic pathways good candidates for playing a relevant role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and related psychopathological features. We have analyzed the effect of 8 polymorphisms in genes coding for dopamine receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4), transporters (DAT1) and metabolizing enzymes (COMT) in 78 women with AN and 186 control subjects. Associated psychopathological characteristics in patients with AN were assessed by the Eating Disorders Inventory Test-2 and SCL-90R self-reported questionnaires. The DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) 7R/7R and DRD4 -616CC genotypes were significantly associated with a greater risk for AN (odds ratio, 3.83; confidence interval, 1.05-13.98; P = 0.04; and odds ratio, 1.74; confidence interval, 1.01-2.97; P = 0.03, respectively). The analysis of physiological parameters in the patients with AN revealed that the short allele of a 120-base pair tandem repeat in the promoter region of the DRD4 gene was associated with higher weight (48.35 ± 6.79 vs 43.95 ± 5.78 kg; Bonferroni, P < 0.05), whereas the DRD4 -521TT genotype was associated with significantly higher body mass index (17.29 ± 2.25 vs 18.13 ± 2.41 kg/m2; Bonferroni, P < 0.05). The DRD4 C-616G and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms correlated with several psychopathological features in patients with AN. Carriers of the mutant homozygous genotypes scored higher in all but one of the Eating Disorders Inventory Test-2 subscales. After correction for multiple testing, differences in Asceticism scores between DAT1 VNTR genotypes, as well as differences in Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction between C-616G genotypes remained significant (P < 0.05). The results show that certain genetic alterations in the dopamine pathways are able to modify the risk for AN as well as modulate psychopathological features that are often coupled to this disorder. PMID:23775054

  1. Human leukocyte antigen-G polymorphism influences the age of onset and autoantibody status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mariaselvam, C M; Chaaben, A B; Salah, S; Charron, D; Krishnamoorthy, R; Tamouza, R; Negi, V S

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the frequency of three gene polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene in south Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and analyze their influence on disease susceptibility, phenotype and treatment response. HLA-G 14 bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (del) (rs66554220), HLA-G +3142G>C (rs1063320) and +3187A>G (rs9380142) polymorphism was analyzed in 221 RA patients and 200 healthy controls. Frequency of HLA-G genotypes or alleles did not differ between patients and controls. Analysis based on rheumatoid factor (RF) status revealed that the frequency of allele 'A' (rs9380142) was significantly higher in RF-positive than in RF-negative patients [84% vs 74%, Yates-corrected P value (Pc) = 0.04, odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.2]. A similar difference was maintained in RF-positive female patients than their RF-negative counterparts (83% vs 71%, Pc = 0.02, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.4) and between RF-positive and RF-negative young onset RA (YORA) patients (84% vs 73%, Pc = 0.03, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), suggesting that rs9380142 polymorphism influenced RF status. The 14 bp Ins allele of rs66554220 was significantly more prevalent in RF-positive YORA than in RF-positive late onset RA (LORA) patients (51% vs 25%, P = 0.03, OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-9.8). Frequency of the four major haplotypes [InsGA (48%), DelGA (22%), DelCG (18%), DelCA (9.7%)] observed did not differ between cases and controls. HLA-G does not appear to be a risk factor for development of RA in south Indian Tamils but may act as a genetic modifier of clinical phenotype in terms of autoantibody production, gender preference and age at disease onset. PMID:25656292

  2. NEXAFS and XPS of p-Aminobenzoic Acid Polymorphs: The Influence of Local Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. S.; Gainar, A.; Jaye, C.; Fischer, D. A.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen K-edge XPS and NEXAFS of the two polymorphic forms of para- aminobenzoic acid (PABA) are significantly different reflecting variation in hydrogen bonding. Alteration in hydrogen bonding at the amino group leads to a shift to high energy for both the XPS N 1s core level and the 3π* NEXAFS resonance with β-PABA. Participation of the amine group in the aromatic system causes the 1π* resonance to be sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular bonding at the para-carboxylic acid group, and a shift to low energy for α- PABA is observed due to hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acid dimer formation. FEFF calculations also successfully reproduce both the energy and intensity variations observed for the σ* shape resonance associated with the C-N bond, with the majority of the decrease in energy observed for b-PABA arising from the longer C-N bond.

  3. Influence of vitamin D and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on calcium absorption: BsmI predicts a greater decrease during energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Chang, B; Schlussel, Y; Sukumar, D; Schneider, S H; Shapses, S A

    2015-12-01

    Low calcium absorption is associated with low bone mass and fracture. In this study, we use gold standard methods of fractional calcium absorption (FCA) to determine whether polymorphisms of intestinal receptors, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor α (ESR1), influence the response to energy restriction. Fractional calcium absorption was measured using dual stable isotopes ((42)Ca and (43)Ca) in women given adequate calcium and vitamin D and examined at baseline and after 6 weeks of energy restriction or no intervention. After genotyping, the relationship between VDR and ESR1 genotypes/haplotypes and FCA response was assessed using several genetic models. One-hundred and sixty-eight women (53 ± 11 years of age) were included in this analysis. The ESR1 polymorphisms, PvuII and XbaI and VDR polymorphisms (TaqI, ApaI) did not significantly influence FCA. The BB genotype of the VDR polymorphism, BsmI, was associated with a greater decrease in FCA than the Bb/bb genotype. Multiple linear regression showed that the BsmI polymorphism or the VDR haplotype, BAt, in addition to changes in weight and vitamin D intake explained ~16% of the variation in changes in FCA. In conclusion, the reduction in calcium absorption due to energy restriction is greatest for those with the BB genotype. Previous candidate gene studies show that VDR polymorphisms are associated with higher risk for osteoporosis, and the current study supports the notion that the BsmI polymorphism in intestinal VDR may be contributing to alterations in bone health. PMID:26165414

  4. Common variation near CDKN1A, POLD3 and SHROOM2 influences colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Malcolm G; Dobbins, Sara E; Farrington, Susan Mary; Jones, Angela M; Palles, Claire; Whiffin, Nicola; Tenesa, Albert; Spain, Sarah; Broderick, Peter; Ooi, Li-Yin; Domingo, Enric; Smillie, Claire; Henrion, Marc; Frampton, Matthew; Martin, Lynn; Grimes, Graeme; Gorman, Maggie; Semple, Colin; Ma, Yussanne; Barclay, Ella; Prendergast, James; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Olver, Bianca; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Theodoratou, Evropi; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian; Kirac, Iva; Kovačević, Dujo; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Matsuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Gallinger, Steven; Duggan, David J; Conti, David; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Casey, Graham; Easton, Douglas; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul; Lindblom, Annika; Liu, Tao; Smith, Christopher G; West, Hannah; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David J; Campbell, Harry; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies to identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk comprising 8,682 cases and 9,649 controls. Replication analysis was performed in case-control sets totalling 21,096 cases and 19,555 controls. We identified three novel CRC risk loci at 6p21 (rs1321311, near CDKN1A; P=1.14×10−10), 11q13.4 (rs3824999, intronic to POLD3; P=3.65×10−10) and Xp22.2 (rs5934683, near SHROOM2; P=7.30×10−10) This brings to 20 the number of independent loci associated with CRC risk, and provides further insight into the genetic architecture of inherited susceptibility to CRC. PMID:22634755

  5. Common variation near CDKN1A, POLD3 and SHROOM2 influences colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Malcolm G; Dobbins, Sara E; Farrington, Susan Mary; Jones, Angela M; Palles, Claire; Whiffin, Nicola; Tenesa, Albert; Spain, Sarah; Broderick, Peter; Ooi, Li-Yin; Domingo, Enric; Smillie, Claire; Henrion, Marc; Frampton, Matthew; Martin, Lynn; Grimes, Graeme; Gorman, Maggie; Semple, Colin; Ma, Yusanne P; Barclay, Ella; Prendergast, James; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Olver, Bianca; Penegar, Steven; Lubbe, Steven; Chander, Ian; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Theodoratou, Evropi; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian; Kirac, Iva; Kovacević, Dujo; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Matsuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Gallinger, Steven; Duggan, David J; Conti, David; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Casey, Graham; Easton, Douglas; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul; Lindblom, Annika; Liu, Tao; Smith, Christopher G; West, Hannah; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David J; Campbell, Harry; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies to identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk comprising 8,682 cases and 9,649 controls. Replication analysis was performed in case-control sets totaling 21,096 cases and 19,555 controls. We identified three new CRC risk loci at 6p21 (rs1321311, near CDKN1A; P = 1.14 × 10(-10)), 11q13.4 (rs3824999, intronic to POLD3; P = 3.65 × 10(-10)) and Xp22.2 (rs5934683, near SHROOM2; P = 7.30 × 10(-10)) This brings the number of independent loci associated with CRC risk to 20 and provides further insight into the genetic architecture of inherited susceptibility to CRC. PMID:22634755

  6. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a disease characterized by epithelial-like endothelial cells which influence management and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krachmer, J H

    1985-01-01

    This thesis contains a clinical and laboratory summary of findings in PPMD and, for the first time, reports the results of a large series of patients who underwent keratoplasty surgery. Posterior polymorphous dystrophy is bilateral and autosomal dominantly inherited. Slit lamp findings include corneal edema in the more advanced cases, calcific and lipid degenerative changes in severe cases, band-like lesions at the level of Descemet's membrane, localized or diffuse thickenings of Descemet's membrane, posterior corneal vesicular-like lesions, islands of abnormal cells surrounded by normal-appearing endothelial cells. Iridocorneal adhesions ranged in severity from fine or broad-based adhesions seen only on gonioscopy to large iridocorneal adhesions often associated with a glass-like membrane that are seen easily by slit lamp examination. All patients with broad-based iridocorneal adhesions have elevated intraocular pressure. Some patients have elevated pressure but no adhesions. Laboratory examination of corneal, iris, and trabecular meshwork tissue from patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty and filtering operations reveals an abnormal endothelial cell layer covering the posterior cornea and growing across the trabecular meshwork and onto the iris. Although this tissue contains a variety of cells, the most prominent type is an epithelial-like cell. Extensive laboratory studies demonstrate features in common between the epithelial-like cells and normal epithelium. These include a multilaminar pattern, desmosomal junctions, microvillous projections, cytoplasmic keratin, sparse mitochondria, and rapid growth in tissue culture. These cells appear to determine the management and prognosis of patients with PPMD undergoing surgery. Twenty-two corneal transplants were performed on 20 eyes of 13 patients with PPMD. Their ages ranged from 11 to 77 years. The follow-up time after keratoplasty averaged 4.75 years. Nine grafts (41%) failed. Two failed because of an

  7. Common variations in the pretest environment influence genotypic comparisons in models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Izídio, G S; Lopes, D M; Spricigo, L; Ramos, A

    2005-10-01

    The behavioral characterization of rodent strains in different studies and laboratories can provide unreplicable results even when genotypes are kept constant and environmental control is maximized. In the present study, the influence of common laboratory environmental variables and their interaction with genotype on the results of behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality were investigated. To this end, the inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which are known to differ for numerous emotionality-related behaviors, were tested in the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and black/white box (BWB), while three environmental factors were systematically controlled and analyzed: (1) the experimenter handling the animal (familiar or unfamiliar); (2) the position of the home cage (top or bottom shelf of the rack) and (3) the behavioral state of the animal immediately before the test (arousal or rest). Experimenter familiarity did not alter the behavior of rats in the OF. Cage position, on the other hand, influenced the behavior in the OF and BWB, with rats housed in top cages appearing less anxious than those housed in the bottom. In the BWB (but not in the OF), these effects were genotype dependent. Finally, the behavioral state of the animals prior to testing altered the results of the EPM in a strain-dependent manner, with some anxiety-related genotypic differences being found only among rats that were aroused in their home cages. This study showed that common variations in the laboratory environment interact with genotype in behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality. Recognizing and understanding such variations can help in the design of more effective experiments. PMID:16176387

  8. Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Günter U.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Wang, Li-San; Klei, Lambertus; Rademakers, Rosa; de Silva, Rohan; Litvan, Irene; Riley, David E.; van Swieten, John C.; Heutink, Peter; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Vandrovcova, Jana; Hurtig, Howard I.; Gross, Rachel G.; Maetzler, Walter; Goldwurm, Stefano; Tolosa, Eduardo; Borroni, Barbara; Pastor, Pau; Cantwell, Laura B.; Han, Mi Ryung; Dillman, Allissa; van der Brug, Marcel P.; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Farrer, Matthew J.; Yu, Chang-En; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Revesz, Tamas; Hardy, John; Lees, Andrew J.; Devlin, Bernie; Hakonarson, Hakon; Müller, Ulrich; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder with prominent tau neuropathology. Brain diseases with abnormal tau deposits are called tauopathies, the most common being Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental causes of tauopathies include repetitive head trauma associated with some sports. To identify common genetic variation contributing to risk for tauopathies, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 1,114 PSP cases and 3,247 controls (Stage 1) followed up by a second stage where 1,051 cases and 3,560 controls were genotyped for Stage 1 SNPs that yielded P ≤ 10−3. We found significant novel signals (P < 5 × 10−8) associated with PSP risk at STX6, EIF2AK3, and MOBP. We confirmed two independent variants in MAPT affecting risk for PSP, one of which influences MAPT brain expression. The genes implicated encode proteins for vesicle-membrane fusion at the Golgi-endosomal interface, for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and for a myelin structural component. PMID:21685912

  9. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mobascher, A.; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Wagner, M.; Gallinat, J.; Wienker, T. F.; Drichel, D.; Becker, T.; Steffens, M.; Dahmen, N.; Gründer, G.; Thürauf, N.; Kiefer, F.; Kornhuber, J.; Toliat, M. R.; Thiele, H.; Nürnberg, P.; Steinlein, O.; Winterer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual) attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG) as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures. PMID:27054571

  10. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Mobascher, A; Diaz-Lacava, A; Wagner, M; Gallinat, J; Wienker, T F; Drichel, D; Becker, T; Steffens, M; Dahmen, N; Gründer, G; Thürauf, N; Kiefer, F; Kornhuber, J; Toliat, M R; Thiele, H; Nürnberg, P; Steinlein, O; Winterer, G

    2016-01-01

    Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual) attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG) as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures. PMID:27054571

  11. Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A1C Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Soranzo, Nicole; Sanna, Serena; Wheeler, Eleanor; Gieger, Christian; Radke, Dörte; Dupuis, Josée; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Stolerman, Elliot; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ricketts, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA1c. We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA1c levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied associations with HbA1c in up to 46,368 nondiabetic adults of European descent from 23 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 8 cohorts with de novo genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined studies using inverse-variance meta-analysis and tested mediation by glycemia using conditional analyses. We estimated the global effect of HbA1c loci using a multilocus risk score, and used net reclassification to estimate genetic effects on diabetes screening. RESULTS Ten loci reached genome-wide significant association with HbA1c, including six new loci near FN3K (lead SNP/P value, rs1046896/P = 1.6 × 10−26), HFE (rs1800562/P = 2.6 × 10−20), TMPRSS6 (rs855791/P = 2.7 × 10−14), ANK1 (rs4737009/P = 6.1 × 10−12), SPTA1 (rs2779116/P = 2.8 × 10−9) and ATP11A/TUBGCP3 (rs7998202/P = 5.2 × 10−9), and four known HbA1c loci: HK1 (rs16926246/P = 3.1 × 10−54), MTNR1B (rs1387153/P = 4.0 × 10−11), GCK (rs1799884/P = 1.5 × 10−20) and G6PC2/ABCB11 (rs552976/P = 8.2 × 10−18). We show that associations with HbA1c are partly a function of hyperglycemia associated with 3 of the 10 loci (GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B). The seven nonglycemic loci accounted for a 0.19 (% HbA1c) difference between the extreme 10% tails of the risk score, and would reclassify ∼2% of a general white population screened for diabetes with HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS GWAS identified 10 genetic loci reproducibly associated with HbA1c. Six are novel and seven map to loci where rarer variants cause hereditary anemias and iron

  12. A Polymorphism in the Regulatory Region of the CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Gene Influences Perinatal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 to African-American Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Neumann, Avidan U.; Thomson, Bruce; Korber, Bette T.; McHardy, Paul; Karanicolas, Rose; Deutsch, Lisa; Huang, Yaoxing; Lew, Judy F.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pollack, Henry; Borkowsky, William; Spiegel, Hans M. L.; Palumbo, Paul; Oleske, James; Bardeguez, Arlene; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Sullivan, John; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Koup, Richard A.; Ho, David D.; Moore, John P.

    1999-01-01

    There are natural mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CC-chemokine coreceptor 5 (CCR5) and in the related CCR2 protein (the CCR2-64I mutation). Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 allele, which prevents CCR5 expression, strongly resist HIV-1 infection. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified within the CCR5 5′ regulatory region, some of which influence the rate of disease progression in adult AIDS study cohorts. We genotyped 1,442 infants (1,235 uninfected and 207 HIV-1 infected) for five CCR5 and CCR2 polymorphisms: CCR5-59353-T/C, CCR5-59356-C/T CCR5-59402-A/G, CCR5-Δ32, and CCR2-64I. The clinical significance of each genotype was assessed by measuring whether it influenced the rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission among 667 AZT-untreated mother-infant pairs (554 uninfected and 113 HIV-1 infected). We found that the mutant CCR5-59356-T allele is relatively common in African-Americans (20.6% allele frequency among 552 infants) and rare in Caucasians and Hispanics (3.4 and 5.6% of 174 and 458 infants, respectively; P < 0.001). There were 38 infants homozygous for CCR5-59356-T, of whom 35 were African-Americans. Among the African-American infants in the AZT-untreated group, there was a highly significant increase in HIV-1 transmission to infants with two mutant CCR5-59356-T alleles (47.6% of 21), compared to those with no or one mutant allele (13.4 to 14.1% of 187 and 71, respectively; P < 0.001). The increased relative risk was 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 15.3; P < 0.001). The frequency of the CCR5-59356-T mutation varies between population groups in the United States, a low frequency occurring in Caucasians and a higher frequency occurring in African-Americans. Homozygosity for CCR5-59356-T is strongly associated with an increased rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:10559343

  13. Influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on ventilatory thresholds related to endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Artioli, Guilherme G; Lancha, Antônio H; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Mônica V; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the association between ACTN3 polymorphism and physiological parameters related to endurance performance. A total of 150 healthy male volunteers performed a maximal incremental running test to determine the speeds corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Participants were genotyped and divided into terciles based on the analysed variables. Genotype frequencies were compared through χ(2) test between lower and higher terciles, with the lowest or highest values of each analysed variable. ACTN3 XX genotype was over-represented in higher tercile for VT and RCP. Odds ratio also showed significantly higher chances of XX individuals to be in higher tercile compared to RR (7.3) and RR + RX (3.5) for VT and compared to RR genotype (8.1) and RR + RX (3.4) for RCP. Thus, XX individuals could attain the VT and RCP at higher speeds, suggesting that they are able to sustain higher running speeds in lower exercise intensity domains. It could result in higher lipid acids oxidation, saving muscle glycogen and delaying the fatigue during prolonged exercises, which could be the advantage mechanism of this genotype to endurance performance. PMID:25939605

  14. Elucidating the influence of polymorph-dependent interfacial solvent structuring at chitin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron H; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2016-10-20

    Interfacial solvent structuring is thought to be influential in mediating the adsorption of biomolecules at aqueous materials interfaces. However, despite the enormous potential for exploitation of aqueous chitin interfaces in industrial, medical and drug-delivery applications, little is known at the molecular-level about such interfacial solvent structuring for chitin. Here we use molecular simulation to predict the structure of the [100] and [010] interfaces of α-chitin and β-chitin dihydrate in contact with liquid water and saline solution. We find the α-chitin [100] interface supports lateral high-density regions in the first water layer at the interface, which are also present, but not as pronounced, for β-chitin. The lateral structuring of interfacial ions at the saline/chitin interface is also more pronounced for α-chitin compared with β-chitin. Our findings provide a foundation for the systematic design of biomolecules with selective binding affinity for different chitin polymorphs. PMID:27474640

  15. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism influences aggressive behavior in prostate cancer cells by deregulating cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    IFERE, GODWIN O.; DESMOND, RENEE; DEMARK-WAHNEFRIED, WENDY; NAGY, TIM R.

    High circulating cholesterol and its deregulated homeostasis may facilitate prostate cancer progression. Genetic polymorphism in Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a key cholesterol regulatory protein may effect changes in systemic cholesterol levels. In this investigation, we determined whether variants of the Apo E gene can trigger defective intracellular cholesterol efflux, which could promote aggressive prostate cancer. ApoE genotypes of weakly (non-aggressive), moderate and highly tumorigenic (aggressive) prostate cancer cell lines were characterized, and we explored whether the ApoE variants were associated with tumor aggressiveness generated by intra cellular cholesterol imbalance, using the expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1), a pro-malignancy surrogate of cholesterol overload. Restriction isotyping of ApoE isoforms revealed that the non-aggressive cell lines carried ApoE ε3/ε3 or ε3/ε4 alleles, while the aggressive cell lines carried the Apoε2/ε4 alleles. Our data suggest a contrast between the non-aggressive and the aggressive prostate cancer cell lines in the pattern of cholesterol efflux and cav-1 expression. Our exploratory results suggest a relationship between prostate aggressiveness, ApoE isoforms and cholesterol imbalance. Further investigation of this relationship may elucidate the molecular basis for considering cholesterol as a risk factor of aggressive prostate tumors, and underscore the potential of the dysfunctional ApoE2/E4 isoform as a biomarker of aggressive disease. PMID:23934233

  16. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chunhui; Lei, Xuemei; Liu, Yuyun; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Moyzis, Robert K.; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence affective decision making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that stressful life events acted as a risk factor for poor IGT performance (i.e., high reward sensitivity) among Met carriers, whereas parental warmth acted as a protective factor for good IGT performance (i.e., higher IGT score) among Val/Val homozygotes. These results shed some new light on gene-environment interactions in decision making, which could potentially help us understand the underlying etiology of several psychiatric disorders associated with decision making impairment. PMID:22997551

  17. The influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate-related toxicity and survival in children with non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Erculj, Nina; Kotnik, Barbara Faganel; Debeljak, Marusa; Jazbec, Janez; Dolzan, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) related toxicity in paediatric patients with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods In total, 30 NHL patients were genotyped for selected folate pathway polymorphisms. Results Carriers of at least one MTHFR 677T allele had significantly higher MTX area under the time-concentration curve levels at third MTX cycle (P = 0.003). These patients were also at higher odds of leucopoenia (P = 0.006) or thrombocytopenia (P = 0.041) and had higher number of different HD-MTX-related toxicity (P = 0.035) compared to patients with wild-type genotype. Conclusions Our results suggest an important role of MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in the development of HD-MTX-related toxicity in children with NHL. PMID:25177243

  18. Common polymorphisms of the microRNA genes (miR-146a and miR-196a-2) and gastric cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z F; Ma, L L; Xue, H B

    2015-01-01

    The associations between two common polymorphisms in microRNA genes (miR-146a, dbSNP: rs2910164; miR-196a-2, dbSNP: rs11614913) and gastric cancer risk have frequently been examined; however, the results have often been controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify the association between the two polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk. The literature search primarily utilized PubMed, Embase, SinoMed, and Wanfang databases to identify eligible studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed to investigate possible correlations. Subgroup analyses of ethnicity as well as source of controls were also performed. The correlation analysis was based on 11 studies, containing 4690 patients and 6066 controls for miR-146a (C>G) together with 1911 patients and 2484 controls for miR-196a-2 (T>C). For the miR-146a polymorphism, the values of the ORs and 95%CIs were >1, suggesting that a correlation exists. In subgroup analysis of source of controls, a correlation was also identified in the Asian subgroup. However, in Caucasians the ORs and 95%CIs were not distributed on the same side of the critical value 1, contra-indicative of a correlation in this group. For the miR-196a-2 polymorphism, the ORs with 95%CIs of both overall and subgroup analyses were also not restricted to >1 or ˂1. In summary, the results suggested that the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was related to gastric cancer risk in Asians but not in Caucasians, and no distinct correlation seemed to exist between the miR-196a-2 rs11614913 polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26345790

  19. Influence of Multiple Genetic Polymorphisms on Genitourinary Morbidity After Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, Tomo; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Oda, Eisei; Noda, Shuhei; Otsuka, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Shimazaki, Jun; Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Imai, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the genetic risk of late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 prostate cancer patients who had undergone carbon ion radiotherapy were evaluated for urinary morbidity. The distribution of patients with dysuria was as follows: Grade 0, 165; Grade 1, 28; and Grade 2, 4 patients. The patients were divided (2:1) consecutively into the training and test sets and then categorized into control (Grade 0) and case (Grade 1 or greater) groups. First, 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 118 candidate genes were genotyped in the training set. The associations between the SNP genotypes and urinary morbidity were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Then, various combinations of the markers were tested for their ability to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC-ROC) curve analysis results. Finally, the test set was validated for the selected markers. Results: When the SNP markers in the SART1, ID3, EPDR1, PAH, and XRCC6 genes in the training set were subjected to AUC-ROC curve analysis, the AUC-ROC curve reached a maximum of 0.86. The AUC-ROC curve of these markers in the test set was 0.77. The SNPs in these five genes were defined as 'risk genotypes.' Approximately 90% of patients in the case group (Grade 1 or greater) had three or more risk genotypes. Conclusions: Our results have shown that patients with late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy can be stratified according to the total number of risk genotypes they harbor.

  20. Influence of the COMT val108/158met polymorphism on Continuous Performance Task Indices

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yunsoo; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The Continuous Performance Task (CPT) is a widely-used measure of sustained attention and impulsivity. Deficits in CPT performance have been found in several psychiatric disorders, such as Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Molecular genetic studies of CPT performance are currently limited and have generally revealed inconsistent findings. The current study tested the associations of the COMT val108/158met polymorphism with AX-CPT indices (i.e., omission and commission errors, d′, and lnβ), as well as the variability of these indices across blocks, in a sample of clinic-referred and non-referred children (N = 380). We found significant associations between COMT and variability in the Signal Detection Theory (SDT) indices d′ and lnβ across blocks, as well as a statistical trend for association between COMT and commission errors. Higher externalizing psychopathology was associated with general impairment on AX-CPT performance, and for some indices (i.e., d′ variability and lnβ variability) the effect of COMT was stronger at higher levels of psychopathology. Our findings support the role of COMT in components of CPT performance and highlight the potential utility of using SDT indices, particularly in relation to variability in performance. Moreover, our results suggest that for some indices the effect of COMT is stronger at higher levels of externalizing psychopathology. Our study yields some preliminary insights regarding the neurobiology of CPT performance, which may elucidate the mechanisms by which specific genes confer risk for various cognitive deficits, as well as relevant disorders characterized by these deficits. PMID:24946318

  1. Association between two common polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphism -250G/A and -514C/T) of the hepatic lipase gene and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali; Bazyar, Mohammad; Kheirollah, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations in the hepatic lipase (HL) gene are the potential candidate for coronary artery disease (CAD) especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in diverse populations. We assessed the association of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in HL (LIPC) gene with CAD risk in Iranian population with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 322 type 2 diabetic patients, 166 patients with normal angiograms as controls and 156 patients those identified with CAD undergoing their first coronary angiography as CAD cases. Genotyping of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in the promoter of the LIPC gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Genotype distributions in CAD cases (73.7%, 20.5%, and 5.8% for −250G/A) and (62.2%, 32.7%, and 5.1% for -514C/T) were significantly different from those in controls (60.8%, 37.4%, and 1.8% for -250G/A) and (51.2%, 48.2%, and 0.6% for -514C/T). CAD cases had lower A-allele frequency than controls (0.131 vs. 0.196, P = 0.028). The odds ratio for the presence of -250 (GG + GA) genotype and A allele in CAD cases were 2.206 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.33–3.65, P = 0.002) and 1.609 (95% CI = 1.051 −2.463, P = 0.029) respectively. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a significant association between especially LIPC double mutant (−250 A/-514 T) haplotype and presence of CAD. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that -250 G/A polymorphism rather than -514 C/T polymorphism of LIPC gene is more associated with the increased risk of CAD particularly in women with T2DM. PMID:27014654

  2. Polymorphic form of piroxicam influences the performance of amorphous material prepared by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Naelapää, Kaisa; Boetker, Johan Peter; Veski, Peep; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Kogermann, Karin

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the starting solid state form of piroxicam (anhydrate form I: PRXAH I vs form II: PRXAH II) on the properties of the resulting amorphous material. The second objective was to obtain further insight into the impact of critical factors like thermal stress, dissolution medium and storage conditions on the thermal behavior, solid state transformations and physical stability of amorphous materials. For analysis differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) were used. Pair-wise distribution function (PDF) analysis of the XRPD data was performed. PDF analysis indicated that the recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples was influenced by the amount of residual order in the samples. The recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples prepared from PRXAH I showed similarity to the starting material, whereas the recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples prepared from PRXAH II resembled to that of the PRX form III (PRXAH III). Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) helped to identify that the influence of storage time and temperature was more pronounced in the case of amorphous PRX prepared from PRXAH I. Furthermore, the wet slurry experiments with amorphous materials revealed the recrystallization of amorphous material as PRXMH in the biorelevant medium. PMID:22433471

  3. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  4. Interethnic differences of cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may influence outcome of taxane therapy in Roma and Hungarian populations.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Renata; Ganczer, Alma; Magyari, Lili; Matyas, Petra; Bene, Judit; Melegh, Bela

    2015-12-01

    Taxanes are widely used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Several cytochrome P450 gene variants have been proven to influence taxane metabolism and therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution of genetic variations of CYP1B1, CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes as the first report on taxane metabolizer cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. A total of 397 Roma and 412 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for CYP1B1 c.4326C > G, CYP2C8 c.792C > G and CYP3A5 c.6986A > G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of CYP1B1 4326 GG (p = 0.002) and CYP3A5 6986 GG (p < 0.001) between Roma and Hungarian populations. Regarding minor allele frequencies, for CYP2C8 a significantly increased prevalence was found in 792G allele frequency in the Hungarian population compared to the Roma population (5.83% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.001). Our results can be used as possible predictive factors in population specific treatment algorithms to developing effective programs for a better outcome in patients treated with taxanes. PMID:26507668

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    PubMed

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-01-01

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with growth and carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies. PMID:27420951

  6. Plant Ontogeny, Spatial Distance, and Soil Type Influence Patterns of Relatedness in a Common Amazonian Tree

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo A.; Misiewicz, Tracy M.; Fine, Paul V. A.; Costa, Flávia R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spatial genetic structure (SGS) may originate from different patterns of seed deposition in the landscape, and is mostly determined by seed dispersal limitation. After dispersal, mechanisms such as filtering by environmental factors or attack by herbivores/pathogens throughout plant development stages, and potentially either disrupt or intensify SGS patterns. We investigated how the genotype of Protium subserratum (Burseraceae), a common tree species in the Ducke Reserve, Brazil, is distributed across the landscape. We used seven microsatellite markers to assess the SGS among plants at different life stages and in different environments. By quantifying the patterns of relatedness among plants of different sizes, we inferred the ontogenetic stage in which SGS changes occurred, and compared these effects across soil types. Relatedness among seedlings decreased when distance between seedlings increased, especially for the youngest seedlings. However, this trend was not continued by older plants, as relatedness values were higher among neighboring individuals of the juvenile and adult size class. Contrasting relatedness patterns between seedlings and larger individuals suggests a trade-off between the negative effects of being near closely-related adults (e.g. due to herbivore and pathogen attack) and the advantage of being in a site favorable to establishment. We also found that soil texture strongly influenced density-dependence patterns, as young seedlings in clay soils were more related to each other than were seedlings in bottomland sandy soils, suggesting that the mechanisms that create and maintain patterns of SGS within a population may interact with environmental heterogeneity. PMID:23667502

  7. Review of evidence that posttransplantation psychiatric treatment commonly affects prolactin levels and thereby influences graft fate.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kevin F; Kast, Richard E

    2006-01-01

    Delirium, depression and other psychiatric difficulties are commonly encountered by posttransplantation patients, and antipsychotic medicines are frequently used to treat these difficulties. This article reviews previous research data concerning the immunological effects of these medicines, with particular focus on the consequences of prolactin elevation. Unproven but of concern is that these effects may influence graft fate. Older antipsychotic medicines such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine have a high likelihood of elevating prolactin. Prolactin is an immunologically active molecule generally promoting bone marrow function. This may be of benefit post-stem-cell transplant, helping engraftment, but could further rejection of solid-organ transplants. Elevated prolactin is implicated in the facilitation of graft-versus-host disease. Aripiprazole is the antipsychotic medicine least likely to increase prolactin (and may actually decrease prolactin); risperidone, the most likely to increase prolactin. Olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprazadone are antipsychotic medicines with a lower likelihood of elevating prolactin. Older ("neuroleptic") antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, droperidol and haloperidol, perphenazine and many others, are likely to elevate serum prolactin. Among antidepressants, most serotonin reuptake inhibitors, with the exception of sertraline, can slightly elevate prolactin. The atypical (i.e., alone in their class) antidepressants bupropion and mirtazapine are prolactin neutral. The immunological consequences of psychiatric medicines should be considered when treating transplant patients for delirium, depression and thought disorders; in addition, if elevation of prolactin is thought to be of immunological importance during psychiatric treatment, then it should be monitored and treated. The dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson's disease--bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinerole--usually reverse antipsychotic-induced prolactin

  8. Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphisms influence mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play a crucial role in the host's innate immune response. Genetic variations in TLR genes may influence host-viral interactions and might impact upon the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic variants of TLR 9 gene on MTCT. Methods Three hundred children (118 HIV-1-infected and 182 HIV-1-uninfected) born to HIV-1-infected mothers were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) NM_017442.2: c.4-44G > A (rs352139) and c.1635A > G (rs352140) of the TLR9 gene were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats program. Results When considered separately, neither of the two SNPs was significantly associated with risk of HIV-1 infection. However, the [A;A] and [G;G] haplotypes were associated with a higher risk of HIV-1 infection compared to the prevalent [G;A] haplotype [odds ratio (OR) = 3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-8.03, p = 0.016, and OR = 5.54, 95% CI 1.76-17.50, p = 0.004, respectively]. Conclusions Overall, results demonstrate a significant correlation between specific genetic variants of the TLR9 gene and risk of MTCT of HIV-1, thus confirming a critical role of innate immunity in perinatal HIV-1 infection. Strategies aimed at modulating innate immunity might be useful for future treatment of pediatric HIV-1 infection and AIDS. PMID:20500814

  9. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Internalizing Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Myers, John M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for common internalizing psychopathology (IP) and mental well-being (MWB), we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological well-being, and a history of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks in the last year, in 1,386 twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national USA sample assessed in 1995 and then again in 2005. Statistical analyses were performed with the Mx program. In the 1995 data, the best fit model contained one substantially heritable common factor for MD, GAD and panic attacks, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three well-being measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for IP accounted for, respectively, 50 and 5%, of the genetic and environmental influences on MWB. We then constructed, using 1995 and 2005 data, two common factors that reflected temporally stable influences on (i) MD and GAD, and (ii) on emotional and psychological well-being. Genetic and environmental risk factors for the stable liability to IP accounted for 41 and 29% of the stable genetic and environmental influences, respectively, on MWB. This study suggests that genetic risk factors for IP make up 41–50% of the genetic influences on MWB. The overlap of environmental risk factors is more modest. Although low levels of IP on average reflect a high genetic propensity for MWB, other independent genetic influences play an important role in producing good mental health. PMID:21451959

  10. The AIRE -230Y Polymorphism Affects AIRE Transcriptional Activity: Potential Influence on AIRE Function in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Lovewell, Thomas R. J.; McDonagh, Andrew J.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Azzouz, Mimoun; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is expressed in the thymus, particularly in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), and is required for the ectopic expression of a diverse range of peripheral tissue antigens by mTECs, facilitating their ability to perform negative selection of auto-reactive immature T-cells. The expression profile of peripheral tissue antigens is affected not only by AIRE deficiency but also with variation of AIRE activity in the thymus. Method and Results Therefore we screened 591bp upstream of the AIRE transcription start site including AIRE minimal promoter for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and identified two SNPs -655R (rs117557896) and -230Y (rs751032) respectively. To study the effect of these variations on AIRE promoter activity we generated a Flp-In host cell line which was stably transfected with a single copy of the reporter vector. Relative promoter activity was estimated by comparing the luciferase specific activity for lysates of the different reporter AIRE promoter-reporter gene constructs including AIRE-655G AIRE-230C, AIRE-655G AIRE-230T and AIRE-655A AIRE-230C. The analysis showed that the commonest haplotype AIRE-655G AIRE-230C has the highest luciferase specific activity (p<0.001). Whereas AIRE-655G AIRE-230T has a luciferase specific activity value that approaches null. Both AIRE promoter polymorphic sites have one allele that forms a CpG methylation site which we determined can be methylated in methylation assays using the M.SssI CpG methyltransferase. Conclusion AIRE-230Y is in a conserved region of the promoter and is adjacent to a predicted WT1 transcription factor binding site, suggesting that AIRE-230Y affects AIRE expression by influencing the binding of biochemical factors to this region. Our findings show that AIRE-655GAIRE-230T haplotype could dramatically alter AIRE transcription and so have an effect on the process of negative selection and affect susceptibility to autoimmune conditions. PMID

  11. The Influence of Cytochrome P450 Pharmacogenetics on Disposition of Common Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Medications

    PubMed Central

    van der Weide, Jan; Hinrichs, John WJ

    2006-01-01

    Since the identification of all the major drug-metabolising cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and their major gene variants, pharmacogenetics has had a major impact on psychotherapeutic drug therapy. CYP enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most clinically used drugs. Individual variability in CYP activity is an important reason for drug therapy failure. Variability in CYP activity may be caused by various factors, including endogenous factors such as age, gender and morbidity as well as exogenous factors such as co-medication, food components and smoking habit. However, polymorphisms, present in most CYP genes, are responsible for a substantial part of this variability. Although CYP genotyping has been shown to predict the majority of aberrant phenotypes, it is currently rarely performed in clinical practice. PMID:16886044

  12. Influence of Cytochrome P450, Family 2, Subfamily D, Polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) polymorphisms on pain sensitivity and clinical response to weak opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Zalina; Ismail, Rusli

    2014-01-01

      CYP2D6 polymorphisms show large geographical and interethnic differences. Variations in CYP2D6 activity may impact upon a patient's pain level and may contribute to interindividual variations in the response to opioids. This paper reviews the evidence on how CYP2D6 polymorphisms might influence pain sensitivity and clinical response to codeine and tramadol. For example, it is shown that (1) CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) may be less efficient at synthesizing endogenous morphine compared with other metabolizers. In contrast, ultra-rapid metabolizers (UMs) may be more efficient than other metabolizers at synthesizing endogenous morphine, thus strengthening endogenous pain modulation. Additionally, for codeine and tramadol that are bioactivated by CYP2D6, PMs may undergo no metabolite formation, leading to inadequate analgesia. Conversely, UMs may experience quicker analgesic effects but be prone to higher mu-opioid-related toxicity. The literature suggested the potential usefulness of the determination of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in elucidating serious adverse events and in preventing subsequent inappropriate selection or doses of codeine and tramadol. Notably, even though many studies investigated a possible role of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms on pain sensitivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs, the results of analgesia and adverse effects are conflicting. More studies are required to demonstrate genetically determined unresponsiveness and risk of developing serious adverse events for patients with pain and these should involve larger numbers of patients in different population types. PMID:23759977

  13. Lamin B1 Polymorphism Influences Morphology of the Nuclear Envelope, Cell Cycle Progression, and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Sandra C. P.; Malhas, Ashraf; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gustavsson, Peter; Vaux, David J.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1 in maintaining

  14. Host-mediated volatile polymorphism in a parasitic plant influences its attractiveness to pollinators.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Alejandra J; Cabezas, Nancy J; Faúndez, Eric H; Urzúa, Alejandro; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2010-02-01

    Host-plants can mediate the interactions between herbivores and their mutualists and also between parasitic plants and their mutualists. The present study reveals how a hemiparasitic plant parasitizing three host species gives rise to three distinct hemiparasite-host neighborhoods which differ in terms of volatile composition and pollinator attractiveness. The study was performed in a population of the mistletoe Tristerix verticillatus infecting three different species of hosts occurring in sympatry within a small area, thus exposing all individuals studied to similar abiotic conditions and pollinator diversity; we assessed the effect of hosts on the hemiparasites' visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. During the study period, the hemiparasite individuals were flowering but the hosts were past their flowering stage. We collected volatile organic compounds from the hemiparasite and its hosts, measured floral display characteristics and monitored bird and insect visitors to inflorescences of T. verticillatus. We showed that: (1) floral patches did not differ in terms of floral display potentially involved in the attraction of pollinators, (2) hosts and hemiparasites on each host were discriminated as distinct chemical populations in terms of their volatile chemical profiles, (3) insect visitation rates differed between hemiparasites parasitizing different hosts, and (4) volatile compounds from the host and the hemiparasite influenced the visitation of hemiparasite flowers by insects. The study showed that a species regarded as "ornithophilic" by its floral morphology was actually mostly visited by insects that interacted with its sexual organs during their visits and carried its pollen, and that host-specific plant-volatile profiles within the T. verticillatus population were associated with differential attractiveness to pollinating insects. PMID:19890665

  15. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  16. Individual Participation in Organizational Information Commons: The Impact of Team Level Social Influence and Technology-Specific Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yu; Fulk, Janet; Shumate, Michelle; Monge, Peter R.; Bryant, J. Alison; Matsaganis, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver's (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using…

  17. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. PMID:26146998

  18. Does COX1 gene polymorphism (A842G/C50T) influence peptic ulcer bleeding in Indian patients?.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S; Simon, Ebby George; Joseph, A J; Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chowdhury, Sudipta Dhar; Kurien, Reuben Thomas; Chacko, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This is a pilot study to test the hypothesis that polymorphisms that may be linked to cyclooxygenase production may affect the likelihood and the nature of bleeding in patients with ulcer disease. Of the two polymorphism that have previously been studied for links we chose the A842G polymorphims. Of the 50 patients with ulcer bleeding who were studied, 8 had a heterozygous polymorphisms and 42 had the normal configuration. On comparing these two groups. there were no significant differences in clinical presentation except that there was a tendency to have less gastric ulcers among those with the A842G/C50T polymorphism. Based on these studies we need to undertake a larger studies comparing these groups with those with ulcers without GI bleeding and those without ulcers PMID:27522738

  19. Diffuse Scattering as an Aid to the Understanding of Polymorphism in Pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welberry, T. R.; Chan, E. J.; Goossens, D. J.; Heerdegen, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    Polymorphism occurs when the same molecular compound can crystallize in more than one distinct crystal structure. Its study is a field of great interest and activity. This is largely driven by its importance in the pharmaceutical industry, but polymorphism is also an issue in the pigments, dyes, and explosives industries. The polymorph formed by a compound generally exerts a strong influence on its solid-state properties. The polymorphic form of a drug molecule may affect the ease of manufacture and processing, shelf life, and most significantly the rate of uptake of the molecule by the human body. They can even vary in toxicity; one polymorph may be safe, while a second may be toxic. In this review of recently published work, we show how diffuse scattering experiments coupled with Monte Carlo (MC) computer modeling can aid in the understanding of polymorphism. Examples of the two common pharmaceuticals, benzocaine and aspirin, both of which are bimorphic, at ambient temperatures, are discussed.

  20. Diffuse Scattering as an Aid to the Understanding of Polymorphism in Pharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Welberry, T.R.; Chan, E.J.; Goossens, D.J.; Heerdegen, A.P.

    2012-04-30

    Polymorphism occurs when the same molecular compound can crystallize in more than one distinct crystal structure. Its study is a field of great interest and activity. This is largely driven by its importance in the pharmaceutical industry, but polymorphism is also an issue in the pigments, dyes, and explosives industries. The polymorph formed by a compound generally exerts a strong influence on its solid-state properties. The polymorphic form of a drug molecule may affect the ease of manufacture and processing, shelf life, and most significantly the rate of uptake of the molecule by the human body. They can even vary in toxicity; one polymorph may be safe, while a second may be toxic. In this review of recently published work, we show how diffuse scattering experiments coupled with Monte Carlo (MC) computer modeling can aid in the understanding of polymorphism. Examples of the two common pharmaceuticals, benzocaine and aspirin, both of which are bimorphic, at ambient temperatures, are discussed.

  1. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, N A; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Shirsath, N; Quehenberger, F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Wolf, P

    2016-03-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml(-1). Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml(-1)). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519

  2. Cell Type Specificity and Host Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Boonnak, Kobporn; Dambach, Kaitlyn M.; Donofrio, Gina C.; Tassaneetrithep, Boonrat; Marovich, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is implicated in severe, usually secondary, dengue virus (DV) infections. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies, via their Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions, may increase disease severity through enhanced target cell infection. Greater numbers of infected target cells may contribute to higher viremia and excess cytokine levels often observed in severe disease. Monocytes, macrophages, and immature and mature dendritic cells (DC) are considered major cellular targets of DV. Apheresis of multiple donors allowed isolation of autologous primary myeloid target cell types for head-to-head comparison of infection rates, viral output, and cytokine production under direct infection (without antibody) or ADE conditions (with antibody). All studied cell types except immature DC supported ADE. All cells undergoing ADE secreted proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) at enhancement titers, but distinct cell-type-specific patterns were observed for other relevant proteins (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-α/β] and IL-10). Macrophages produced type I interferons (IFN-α/β) that were modulated by ADE. Mature DC mainly secreted IFN-β. Interestingly, only monocytes secreted IL-10, and only upon antibody-enhanced infection. While ADE infection rates were remarkably consistent in monocytes (10 to 15%) across donors, IL-10 protein levels varied according to previously described regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 promoter region. The homozygous GCC haplotype was associated with high-level IL-10 secretion, while the ACC and ATA haplotypes produced intermediate and low levels of IL-10, respectively. Our data suggest that ADE effects are cell type specific, are influenced by host genetics, and, depending on relative infection rates, may further contribute to the complexity of DV pathogenesis. PMID:21123382

  3. Influence of polymorphism on the electrochemical behavior of MxSb negative electrodes in Li/Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saubanère, Matthieu; Ben Yahia, Mouna; Lemoigno, Frédéric; Doublet, Marie-Liesse

    2015-04-01

    Recently, different and unexpected electrochemical behaviours have been demonstrated for MxSb electrodes (M = Li, Na) in Li/Na ion batteries. Despite a similar thermodynamic stability of the hexagonal and cubic polymorphs of Li3Sb, mostly cubic Li3Sb is observed at the end of discharge. In contrast, mostly the hexagonal Na3Sb polymorph is observed when cycling the Na/Sb, in agreement with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to the cubic polymorph. This polymorph selectivity is here investigated by means of simple thermodynamic and electrostatic considerations using first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We show that the Na-based polymorphs are more ionic than their Li-based homologues, despite less ionic Na/Sb interactions. We establish a direct correlation between the relative compactness and stability of the M3Sb polymorphs to rationalize the preference of the hexagonal structure type for the most ionic compounds of the M3Sb series (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). The M-Sb interactions are further linked to the different electrochemical behaviours of the MxSb electrodes through Madelung constant calculations. This method is based on the knowledge of only one given MxSb composition and thus allows rationalizing the different intermediate compositions achieved through electrochemical cycling. To validate our method, we finally provide the first-principles computed phase stability diagrams which further reveal two new phases for both Li-Sb and Na-Sb systems.

  4. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in TLR4 and TIRAP, and their expression levels in peripheral blood, on susceptibility to sepsis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANPING; YANG, JINGPING; XU, XIYUAN; LIANG, LIANGSHEN; SUN, HAIXIA; LIU, GUOHUA; ZHANG, LIHONG; SU, YUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-associated protein (TIRAP) genes, and/or their expression levels, influence the susceptibility of a patient to sepsis. A total of 106 patients with sepsis were divided into two groups on the basis of their acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores: i) Sepsis group A (APACHE II <20) and ii) Sepsis group B (APACHE II >20). In addition, 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled into the control group. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to detect the following genetic polymorphisms: The Ser180Leu allele of the TIRAP gene and the Asp299Gly and Thr399I1e alleles of the TLR4 gene. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of TLR4 and TIRAP were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genetic polymorphisms were not detected for the TLR4 and TIRAP genes; however, the protein expression levels of TLR4 and TIRAP differed significantly between the control, sepsis A and sepsis B groups (P<0.01). An APACHE II score of 20 was used as a baseline in order to differentiate sepsis severity. Pearson analysis demonstrated that TLR4 and TIRAP protein expression levels were positively correlated with sepsis severity (r=0.931 and 0.972; P<0.05), and TLR4 protein expression levels were positively correlated with those of TIRAP (r=0.936; P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that the protein expression levels of, but not genetic polymorphisms in, TLR4 and TIRAP were associated with the severity of sepsis. PMID:26889229

  5. A common mineralocorticoid receptor polymorphism (I180V) interacts with life events in relation to perfectionism in eating disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; DeRijk, Roel H; van Son, Gabrielle E; Suchiman, H Eka D; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P Eline; Van Furth, Eric F

    2014-11-01

    The stress response is regulated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). When the balance between GR and MR signalling is disturbed, one's capacity to cope with a stressful event is diminished. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that an interaction between common variants in the MR (rs5522) or GR gene (rs41423247) and stressful life events influences perfectionism levels in a group of patients with an eating disorder (ED; n = 113). Patients carrying the minor G allele of rs5522 had a higher perfectionism score if more stressful life events were experienced [β = 0.95, t(109) = 3.75, p < 0.01]. This effect was not found for patients carrying the AA genotype. These results suggest that rs5522 G allele carriers might be vulnerable to stressful life events. When patients with an ED are carriers and experience multiple life events, this might fuel their insecurity, which in turn may engender higher levels of perfectionism. Further studies are necessary to replicate and expand our findings. PMID:25220664

  6. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  7. Associations between orosensory perception of oleic acid, the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the CD36 gene, and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Sollai, Giorgia; Muroni, Patrizia; Crnjar, Roberto; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini

    2015-03-01

    Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of oleic acid, two CD36 variants, and PROP tasting. Thresholds of oleic acid perception were assessed in 64 subjects using a modification of the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Subjects were classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38 and CD36 (SNPs: rs1761667 and rs1527483). Subjects homozygous for GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism showed higher sensitivity to oleic acid than AA subjects. The capability to detect oleic acid was directly associated with TAS2R38 or PROP responsiveness. PROP non-tasters had a lower papilla density than tasters, and those with genotype GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism had lower oleic acid thresholds than PROP non-tasters with genotype AA. In conclusion, results showed a direct association between orosensory perception of oleic acid and PROP tasting or rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36, which play a significant role in PROP non-tasters, given their low number of taste papillae. Characterization of individual capability to detect fatty acids may have important nutritional implications by explaining variations in human fat preferences. PMID:25803547

  8. Associations between Orosensory Perception of Oleic Acid, the Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the CD36 Gene, and 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Tasting

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Sollai, Giorgia; Muroni, Patrizia; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of oleic acid, two CD36 variants, and PROP tasting. Thresholds of oleic acid perception were assessed in 64 subjects using a modification of the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Subjects were classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38 and CD36 (SNPs: rs1761667 and rs1527483). Subjects homozygous for GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism showed higher sensitivity to oleic acid than AA subjects. The capability to detect oleic acid was directly associated with TAS2R38 or PROP responsiveness. PROP non-tasters had a lower papilla density than tasters, and those with genotype GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism had lower oleic acid thresholds than PROP non-tasters with genotype AA. In conclusion, results showed a direct association between orosensory perception of oleic acid and PROP tasting or rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36, which play a significant role in PROP non-tasters, given their low number of taste papillae. Characterization of individual capability to detect fatty acids may have important nutritional implications by explaining variations in human fat preferences. PMID:25803547

  9. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection. PMID:26943639

  10. Lack of association between a common polymorphism of the endothelial lipase gene and early-onset coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Cai, G J; He, G P; Huang, Z Y; Qi, C P

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the 584C/T polymorphism in the endothelial lipase (EL) gene contributes to the process of coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study aimed to reveal the potential relationship between the EL 584C/T gene polymorphism and early-onset CAD, CAD severity, and lipid levels in a Chinese Han population. Participants comprised 135 early-onset CAD patients and 166 controls. EL 584C/T genotypic and allelic frequencies were detected by PCR. The frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 58.4, 38.6, and 3.0%, respectively, within the control group, and 62.2, 33.3, and 4.5%, respectively, in the early-onset CAD group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of CC genotype and T allele carriers between early-onset CAD patients and controls. The frequency of the T allele was 22.3% in the control group and 21.1% in the early-onset CAD group. The T allele frequency of the variant was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.766), even after adjustments for age, gender, smoking status, hypertension, DM, and lipids were made. There was also no significant association between the genotype and the severity of CAD (P = 0.596). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the genotype and lipid levels or their ratios in both groups. The EL 584C/T gene polymorphism, therefore, was not associated with early-onset CAD or the severity of CAD in this Chinese Han population, suggesting that this variant is not always involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset CAD. PMID:24634127